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WATER RESOURCE ENGINEERING

for

Civil Engineering
By

www.thegateacademy.com

Syllabus

Water Resource Engg

Syllabus for
Water Resource Engineering
Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics
Properties of fluids, principle of conservation of mass, momentum, energy and corresponding
equations, potential flow, applications of momentum and Bernoulli's equation, laminar and
turbulent flow, flow in pipes, pipe networks. Concept of boundary layer and its growth. Uniform
flow, critical flow and gradually varied flow in channels, specific energy concept, hydraulic jump.
Forces on immersed bodies, flow measurements in channels, tanks and pipes. Dimensional
analysis and hydraulic modeling. Kinematics of flow, velocity triangles and specific speed of
pumps and turbines.
Hydrology
Hydrologic cycle, rainfall, evaporation, infiltration, stage discharge relationships, unit
hydrographs, flood estimation, reservoir capacity, reservoir and channel routing. Well
hydraulics.
Irrigation
Duty, delta, estimation of evapo-transpiration. Crop water requirements. Design of: lined and
unlined canals, waterways, head works, gravity dams and spillways. Design of weirs on
permeable foundation. Types of irrigation system, irrigation methods. Water logging and
drainage, sodic soils.

Analysis of GATE Papers


(Water Resource Engineering)
Year

Percentage of marks

2013

15.00

2012

14.00

2011

14.00

2010

12.00

2009

14.00

2008

19.33

2007

20.67

2006

21.33

2005

24.66

2004

31.33

2003

22.60

Overall Percentage

18.99%

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Contents

Water Resource Engg

CONTENTS

#1.

Chapter
Introduction

#2.

Pressure and Its Measurement

#3.

Parallel Axis Theorem


Force on a Vertical Plane Area
Summary of Main Points
Solved Examples
Assignment
Answer Keys
Explanations

Floatation and Stability

#5.

Tensors
Measurement of Pressure
Summary of Main Points
Solved Examples
Assignment
Answer Keys
Explanations

Hydrostatic Forces on Plane Surfaces

#4.

Branches of Fluid Mechanics


Compressible and Incompressible Fluids
Moving and Stationary Parallel Plates
Summary of Main Points
Solved Examples
Assignment
Answer Keys
Explanations

Hydrostatic Terminology
Stability
Summary of Main Points
Solved Examples

Relative Equilibrium of Fluids

Liquid Mass Subjected to Uniform Linear Horizontal


Acceleration
Acceleration of a Fluid Mass Along a Slope
Free Vortex
Summary of Main Points

Page No
112
1 3
3
47
78
9 10
11
12
12

13 22
13 15
15
16 17
18 20
21
22
22

2335
23 24
24 26
26 27
28 32
33 34
35
35

36 44
36 38
38 40
41 42
42 44

45 55
45 46
47 51
51 52
52 53

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Page i

Contents

#6.

Equation of Motion and Energy Equation


The Venturimeter
The Orifice Plate
Summary of Main Points
Solved Examples
Assignment
Answer Keys
Explanations

Flow Through Pipes

#9.

Kinematics
Compressible Flow & Incompressible Flow
Flow Visualization
Flow Net Theory
Summary of Main Points
Solved Examples
Assignment
Answer Keys
Explanations

Fluid Dynamics

#8.

Assignment
Answer Keys
Explanations

Kinematics of Flow

#7.

Water Resource Engg

Major Losses
Applying Bernoullis Equation
Hydraulic Gradient and Total Energy Line
Summary of Main Points

Impulse Momentum Equation and Its Application

The Momentum Equation


Free Liquid Jets
Summary of Main Points

#10. Flow Through Orifices and Mouth Pieces

Sharp Edged Orifice Discharging Free Jet


Experimental Determination of the Coefficients for an Orifice
Flow Through Submerged (or drowned) Orifice
Summary of Main Points
Assignment
Answer Keys
Explanations

54
55
55

56 72
56 57
57 58
58 63
63
64 67
67 70
71
72
72

7389
73 75
75 76
76 79
80 83
83 87
88
89
89

90 100
90 91
91 93
93 95
96 100

101105
101 102
103
104 105

106122
106 108
108 112
113
114 117
118 120
121
121 122

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Page ii

Contents

Water Resource Engg

#11. Weirs and Notches

Weirs and Notches


Flow over a Trapezoidal Weirs or Notch
Summary of Main Points
Assignment
Answer Keys
Explanations

#12. Boundary Layer Flow

Boundary Layer Flow


Boundary Conditions for Velocity Profiles
Turbulent Boundary Layer
Summary of Main Points
Assignment
Answer Keys
Explanations

#13. Viscous Flow

Flow of Viscous Fluid Through Circular Pipe


Flow of Viscous Fluid Between Two Parallel Plates
Methods of Determination of Co Efficient of Viscosity
Summary of Main Points

123132
123 125
125 126
126 130
131
132
132

133 142
133 135
135 136
136 137
138 140
141
142
142

143159
143 145
146 151
151 152
152 159

#14. Hydraulics & Hydraulic Machinery

160 200

Flow in Open Channels


Measuring Flumes
Bresses Method
Curved Vanes on Wheel
Reciprocating Pumps
Summary of Main Points

160 165
165 168
168 173
173 187
187 188
189 200

#15. Dimensional Analysis

Dimensional Analysis
Model Laws or Similarity Law
Summary of Main Points

#16. Irrigation

Introduction
Flow Irrigation
Limitations
Solved Examples
Assignment
Answer Keys
Explanations

