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International Journal of Electrical and Electronics

Engineering Research (IJEEER)


ISSN(P): 2250-155X; ISSN(E): 2278-943X
Vol. 4, Issue 5, Oct 2014, 13-26
TJPRC Pvt. Ltd

A NOVEL HYBRID PV/FC ENERGY MANAGEMENT SCHEME


FOR GRID-CONNECTION AND ISLANDED OPERATION CAPABILITIES
K .V. GOVARDHAN RAO1 & P. BABU RAO2
1

M. Tech Research Scholar, Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Abdul Kalam Institute of Technological
Sciences, Kothagudem, Khammam, Andhra Pradesh, India
2

HOD & Associate Professor, Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Abdul Kalam Institute of
Technological Sciences, Kothagudem, Khammam, Andhra Pradesh, India

ABSTRACT
The generation of electrical energy by PV & Fuel cell systems have been progressively more used in because of
the cost of energy produced from fossil fuels is growing day by day and RES becomes a capable other source for fossil
fuels applications to grid connected systems/standalone systems. This paper presents the analysis, design, and simulation
results of a fuel cell/photovoltaic energy management system with backup. The proposed system can handle the both
islanded and grid-connected operations. The main benefit of the introduced system is that, the inverter works as a current
source in phase with the grid voltage, supplying power to the grid and balancing the dc-link voltage in grid-connected
mode. In islanded mode, the inverter control is reconfigured to acts as a voltage source using droop methods.
The dc/dc converter controls the dc-link voltage to enable the MPPT reference to be followed. An operation procedure is
introduced to make sure the quality of the energy supply and diminish energy loss. For islanded operation mode battery
bank is connected to dc link which acts like a energy storage. The proposed system will enable increased connections of
renewable energy sources in the grid. The proposed concept is verified by using MATLAB/SIMULINK software and the
corresponding results are presented.

KEYWORDS: Distributed Generation, Flexible Ac Transmission Systems (FACTS), Solar Energy, Static Synchronous
Compensator (STATCOM), Voltage Regulation, Wind Energy, MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking)

INTRODUCTION
Electric utilities and Customers of electric power are becoming gradually more concerned about meeting the
growing power demand. By burning of fossil fuels 75% of total global energy demand is supplied. But mounting of air
pollution, global warming problems, declining of fossil fuels and their growing cost have made it necessary to look
towards alternative renewable energy sources as an upcoming energy solution. Since the past decade, there has been a
massive interest in lots of countries on renewable energy for power generation. The market liberalization and governments
incentives have further accelerated the renewable energy sector development [1]-[5].
RES integrated at distribution level is named as distributed generation. The utility is concerned due to the high
penetration level of intermittent RES in distribution systems as it may pose a danger to network in stability,
voltage regulation and power-quality issues. Therefore, the DG systems are required to fulfil with strict technical and
authoritarian frameworks to ensure safe, reliable and capable operation of overall network.

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K. V. Govardhan Rao & P. Babu Rao

