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February 2011

Robert A. Benfer, Jr.


Department of Anthropology
University of Missouri-Columbia
Columbia, Missouri 65211
Phone: Home (573) 443-2150
E-Mail: BenferR@misssouri.edu
DEGREES:

Citizen, U.S.
Office: (573) 882-4731
FAX: (573) 882=9410

B.A.
University of Texas, Austin 1963
M.A. University of Texas, Austin 1964
Ph.D. University of Texas, Austin 1968

(psychology)
(anthropology)
(anthropology)

AREAS OF SPECIAL INTEREST: Bioarchaeology; quantitative methods, information technology;


Per, China, Mexico.
POSITIONS: University of Missouri-Columbia, Professor Emeritus, 2002 to present; University of
Missouri-Columbia, Professor, 1977 to 2002; Associate Professor, 1971-77; Chair, 1971-75;
Assistant Professor, 1969-71
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Assistant Professor, 1967-69
Member, Board of Directors, Laboratory for Applied Expert Systems Research
Research Associate, Universidad Nacional de la Agraria, Lima, 1976 - present; Visiting Research
Associate, Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal, Lima, 2000 0 present; Affiliated Scholar, Inst.
for Intelligent Machines, Hefei, PRC, 1993 - present.
PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS (selected list):
Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science,
Fellow, American Anthropological Association;
Member, Society for American Archaeology, American Association of Physical Anthropologists,
American Academy of Forensic Sciences, Society for American
Archaeology, American
Ethnological Society, Society for Psychological Anthropology
HONORS: Latin: Honoris Causa, University of Federico Villarreal, Lima, Sigma Xi; Phi Kappa Phi;
Other: Wakonse Teaching Fellow, Missouri Institute of Instructional Technology Fellow; Sigma Xi
Excellence in Graduate Mentoring award.
AWARDS: Poem (Paloma Tomb) selected as one of nine poems for publication in the competition to
celebrate the 75th anniversary of Science News Parchment award for the work of my team in
identifying the human remains of Francisco Pizarro; El Venerable Cabildo de La Basilica Metropolitina
de la Ciudad de los Reyes, Lima, Per ; awards in a two professionally juried photographic exposition-archaeological subjects (Best in Show 1985; 2nd and 3rd Places in 1986).
EDITORIAL BOARD:
Boletn Internacional de Ciencia Bsica ENLACES, 2001 2003.

PROFESSIONAL OFFICE, PANEL, and ELECTED OFFICE:


1999-2001 Member-at-Large from Biological Anthropology Section, the American Anthropological
Association
1998 and 1999 NSF, POWR Panel Member,
1989-1991 Member, Executive Board of the Society for Scientific Anthropology
1998-1991 Elected Member, University of Missouri-Columbia Faculty Council.
1980 Chair, NSF Graduate Fellowship Committee
1979 Member, NSF Graduate Fellowship Committee
1972-1975 Member, Executive Board, Central States Anthropological Society
RECENT WORKSHOPS
2004 Multivariate statistics (Spanish), Department of Anthropology, Universidad Autonomo de
Yucatn, Merida, one week workshop.
2003 Bioarchaeology workshop (Spanish), Department of Anthropology, Federico Villarreal
University, Lima, Per, four day workshop.
2002 Capturing and Representing Expert Knowledge in Skeletal Analysis, with Louanna Furbee,
Max Plank Paleodemography Workshop (English), Rostock, Germany.
2002 Combining Behavioral and Cognitive Approaches in Ethnoscientific Research, three day
workshop presented to the Fourth Brazilian Meeting of Ethnoecology and Ethnobiology
(Spanish), with Louanna Furbee, Recife, Brasil.
RESEARCH SUPPORT:
2010 Mapping the first Effigy Mounds of Per, Brennan Foundation, $5,000.
2008 Dating Late Preceramic Constructions Sequences: Buena Vista, Chilln Valley, Per, Brennan
Foundation, $4,300.
2006 The Earliest Astronomical Alignments and Sculptures in the New World, Buena Vista, Chilln
Valley, Per, $5,000, Brennan Foundation.
2005 Conservation of the Earliest Sculptures in the New World, $15,000, National Geographic Society.
2005 Habitual Subsistence Practices , NSF Doctoral Dissertation Research, $9,791, Robert A. Benfer and
Matthew Rhode.
2002 The Rise of Civilization in Peru, $36,000, MU Research Board.
2000 Technical Analyses of Materials Excavated at he Site of Antibl, Per, $1000, MU Research Board.
1999 The Rise and Sudden Fall of Early Andean Civilizations, Brennan Foundation, $5,000.
1998 The Neolithic of Northeastern China: Skeletal Evidence for the Early Adoption of Agriculture, MU
Research Board, $29,820.
1998 Neolithic of Northeast China Project: Preliminary study of materials from the Xian region, University
of Missouri Research Council award, $ 4,060.
1997 Laboratory preparation of samples, for Ph.D. dissertation by Julie Farnum, Ekaterina Pechenkina and
myself, $2,500, Sican Archaeological Project, Fereafe, Peru,.
1997 Oneota Diet in Missouri: the Utz Site, State of Missouri Division of Natural Resources, with
Ekaterina Pechenkina, $2,000,.
1996-97 PalomaWorld Virtual Reality, $58,080, MUAdvanced Technology Center
(http://coas.missouri.edu/paloma/).
1996 Field work in cooperation with SIU on the study of skeletal remains from Moche sites in northern Per,
Batan Grande, Peru, Sipan Archaeological ProjectPreliminary, $1,500.

