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Machine Design

For

Mechanical Engineering
By

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Syllabus

Machine Design

Syllabus for Machine Design


Design for static and dynamic loading; failure theories; fatigue strength and the S-N
diagram; principles of the design of machine elements such as bolted, riveted and
welded joints, shafts, spur gears, rolling and sliding contact bearings, brakes and
clutches.

Analysis of GATE Papers


(Machine Design)
Year

Percentage of marks

2013

6.00

2012

8.00

2011

3.00

2010

6.00

2009

6.00

2008

9.33

2007

11.33

2006

5.33

2005

3.33

Overall Percentage

6.48%

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Content

Machine Design

CONTENTS

#1.

#2.

#3.

Chapters

Page No.

Design for static Loading

1 - 18

1
1-7
8 - 13
14- 15
15 - 16
17
17 - 18

Introduction
Theories of Failure
Solved Examples
Assigment 1
Assigment 2
Answer Keys
Explanations

Design for Dynamic Loading

19 - 43

19
19 20
21 31
32 36
37 38
38 39
40
40 43

Introduction
Stress Concentration
Fatigue and Endurance Limit
Solved Examples
Assignment 1
Assignment 2
Answer Keys
Explanations

Design of Joints

44-69

44
44 51
51 57
58 63
64 65
65 66
67
67 69

Introduction
Riveted Joints
Bolted/Screw Joints
Solved Examples
Assignment 1
Assignment 2
Answer Keys
Explanations

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Page i

Content

#4.

#5.

#6.

#7.

Machine Design

Design of Shaft and Shaft Components

70-89

70
70 72
72 78
79 83
84
85 86
87
87 89

Introduction
Shaft design for stress
Shaft components
Solved Example
Assignment 1
Assignment 2
Answer Keys
Explanations

Design of Bearing

90-112

Introduction
Rolling contact Bearings
Bearing Life
Sliding contact/Journal Bearing
Solved Example
Assignment 1
Assignment 2
Answer Keys
Explanations

90
90 96
96 99
99 103
104 106
107 108
108 109
110
110 112

Design of Brakes and Clutches

113-135

Introduction
Brake Design
Clutch Design
Solved Example
Assignment 1
Assignment 2
Answer Keys
Explanations

113
113 118
119 124
125 127
128 129
129 131
132
132 135

Design of Spur Gears

136-150

136
136 138
138

Introduction
Gear Nomenclature
Spur Gear: Theory of Machines

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Content

Lewis Equation Beam strength of gear teeth


Permissible working stress
Solved Example
Assignment 1
Assignment 2
Answer Keys
Explanations

Machine Design

138 139
139 141
142 145
146
147
148
148 150

Module Test

151-161

Test Questions

151 156

Answer Keys

157

Explanations

157 161

Reference Books

162

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Chapter 1

Machine Design

CHAPTER 1
Design for Static Loading
Introduction
A static load is a stationary force or couple applied to a member. To be stationary, the force or
couple must be unchanging in magnitude, point or points of application and direction. A static
load can produce axial tension or compression, a shear load, a bending load, a torsional load, or
any combination of these. To be considered static, the load cannot change in any manner. In most
testing of those properties of materials that relate to the stress-strain diagram, the load is
applied gradually, to give sufficient time for the strain to fully develop. Furthermore, the
specimen is tested to destruction, and so the stresses are applied only once. Testing of this kind
is applicable, to what are known as static conditions; such conditions closely approximate the
actual conditions to which many structural and machine members are subjected. Another
important term in design is failure. The definition of failure varies depending upon the
component and its application. Failure can mean a part has separated into two or more pieces;
has become permanently distorted, thus ruining its geometry; has had its reliability
downgraded; or has had its function compromised, whatever the reason.

Theories of Failure
Events such as distortion, permanent set, cracking and rupturing are among the ways that a
machine element fails. In uni-axial tension test the failure mechanisms is simple as elongations
are largest in the axial direction, so strains can be measured and stresses inferred up to failure.
The failure conclusion becomes challenging when the loading is bi-axial or tri-axial.
Unfortunately, there is no universal theory of failure for the general case of material properties
and stress state. Instead, over the years several hypotheses have been formulated and tested,
leading to todays accepted practices. These practices as known as theories of failure and are
used to analyse the failure of materials.
Structural metal behaviour is typically classified as being ductile or brittle, although under
special situations, a material normally considered ductile can fail in a brittle manner Ductile
materials are normally classified such that f 0.05 and have an identifiable yield strength that
is often the same in compression as in tension (Syt = Syc = Sy ). Brittle materials, f < 0.05, do not
exhibit identifiable yield strength, and are typically classified by ultimate tensile and
compressive strengths, Sut and Suc, respectively (where Suc is given as a positive quantity).
The generally accepted theories are:
Ductile Materials (yield criteria)

Maximum shear stress (MSS)


Distortion energy (DE)
Octahedral shear stress theory

Brittle Materials (fracture criteria)


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Chapter 1

Machine Design

Maximum normal stress (MNS)

