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NI AWR Design Environment 11

AWRDE User Guide

NI AWR Design Environment 11 AWRDE User Guide

AWRDE User Guide NI AWR Design Environment 11 Edition

AWR Corporation

1960 E. Grand Avenue, Suite 430 El Segundo, CA 90245 USA Phone +1 310.726.3000 Fax +1 310.726.3005 Website www.awrcorp.com support@awrcorp.com U.S. Technical Support Phone 888.349.7610

LEGAL NOTICES

© 2014 AWR Corporation. All rights reserved. AWR is a National Instruments Company. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this guide may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the express written permission of AWR Corporation.

Trademarks

• Advancing the wireless revolution®, Analog Office®, APLAC®, AWR® and the AWR logo, AXIEM®, Microwave Office®, and TX-Line® are registered trademarks of AWR Corporation.

• ACE TM , Analyst TM , Analyst-MP TM , AWR Connected TM , AWR Design Environment TM , AWR Signal Integrity TM , AWR.TV TM , AWR User Forum TM , EMSight TM , EM Socket TM , iFilter TM , iMatch TM , iNet TM , MRHB TM , RFA TM , RFB TM , RFI TM , TDNN TM , TestWave TM , Unified Data Model TM , and Visual System Simulator TM are trademarks of AWR Corporation.

• All other product and company names herein may be the trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners.

Patents

The NI AWR Design Environment TM is covered by one or more of the following Patents:

• U.S. Patent No(s).: 7,346,480; 7,577,192; 7,940,838; 8,086,991; 8,131,521

• Other U.S. and International Patents Pending.

The information in this guide is believed to be accurate. However, no responsibility or liability is assumed by AWR Corporation for its use.

Table of Contents

1. Preface

1–1

1.1.

About This Book

 

1–2

1.1.1. Additional Documentation

1–3

1.1.2. Typographical Conventions

1–4

1.2.

Getting Online Help

 

1–4

2. The Design Environment

2–1

2.1. Components of the Design Environment

2–1

 

2.1.1.

Licensing and Version Information

2–2

2.2. Working With Projects

 

2–3

 

2.2.1. Using the Project Browser

2–3

 

2.2.1.1. Project Browser Contents

2–4

2.2.1.2. Expanding and Collapsing Nodes

2–6

2.2.1.3. Copying Project Items

2–6

2.2.1.4. Renaming Project Items

2–6

2.2.1.5. Deleting Project Items

2–6

2.2.1.6. Accessing Sub Menus

2–7

2.2.1.7. Scrolling in Windows

2–7

 

2.2.2. Creating, Opening, and Saving a Project

2–7

 

2.2.2.1.

Opening Example Projects

2–8

Filtering Examples

2–9

2.2.2.2. Autosaving Projects

2–10

2.2.2.3. Saving Project Versions

2–10

 

2.2.3. Displaying Document Windows

2–10

 

2.2.3.1. Multiple Document Interface (MDI) Windows

2–10

2.2.3.2. Floating Windows

2–13

2.2.3.3. Windows Dialog Box

2–14

2.2.3.4. Open Project Item

2–14

 

2.2.4. .vin files

 

2–15

2.2.5. Saving Projects As Project Templates

2–15

2.2.6. Specifying Global Project Settings

2–16

 

2.2.6.1. Configuring Global Project Units

2–16

2.2.6.2. Configuring Global Project Frequency

2–16

2.2.6.3. Configuring Global Interpolation Settings

2–16

 

2.2.7. Working With Foundry Libraries

2–17

2.3. Organizing a Design

 

2–17

 

2.3.1. Window in Window

2–18

2.3.2. User Folders

 

2–19

 

2.3.2.1. Adding User Folders

2–19

2.3.2.2. Renaming User Folders

2–20

2.3.2.3. Adding Items to User Folders

2–20

2.3.2.4. Removing Items from User Folders

2–21

2.3.2.5. Moving Items in User Folders

2–21

2.3.2.6. Organizing Items in User Folders

2–21

2.4. Customizing the Design Environment

2–23

 

2.4.1. Customizing Workspace Appearance and Tabs

2–23

 

2.4.1.1.

Docking Workspace Windows and Toolbars

2–24

 

2.4.2. Customizing Toolbars and Menus

2–26

 

2.4.2.1. Customize Dialog Box: Toolbars Tab

2–26

2.4.2.2. Customize Dialog Box: Menus Tab

2–27

Contents

 

2.4.2.3.

Customize Dialog Box: Commands Tab

2–27

Split Buttons

2–28

2.4.3. Customizing Hotkeys

2–29

2.4.4. Script Utilities

 

2–29

2.5. Importing a Project

2–30

2.5.1.

Host and Import Project Differences

2–32

2.6. Archiving a Project

 

2–33

2.7. Status Window

2–34

2.7.1.

Status Window Controls

2–35

3. Data Files

3–1

3.1. Working With Data Files

3–1

3.1.1. Importing Data Files

3–1

3.1.2. Linking to Data Files

3–2

3.1.3. Adding New Data Files

3–3

3.1.4. Editing Data Files

3–4

3.2. Data File Formats

 

3–5

3.2.1. Raw Data File Format

3–5

3.2.2. Touchstone File Format

3–6

3.2.3. MDIF Data File Format

3–9

 

3.2.3.1. MDIF File Structure and Syntax

3–10

3.2.3.2. Complete MDIF File Example

3–11

3.2.4. Generalized MDIF Data File Format

3–12

 

3.2.4.1.