1996-97 An Assessment of Mobility in Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic European Humans, NSF
Doctoral Dissertation Research, $7,000, Robert A. Benfer, Jr., and Brigitte M. Holt 1/96-1/97.
1995-96 An Assessment of Mobility in Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic European Humans: Evidence
from Postcranial Cross-sectional Geometric Analysis, $5,000, Leakey Foundation Robert A. Benfer,
Jr., and Brigitte M. Holt 4/95-5/96.
1996 MU Computer Spectrum: Technology Teaching Grant for the Department of Anthropology, f96,w96,
$ 5,864, Robert A. Benfer, Jr..
1996 MU General Education Program: Information Technology for the Social Sciences (with Gail S.
Ludwig and Edward Brent), $12,000.
1995 Academica Sinica, P.R. China. International Travel support to attend and co-chair a session PACES95,
Huangshan, P.R. China, May 1995, invited paper. $1000.
1994 Collaborative Basic Research Towards the Development and Maturation of Phytolith Analysis in
Archaeology (Deborah Pearsall, Robert A. Benfer, Jr., and Dolores R. Piperno), NSF (Archaeometry)
Supplemental grant, $8,125.
1994-95 MU Research Leave, Disease and the Collapse of Early Civilization in Per , Research Council Grant
funded 7 person months of research by myself and my graduate student, Joseph Vradenburg.
1992 Reconnaissance in Huangshan Province, China, feasibility study for future work in application of
expert systems to improving agriculture, China Center for Economic Development and The Institute
of Intelligent Machines, Academica Sinica $3200,.
1991 Expert System Simulation of Nursing Home Care, NIH Postdoctoral Fellowship (Robert A. Benfer
and Eileen M. Jackson), $21,600.
1991-1992 Dietary Evidence from Dental Phytoliths, NSF $4,300.
1991-1992 Maritime Foundations of Sedentism, NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates, (Robert
A. Benfer and Ellen O'Neil), $4,000.
1991-92 Source Analysis and Hydration Dating of Post-Formative Period Obsidian Artifacts from the
Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico, NSF Doctoral Dissertation Improvement (Robert A. Benfer and Michael J.
Elam), $8,480.
1990-1992 NSF Collaborative Basic Research Towards the Development and Maturation of Phytolith
Analysis in Archaeology (Sr. Faculty Associate, Deborah Pearsall, PI), $25,905.
1990-1991 Adaptation to Sedentism on the Western Flanks of the Central Andes, NSF, $29,396.
1990-1991 Adaptation to Sedentism in the Andes, MU Research Council, $2,290.
1990-1991 Integrated Pest Management: An Expert System, MU School of Agriculture, MU, co-project
director with Louanna Furbee, $16,000.
1989 MUcracker: An Expert System for Investigative Reporters New Directions for the News
Foundation, CPD with Edward Brent and Louanna Furbee, $4,000; $50,000 awarded for development of
the program that I wrote.
1989-1990 Collaborative Basic Research Towards the Development and Maturation of Phytolith Analysis in
Archaeology,: Development of Simulations and Expert Systems NSF (Senior Research Associate, D.
Pearsall PI), $10,000.
1988-1989 Improvement of Forensic Anthropology Methods by Construction of Knowledge-Based
Systems, Weldon Springs Award, PI, with Louanna Furbee and Edward Brent, CPIs $12,900.
1987-1989 Cognitive and Behavioral Studies of Soil Management in the Colca Valley, Per, Senior
Research Associate, project methodologist; D. Guillet and Louanna Furbee, PIs, ,$29,850.
1987-1990 Health-Care Seeking Experience Among Blacks at Risk for CHD, NIH (several awards, D. A.
Frate, PD), I was a statistical and research design consultant).
1987 Excavations at Tres Ventanas Cave, Per,MU Research Council, $5900.

1986-88 Prospective Analysis of a Model of Writing and Spelling NIMH NS24765, David P. Roeltgen, PI
(research design consultant).
1985-1986 Indicios Oseos Sobre la Vida de Don Francisco Pizarro [Skeletal indicators of the life of
Francisco Pizarro, Wentworth Foundation, (Lima, Per , and Truijillo, Spain) $3,000
1985 MU Unrestricted Development Funds, $7,200 (Lima, Per ).
l982-83 Paloma Project MU Research Leave, (excavations, lab analysis, Lima) , $32,000
1981-1982 Paloma, Peru, Human/Environment Project--Field and Lab Work NSF Grant, $110,000.
1977-1979 Paloma, Peru, Human/Environment Project--Field Work, NSF Grant, $89,000.
1976-1978 Paloma, Peru, Human/Environment Project--Field Work,, $59,000.
1976-1977 Tula, Mexico, Archaeological Project Analyses, NSF (CPI with Richard A. Diehl), $10,000.
1972-1974 Tula, Mexico, Archaeological Project Field Work, NSF (CPI with Richard A. Diehl), two awards
for a total of $120,000.
RECENT FIELD SCHOOLS:
July 2007 University of Missouri-Columbia Archaeoastronomy Field School ,Buena Vista, Per
June 2007 University of Missouri-Columbia Bioarchaeology Field School (National Archaeology,
Anthropology and History Museum of Per)
June-July 2005 University of Missouri-Columbia Archaeology Field School, Buena Vista, Per.
June-July 2005 University of Illinois-Chicago and Grand Valley University, Radiological and Archaeological
field school.
June-July 2004 University of Missouri-Columbia Archaeology Field School, Buena Vista, Per.
FIELD WORK:
January 2011 Study of Animal Effigy Mounds and their astronomical alignments in the Casma and
Chilln Valleys.
December 2010 Study of astronomical alignments of a quartz mine, Sechn Alta, Casma Valley, Per
September-October 2009 Study of astronomical alignments of condor sculpture at Buena Vista,
Chilln Valley Per.
July-August; December 2008 Archaeoastronomy at Buena Vista site, Chilln Valley, Per
December 2008 Calendric Light Systems in San Pedro church, Lima, Per
February-June 2009 Calendric Alignments in Extant and Abandoned Colonial churches in Chiapas,
Mexico.
July-August 2007 Excavations at Buena Vista site, Chilln Valley, Per
May-June 2005 Excavations of Buena Vista site, Chilln Valley, Per
June 2004 Excavations of Buena Vista site, Chilln Valley, Per
June 2003 Excavations of Buena Vista site, Chilln Valley, Per
July 2003 Test excavations at Quipa site, Chilca Valley, Per
July 2002 Test excavations at Quipa site, Chilca Valley, Per.
June-July 2002 Test excavations of Buena Vista site, Chilln Valley, Per
June, 2001 Mapping of Buena Vista , Chilln Valley; reconnaissance of Quipa site, Chilca Valley, Per.
October, 2000 Test Excavations at Paje Site, Boone County, Missouri.
July-August, 1999 Excavations at Antibal, 3,600 m in the Chilca Valley, Per.
May-June, 1999 Northern Chinese Neolithic Project, Xian, China.
May-June, 1998 Amazonian Origin of a Disease which Led to the Collapse of the Initial Period, Lima
and also Ica, Per , with Michael Dietz.
July-August 1998 Neolithic of Northeast China Project, study in Xian and Beijing.