The operation of a microgrid offers distinct advantages to customers and utilities, i.e, improved energy efficiency,
reduced environmental impact, and greater reliability. One of the most important features of micro-grids is that they can
independently operate in islanded mode without connection to the distribution system when power system faults or
blackouts occur. Many commercial photovoltaic (PV) inverters work as a current source in grid-connected mode [6], [7].
The control of inverters has developed over time and is now highly efficient for this operational mode.
Several works deal with the correct operation of inverters working in grid-connected and islanded modes.
A possible solution is based on droop schemes. These schemes use PQ strategies in the inverters to properly share the
power delivered to the loads while avoiding critical communication lines. In [8] and [9], the inverters are controlled by
means of droop schemes in both operational modes, so that no advantage is taken from control algorithms that inject the
inverter output current in phase with the grid voltage (current source algorithms) developed for commercial grid-connected
inverters.
In [10], the inverter works as a current source by providing a constant current to the grid. The inverter detects
when islanding occurs and changes to voltage source operation. The authors also propose a load-shedding algorithm for
intentional islanding and a synchronization algorithm for grid reconnection. During islanding operation, the reference
imposed on the inverter voltage controller has a fixed value, so that inverter parallelization for load power sharing is not
possible. In [11], the inverters change their control structure depending on the connectiondisconnection status of the
microgrid to the main grid. When the main grid is connected, the inverters work as a current source. In an islanding
situation, they work as voltage sources connected by robust controller area network communications. However, this system
requires a correctly operating communications bus, and this increases the cost.
This paper shows a reconfigurable control scheme based on multiloop control in both operational modes.
In grid-connection mode, the inverter is controlled as a current source in phase with the grid voltage. When the microgrid
becomes isolated from the grid, the inverters change their control configuration, working as voltage sources and using a
droop method [9], [21] [23] to share the power demanded by the local loads. The droop method provides a good solution
for parallelizing multiple inverters without using communications. The introduced FC/PV energy system gives energy
storage capability and allows maximizing the energy obtained from the PV panels in both operational modes. In islanded
operation, the system is having a parallel energy storage system composed of a battery bank and a dc/dc converter that
ensures the MPPT of the PV source. Additionally, the proposed control reconfiguration is possible without dangerous
transients for the inverter or the loads.

PROPOSED PV/FC SCHEME


The PV system under study, shown in Figure 1, includes a 3-kW full-bridge 1- inverter and a bidirectional dc/dc
converter. At the input of the inverter the dc/dc converter is connected to the dc link. The battery chargedischarge is
managed by the dc/dc converter. In both islanded mode and grid-connected mode the dc-link voltage Vdc is set by an MPP
tracker. In islanded mode, the MPP tracker provides a reference voltage to the dc/dc converter, so that it regulates Vdc.

Impact Factor (JCC): 5.9638

Index Copernicus Value (ICV): 3.0

A Novel Hybrid PV/FC Energy Management Scheme for


Grid-Connection and Islanded Operation Capabilities

15

Figure 1: Block Diagram of the PV System under Study


The MPP tracker delivers a reference voltage to the inverter in grid-connected mode, so that it can perform Vdc
regulation. The MPPT is implemented by means of an algorithm [24], [25]. The MPP tracker defines the set point of the
dc-link voltage to obtain the maximum output power from the PV panel. The PV arrangement provides a dc-link voltage of
around Vdc = 380 V at the MPP, which is high enough to provide power to the grid (230 Vrms at 50 Hz) without using a
step-up transformer. Figure 2 shows the scheme and the control structure of the inverter that has been implemented.
A current-controlled H-bridge 1- inverter with bipolar pulse width modulation [26] has been selected. This kind of
inverter is general in grid-connected PV systems [27]. The inverter is fed by a dc programmable source in which the IV
curve of a PV panel has been programmed to emulate an array of 14 series connected PV panels. To develop the power
management in the microgrid, alternative energy storage is included. It consists of a battery bank connected to the inverter
dc link by means of a two-quadrant bidirectional dc/dc converter. The main benefit of this arrangement is that the dc/dc
converter allows only a part of the generated power. This converter performs several functions:

Figure 2: Control Structure of the PV Inverter


In grid-connected operation it serves as a battery charge regulator and in islanded operation, a boost converter to
deliver energy from the batteries to the inverter when the PV source has insufficient power to feed the local loads.
In islanded mode, the most positive operating condition occurs when the load power and the PV extracted power agree,
i. e, when the dc/dc converter does not process power. Figure 3 shows the modified dc/dc converter power stage and its
control structure. Table II shows the electrical parameters of the dc/dc converter under study. The islanded and
grid-connected operational modes are explained in the following sections.
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K. V. Govardhan Rao & P. Babu Rao

Figure 3: DCDC Converter Schematic and Control Structure


In islanded mode, the inverter feeds the local loads, producing a similar load voltage waveform as in the
grid-connected situation. The inverter acts as an ac voltage source feeding local loads. Therefore, it is essential to have
some energy storage element such as a battery, because the PV panels may not capable to meet the power demand of the
local loads. It should be taken into account that the power delivered by the inverter must match the load power
consumption. For this reason, it is necessary to find the reference of the inverter output voltage (Vor in Figure 2) in terms
of the active power and reactive power consumed by the loads. The method used to determinate this voltage reference is
the droop method [23], as shown in Figure 2.