Using GMDIF in a Schematic

3–13

3.2.5. Text Data File Format

3–14

 

3.2.5.1. Comments

3–14

3.2.5.2. Tags

3–15

3.2.5.3. Column Headings

3–16

3.2.5.4. Column Data

3–18

3.2.5.5. Use with MWO/AO

3–18

3.2.6. Text Data File Load Pull and Source Pull Formats

3–22

 

3.2.6.1. Maury File Formats

3–22

3.2.6.2. Swept Power Files

3–22

3.2.7. DC-IV Data File Format

3–23

3.2.8. DSCR Data File Format

3–24

3.3. Advanced Data File Topics

3–24

3.3.1. Citi Format Files

3–24

3.3.2. Incorrect Touchstone Format

3–24

3.3.3. N-Port Touchstone Files from Many 2-port Files

3–25

3.3.4. Extrapolation Problems (Specifically at DC)

3–25

3.3.5. Noise for Data Files

3–26

3.3.6. Grounding Types

3–26

4. Schematics and System Diagrams

4–1

4.1. Schematics and System Diagrams in the Project Browser

4–1

4.2. Creating or Importing Schematics

4–1

4.3. Creating or Importing System Diagrams

4–2

4.4. Specifying Schematic and System Diagram Options

4–3

4.4.1. Configuring Global Circuit Options

4–4

4.4.2. Configuring Local Schematic or System Diagram Options and Frequency

4–4

4.5. Working with Elements on a Schematic

4–5

4.5.1. Adding Elements Using the Element Browser

4–5

4.5.2. Adding Elements Using the Add Element Command

4–7

Contents

4.5.3. Moving, Rotating, Flipping, and Mirroring Elements

4–8

4.5.3.1.

Element Mirroring

4–9

4.5.4. Editing Element Parameter Values

4–9

4.5.4.1. Selecting Multiple Elements

4–10

4.5.4.2. Editing Multiple Elements

4–10

4.5.4.3. Editing Element IDs

4–11

4.5.5. Using Variables and Equations for Parameter Values

4–11

4.5.6. Using Elements With Model Blocks

4–11

4.5.6.1.

Model Block Concerns

4–12

4.5.7. Swapping Elements

4–12

4.5.8. Restricted Object Selection

4–13

4.5.9. Viewing the Layout for a Schematic

4–13

4.6. Working with System Blocks on a System Diagram

4–13

4.6.1. Adding System Blocks Using the Element Browser

4–13

4.6.2. Adding System Blocks Using the Add Element Command

4–15

4.6.3. Moving, Rotating, Flipping, and Mirroring System Blocks

4–15

4.6.3.1.

System Block Mirroring

4–17

4.6.4. Editing System Block Parameter Values

4–17

4.6.4.1. Selecting Multiple System Blocks

4–18

4.6.4.2. Editing Multiple System Blocks

4–19

4.6.4.3. Editing System Block IDs

4–19

4.6.5. Using Variables and Equations for Parameter Values

4–19

4.6.6. Swapping System Blocks

4–19

4.6.7. Restricted Object Selection

4–20

4.7. Adding and Editing Ports

4–20

4.7.1. Using PORTS

4–20

4.7.1.1. PIN_ID and Hierarchy

4–21

4.7.1.2. Impedance and Hierarchy

4–21

4.7.2. Using PORT_NAMEs

4–22

4.7.2.1. Hierarchy

4–22

4.7.2.2. Connection by Name

4–23

4.8. Connecting a Schematic or System Diagram

4–23

4.8.1. Connection by Wires

4–23

4.8.1.1. Connecting Many Elements or System Blocks

4–24

4.8.1.2. Auto Wire Cleanup

4–24

4.8.2. Element Connection by Name

4–25

4.8.2.1.

Verifying Connections

4–25

4.9. Copying and Pasting Schematics and System Diagrams

4–25

4.9.1.

Adding Live Graphs, Schematics, Layouts, and System Diagrams

4–26

4.10. Adding Subcircuits to a Schematic or System Diagram

4–26

4.10.1. Importing Data Files Describing Subcircuits

4–26

4.10.2. Adding Subcircuit Elements

4–26

4.10.3. Editing Subcircuit Parameter Values

4–27

4.10.4. Using Parameterized Subcircuits

4–27

4.10.4.1. Using Parameterized Subcircuits with Layout

4–28

4.10.5.

Using Inherited Parameters

4–31

4.11. Adding Back Annotation to a Schematic or System Diagram

4–32

4.12. Vector Instances, Busses, and Multiplicity

4–33

4.12.1. Vector Instances

4–33

4.12.2. Busses

4–34

4.12.3. Connectivity with Vector Instances and Busses

4–34

Contents

 

4.12.3.1. Separated Elements and Wires

4–34

4.12.3.2. Bus and Vector Instance Sizes

4–36

4.12.3.3. Using Ports

4–38

4.12.3.4. Bundles

4–39

 

4.12.4.

Multiplicity

4–40

 

4.12.4.1.

Vector Instances Versus Multiplicity

4–40

Using Vector Instances or Multiplicity

4–41

4.13.

Exporting Schematics and System Diagrams

4–42

4.14.

Adding User Attributes to Schematics and System Diagrams

4–42

5. Netlists

5–1

5.1.

Netlists in the Project Browser

5–1

5.2.

Creating a Netlist

5–1

5.3.

Importing a Netlist

5–1

5.3.1. Imported Netlist Types

5–4

 

5.3.1.1.

HSPICE Netlist Files (*.sp) and Spectre Netlist Files (*.scs)

5–4

5.3.1.2.

APLAC Netlist Files (native) (*.lib) and HSPICE Netlist Files (native) (*.sp,

*.inc)

5–4

5.3.1.3.

PSpice Files (*.cir) and Touchstone Files (*.ckt)

5–4

5.3.1.4.

AWR Netlist Files (*.net)

5–5

 

5.3.2. Importing Transistor Model Netlists and Swapping Nodes

5–5

5.3.3. Importing a SPICE Netlist

5–5

 

5.3.3.1. PSpice Netlist Import Details

5–6

5.3.3.2. PSpice and Berkeley SPICE MOSFET Model Level 3

5–8

5.4.

Specifying Netlist Options

5–8

5.4.1. Configuring Global Circuit Options

5–9

5.4.2. Configuring Local Netlist Options and Frequency

5–9

5.5.

Adding Data To and Editing a Netlist

5–9

5.6.

Copying a Netlist

5–10

5.7.

Renaming a Netlist

5–10

5.8.

Exporting a Netlist

5–10

5.9.

AWR Netlist Format

5–10

5.9.1. Netlist Blocks

5–10

 

5.9.1.1. DIM Block

5–10

5.9.1.2. VAR Block

5–11

5.9.1.3. EQN Block

5–12

5.9.1.4. CKT Block

5–12

 

5.9.2. Netlist Example

5–13

5.10. Touchstone File Import Utility

5–14

 

5.10.1.