Maximum-Shear-Stress Theory for Ductile Materials


The maximum-shear-stress theory predicts that yielding begins whenever the maximum shear
stress in any element equals or exceeds the maximum shear stress in a tension test specimen of
the same material when that specimen begins to yield. The MSS theory is also referred to as the
Tresca or Guest theory. Many theories are postulated on the basis of the consequences seen from
tensile tests. As a strip of a ductile material is subjected to tension, slip lines (called Lder lines)
form at approximately 45 with the axis of the strip. These slip lines are the beginning of yield,
and when loaded to fracture, fracture lines are also seen at angles approximately 45 with the
axis of tension. Since the shear stress is maximum at 45 from the axis of tension, it can be
considered as the mechanism of failure.MSS theory is an acceptable but conservative predictor
of failure; and can be applied to many cases where over design is not a problem.
Recall that for simple tensile stress, = P/A. And the maximum shear stress occurs on a surface
45 from the tensile surface with a magnitude of
= /2. So the maximum shear stress at
yield is
= /2. For a general state of stress, three principal stresses can be determined and
ordered such that . The maximum shear stress is then
=
)/2 Thus, for
a general state of stress, the maximum-shear-stress theory predicts yielding when
=

Note that this implies that the yield strength in shear is given by
= 0.5
Which as we will see later is about 15 percent low (conservative)
For design purposes, equation can be modified to incorporate a factor of safety, n. Thus
=

or

Distortion-Energy Theory for Ductile Materials (The von Mises or von Mises Hencky theory)
The distortion-energy theory predicts that yielding occurs when the distortion strain energy per
unit volume reaches or exceeds the distortion strain energy per unit volume for yield in simple
tension or compression of the same material. The distortion-energy (DE) theory originated from
the observation that ductile materials stressed hydrostatically exhibited yield strengths greatly
in excess of the values given by the simple tension test. Therefore it was postulated that yielding
was not a simple tensile or compressive phenomenon at all but, rather that it was related
somehow to the angular distortion of the stressed element.
To develop the theory, note in Fig. a, the unit volume subjected to any three-dimensional stress
state designated by the stresses 1, 2, and 3. The stress state shown in Fig. b is one of
hydrostatic tension due to the stresses av acting in each of the same principal directions as in
Fig. a. The formula for av is simply

(a)

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Chapter 1

Machine Design

Thus the element in Fig. b undergoes pure volume change, that is no angular distortion. If we
regard av as a component of 1, 2 and 3, then this component can be subtracted from them,
resulting in the stress state shown in Fig. c. This element is subjected to pure angular distortion
that is, no volume change.

)
(a)

Element with triaxial stresses; this element undergoes both volume change and angular
distortion.
Element under hydrostatic tension undergoes only volume change
Element has angular distortion without volume change.

(b)
(c)

The strain energy per unit volume for simple tension is u =


the strain energy per unit volume is u = [
principal strain gives
= [

. For the elements of figure (a)


]. Substituting equation for the

)]

The strain energy for producing only volume change u can be obtained by substituting
, , and in equation (b). The result is

u =

for

If we now substitute the square of equation (a) in equation (c) and simplify the expression we
get
=

Then the distortion energy is obtained by subtracting equation (d) from equation (b). This gives
u =u

u =

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Chapter 1

Machine Design

Maximum-Normal-Stress Theory for Brittle Materials


The maximum-normal-stress (MNS) theory states that failure occurs whenever one of the three
principal stresses equals or exceeds the strength. Again we arrange the principal stresses for a
general stress state in the ordered form . This theory then predicts that failure
occurs whenever

or

(p)

where Sut and Suc are the ultimate tensile and compressive strengths respectively, given as
positive quantities.
For plane stress, with the principal stresses with ,
Eq. (p) can be written as

or

(q)

which is plotted in Fig. a. As before, the failure criteria equations can be converted to design
equations. We can consider two sets of equations for load lines where as

Note that the distortion energy is zero if = = .


For the simple tensile test, at yield =
is
u =

v
E

and = = 0 and the Eq. (e) the distortion energy

f)

So for the general of stress given by Eq. (e) yield is predicated if Eq. (e) equals or exceeds Eq. (f)
this gives
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Chapter 1

Machine Design

g)

If we had a simple case of tension , then yield would occur when . Thus, the left of Eq. (g)
can be thought of as a single, equivalent or effective stress for the entire general state of stress
given by , , and . This effective stress is usually called the von Mises stress, named after
Dr. R. von Mises, who contributed to the theory. Thus Eq. (g) for yield, can be written as

where the von Mises stress is
=[

For plane stress, let and be the two nonzero principal stresses. Then from Eq. (i) we get
)

Octahedral- Shear Stress Theory


Octahedral-shear-stress theory is an extension of Distortion-Energy theory and it is based on the
assumption that critical quantity is the shearing stress on the octahedral plane.
Consider an isolated element in which the normal stresses on each surface are equal to the
hydrostatic stress . There are eight surfaces symmetric to the principal directions that
contain this stress. This forms an octahedron as shown in Fig. The shear stresses on these
surfaces are equal and are called the octahedral shear stresses (Fig. has only one of the
octahedral surfaces labeled). Through coordinate transformations the octahedral shear stress is
given by
= [

) ]

m)

Octahedral surfaces

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