May-July, 1997 Sican Project continued in Fereafe, Per ; Asia, Huayamarca, Villa Salvador, and
Huaca Pucllana skeletal studies, Lima, Per with Ekaterina Petchenkina.
June-July 1996 Sic n Sacrifices: Base Data on Health, Batan Grande, Per and PalomaWorld,
Chilca Valley, Per , with Julie Farnum
Jan.-Feb. 1995, Disease and the collapse of initial civilization in coastal Per , Lima, Per, with Joseph
Vradenburg.
July 1994, Reconnaissance of upper Chilca Valley sites (3800 m) for future excavation, Per .
July-August 1992, Huangshan, China Expert systems agricultural applications in China.
June-July 1992, Laboratory Work in Lima; reconnaissance for dental studies in Ilo, Per
June-July 1990, Salvage Excavations at the Paloma Site, Chilca Valley, Per , with Eric White.
August 1990, Lari, Per , collection of ethnographic materials for the expert systems of field
management project, L. Furbee, director.
June, l987, Tres Ventanas Cave, Per ; excavation to test highland origin of coastal cultigens
July, l987, Lari, Per ; development of expert systems of field management, David Guillet, director,
Louanna Furbee, Co-Director.
June, July, l986, Analysis of Yale Project skeletons, Card l, Per , in Lima.
May-July, 1984-85, Directed excavations at three Cotton Pre-ceramic sites
July 1984 and August 1985, Peru Pizarro Project, Lima, Per , 1984;
May, 1985, Pizarro Project, Truijillo, Spain.
June, 1983, Chiapas, Mexico, Tojolabal Disease and Demography Project, with Louanna Furbee.
June-December, 1982, fieldwork, Paloma Project, Peru; laboratory work in Lima; probability sample
excavations ; reconnaissance in sout Peruvian highlands.
June-August, 1981, Laboratory work, Lima, Peru with Sloan Williams, Sharon Brock, John W. Greer, and
other students, Paloma Project.
December, 1980-January, 1981, laboratory work, Lima, Paloma Project.
March-August, 1979, directed excavations, Paloma, Peru, Paloma Project.
August, 1978, Proton magnatometer survey of Congrejito Site, Ecuador, with Jorge Marcos.
June-July, 1978, survey, Chilca Valley, Peru, Paloma Project.
December, 1978-January, 1979, laboratory work, Lima, Paloma Project.
June-July 1977 Proton Magnatometer survey, Paloma Project with Alice N. Benfer.
June-December, 1976, excavations at Paloma, Peru, Paloma Project.
Three months lab work, Tula, Mexico, 1973-1976, Tula Archaeological Project.
July, 1972, study of Coastal dentitions, Lima, Peru, with Eugenie Scott.
May-August, 197l, and May-August, 1972, excavations, Tula, Mexico, Tula Archaeological Project.
August, 1970, excavations at Tula, Mexico, Tula Archaeological Project.
June-July, 1970, laboratory study of Coastal human remains, Lima, Peru, with John W. Page.
LABORATORY STUDIES NOT ARCHAEOLOGICAL
June-August 1965, Serial Freezing Microtome Analysis of Bone Histology, University of WisconsinMilaukee
June-August, 1964, African Monkey Septal Perforations, Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Tulane Medical
School.
MONOGRAPHS
1991 Expert Systems (senior author with Edward Brent, and Louanna Furbee), Sage Press, Newbury Park,
CA.
1965 Fossil Man: A Study Guide, Extension Division, University of Texas, Austin.

INFORMES
1976, 1979, 1981, 1990 Informe de las labores realizadas en el Pueblo 613 de la Paloma, Valle de Chilca,
2002-2003, 2005, 2007, 2010 Various on the site of Buena Vista, Instituto Nacional de Cultura, Lima,
Available at: Per. http://rcp.missouri.edu/bobbenfer/index.html

ARTICLES AND CHAPTERS (includes selected refereed abstracts):


In press Four-Thousand Years of the Myth of the Fox in South American Cosmology (senior author with
Louanna Furbee and Hugo Ludea R., Journal of Cosmology (to appear spring, 2011).
In press A Four Thousand Year Old Astronomical Instrument from Per (senior author with Larry R. Adkins),
invited paper for Journal of Cosmology (to appaer spring, 2011).
In press 4000 aos del mito de el zorro en la cosmologa de Sudamrica, In Deidades, Paisaje y astronoma en
la Cosmovisin Andina y Mesoamericana (senior author with Louanna Furbee and Hugo Ludea), Juan
Pablo Villanueva (Editor) Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (Per)-Organizacin Cultural
Pueblos de Amrica (Mxico)-Universidad de Yamagata (Japn).
In press Monumental Architecture Arising from an Early Astronomical/Religious Complex in Per, 2,200
1,750, In The Origins of New World Monumentality, R.M. Rosenswig and R. L. Burger, editors,
Gainesville, University of Florida Press.
In press Quartz Mines with Early Astronomical Orientations in the Valleys of Casma and Chilln, Per, (senior
author with Larry R. Adkins) Proceedings IAU Symposium Archaeoastronomy of the Casma Valley, Per,
Oxford, England..
In press Stellar Alignments for Early Sites in the Casma Valley of Per, (junior author with Larry Adkins) in )
Proceedings IAU Symposium Archaeoastronomy of the Casma Valley, Per, Oxford, UK.
2010 La Tradicin Religioso-Astronmica en Buena Vista (senior author with Bernardino Ojeda, Neil A.
Duncan, Larry R. Adkins, Hugo Ludea, Miriam Vallejos, Vctor Rojas, Andrs Ocas, Omar Ventocilla y
Gloria Villarreal). Boletn de Arqueologa PUCP l1:53-102.
2009 Gourd and Squash Artifacts Yield Starch Grains of Feasting Foods from Preceramic Peru (junior author
with Neil A. Duncan and Deborah Pearsall), Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
196:13202-13206.
2009 Investigaciones Arqueolgicals en el Sitio de La Quipa, Chilca (second author with Neil Duncan, Hugo
Ludea and Miriam Vallejos), In Arqueologa de la Costa Centro sur Peruana, Omar Pinedo and Henry
Tantalen, eds, pp. 63-74, Lima: Avqui Ediciones.