Example Touchstone File

5–14

 

5.10.1.1. File format: Touchstone Circuit file

5–14

5.10.1.2. Subcircuit: Quarter_1

5–16

5.10.1.3. Subcircuit: Quarter_2

5–17

5.10.1.4. Subcircuit: HALFBPF

5–18

5.10.1.5. Subcircuit: BPF2

5–19

5.10.1.6. MWO/AO Project Setup after Touchstone Netlist Import

5–20

5.10.1.7. Set Up Tunable and Optimizable Variables

5–21

5.10.1.8. Subcircuit BPF2

5–22

5.10.1.9. Subcircuit - HALFBPF

5–22

5.10.1.10. Subcircuit Quarter_1

5–22

5.10.1.11. Subcircuit Quarter_2

5–23

5.11. Touchstone File Translation Capabilities

5–25

Contents

5.11.1. Touchstone/AWR Model Support

5–25

5.11.1.1. SUPPORTED MODELS

5–25

5.11.1.2. For FUTURE Support

5–27

5.11.1.3. NOT SUPPORTED

5–29

6. Electromagnetic Analysis

6–1

7. Graphs, Measurements, and Output Files

7–1

7.1. Working with Graphs

7–1

7.1.1. Creating a New Graph

7–2

7.1.1.1. Using Default Graph Properties

7–2

7.1.1.2. Renaming a Graph

7–3

7.1.2. Graph Types

7–3

7.1.2.1. Rectangular Graphs

7–3

7.1.2.2. Smith Charts

7–3

7.1.2.3. Polar Grids

7–6

7.1.2.4. Antenna Plots

7–6

7.1.2.5. Tabular Graphs

7–6

7.1.2.6. Histogram Graphs

7–7

7.1.2.7. Constellation Graphs

7–7

7.1.2.8. 3D Graphs

7–8

7.1.2.9. Changing Graph Types

7–9

7.1.3. Reading Graph Values

7–9

7.1.3.1. Cursor Display

7–9

7.1.3.2. Adding Graph Markers

7–9

7.1.3.3. Adding Line Markers

7–10

7.1.3.4. Adding Swept Parameter Markers

7–11

7.1.3.5. Modifying Marker Display

7–11

7.1.3.6. Modifying Number of Digits in Cursor and Marker Display

7–14

7.1.3.7. Modifying Cursor and Marker Display for Complex Data

7–16

7.1.4. Modifying the Graph Display

7–17

7.1.4.1.

Graph Traces

7–18

Trace Style

7–18

Trace Symbol

7–19

Step Color on Traces

7–19

Selecting Multiple Traces

7–20

Trace Type

7–21

Measurement Axis

7–22

Measurement Legend Display

7–23

7.1.4.2. Additional Measurement Options

7–24

7.1.4.3. Modifying the Graph Legend

7–24

 

Legend Display

7–25

Legend Location and Size

7–27

7.1.4.4. Modifying Graph Labels

7–28

7.1.4.5. Modifying the Graph Border/Size

7–29

7.1.4.6. Modifying the Graph Division Display

7–30

7.1.4.7. Data Zooming

7–31

 

Zooming on Graphs

7–32

Zooming on Graph Data

7–32

Changing Axis Limits

7–34

7.1.4.8.

Adding Live Graphs, Schematics, System Diagrams, or Layouts to a Graph

7–37

7.1.5. Copying and Pasting Graphs

7–38

7.2. Working with Measurements

7–38

Contents

 

7.2.1. Adding a New Measurement

7–38

7.2.1.1. Adding a Measurement from the Project Browser

7–38

7.2.1.2. Adding a Measurement through Another Source

7–39

7.2.1.3. Measurement Naming Conventions

7–39

7.2.1.4. Ordering Measurements

7–40

7.2.2. Measurement Types

7–40

7.2.3. Measurement Location Selection

7–40

7.2.4. Modifying, Copying, and Deleting Measurements

7–45

7.2.4.1. Modifying Measurements

7–45

7.2.4.2. Copying Measurements

7–45

7.2.4.3. Deleting Measurements

7–45

7.2.4.4. Displaying Obsolete Graph Measurements

7–45

7.2.5. Disabling a Measurement from Simulation

7–45

7.2.6. Simulating Only Open Graphs

7–46

7.2.7. Post-Processing Measurements and Plotting the Results

7–46

7.2.8. Measurements with Swept Variables

7–46

7.2.9. Plotting One Measurement vs. Another Measurement

7–46

7.2.10. Single Source vs. Template Measurements

7–46

7.2.11. Using Project Templates with Template Measurements

7–46

7.2.11.1. Measurement Comparison Using Project Templates

7–47

7.3.

Working with Output Files

7–51

7.3.1. Creating an Output File

7–51

7.3.2. Output File Formats

7–52

7.3.2.1. AM to AM File Format

7–52

7.3.2.2. AM to PM File Format

7–52

7.3.2.3. AM to AM/PM File Format

7–53

7.3.2.4. Spectrum Data File Format

7–54

7.3.2.5. Port Parameter File Format

7–54

8. Annotations

 

8–1

8.1.

Working with Annotations

8–1

8.1.1. Hierarchy

8–2

8.1.2. Creating a New Annotation

8–3

8.1.3. Modifying the Annotations Display

8–3

8.1.3.1.

Changing Annotations in the Project Browser

8–3

9. Circuit Symbols

9–1

9.1. Adding Symbols

9–1

9.2. Renaming Symbols

9–2

9.3. Deleting Symbols

9–2

9.4. Copying Symbols

9–2

9.5. Importing Symbols

9–2

9.6. Exporting Symbols

9–3

9.7. Using the Symbol Editor

9–3

 

9.7.1. Adding Nodes

9–3

9.7.2. Adding Rectangles

9–4

9.7.3. Adding Polylines

9–4

9.7.4. Adding Ellipses

9–4

9.7.5. Adding Arcs

9–4

9.7.6. Adding Text

9–4

9.7.7. Update Symbol Edits

9–4

9.7.8. Editing Symbol Shapes

9–4

9.8. Using Symbols

 

9–5

Contents

9.8.1. Changing Symbols

9–5

9.8.2. Default Subcircuit Symbols

9–5

9.8.3. Symbols in Library Elements

9–5

10. Data Sets

10–1

10.1. Graph Data Sets

10–2

10.1.1. Adding Graph Data Sets

10–2

10.1.2. Restoring Data from Graph Data Sets

10–2

10.1.3. Automatically Saving and Restoring Graph Data Sets

10–3

10.1.4. Using Graph Data Sets in a Blank Project

10–3

10.2. Yield Data Sets

10–4

10.2.1. Adding Yield Data Sets

10–4

10.2.2. Restoring Data from Yield Data Sets

10–5

10.3. Simulation Data Sets

10–5

10.3.1.