Figure 4: Inverter Control Loops in Islanded Operation

Figure 5: DC/DC Converter Control Loops in Islanded Operation


In the system under study, an only PV inverter has been taken, with the aim of our study being the change from
grid-connected mode to islanded mode with a battery as additional energy storage, not the droop method in itself. As only
one inverter in islanded mode has been studied, the droop method is not essential. Even so, the inverter control has been
introduced to work in a microgrid environment, in corresponding with other inverters. Therefore, the analysis and the
simulation results have been obtained with the full algorithm working (droop + inverter current and voltage loops).
The voltage reference of the inverter output voltage controller (voltage controller-islanded element in Figure 2) is
synthesized by means of the droop scheme studied in [9]. In islanded operation mode, the dc-link voltage is controlled by
Impact Factor (JCC): 5.9638

Index Copernicus Value (ICV): 3.0

A Novel Hybrid PV/FC Energy Management Scheme for


Grid-Connection and Islanded Operation Capabilities

the

17

battery-side dcdc converter following a reference set by the MPPT algorithm. Figure 4 and 5 show the

inverter and dc/dc converter control loops for islanded operation, respectively.

Figure 6: Energy Management Protocol in Grid-Connected Operation

Figure 7: Energy Management Protocol in Islanded Mode Operation


Figures 6 and 7 show the proposed energy management protocol in grid-connected operation and in islanded
operation, respectively. When the grid is connected, the power needed to charge the batteries can be extracted from the PV
array and from the grid. Figure 6 shows a possible scenario in this operational mode regarding the power delivered to the
batteries at a constant available power from the PV source. At the beginning, the available PV power is less than the
necessary battery charge power, and the inverter takes the supplementary energy from the grid (Pout < 0). When the
battery charge power decreases, the inverter starts to inject power to the grid (Pout > 0). After the end of charge, all the
available PV energy is injected to the grid (PPV = Pout). Figure 7 shows a possible scenario in islanded operation mode.
In this mode, the batteries work as an energy backup necessary if available PV power is less than the load power demand.
The batteries obtain energy from the PV source when the generated power is higher than that required by the loads.
When the power required by the loads is higher than that of PV generation, the batteries deliver the necessary additional
power.

PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM
The PV power generation systems are renewable energy sources that anticipated playing important role in
satisfying the upcoming electricity requirements. The PV systems principally divided into stand-alone, grid connected or
hybrid systems. The grid-connected PV systems generally shape the grid current to follow a set sinusoidal reference using
hysteresis-band current controller, which has the advantages of inherent peak current limiting & fast dynamic performance.
The model of grid connected photovoltaic system to control active and reactive power injected in the grid is presented.
The introduced multilevel power converter uses two single-phase voltage source inverters and a four wire voltage source
inverter. The structural design of this new power converter allows a seven level shaped output voltage wave at the output
of multilevel inverter.

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K. V. Govardhan Rao & P. Babu Rao

Photovoltaic Array Modeling


Numerous PV cells are connected in series and parallel circuits on a panel for obtaining high power, which is a
PV module. A PV array is defined as group of several modules electrically connected in series-parallel combinations to
generate the required current and voltage. The building block of PV arrays is the solar cell, which is basically a p-n
semiconductor junction that directly converts solar radiation into dc current using photovoltaic effect. The simplest
equivalent circuit of a solar cell is a current source in parallel with a diode, shown in Figure 8.