2009 Lunar Standstill Markers at Preceramic Temples at the Buena Vista Site in Peru (junior author with Larry
R. Adkins) Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series 409:267-278.
2009 Adaptaciones de la dieta human a nuevos problemas y oportunidades en la costa central del Per (1,8008000 a.C., (junior author with Sara Meadors) in Richard Burger y Kryzstof Makowski, eds, Arqueologa
del Periodo Formativo en la cuenca baja de Lurn: El Valle de Pachacamac (Pontifica Universidad
Catlica del Per, Lima), pp. 117-158.
2008 The Americas Oldest Observatory, Astronomy Magazine (senior author with Larry R. Adkins), 35:40-43.
2007 Early Villages in south America, Encyclopedia of Archaeology, Deborah M. Pearsall, Academic Press, pp.
269-284.
2007 Diet and health in the Neolithic Shaanxi of Northern China (second author with EA Pechenkina and Zhijun
Wu.), In Ancient Health, ed. by M. Cohen and C. Kramer, pp. 255-272. Gainesville, University of Florida
Press.
2007 Skeletal biology of the Central Peruvian Coast: consequences of changing population density and
progressive dependence on maize agriculture (third author with EA Pechenkina, JA Vradenburg, and JF
Farnum), In Ancient Health, ed. by M. Cohen and C. Kramer, pp. 92-114, Gainesville, University of
Florida Press.
2005 Frederic-Andre Engel (1908-2002), Andean Past 7: 1-14.
2005 Reconstructing Northern Chinese Neolithic Subsistence Practices by Isotopic Analysis (junior author
with EA Pechinkina, SHAmbrose, and Ma Xialin), Journal of Archaeological Science 32:1176-1189.
2003 Authors Response to Konigsberg et al. Commentary (second author with DG McBride), Journal of
Forensic Sciences 47:426-427.
2003 Ethics of Using Race, Ethnicity, and other Phenotypic Classifications in Biomedical Research,
Maryland Essays in Biodiversity 1:51:55 (http://www.bsos.umd.edu/anth/mehb/).
2002 The role of occlusal stress and gingival infection in the formation of exostosis on mandible and maxilla
from Neolithic China (second author with Ekaterina Alexandrovna Pechenkina), Homo, 53:112-150.
2002 Diet and Health Changes with the Intensification of Millet Agriculture at the End of the Chinese
Neolithic (second author with Ekaterina A. Pechenkina and Wang Zhijun), American Journal of
Physical Anthropology 117:15-36.
2001 Bootstrap Methods for Sex Determination from the Os coxae using the ID3 Algorithm (last author
with McBride DG, Dietz MJ, Vennemeyer MT, Meadors SA; Furbee NL), Journal of Forensic Sciences
46:427-431.

2001 Multivariate Morphometry: Advantages of Direct Analysis of 3-Dimensional Coordinates of the


Human Skull Referred to Functionally Important Planes (junior author with D. G. McBride), American
Journal of Physical Anthropology, Supplement 30:223-224.
2001 Estimating Missing Data: an Iterative Regression Approach (junior author with Brigitte Holt) Journal
of Human Evolution, 39: 289-296
2000 Pechenkina KA, Benfer RA Jr., Vershoubskaya GG, and Kozlov AI Genetic and Environmental Influence
on the Asymmetry of Dermatoglphyic Traits, Amer. J. of Phys. Anthrop. 111:531-543.
1999 Proyecto de Excavaciones en Paloma: El Valle de Chilca, Per, El Perido Arcaico en el Per. Hacia
una definicin de los orgenes, Boletin de Arqueologia PUCP 3:213-237. Lima, Per.
1999 Phytolith Morphology (third author with DR Piperno, DM Pearsall, L Kealhofer, Zhijun Zhao, and Q.
Jiang), Science (Letter) 283:1265-1266.
1999 Keeping alive children who are failing to thrive in an Archaic fishing village in Coastal Per, Amer. J. of
Phys. Anthrop. Supplement 2 8:90-91.
2000 Multivariate morphometry: advantages of direct analysis of 3-dimensional coordinates of the human skull
referred to functionally important planes (jr. author with D. G. McBride), Amer. J. of Phys. Anthrop.
Supplement 30:223-234.
1999 Heritability of fluctuating asymmetry of dermatoglyphics, second author with Ekatering Pechenkina,
CG, Vershoubaska, AI Kozlov), Amer. J. of Phys. Anthrop. 111:531-544.
1999 The Identification of the Remains of Don Francisco Pizzaro (senior author with Hugo Lude a R.)
Forensic Osteological Analysis: A Book of Case Studies, ed by Scott I. Fairgrieve, Charles C Thomas,
pp. 107-128.
1998 Zhao, Zhijun, Deborah M. Pearsall, Robert A. Benfer, Jr., and Dolores R. Piperno Distinguishing Rice
(Orza sativa Poaceae) from Wild Orza Species Through Phytolith Analysis, II: Finalized Method.
Economic Botany 52:134-145.
1997 Evaluating Archaeological Hypotheses of Population Growth and Decline on the Central Coast of
Per , (second author with Joseph A. Vradenburg and Lisa Sattenspiel), In Integrating Archaeological
Demography: Multidisciplinary Approaches to Prehistoric Population, ed. by Richard R. Paine,
Occasional Paper No. 24, Center for Archaeological Investigations, Southern Illinois University at
Carbondale, Carbondale, IL, pp. 150-174.
1997 Paloma Tomb (poem) Special 75th anniversary issue of Science News 151:S9.
1997 Where stature estimated from regression of limb bone length is inappropriate. Amer. J. of Phys.
Anthrop. Supplement 24:74.