Data Set Icon Colors

10–5

10.3.1.1.

Data Set Icon Symbols

10–6

10.3.2. Data Set Accumulation

10–7

10.3.3. Plotting Directly from Data Sets

10–8

10.3.4. Pinning Data Sets

10–9

10.3.5. EM Data Set Specifics

10–10

10.3.5.1. Mesh Only Data Set

10–10

10.3.5.2. Updating and Pinning Specifics

10–10

10.3.5.3. Viewing Data Set Geometry

10–10

10.3.5.4. Updating Clock if Geometry is Current

10–11

10.3.5.5. Data Sets for Analyst

10–11

10.3.6. APLAC Data Set Specifics

10–12

10.3.7. VSS Data Set Specifics

10–12

10.3.7.1.

Data Sets for Specific Simulation Type

10–13

10.4. Working with Data Sets

10–13

10.4.1. Saving Data Sets in a Project

10–13

10.4.2. Retaining Data Sets

10–14

10.4.3. Disabling Auto Delete

10–14

10.4.4. Renaming Data Sets

10–15

10.4.5. Deleting Data Sets

10–15

10.4.6. Updating Data Sets

10–15

10.4.7. Exporting Data Sets

10–17

10.4.8. Importing Data Sets

10–17

10.4.9. Viewing Data Set Contents

10–17

11. Variables And Equations

11–1

11.1. Equations in the Project Browser

11–1

11.2. Using Common Equations

11–1

11.2.1. Defining Equations

11–1

11.2.2. Editing Equations

11–1

11.2.3. Displaying Variable Values

11–2

11.2.4. Equation Order

11–2

11.2.5. Units for Variables

11–3

11.3. Using Global Definitions

11–3

11.3.1. Adding New Global Definitions Documents

11–3

11.3.2. Assigning Global Definitions to Simulation Documents

11–4

11.3.3. Global Definitions Search Order

11–4

11.3.4. Renaming Global Definitions Documents

11–4

11.3.5. Deleting Global Definitions Documents

11–4

Contents

 

11.3.6.

Defining Global Model Blocks

11–4

11.4. Using Variables and Equations in Schematics and System Diagrams

11–5

 

11.4.1.

Assigning Parameter Values to Variables

11–5

11.5. Using Output Equations

11–6

 

11.5.1. Adding New Output Equations Documents

11–7

11.5.2. Assigning Global Definitions to Output Equation Documents

11–8

11.5.3. Renaming Output Equations Documents

11–8

11.5.4. Deleting Output Equations Documents

11–8

11.5.5. Assigning the Result of a Measurement to a Variable

11–8

11.5.6. Editing Output Equations

11–8

11.5.7. Plotting Output Equations

11–9

11.6. Using Scripted Equation Functions

11–9

 

11.6.1. Adding Equation Functions

11–9

11.6.2. Referencing a Function in an Equation

11–11

11.6.3. Local and Global Scoping

11–12

 

11.6.3.1.

Local Versus Global Functions

11–12

 

11.6.4.

Scripting and Debugging Tips

11–13

 

11.6.4.1. Scripting Functions to Call Other Functions

11–13

11.6.4.2. Using 'Debug.Print' To Verify Results

11–13

11.6.4.3. Setting Breakpoints to Inspect Variables

11–14

11.6.4.4. Creating a Test function to Validate Results

11–14

11.7. Equation Syntax

11–15

 

11.7.1. Operators

11–15

11.7.2. Variable Definitions

11–16

 

11.7.2.1. Function Definitions

11–16

11.7.2.2. Representing Complex Numbers

11–16

11.7.2.3. Array Indexing

11–16

Array Indexing Examples:

11–17

11.7.2.4.

Precedence

11–17

 

11.7.3. Built-in Functions

11–17

11.7.4. Using String Type Variables

11–26

11.7.5. Defining Vector Quantities

11–27

11.7.6. Swept Measurement Data in Output Equations

11–28

 

11.7.6.1. Inconsistent X-axis Values

11–35

11.7.6.2. Inconsistent Number of Points in Each Sweep

11–37

12. Wizards

12–1

12.1. Load Pull Script

12–1

 

12.1.1. Defining Load Pull Impedances

12–1

12.1.2. Selecting Simulation Values

12–3

12.2. Nuhertz Filter Wizard

12–5

12.3. iFilter Filter Wizard

12–5

 

12.3.1.

Using the iFilter Wizard

12–5

 

12.3.1.1. Starting the iFilter Wizard

12–5

12.3.1.2. Running the iFilter Wizard

12–6

12.3.1.3. Closing the Wizard

12–6

12.3.1.4. Design Properties

12–6

 

12.3.2.

Filter Design Basics

12–6

 

12.3.2.1.

Approximating Function

12–6

Transmission Zero (TZ)

12–7

Finite Transmission Zero (FTZ)

12–7

Monotonic Filters

12–7

Contents

 

Filters with FTZ(s)

12–7

12.3.2.2. Filter Synthesis

12–8

12.3.2.3. Design using LP-prototypes

12–8

12.3.2.4. Distributed Element Filters

12–9

Stubs

12–9

Periodicity

12–9

Filter Design

12–10

12.3.3.