Figure 8: Circuit Diagram of a Solar Cell


Photovoltaic Array Modeling
Numerous PV cells are connected in series and parallel circuits on a panel for obtaining high power, which is a
PV module. A PV array is defined as group of several modules electrically connected in series-parallel combinations to
generate the required current and voltage. The building block of PV arrays is the solar cell, which is basically a p-n
semiconductor junction that directly converts solar radiation into dc current using photovoltaic effect. The simplest
equivalent circuit of a solar cell is a current source in parallel with a diode, shown in Figure 8.

Figure 8: Circuit Diagram of a Solar Cell


The series resistance represents the inner losses due to the current flow. Shunt resistance Rsh, in parallel with
diode, this corresponds to the leakage current to the ground. The only exponential equation which models a photovoltaic
cell is extract from the physics of the PN junction and is widely agreed as echoing the behavior of the photovoltaic cell.
In this electrons and holes are present to create energy in their styles. The holes and electrons are moved together and form
the energy. The grid integration of renewable energy source applications based on pv systems is becoming in present days
the most significant application of PV systems, gaining awareness over customary stand-alone systems. This movement is
being increased because of the many uses of using RES in distributed generation (DG) power systems.
About Fuel Cell
The fuel cells are electrochemical devices that change chemical energy into electrical energy by the response of
hydrogen from oxygen and fuel from the air with no stare to climate situation, different hydro or wind turbines and
Impact Factor (JCC): 5.9638

Index Copernicus Value (ICV): 3.0

19

A Novel Hybrid PV/FC Energy Management Scheme for


Grid-Connection and Islanded Operation Capabilities

photovoltaic array. Fuel cells are dissimilar from batteries in that they need a constant source of fuel and oxygen to run,
but they can create electricity continually for as extended as these inputs are supplied. Thus, the fuel cells are among the
majority attractive distribution and generation wealth for power delivery. but, batteries need to be placed in parallel or in
series with the fuel cells as a temporary energy storage element to support during establish or sudden load changes because
fuel cells cannot immediately respond to such abrupt load changes. Generally, fuel cells produce dc voltage outputs, and it
keeps on varying with the load. So they are always connected to electric power networks through power conditioning units
such as DC/DC and DC/AC to maintain the voltage constant or to stabilize the voltage.

MATLAB MODELING AND SIMULATION RESULTS


Here simulation is carried out in various cases, in that
1). Proposed PV Connected System with Grid Connected System & Islanding Operation Capabilities 2). Proposed
PV/FC Connected System with Grid Connected System & Islanding Operation Capabilities.
Case 1: Proposed PV Connected System with Grid Connected System & Islanding Operation Capabilities

Figure 9: Matlab/Simulink Model of Proposed PV Connected System with


Grid Connected System & Islanding Operation Capabilities
Figure 9 shows the Matlab/Simulink Model of Proposed PV Connected System with Grid Connected System
& Islanding Operation Capabilities.

Figure 10: (a) PCC Voltages, PCC Current, DC Voltages, (b) Output Voltage & Power of an Irradiance
Variation followed by a Battery Charge Variation in Grid-Connected Mode
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K. V. Govardhan Rao & P. Babu Rao

Figure 10 Shows the (a) PCC Voltages, PCC Current, DC Voltages, (b) Output Voltage & Power of an irradiance
Variation followed by a Battery Charge Variation in Grid-Connected Mode

Figure 11: (a) PCC Voltages, PCC Current, DC Voltages, (b) Output Voltage & Power in
Islanded Mode Resistive Load Variations at Constant Irradiation Level
Figure 11: (a) PCC Voltages, PCC Current, DC Voltages, (b) Output Voltage & Power in islanded mode,
resistive load variations at a constant irradiation level.

(a)

(b)
Figure 12: (a) PCC Voltages, PCC Current, DC Voltages, Battery Current (b) Output Power, Battery power of an
Transition from Grid-Connected Mode to Islanded Mode, the Local Load is 1500 W Resistive
Figure 12 shows the (a) PCC Voltages, PCC Current, DC Voltages, Battery Current (b) Output Power, Battery
power of a Transition from grid-connected mode to islanded mode, the local load is 1500 W resistive.