1997 PalomaWorld, http://www.atc.missouri.edu/paloma/, the first archaeological digital library


1996 The Emergence of color Cognition from Color Perception (fourth author with N. Louanna Furbee,
Kelly Maynard, J. Jerome Smith, Sarah Quick, and Larry Ross) Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 6:118.
1996 Expert Systems and the Representation of Knowledge (senior author with Louanna Furbee and
Edward E. Brent Jr.) American Ethnologist 23:416-420.
1996 Science and Antiscience, Anthropology Newsletter April:75-76.
1996 Can Indigenous Knowledge be Brokered without Scientific Understanding of the Community
Structure and Distribution of that Knowledge? (senior author with Louanna Furbee), Indigenous
Knowledge and Development Monitor 4:29-30.
1995 Multiple Linear Discriminant Function, Multidimensional Scaling, and Individual Pathways for
Developing Knowledge Based Systems, pp. 464-466 in Proceedings of PACES 95, Ed. by Fan-Lun
Xiong, Jae Kyu Lee, and Riichiro Mizoguchi, Publishing House of Electronics Industry, Beijing, China.
1995 Age of Pregnancies and Age of Weaning from Prehistoric Bone: Are Sr and Zn Indicators? American
Journal of Physical Anthropology, Supplement 20, 89-90.
1995 Identifying Rice (Orza sativa), Poaceae, thorough Phytolith Analysis (junior author with Deborah M.
Pearsall, Dolores R. Piperno, Elizabeth H. Dinan, Marcelle Umlauf, and Zhijun Zhao), The Journal of
Economic Botany 19:185-196.
1995 A Methodology for Combining Cognitive and Behavioral Research: The Lari Soils Project in Peru,
(junior author with David Guillet, Louanna Furbee, and Jon Sandor) , pp. 71-81 . In Indigenous
Knowledge Systems: The Cultural Dimension of Development, ed. by M. Warren, J. Slikkerveer, and D.
Brokensha, Kegan Paul, International Ltd. London.
1994 Program Congruence, Fortran Program, in Anthropac 4.7X, Professional Edition, Irvine, Analytic
Technologies. (Abstract). Note: This algorithm was earlier modified to become part of Gowerplot (3),
by S. E. Hartman.
1994 A Beginning Guide to Expert Systems: II. Implicit Knowledge (junior author with Louanna Furbee),
CAM 6:3-4.
1993 A Beginning Guide to Expert Systems: I. Knowledge Trees (senior author with Louanna Furbee),
CAM 5:10-12.
1993 The Effects of Diagenesis on the Paloma Skeletal Material (junior author with Jeremy Edward). In
Sanford, Mary K. (ed.); Investigations of Ancient Human Tissue: Chemical Analyses in Anthropology.
Philadelphia: Gordon and Breach, pp. 183-268.

1992 Representing Partly Shared Knowledge in Expert Systems of Terrace Agricultural Systems (senior
author with Louanna Furbee), Proceedings of IFAC Workshop on Expert Systems in Agriculture, pp.
35-41, International Academia Publisher, Huangshan, China.
1992 The Value of Expert Systems in Improving Agricultural Production in China, the Institute of
Intelligent Machines, Academica Sinica, Heifei, P.R. China. REPORT.
1991 Leaf Music (poem) Anthropology and Humanism 16:107.
1991 The Principal Axis Method for Measuring Rate and Amount of Dental Attrition: Estimating Juvenile or
Adult Tooth Wear from Unaged Adult Teeth (senior author with Daniel S. Edwards), Dental
Anthropology, ed. by M. Kelly and Clark Larson, Riss, Ch. 18, pp. 325-340.
1991 Cognitive Factors Influencing Women to Seek Care during Pregnancy (third author with Fisher, Mary
Jo, Bernard Ewigman, James Campbell, Louanna Furbee, and Steven Zweig), Family Medicine 23:443426 (with Editorial).
1990 Effects of Ashing on the Composition of Human and Animal Bone (second author with Jeremy
Edward and J. S. Morris) In Biological Trace Element Research 25:219-231.
1990 The Preceramic Period Site of Paloma, Peru: Bioindications of Improving Adaptation to Sedentism,
Latin American Antiquity, 1:284-318.
1990 Knowledge Acquisition--Lessons from Anthropology, AI Applications in Natural Resource
Management 4:19-26 (senior author with L. Furbee; reprint of Benfer and Furbee 1989).
1990 Informe Preliminar, Excavaciones en la Cueva de Tres Ventanas, 8 page report presented to the
Nacional Institute of Culture, Lima, Peru. REPORT.
1989 Procrustes Analysis of Individual Configurations: Pattern and Axes Similarities (sr. author with
Louanna Furbee), Journal of Quantitative Anthropology 1:65-80.
1989 Individual Differences in Rule-Based Systems of Knowledge with Behavioral Implications,
Anthropological Quarterly 61:69-81.
1989 Knowledge Acquisition in the Peruvian Andes (sr. author with Louanna Furbee), AI-Expert 4:22 -28.
1989 The Death and Mortal Remains of Francisco Pizarro (fourth author with William R. Maples, Betty Pat
Gatliff, Hugo Lude a, and William Goza), J. of Forensic Sciences 34:1021-1036.
1989 Field Methods (junior author with Daniel M. Healan), in Daniel M. Healan, ed., The Tula
Archaeological Project, Iowa City, University of Iowa Press, pp. 49-53.
1988 Tojolabal Maya Population Response to Stress (junior author with Louanna Furbee, John S. Thomas,
and Harry Keith Lynch), in M. Jill Brody and John S. Thomas, eds., Tojolabal Maya Ethnographic and
Linguistic Approaches, Geoscience and Man, Vol. 26, pp. 17-28.

