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# DIGITAL LOGIC

For

Computer Science
&
Information Technology
By

Syllabus

Digital Logic

## Syllabus for Digital Logic

Logic functions, Minimization, Design and synthesis of combinational and sequential circuits;
Number representation and computer arithmetic (fixed and floating point).

## Analysis of GATE Papers

(Digital Logic)
Year

Percentage of marks

2013

3.00

2012

4.00

2011

5.00

2010

7.00

2009

1.33

2008

4.00

2007

8.67

2006

7.33

2005

9.33

2004

9.33

2003

6.00

Overall Percentage

5.90%

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Contents

Digital Logic

CONTENTS
Chapters
#1.

#2.

#3.

#4.

#5.

Page No.

1-18

## Base or Radix (r) of a Number System

Decimal to Binary Conversion
Coding Techniques
Character Codes

1-2
2-4

Assigment 1
Assigment 2
Explanations

11-12
13-14
15
15-18

4-9
9-10

19-43

19-22
22-25
25-29
30-33
33-35
36
36-43

## Basic Boolean Postulates

Complement of Function
Karnaugh Maps
Assigment 1
Assigment 2
Explanations

Logic Gates

44-64

44-52
53-56
57-58
59
59-64

Assigment 1
Assigment 2
Explanations

65-83

65-72
73-77
78-79
80
80-83

Assigment 1
Assigment 2
Explanations

84-120

84-91
92
92-98
99-103
104-111
111-113

## Combinational Digital Circuit

Multiplexer
Demultiplexer
Counters
Assigment 1
Assigment 2

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Page I

Contents

Digital Logic

Explanations

114
114-120

## #6. Semiconductor Memory

121-125

Types of Memories
Memory Devices Parameters or Characteristic
Assigment
Explanations

122
122-123
124
125
125

Module Test

126-141

Test Questions

126-136

137

Explanations

137-141

Reference Book

142

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Page II

Chapter 1

Digital Logic

CHAPTER 1
Number Systems & Code Conversions
Important Points
The concept of counting is as old as the evolution of man on this earth. The number systems are
used to quantify the magnitude of something. One way of quantifying the magnitude of
something is by proportional values. This is called analog representation. The other way of
representation of any quantity is numerical (Digital). There are many number systems present.
The most frequently used number systems in the applications of Digital Computers are Binary
Number System, Octal Number System, Decimal Number System and Hexadecimal Number
System.

## Base or Radix (r) of a Number System

The Base or Radix of a number system is defined as the number of different symbols (Digits or
Characters) used in that number system.
The radix of Binary number system = 2 i .e. it uses two different symbols 0 and 1 to write the
number sequence.
The radix of octal number system = 8 i.e. it uses eight different symbols 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 to
write the number sequence.
The radix of decimal number system = 10 i.e. it uses ten different symbols 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
and 9 to write the number sequence.
The radix of hexadecimal number system = 16 i.e. it uses sixteen different symbols 0, 1, 2, 3, 4,
5, 6, 7, 8, 9,A, B, C, D, E and F to write the number sequence.
The radix of Ternary number system = 3 i.e. it uses three different symbols 0, 1 and 2 to write
the number sequence.

To distinguish one number system from the other, the radix of the number system is used
as suffix to that number.
Example: 102 Binary Numbers; 108 Octal Numbers;
1010 Decimal Number; 1016 Hexadecimal Number;

## Characteristics of any number system are:

1. Base or radix is equal to the number of digits in the system
2. The largest value of digit is one (1) less than the radix and
3. Each digit is multiplied by the base raised to the appropriate power depending upon
the digit position.
The maximum value of digit in any number system is given by (r 1)
Example: maximum value of digit in decimal number system = (10 1) = 9.

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Page 1

Chapter 1

Digital Logic

Binary, Octal, Decimal and Hexadecimal number systems are called positional number
systems.
The number system in which the weight of each digit depends on its relative position
within the number is called positional number system.
Any positional number system can be expressed as sum of products of place value and the
digit value.
Example : 75610 =
156.248 = 1

The place values or weights of different digits in a mixed decimal number are as follows

decimal point
The place values or weights of different digits in a mixed binary number are as follows

binary point
The place values or weights of different digits in a mixed octal number are as follows

octal point
The place values or weights of different digits in a mixed hexadecimal number are as
follows:

## Decimal to Binary Conversion

(a)

Integer Number
Divide the given decimal integer number repeatedly by 2 and collect the remainders. This
must continue until the integer quotient becomes zero.
Example: 3710
Operation

Quotient

Remainder

37/2

18

+1

18/2

+0

9/2

+1

4/2

+0

2/2

+0

1/2

+1
1

0 1

0 1

Fig 1.1
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Chapter 1

Digital Logic

Note: The conversion from decimal integer to any base-r system is similar to the above
example except that division is done by r instead of 2.
(b)

Fractional Number
The conversion of a decimal fraction to a binary is as follows:
Example: 0.6875510 = X2
First, 0.6875 is multiplied by 2 to give an integer and a fraction. The new fraction is
multiplied by 2 to give a new integer and a new fraction. This process is continued until
the fraction becomes 0 or until the numbers of digits have sufficient accuracy.
Example:

Integer value
1
0
1
1

## Note: To convert a decimal fraction to a number expressed in base r, a similar procedure is

used. Multiplication is done by r instead of 2 and the coefficients found from the integers
range in value from 0 to (r 1).