General Flow of Filter Design

12–10

12.3.3.1. Main iFilter Dialog Box

12–10

12.3.3.2. Select Filter Type Dialog Box

12–12

12.3.3.3. Approximation Function Dialog Box

12–12

12.3.3.4. Change Passband Ripple Dialog Box

12–13

12.3.3.5. Modifying Specifications

12–14

12.3.3.6. Analyzing a Design

12–15

12.3.3.7. Plotting Response and Chart Control

12–16

12.3.3.8. Chart Settings Dialog Box

12–16

12.3.3.9. Add/Edit Marker Dialog Box

12–18

12.3.3.10. Add/Edit Opt Goal Dialog Box

12–18

12.3.3.11. Viewing the Schematic and Layout

12–19

12.3.3.12. Generate Design Dialog Box

12–20

General Section

12–20

Schematic Section

12–20

Analysis Section

12–21

Graphs

12–21

Tuning and Optimization

12–21

12.3.4.

Lumped Model Options Dialog Box

12–21

12.3.4.1. Lumped Model Options Realization Tab

12–21

12.3.4.2. Vendors and Parts Dialog Box

12–23

12.3.4.3. Vendor Part Libraries

12–25

12.3.4.4. Lumped Model Options Parasitics Tab

12–25

Losses

12–26

Self-resonance Frequency (SRF)

12–27

12.3.4.5.

Lumped Model Options Limits Tab

12–27

12.3.5.

Distributed Model Options Dialog Box

12–28

12.3.5.1. Distributed Model Options Realization Tab

12–28

12.3.5.2. Distributed Model Options Technology Tab

12–29

12.3.5.3. Distributed Model Options Parasitics Tab

12–30

12.3.5.4. Distributed Model Options Limits Tab

12–31

12.3.6.

Lowpass Filters

12–31

12.3.6.1.

Lumped Element Lowpass Filter

12–32

Typical Specifications

12–32

12.3.6.2.

Stepped Impedance Lowpass Filter

12–32

Typical Specifications

12–33

Tuning and Optimization

12–33

12.3.6.3.

Distributed Stubs Filter

12–34

Typical Specifications

12–34

Tuning and Optimization

12–34

12.3.6.4.

Optimum Distributed Lowpass Filter

12–34

Typical Specifications

12–35

Tuning and Optimization

12–35

12.3.7.

Highpass Filters

12–35

Contents

12.3.7.1.

Lumped Element Highpass Filter

12–35

Typical Specifications

12–36

12.3.7.2.

Shunt Stub Highpass Filter

12–36

Typical Specifications

12–37

Tuning and Optimization

12–37

12.3.7.3.

Optimum Distributed Highpass Filter

12–37

Typical Specifications

12–37

Tuning and Optimization

12–37

12.3.8.

Bandpass Filters

12–37

12.3.8.1.

Lumped Element Bandpass Filter

12–38

Typical Specifications

12–39

12.3.8.2.

Narrowband Lumped Element Filter

12–39

Typical Specifications

12–40

12.3.8.3.

Coupled Resonator Bandpass Filter

12–40

Typical Specifications

12–40

12.3.8.4.

Wideband Lumped Element LP+HP Filter

12–40

Typical Specifications

12–41

12.3.8.5.

Shunt Stub Bandpass Filter

12–41

Typical Specifications

12–41

Tuning and Optimization

12–41

12.3.8.6.

Optimum Distributed Bandpass Filter

12–42

Typical Specifications

12–42

Tuning and Optimization

12–42

12.3.8.7.

Edge Coupled Bandpass Filter (Parallel Coupled Line Filter)

12–42

Typical Specifications

12–44

Tuning and Optimization

12–44

12.3.8.8.

Stepped Impedance Resonator (SIR) Bandpass Filter

12–44

Typical Specifications

12–45

Tuning and Optimization

12–45

12.3.8.9.

Interdigital Bandpass Filter

12–45

Typical Specifications

12–46

Tuning and Optimization

12–46

12.3.8.10.

Combline Bandpass Filter

12–46

Typical Specifications

12–47

Tuning and Optimization

12–47

12.3.8.11.

Hairpin Bandpass Filter

12–47

Typical Specifications

12–47

Tuning and Optimization

12–47

12.3.9.

Bandstop Filters

12–48

12.3.9.1.

Lumped Element Bandstop Filter

12–48

Typical Specifications

12–49

12.3.9.2.

Optimum Distributed Bandstop Filter

12–49

Typical Specifications

12–49

Tuning and Optimization

12–49

12.3.10. Auxiliary Dialog Boxes

12–49

12.3.10.1.

Design Utilities Dialog Box

12–50

Design Utilities VSWR (Conversion) Tab

12–50

Design Utilities Midband IL (Midband Insertion Loss) Tab

12–51

Design Utilities Air Coil (Calculation) Tab

12–51

Design Utilities Capacitance (Gap/Pad) Tab

12–52

12.3.10.2.

Environment Options Dialog Box

12–52

Contents

 

Environment Options Units Tab

12–53

Environment Options General Tab

12–53

12.3.11. Design Examples

12–53

 

12.3.11.1. Lumped Element BPF Example

12–53

12.3.11.2. Microstrip Bandpass Filter Example

12–55

12.3.11.3. Arbitrary Narrowband Filter Simulation Example

12–57

12.4. Impedance Matching Wizard (iMatch)

12–58

12.4.1.

Using the iMatch Wizard

12–58

12.4.1.1. Starting the iMatch Wizard

12–58

12.4.1.2. Running the iMatch Wizard

12–58

12.4.1.3. Closing the Wizard

12–58

12.4.2.

iMatch Wizard Basics

12–59

12.4.2.1. Matching Terminations Dialog Box

12–60

12.4.2.2. Matching Options Dialog Box

12–62

12.4.2.3. Analysis Frequency Range

12–62

12.4.2.4. Chart Setting Dialog Box

12–62

12.4.2.5. Graphics Display Control Options

12–63

12.4.3. Impedance Matching Basics

12–63

12.4.4. Maximum Power Transfer

12–63

12.4.5. Reactance Cancellation

12–64

 

12.4.5.1. Lumped (Series) Cancellation Method

12–64

12.4.5.2. Lumped (Shunt) Cancellation Method

12–65

12.4.5.3. Stub (Shunt) Cancellation Method

12–65

12.4.5.4. Transmission Line Cancellation Method

12–65

12.4.5.5. Required Level of Matching

12–66

12.4.5.6. Single Frequency Point Matching

12–66

12.4.5.7. Step-by-step or iMatch

12–66

12.4.5.8. Smith Chart

12–67

Constant VSWR Circles

12–67

Constant Resistance Circles

12–68

Constant Reactance Circles

12–69

Constant Q Circles

12–70

12.4.6.