10

1988 Vida y Muerte de Don Francisco Pizarro: Un Caso de Ciencias Aplicada a la Investigacion de un
Personaje Historico del Siglo XVI. (second??? author with William Goza and Hugo Lude R.),
Proceedings of the XVII Coloquios Historicos de Extremadura, Truijillo, Spain.
1988 Recent Work Among the Tojolabal, in M. Jill Brody and John S. Thomas, eds., Tojolabal Maya
Ethnographic and Linguistic Approaches, Geoscience and Man, Vol. 26, pp. 71-74.
1988 Preceramic to Early Formative Subsistence on the Central Coast (second author with Glendon H. Weir
and John G. Jones), in Elizabeth S. Wing and Jane C. Wheeler, eds, Economic Prehistory of the Central
Andes, BAR Internat.Series 427, Centremead, Osney Mead, Oxford, England, pp. 56-94.
1987 Early Water Management Strategies on the Coast of Peru (senior author with Bernardino Ojeda and
Glendon H. Weir), in David Browman, ed., Risk Management and Arid Land Use Strategies in the
Andes, Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, pp. 195-206.
1986 Holocene Coastal Adaptations: Changing Demography and Health at the Fog Oasis of Paloma, Peru,
In Ramiro Matos Mendieta, S. A. Turpin, and H. H. Eling, eds., Andean Archaeology, UCLA
Monographs in Anthropology, pp. 45-64.
1986 Serial and Whole Hair Trace Element Analysis of Ancient Peruvian Hair, Amer. J. of Physical
Anthrop. (abstract), 64:147.
1985 Informe del Proyecto Sistemas de Subsistencia y Dieta en la Fundacion de Complejos Preagrcolas
al Formativo (junior author with Glendon H. Weir), 79 Page Report to the National Institute of Culture,
Lima, Peru.
1984 Challenges and Rewards of Sedentism: The Preceramic Village of Paloma, Peru. In Mark Nathan
Cohen and George J. Armelagos eds, Paleopathology at the Origins of Agriculture, Academic Press,
pp. 531-558, 1984.
1984 Program Congruence Amer. Journal of Physical Anthropology (abstract) 63:137.
1984 A New 3-D Archaeology Program, CAAN Newsletter 1:9.
1983 Cognitive and Geographic Maps: Study of Individual Variation among Tojolabal Mayans (junior
author with Louanna Furbee), Amer. Anthropologist 85:305-334.
1982 Adaptations to Sedentism and Food Production: The Paloma Project, Part II, Paleopathology
Newsletter 37:6-8
1982 El Proyecto Paloma de la Universidad de Missouri y el Centro de Investigaciones de Zonas Aridas,
Zonas Aridas 2:33-73, Lima Peru.
1981 Automatic Classification of Inspectional Categories: Multivariate Theories of Archaeological Data
(senior author with Alice N. Benfer), American Antiquity 46:381-396.

11

1981 Adaptations to Sedentism and Food Production: The Paloma Project, Part I, Paleopathology
Newsletter 36:11-13.
1981 The Mason Ranch Burial Cave, Uvalde County, Texas (junior author with Alice N. Benfer), La Tierra
8:16-27.
1980 Los Habitantes Precolombinos de La Paloma (senior author with Sarah Gehlert), Ramiro Matos M.,
ed, In El Hombre y La Cultural Andina, Lima, Peru, pp. 792-799.
1979 Some Corrections of Davis' Review of Mueller, Plains Anthropologist 14:71-73.
1978 Mineral Analysis of Ancient Peruvian Hair (senior author with John T. Typpo, Vickie B. Graf, and
Edward E. Pickett), Amer. J. of Physical Anthrop. 48:277-282.
1978 Restos Oseos de Paloma, pp. 26-43 in Informe de las labores realizadas en el Pueblo 613 de la
Paloma, Valle de Chilca, Robert A. Benfer, ed., Lima, Peru.
1978 La importancia de la Paloma para la pre-historia Peruana, (junior author with Alice N. Benfer), pp. 2126, in Informe de las labores realizadas en el Pueblo 613 de la Paloma, Valle de Chilca, Robert A.
Benfer, ed., Lima, Peru.
1978 La temporada de 1976 del proyecto en la Paloma: Guia para los procedimientos a seguirse en el campo
(senior author with John W. Greer), pp. 42-66 in Informe de las labores realizadas en el Pueblo 613 de
la Paloma, Valle de Chilca, 166 page report for the Nacional Institute of Culture, Lima, Peru.
1976 The Shape of our Ancestors: A Nonanecdotal Approach, review article in Reviews in Anthropology
2:48-54.
1976 Austin Phase Burials at the Pat Parker Site, Travis County, Texas (junior author with John W. Greer),
Bulletin of the Texas Archaeological Society 46:189-216.
1976 Comment on a Test of a Migration Hypothesis (junior author with Susan Vehik), Current
Anthropology 17:208-209.
1976 Morphometric Analysis of Cartesian Coordinates of the Human Skull, Amer. J. of Physical Anthrop.
42:371-382.
1975 Classification and Sampling, In Sampling in Archaeology, James W. Mueller, ed., University of
Arizona Press, pp. 227-250.
1975 Tollan: The Toltec Capital (jr. author with R Diehl), Archaeology 28:112-124.
1974 Methodology and Field Techniques (jr. author with Richard Diehl and Dan M. Healan), In Studies of
Ancient Tollan, as above Richard A. Diehl, ed., Monograph 1, Museum of Anthropology, University of
Missouri-Columbia