201 208
201 203
203 206
206 208

209 216
209 210
210 213
213
214
215
216
216

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Page iii

Contents

Water Resource Engg

#17. Water Requirements of Crops

Definition
Duty at Various Places
Optimum Utilization of Irrigation Water

#18. Soil Moisture Irrigation Relationship

Field Capacity
Solved Examples

#19. Sediment Transport and Design of Irrigation Channels

Sediment Transport and Design of Irrigation Channels


Mechanics of Sediment Transport
Water Logging Control
Suitability
Design of Channels
Economical & Physical Justification for Canal
Causes of Failure of Weir on Permeable Foundation
Assignment
Answer Keys
Explanations

#20. Hydrology

Introduction to Hydrology
Precipitation
Evaporation and Infiltration
Stage Discharge Relationships
hydrograph and Runoff
Floods Estimation
Well Hydraulics
Assignment
Answer Keys
Explanations

Module Test

Test Questions
Answer Keys
Explanations

Reference Books

217221
217 218
218 220
220 221

222228
222 223
224 228

229266
229 230
231 234
234 237
237
238 248
249 250
250 263
264 265
266
266

267 - 326
267 271
271 281
281 295
295 300
301 310
310 314
314 320
321 324
325
325 326

327 - 335
327 333
334
334 335

336

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Page iv

Chapter 1

Water Resource Engg

Chapter-1
Introduction
Branches of Fluid Mechanics
1. Fluid statics:- deals with fluid at rest
2. Fluid kinematics:- deals with velocities & streamlines
3. Fluid dynamics:- That deals with velocity & accelerations and hence with forces.

Classical Hydrodynamics:- It is mathematical subject that deals with ideal frictionless fluids.
Classical Hydraulics:- Deals with Reals fluid.
Fluid Mechanics = Classical Hydrodynamics + Classical Hydraulics.
Common Temperature Scales
1.

2.

273

For most gases the molecular density is 2.7 x 1025 molecules per m3.

Continuum Flow
Two factors which are important in determining the validity of continuum model.
1. The distance between molecules.
This distance is evidently not the same for all the molecules in the gas at anyone time.
Therefore an average distance called the molecular mean free path.
The mean free path of atmospheric air is 50 70 mm.
2. Elapsed time between collisions.

A dimensionless parameter, the Knudsen number Kn =


= Molecular mean free path.
L = Characteristics length.

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Chapter 1

Water Resource Engg

1) Continuum ( n 0.01) no slip condition. It is condition of zero velocity at solid


boundary.
2) Slip flow (0.01 < Kn 0.1) These conditions provide for a finite velocity and a
temperature jump at a solid boundary.
3) Transition flow (0.10 < n 10) The kinetic theory of gases must be employed to
adequately describes this flow.
4) Free molecular flow (Kn > 10) molecular interaction can be neglected.

Homogeneity Identical in all points. Isotropy Identical in all directions.


1.
Stress
Fixed deformation

Solid

2.
Stress
continuous deformation

Solid

Terms
a. Density () =

Unit (Kg/m3, slug/ft3).


b. Specific weight ().

1
units (
m
ft

pcf).

eg

c. Specific volume

unit (m g ft slug).

d. Specific gravity (S)


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Chapter 1

Water Resource Engg

S=
It is the ratio of specific weight (or density) of a fluid at actual conditions to the specific
weight (or density) of pure water at standard conditions (101 kN/m2, 200C).

Specific weight Of liquids.


1. Varies only slightly with pressure.
2. May vary considerably with temperature.

Compressible and Incompressible Fluids


Compressible Variable density.
Incompressible Constant density.
Ideal Fluids
1. No friction
2. Inviscid (zero viscosity) fluid.
3. Internal forces at any section within are normal (pressure forces).
4. Ideal fluid & ideal gas or perfect gas both are different.
Real Fluids
1. Tangential or shearing forces always develop where there is motion relative to solid
body. Thus, fluid friction is created.
2. Shear forces opposes motion of one particle past another.
3. Friction forces gives rise to a fluid property called viscosity.
Variation of Viscosity with Temperature
Liquids:- Viscosity decreases as temperature increases.
Gases:- Viscosity increases as temperature increases
Liquids

Gases

Viscosity

Temperature

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Chapter 1

Water Resource Engg

Moving and Stationary Parallel Plates


(2)

Moving plate F, U

(1) V

u du

Stationary plate

Fluid particles adhere to walls: No slip conditions


Velocity: zero at (1) & U at (2) velocity profile. For small U and no net flow linear velocity
experiment show that F ~
ow newtons eqn.
(

here

coefficient of viscosity a solute viscosity dynamic viscosity or simply viscosity.

Pseudo plastic

Shear
stress
yield
stress

Dilatant
1

Ideal fluid
du
dy (Velocity gradient)
Rheological diagram

Based on Property of Viscosity, Fluids May Be Classified


(i)

Ideal Fluid

o shear stress exists.

(ii) Real Fluid Shear stresses are induced when fluid is in motion, which possesses viscosity.
(iii) Newtonian Fluid:- which follows the Newton law (

). Eg. Air, water.

(iv) Non Newtonian Fluids:- It is a fluid in which shear stress is not proportional to velocity
gradient
Ex:- paints printers ink gel emulsions.
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