Impedance Matching Types

12–71

12.4.6.1.

Lumped Element: L/Pi/Tee Type

12–71

L-section LP (Lowpass)

12–71

L-section HP (Highpass)

12–72

Pi-section CLC (Capacitor–Inductor–Capacitor)

12–72

Pi-section LCC (Inductor–Capacitor–Capacitor)

12–72

Pi-section CLL (Capacitor–Inductor–Inductor)

12–73

Tee-section CCL (Capacitor–Capacitor–Inductor)

12–73

Tee-section LCL (Inductor–Capacitor–Inductor)

12–73

Tee-section LLC (Inductor–Inductor–Capacitor)

12–74

12.4.6.2.

Lumped Element: 3-section

12–74

LP-LP-LP (Lowpass–Lowpass–Lowpass)

12–75

LP-LP-HP (Lowpass–Lowpass–Highpass)

12–75

LP-HP-LP (Lowpass-Highpass–Lowpass)

12–75

LP-HP-HP (Lowpass–Highpass–Highpass)

12–76

HP-LP-LP (Highpass–Lowpass–Lowpass)

12–76

HP-LP-HP (Highpass–Lowpass–Highpass)

12–76

HP-HP-LP (Highpass–Highpass–Lowpass)

12–77

HP-HP-HP (Highpass-Highpass-Highpass)

12–77

Contents

12.4.6.3.

Lumped Element: 4-section

12–77

LP-LP-LP-LP (Lowpass–Lowpass–Lowpass–Lowpass)

12–78

LP-LP-LP-HP (Lowpass–Lowpass–Lowpass–Highpass)

12–78

LP-LP-HP-LP (Lowpass–Lowpass–Highpass–Lowpass)

12–78

LP-LP-HP-HP (Lowpass–Lowpass–Highpass–Highpass)

12–79

LP-HP-LP-LP (Lowpass–Highpass–Lowpass–Lowpass)

12–79

LP-HP-LP-HP (Lowpass–Highpass–Lowpass–Highpass)

12–79

LP-HP-HP-LP (Lowpass–Highpass–Highpass–Lowpass)

12–80

LP-HP-HP-HP (Lowpass–Highpass–Highpass–Highpass)

12–80

HP-LP-LP-LP (Highpass–Lowpass–Lowpass–Lowpass)

12–80

HP-LP-LP-HP (Highpass–Lowpass–Lowpass–Highpass)

12–81

HP-LP-HP-LP (Highpass–Lowpass–Highpass–Lowpass)

12–81

HP-LP-HP-HP (Highpass–Lowpass–Highpass–Highpass)

12–81

HP-HP-LP-LP (Highpass–Highpass–Lowpass–Lowpass)

12–82

HP-HP-LP-HP (Highpass–Highpass–Lowpass–Highpass)

12–82

HP-HP-HP-LP (Highpass–Highpass–Highpass–Lowpass)

12–82

HP-HP-HP-HP (Highpass–Highpass–Highpass–Highpass)

12–83

12.4.6.4.

Distributed/Mixed Element: TL+Stub

12–83

Shunt OST + TL (Shunt Open Stub + Transmission Line)

12–83

Shunt SST + TL (Shunt Shorted Stub + Transmission Line)

12–84

Shunt IND + TL (Shunt Inductor + Transmission Line)

12–84

Shunt CAP + TL (Shunt Capacitor + Transmission Line)

12–84

Series IND + TL (Series Inductor + Transmission Line)

12–85

Series CAP + TL (Series Capacitor + Transmission Line)

12–85

Double Shunt OST + TL (Shunt Open Stub + Transmission Line + Shunt Open Stub + Transmission Line)

12–85

Double Shunt CAP + TL (Shunt Capacitor + Transmission Line + Shunt Capacitor + Transmission Line)

12–86

Double TL (Transmission Line + Transmission Line)

12–86

Single TL (short) (Single Transmission Line – Short Line)

12–86

Single TL (long) (Single Transmission Line - Long Line)

12–87

12.4.6.5.

Distributed Element: Multiple TL

12–87

Middle Impedance

12–87

 

Binomial

12–88

Klopfenstein Taper

12–88

Hecken Taper

12–88

Exponential Taper

12–88

12.5. 3Di Import Wizard

12–89

12.5.1. Dielectric and Conductor Information

12–93

12.5.2. EM Boundaries

12–95

12.5.3. Using ACE

12–96

12.5.4. Schematic Components

12–97

12.5.5. Adding Stimulus

12–98

12.5.6. Extraction

12–100

12.5.6.1. Layout Only Shapes

12–100

12.5.6.2. Ports

12–101

12.5.6.3. EM Pin Locations

12–101

12.5.7. Errors and Warnings

12–103

12.5.8. Solder Balls and Bumps

12–103

12.6. APLAC Schematic Import Wizard

12–103

12.7. IFF Import Wizard

12–104

Contents

12.7.1. Options

12–104

12.7.2. Component Mapping

12–104

12.8. Process Definition Wizard

12–106

12.9. Symbol Generator Wizard

12–108

12.10. Amplifier Model Generator Wizard

12–110

12.10.1. Selecting Data Files

12–110

12.10.2. Memory Estimation and Model Selection

12–112

12.10.3. TDNN Training

12–113

 

12.10.3.1.

Settings

12–114

12.11. VSS RF Budget Spreadsheet Wizard

12–115

12.11.1.

Using the RFB Spreadsheet Wizard

12–116

12.11.1.1. Starting the Wizard

12–116

12.11.1.2. Running the Wizard

12–116

12.11.1.3. Closing the Wizard

12–116

12.11.2.

RF Budget Spreadsheet Basics

12–116

12.11.2.1. Display Orientation

12–117

12.11.2.2. Cell Selection

12–118

12.11.2.3. Block Columns

12–118

 

Adding/Inserting Blocks

12–118

Editing Blocks

12–118

12.11.2.4.