12

1974 Human Remains from Tula, In Studies of Ancient Tollan, Richard A. Diehl, ed., Monograph 1,
Museum of Anthropology, University of Missouri-Columbia, pp. 112-124.
1972 Factor Analysis as Numerical Induction: How to Judge a Book by its Cover, American
Anthropologist. 74:530-554.
1972 More on Statistical Applications, Newsletter of Computer Archaeology 7:3, 1972.
1968 The Desirability of Small Samples for Anthropological Inference American Anthropologist 70:950951.
1968 The Occurrence of the Septal Perforation of the Humerus in Three Nonhuman Primate Species (senior
author with Neil C. Tappen), Amer. J. of Physical Anthrop. 29:19-28.
1968 Analysis of Human Skeletal Remains from the Coontail Spin Rockshelter (senior author with T. W.
McKern), Bulletin of the Texas Archaeological Society 38:66-75.
1968 Associations among Cranial Traits, Amer. J. of Physical Anthrop. 32:463-464.
1967 A Design for the Study of Archaeological Characteristics American Anthropologist 69:719-730.
1966 The Perforation of the Coracoid-Olecranon Fossae in the Humerus in Man (senior author with T. W.
McKern), Amer. J. of Physical Anthrop. 24:247-252.
1965 An Austin Focus Burial (senior author with Alice N. Benfer), Texas Eng. and Science Mag.1:30-31.
1964 Langtry Creek Burial Cave (jr. author with John W. Greer) Bull. of the Texas Arch. Soc. 33:229-287.
INVITED PRESENTATIONS or ORGANIZER (* = international) since 1982:
*2011a Quartz Mines with Early Astronomical Orientations in the Valleys of Casma and Chilln, Per
(senior author with Larry R. Adkins) Archaeoastroomy of the Casma Valley, Peru, organizer, 9th
Oxford Symposium of Archaeoatronomy, 2011 IAU, Lima, Per.
*2011b Stellar Alignments for Early Sites in the Casma Valley of Per (junior author with Larry R.
Adkins), Archaeoastroomy of the Casma Valley, Peru, organizer, 9th Oxford Symposium of
Archaeoatronomy, 2011 IAU, Lima, Per.
2010a Lunar Standstill Phenomena at the Preceramic Buena Vista Site in Per (junior author with Larry R.
Adkins), presented to my Symposium, Archaeoastronomy in the Americas, Society for American
Archaeology Meetings, Saint Louis.
2010b New Solar Alignments from Buena Vista, Peru (senior author with Larry R. Adkins). presented to my
Symposium, Archaeoastronomy in the Americas, Society for American Archaeology Meetings, Saint
Louis.
2010c New World Colonial Churches that Function as Astronomical Instruments. presented to invited
poster session, Circulation and Space: From Households to Landscapes in Latin America and the
Caribbean, American Anthropological Association Meetings, New Orleans.
*2009 Las Alineaciones Astronmicas y Orientacines Astronmicas en el Preceramico y en Periods
Tardios de el Per (senior author with Larry Adkins), XVI Congreso Peruano del Hombre y la Cultura
Andina y Amaznica, La Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima.

13

*2008 Los alineamientos astronomicos, Simposio de Archaeometrie, Universidad Nacional San Marcos,
Lima, Per.
2008 Temples with multiple alignments at Buena Vista, Per, 2000 BC. (senior author with Larry R.
Adkins), paper presented to Cosmology Across Cultures, European Society for Astronomy in Culture,
Grenada, Spain.
2008 Lunar standstill markers at Preceramic temples at the Buena Vista Site in Per, (junior author with
Larry R. Adkins), paper presented to Cosmology Across Cultures, European Society for Astronomy in
Culture, Grenada, Spain.
2007 Preceramic astronomical instruments: The solstice light chambers from Buena Vista, Chilln Valley,
Per, symposium of the Society for American Archaeology, Austin.
2007 Bioarchaeologa: Estudios de la salud/dieta por familes a dentro de estudios de indivuos hast
poblaciones (senior author with Ekaterina Pechenkina), Simposio Archaeoametre y Biarchaeologa,
Museo de la Nacin, Lima, Per.
2006 Were constellations used to orient early Peruvian munumental architecture, in symposium Monumental
Architecture in prehispanic America, Richard Burger and Robert Rosenthal, organizers, Society for
American Archaeology, San Juan, Puerto Rico.
2006 CIZA work in the Terminal Preceramic of Per (junior author, presenter, with Bernardino Ojeda), in
Symposium, The Birth of Civilization in the Terminal Preceramic of Per, Robert A. Benfer and Hugo
Ludea, organizers, Society for American Archaeology, San Juan, Puerto Rico
* 2006 Valle de Chilln: El nexo de civilizaciones andinas centrales tempranas (senior author with H., Ojeda E.
B), Simposio del Archaico Tardio, Huacho, Per.
2005 Proyecto Buena Vista,2003-2205: El templo calendario mas antiguo del mundo y las primeros y los
primeros esculturos, Colegio del Arquelogos, Lima.
2004 Uncovering Social Organization in the Andes by Bioarchaeology (first discussant), Society for
American Archaeology, Montreal.
* 2002 Formal Methods in Ethnopedology (junior author with Louanna Furbee), Fourth Brazilian Meeting of
Ethnoecology and Ethnobiology, Recife, Brasil.
*2001 El Proyecto Paloma dispues de 25 Aos. XIII Congreso Peruano y La Cultura Andina, Lima.
*2001 (Senior author with Joseph Vradenburg) Enfermidades del Formativo, Mesa Redonda El Orign de
los civilizacines Andenas, . XIII Congreso Peruano y La Cultura Andina, Lima.
2001 Cambio de Clima y Cambios de Socieddes, San Marcos Archaeology Series, Lima.
2001 Adjustments to Agriculture in Early Farming Communities of Northeast China (junior author with
Ekaterina A. Pechenkina), presented to a symposium, Adjustments to Coastal Environments,
Association of Physical Anthropology Meetings, Washington DC.
2001 The Paloma Project: A Demonstration of Bioarchaeological, Paleoethnobotanical, Zooarchaeological,
Archaeological, and Paleoclimatological Conscilience (senior author with Deborah M. Pearsall and
Elizabeth J. Reitz), invited a symposium, Beyond Midden and Mollusc: Bioarchaeology of Coastal
Adaptation, Dale L. Hutchinson, organizer, Society for American Archaeology Meetings, New Orleans.
2001 Within Family Adjustments in Prehistoric Coastal Peru Plastic and Enduring: 100 Years of Studies of
Past Lives and Past Histories, Symposium organized by Ekaterina Pechenkina and chaired by me at the
American Anthropological Association Meetings, Washington D.C.
*1999 The Central Coast: A Neomalthusian Reconstruction of Peruvian Cultural Evolution, in an invited
symposium to the American Anthropological Association, Diachronic Changes in Human Adjustment:
New World Island and Coastal Ecosystems, R. A. Benfer, Jr., and Julie Farnum, organizers.
* 1998 Heritability of Fluctuating Asymmetry of Dermatoglyphic Traits (junior author with Ekaterina
Petchenkina), International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Williamsburg.