The conversion of decimal number with both integer and fraction parts are done
separately and then combining the answers together.
Example: (41.6875)10 = X2
4110 = 1010012

0.687510 = 0.10112

## Since, (41.6875)10 = 101001.10112.

Example : Convert the decimal number to its octal equivalent: 15310 = X8
Integer Quotient

Remainder

153/8

+1

19/8

+3

2/8

+2

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Chapter 1

Digital Logic

Example:(0.513)10 = X8

etc
(153)10

## Example: Convert 25310 to hexadecimal

253/16 = 15 + (13 = D)
15/16 = 0 + (15 =F)
D .
Example: Convert the binary number 1011012 to decimal.
101101 =
= 32 + 8 + 4 + 1 = 45
(101101)2 = 4510.
Example: Convert the octal number 2578 to decimal.
2578 =
= 128 + 40+7 = 17510
Example: Convert the hexadecimal number 1AF.23 to Decimal.
1AF.2316 =

Coding Techniques
BCD (Binary Coded Decimal): In this each digit of the decimal number is represented by its
four bit binary equivalent. It is also called natural BCD or 8421 code. It is a weighted code.

Excess 3 Code: This is an un-weighted binary code used for decimal digits. Its code
assignment is obtained from the corresponding value of BCD after the addition of 3.

BCO (Binary Coded Octal): In this digit of the Octal number is represented by its three bit
binary equivalent.

BCH (Binary Coded Hexadecimal): In this digit of the hexadecimal number is represented
by its four bit binary equivalent.

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Chapter 1

Decimal

BCD (8421)

Excess -3

Digits

Octal

Digital Logic

BCO

digits

BCH

digits

0000

0011

000

0000

0001

0100

001

0001

0010

0101

010

0010

0011

0110

011

0011

0100

0111

100

0100

0101

1000

101

0101

0110

1001

110

0110

0111

1010

111

0111

1000

1011

1000

1001

1100

1001

1010

1011

1100

1101

1110

1111

## Dont care values or unused states in BCD code are

,
,
,
,
,
Dont care values or unused state in excess 3 codes are 0000, 0001, 0010, 1101, 1110,
1111.
The binary equivalent of a given decimal number is not equivalent to its BCD value.
Example: 2510 = 110012.
The BCD equivalent of decimal number 25 = 00100101.
From the above example the BCD value of a given decimal number is not equivalent to its
straight binary value.

The BCO (Binary Coded Octal) value of a given octal number is exactly equal to its straight
binary value.
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Chapter 1

Digital Logic

## Example: 258 = 2110 = 0101012.

The BCO value of 258 is 0101012
From the above example, the BCO value of a given octal number is same as binary
equivalent of the same number. BCO number can be directly converted into binary
equivalent by writing each digit of BCO number into its equivalent binary into 3 digits.

The BCH (Binary Coded Hexadecimal) value of a given hexadecimal number is exactly
equal to straight binary.
Example: 2516 = 3710 = 1001012
The BCH value of hexadecimal number 2516 = 00100101.
From this example the above statement is true. BCH can be converted into binary
equivalent by writing each digit of BCH number into its equivalent binary into 4 digits
from left side.
Binary

Octal

Decimal

r=2

r=8

r=10

r=16

(r-1)s Complement

1s

7ths

9s

15ths

rs Complement

2s

8ths

10s

16ths

The rs complement: Given a positive number N in a base r with an integer parts of n digits,
the rs complement of N is defined as
Example: The s complement of
The s complement of
The s complement of
The (r
s complement: Given a
digits and a fraction part of m
.

is
is
is
positive number N is base r with an integer part of n
digits, the (r 1) complement of N is defined as

## Example: The s complement of

10 is
The s complement of a binary number is obtained: the s are changed to s and the s
to s

## Rules of binary addition: 0+0=0; 0+1=1; 1+0=1; 1+1= Sum = 0, Carry =1

Rules of binary subtraction: 0-0=0; 0 1=difference = 1, Borrow = 1;

Example
Add the two binary numbers 1011012 and 1001112
Solution
Augend

101101