Parameter Rows

12–118

Adding, Inserting and Modifying Parameter Rows

12–119

Editing Parameter Values

12–119

12.11.2.5. Measurement Rows

12–119

12.11.2.6. Simulation

12–120

12.11.2.7. Saving

12–120

12.11.2.8. Formatting/Appearances

12–120

12.11.2.9. Notes Columns and Rows

12–121

 

12.11.2.10.

Branches

12–121

Adding Branches

12–121

Navigating Branches

12–122

Changing Branches

12–122

12.11.2.11. Printing

12–122

12.11.2.12. Exporting

12–123

12.12. PHD Model Generator Wizard

12–123

12.13. RFP RF Planning Tool Wizard

12–127

12.13.1. RFP RF Planning Tool Basics

12–128

12.13.2. Maintaining System States

12–129

12.13.2.1. Select Wizard Action Dialog Box

12–129

12.13.2.2. Up/Downconverter Wizard Dialog Box

12–130

12.13.2.3. LO/IF Search Dialog Box

12–132

12.13.2.4. System States - Conversion Stages Dialog Box

12–133

12.13.2.5. System States Dialog Box

12–134

12.13.3.

Maintaining the Selected System

12–135

12.13.3.1. Mixer Stages Dialog Box

12–135

12.13.3.2. Mixer Spurious Information Window

12–137

12.13.3.3. Spur Check Dialog Box

12–137

12.13.3.4. Analysis Setting Dialog Box

12–138

12.13.3.5. Specifications Group

12–139

12.13.3.6. System Specifications Dialog Box

12–140

12.13.3.7. System Information Window

12–141

Contents

 

12.13.4.

Maintaining Input Bands

12–141

12.13.4.1. Input Signal Bands Dialog Box

12–143

12.13.4.2. Input Bands Auto Setup Dialog Box

12–145

12.13.4.3. System Input Signal Library Window

12–146

12.13.5.

Component Editing

12–147

12.13.5.1. Adding Component Shortcuts

12–148

12.13.5.2. Part Library Window

12–148

12.13.5.3. Edit AMP Dialog Box

12–152

12.13.5.4. Edit ATT Dialog Box

12–152

12.13.5.5. Edit MIX

12–154

12.13.5.6. Spur Table Dialog Box

12–155

12.13.5.7. Edit SWT Dialog Box

12–156

12.13.5.8. Edit BPF Dialog Box

12–156

12.13.5.9. Edit Custom Filter Dialog Box

12–158

12.13.5.10. Edit LPF Dialog Box

12–159

12.13.5.11. Edit SBP Dialog Box

12–160

12.13.5.12. Edit ADC Dialog Box

12–161

12.13.6.

Viewing System Response

12–161

12.13.6.1. Budget Response

12–162

12.13.6.2. System Budget Plot Options Dialog Box

12–164

12.13.6.3. Spot Freq Schematic View Mode

12–165

12.13.6.4. Spot Freq Response View Mode

12–166

12.13.6.5. Frequency Band Response View Mode

12–167

12.13.6.6. Viewing Responses of All Systems

12–169

12.13.6.7. Viewing Spot/Band Responses of All Stages

12–171

12.13.7. Generating Designs in the AWRDE

12–171

 

12.13.8. Utilities

12–172

 

12.13.8.1. Sensitivity

12–172

12.13.8.2. Path Loss

12–174

12.13.9.

RFP RF Planning Tool Wizard Example

12–174

13. Scripts

13–1

13.1.

Running Installed Scripts

13–1

13.2.

Adding a New Script

13–1

13.3.

Customizing How a Script is Run

13–2

A. Component Libraries

A–1

A.1. Including Custom Components in the AWRDE

A–1

A.1.1. Using a PDK

A–1

A.1.2. Using the AppDataUser Folders

A–2

A.2. Vendor Component Libraries

A–3

A.3. XML Component Libraries

A–3

A.4. AWR's XML Schema Description

A–4

A.4.1. Keywords, Attributes, and Hierarchy

A–4

A.5. Creating XML Libraries

A–7

A.5.1. Creating XML Libraries using XML Files

A–7

A.5.1.1. Sample XML File Defining Resistors

A–8

A.5.2. Creating XML Libraries Using Excel Files and Visual Basic

A–10

A.5.2.1. MWO/AO Example Library Overview

A–10

A.5.2.2. VSS Example Library Overview

A–10

A.5.2.3. Generating the XML Library Using a Visual Basic Script

A–11

A.5.2.4. Excel Spreadsheet Format

A–11

Excel Cell A2 - Folder

A–12

Contents

Excel Cell B2 - XML Model Type

A–13

Excel Cell C2 - Parameter Name

A–13

Excel Cell D2 - Parameter Listing Column

A–13

Excel Cell E2 - Top Parameter

A–13

Excel Cell F2 - Icon

A–13

Common XML Icons

A–14

A.5.2.5. Data Section of the Spreadsheet

A–14

Excel Column A - Component Information

A–14

Excel Column B - Model Name

A–15

Excel Column C - Model Description

A–16

Excel Column D - Model Part Number

A–17

Excel Column E - Symbol Setting

A–17

Excel Column F - Help Setting

A–18

Excel Column G - Layout Cell

A–18

Excel Column H - Column ZZ - Model Information

A–20

AWR Model Specification

A–20

AWR Model for VSS LIN_S Model for VSS

A–21

AWR Model for VSS LIN_S Model for MWO/AO

A–22

A.5.2.6. Optional: Copyright and Summary Settings for 8.0 and older versions

A–23

A.5.2.7. All Available XML Icons

A–23

A.6. Common XML Library Configurations

A–24

A.6.1. Configuration 1: Same AWR Model, Different Parameter Sets

A–24

A.6.2. Configuration 2: Multiple AWR Models in One Folder, Using All Default Values