Impact Factor (JCC): 5.9638

Index Copernicus Value (ICV): 3.0

21

A Novel Hybrid PV/FC Energy Management Scheme for


Grid-Connection and Islanded Operation Capabilities

(a)

(b)
Figure 13: (a) PCC Voltages, PCC Current, DC Voltages, Battery Current (b) Output Power,
Battery Power Transition from Grid-Connected Mode to Islanded
Mode at a Constant, then the Local Load is Nonlinear
Figure 13 shows the (a) PCC Voltages, PCC Current, DC Voltages, Battery Current (b) Output Power,
Battery Power Transition from Grid-Connected Mode to Islanded Mode at a Constant, then the Local Load is Nonlinear

(a)

(b)
Figure 14: (a) PCC Voltages, PCC Current, DC Voltages, Battery Current (b) Output Power, Battery Power
Transition from Islanded Mode to Grid-Connected Mode
Figure 14 shows the (a) PCC Voltages, PCC Current, DC Voltages, Battery Current (b) Output Power,
Battery Power Transition from Islanded Mode to Grid-Connected Mode

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K. V. Govardhan Rao & P. Babu Rao

Case 2: Proposed PV/FC Connected System with Grid Connected System & Islanding Operation Capabilities

Figure 15: Matlab/Simulink Model of Proposed FC/PV Connected System with


Grid Connected System & Islanding Operation Capabilities
Figure 15 Shows the Matlab/Simulink Model of Proposed FC/PV Connected System with Grid Connected System
& Islanding Operation Capabilities.

(a)

(b)
Figure 16: (a) PCC Voltages, PCC Current, DC Voltages, Battery Current
(b) Output Power, Battery Power of an Transition from Grid-Connected
Mode to Islanded Mode Using PV/Fc Source. the Local Load is 1500 W Resistive
Figure 16 shows the (a) PCC Voltages, PCC Current, DC Voltages, Battery Current (b) Output Power, Battery
Power of a Transition from Grid-Connected Mode to Islanded Mode Using PV/FC Source, the Local Load is 1500 W
Resistive.

CONCLUSIONS
The rapid development of power electronics technology provides opportunities to develop new power equipment
to improve the performance of the actual generation schemes. A FC/PV power management system with battery backup
capable of both islanded and grid-connected operations has been evaluated in this paper. The system is based on a
battery-side dc/dc converter connected to the dc link of the PV inverter. The transition between grid-connected and
islanded modes and vice versa is implemented by means of a reconfiguration of controllers. In grid-connection mode,
Impact Factor (JCC): 5.9638

Index Copernicus Value (ICV): 3.0

23

A Novel Hybrid PV/FC Energy Management Scheme for


Grid-Connection and Islanded Operation Capabilities

the inverter is controlled as a current source in phase with the grid voltage. The batteries provide the supplementary power
to the loads if the PV available power is insufficient. If possible combination of PV/FC source has better option to control
the load currents with sudden changes in load, maintain as constant power, high stability, high reliability.

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AUTHORS DETAIL

Kambhampati Venkata Govardhan Rao received B.Tech degree from Abdulkalam Institute of Technological
Sciences, Kothagudem, Khammam (Dt), AP, India, and currently pursuing M.Tech in Electrical power systems at
Abdulkalam Institute of Technological Sciences, Kothagudem, Khammam (Dt), AP, India. His areas of interests are Power
Systems, Electrical Machines, and Power Electronics.

Baburao Paddam, presently working as Associate Professor & Head of the Department in Abdulkalam Institute
of Technological Sciences, Kothagudem, Khammam, AP, India. He received his B.Tech degree in Electrical & Electronics
Engineering from JNTU, Hyderabad. And then completed his P.G in Electrical & Electronics Engineering, specialization
in Power Electronics at JNTUH Hyderabad, He has a teaching experience of 12 years. He installed and supervised a Bloom
Energy box of generating capacity 200W and also researched areas include Non conventional energy systems and Power
systems. His areas of interest are Power Semiconductor devices and the application of power electronics in power systems.

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