A–24

A.6.3. Configuration 3: Multiple XML Model Types in One XML Folder

A–25

A.7. Advanced Options

A–26

A.7.1. Referencing Files in XML Files

A–26

A.7.2. Adding User Attributes in XML Files

A–27

A.8. Parameterized XML

A–27

A.8.1. Creating Parameterized XML Using XML Files

A–28

A.8.2. Creating Parameterized XML Using Excel Files

A–29

A.8.2.1. Creating Parameterized XML for MWO

A–29

A.8.2.2. Creating Parameterized XML for VSS

A–30

A.8.2.3. Parameterized XML Through Multiple Layers of Hierarchy

A–30

A.8.3. Using Parameterized XML

A–32

A.8.4. Parameterized XML Limitations

A–34

A.8.5. Parameterized Subcircuits

A–34

A.8.5.1. Parameterized Subcircuit Example

A–34

A.8.5.2. Creating Parameterized Subcircuits

A–36

A.8.6. Generating MDIF Files

A–36

A.9. Troubleshooting

A–36

A.9.1. Debugging XML Files

A–36

A.9.2. Validating the XML

A–36

A.9.3. XML Verbose Mode

A–37

A.9.4. Testing the XML Library Using a Visual Basic Script

A–37

B. New Design Considerations

B–1

B.1. Overview of Considerations for a New Design

B–1

B.2. Configuring Schematic and Layout Colors

B–2

B.3. Determining Project Units

B–3

B.4. Using Test Bench to Analyze Designs

B–6

B.5. Multiple Processor Setup

B–8

B.6. Using X-models

B–10

Contents

B.7. Determining your Database Resolution

B–12

B.8. Using Dependent Parameters

B–14

B.9. Configuration for PCB Layout and Manufacturing

B–14

B.9.1. Manufacturing Flow

B–14

B.9.2. Layer Configuration

B–14

B.9.3. Artwork Import

B–15

B.9.4. Design Export

B–15

B.10. Layout Face Inset Options

B–15

B.10.1. Snapping

B–18

B.11. Export Options

B–21

B.12. Specifying GDSII Cell Library Options

B–22

B.13. Performing LVS Analysis

B–23

B.14. Component Libraries

B–24

C. AWRDE Errors and Warnings

C–1

C.1. Extrapolation

C–1

C.2. Can't Find <item> for the Nonlinear Measurement

C–6

C.3. Floating Point Overflow Error in Output Equations

C–8

C.4. Not Translated to SPICE

C–8

C.5. Step Size for Source Stepping has Decreased Below a Minimum Allowed Value

C–8

C.6. Error Evaluating Parameter

C–9

C.6.1. Model Blocks

C–9

C.6.2. SWPVAR Blocks

C–9

C.7. No Sweep Specified for X-axis

C–9

C.8. Rise, Fall, and Width Combination Errors

C–11

C.9. Port Eeff and Gamma Computation Warning for EMSight

C–11

C.10. Design Rule Violation For X-models

C–11

C.11. No Frequency Range Defined

C–12

C.12. Not Passive and Does Not Contain Any Noise Data

C–13

C.13. Problem with File Format

C–13

C.14. X-model Autofill Message (Understanding X-models)

C–14

C.15. Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) Measurement Update

C–14

C.16. MWOfficePS.dll is Too Old or Cannot be Found

C–15

C.17. Repairing the AWRDE Installation

C–16

C.18. Failure Initializing the AWR Scripting IDE Addin

C–16

C.19. Unregistered OLE DLLs

C–16

C.20. Active NPort Found When Computing NDF

C–17

C.21. Area Pins Must be 2x the DBU

C–18

C.22. Using MOPENX Model with Secondary L Parameter Not Set to 0

C–21

C.23. Port_Number: Face(s) Not on a Drawing Layer

C–22

C.24. Port_Number: Detached Face(s) on Drawing Layer Without Connectivity Rules

C–23

C.25. Port_Number: Detached Face(s) on Drawing Layer Drawing_Layer_Name

C–25

C.26. ALERT_RULES_CONV Error for Geometry Simplification Rules

C–26

C.27. Shape Modifier Priority Ordering Conflict Detected

C–32

C.28. AXIEM High Aspect Ratio Facet Detected

C–32

C.29. AXIEM High Aspect Area Facet Detected

C–34

C.30. AXIEM Poor Resolution Facet Detected

C–34

C.31. ACE Simulation when Using Metal Surface Impedances

C–34

C.32. Error Obtaining the Antenna Data

C–36

C.33. Error Reading Image Data

C–37

C.34. Singular Matrix in Sparse Circuit Solver

C–37

C.35. Linear Simulation Error About Y-Matrix

C–37

Contents

C.36. Error Evaluating Parameter VarName

C–38

C.37. Simulating Outside Supported Range of Element

C–38

C.38. Negative Frequency Folding

C–39

C.39. Conflicts in Simulation Order for Extraction

C–39

C.40. Unset Node Data Types

C–39

C.41. Doc is Parameterized and Has No Swept Parameters

C–40

C.42. Found Only Good Conductors on Wave Port Plane

C–40

C.43. Incompatible Data Types

C–43

C.44. Incompatible Auto Data Types

C–44

C.45. Cannot Take Measurements on System Diagrams with PORTDIN Blocks

C–44

C.46. Simulation Deadlock

C–44

C.47. Node Properties Not Propagated

C–45

C.48. Incompatible Center and Sampling Frequencies

C–45

C.49. Disconnected Elements Causing Ill-Conditioned Matrix

C–45

C.50. Missing Element Definition for '<model>'

C–45

D. AWRDE Test Bench Projects

D–1

D.1. Using a Test Bench Project

D–2

D.2. Project Importing

D–2

Index

Index–1

Contents

Chapter 1. Preface

The NI AWR Design Environment TM (NI AWRDE) suite incorporating Microwave Office® Analog Office®, and Visual System Simulator TM software is a powerful fully-integrated design and analysis tool for RF, microwave, millimeterwave, analog, and RFIC design that allows you to incorporate circuit designs into system designs without leaving the AWR Design Environment (AWRDE).

Microwave Office (MWO) and Analog Office (AO) allow you to create complex circuit designs composed of linear, nonlinear, and EM structures, and generate layout representations of these designs. They allow you to perform fast and accurate analysis of your designs using linear, nonlinear harmonic balance, nonlinear Volterra-series, electromagnetic (EM), APLAC®, and HSPICE® simulation engines, and feature real-time tuning and optimizing capabilities.

Visual System Simulator (VSS) is the system level design component of the AWR Design Environment suite. With VSS you can analyze a complete communications system, from data encoding through transmission, reception and data decoding.

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