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1998 The Paleoepidemiological Approach to Understanding the Collapse of the First Peruvian Polities:
Amazonian Origins of West Coast Epidemics (junior author with Joseph A. Vradenburg), invited for
Reviewed Symposium: Perspectives on Disease in Past Populations: Paleoepidemiology Reconsidered,
Mary Kaye Sanford, organizer, David S. Weaver, Chair, American Anthropological Association
Meetings, Philadelphia, PN.
*1998 Community Knowledge and Farming in the Colca Valley of the Andes (junior author with Louanna
Furbee), International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Williamsburg, Virginia
*1998 Ponente, El Periodo Archaico en El Per : Hacia una defnicin de los orgenes, II Simposia
Internacional de Arqueologia, Pontifica Universidad Catolica Del Peru, Lima.
1998 Sican Population and Mortuary Practice: A Multi-Dimensional Perspective, Izumi Shimada,
Robert A. Benfer, Jr. , Robert Corruccini, and Kazuharu Mine, paper presented to the 63rd Annual
Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, Seattle, WA.
1998 Aplicaciones del An lisis Multivariado en Arqueolog a, Curso Taller Nacional Sobre Technicas
Analiticas en Arqueolog a, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos,
Lima.
*1998 Biographical Stories: Parental Investment and the Health of children in Prehistory, (first author with
Ekaterina Petchenkina), International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences,
Williamsburg, Virginia
1997 Principal Discussant, New Directions for Biological Anthropology, Invited Session, American
Anthropological Association.
*1995 Chair of Session, Knowledge Acquisition, Pacific Asian Conference in Expert systems, Huang-Shan,
P.R. China (presented an invited paper Multiple Linear Discriminant Function, Multidimensional scaling,
and Individual Pathways for Developing Knowledge Based Systems).
1994 Evaluating Archaeological Hypotheses of Population Growth and Decline on the Central Coast of Peru
(second author with Joseph A. Vradenburg and Lisa Sattenspiel), invited paper to the Paleodemography
and Archaeology symposium at Univ. of Southern Illinois, Carbondale.
1993 The Centrality of BioArchaeology: Andean Instances, paper presented to the Society for American
Archaeology meetings in a symposium that I organized.
*1992 Representing Partly Shared Knowledge in Expert Systems of Terrace Agricultural Systems, invited
paper to a session I chaired at the IFAC Workshop on Expert Systems in Agriculture, Huangshan, P.R.
China.
*1991 Bioanthropology Foundation and National Museum of Anthropology of Peru; presentation on bone
chemistry, presentation on biostatistics; leader in week-long workshop on prehistoric diet in Lima, Per .
1991 19th Midwest Andean and Amazonian Archaeology and Ethnohistory Conference (co-organizer with
Deborah Pearsall and Alice Benfer), Columbia, MO.
1989 Individual Differences in Expert Systems with Behavioral Implications (senior author with Louanna
Furbee), paper invited to symposium Applications for Agricultural Development and Natural Resource
Management, American Association for the Advancement of Science, San Francisco.
1989 Putting Local Knowledge to Work (junior author with David Guillet, Louanna Furbee, and Jon Sandor),
paper invited to symposium Applications for Agricultural Development and Natural Resource
Management, American Association for the Advancement of Science, San Francisco.
*1988 Paleodemography and Non-Specific Indicators of Stress, an invited paper to symposium on Diet,
Pathology and Demography; or 12th Inter. Congress of Anthrop. and Ethnological Sciences,
Zagreb,Yugoslavia
*1988 Knowledge-Based Systems for Forensic Anthropology, invited paper for workshop Computer
Application and Program Development in Anthropology, for 12th Inter. Congress of Anthrop. and
Ethnological Sciences, Zagreb,Yugoslavia.

15

*1988 Vida y Muerte de Don Francisco Pizarro: Un Caso de Ciencias Aplicadas a la Investigacion de un
Personaje Historico del Siglo XVI, with William Goza, William Maples, and Hugo Lude a R., invited
paper presented to the Museo Convento de Corea, Truijillo, Spain.
1985 Department of Anthropology, Florida State Museum and Wentworth Foundation; Pizarro Project
1985 National Institute of Culture and Cathedral of Lima and Wentworth Foundation, Pizarro Project.
*1984 National Institute of Culture and Cathedral of Lima; Pizarro Project
1983 Department of Anthropology, Florida State University; Paloma Project.
1982 Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research and the Hudson Symposium Fund of SUNY
College at Plattsburgh, conference on paleopathology and the origins of agriculture, Plattsburgh, NY.
OTHER SELECTED PAPERS PRESENTED SINCE 1982 (* = international):
2006 Were Constellations Alignments used to Orient Early Peruvian Monumental Architecture? Robert A.
Benfer, presented in symposium , Monumentality in Prehispanic America, Richard Burger and Robert
Rosenwig, organizers, Society for American Archaeology, San Juan, Puerto Rico.
2006 CIZA Investigations in the Ternimal Preceramic of Western Central Per, Bernardino Ojeda and
Robert A. Benfer, presented by Benfer in symposium, A Fifth Millenium Calendric Complex in Per,
Robert A. Benfer and Hugo Ludea, organizers, Society for American Archaeology, San Juan, Puerto
Rico.
2005 Proyecto Buena Vista 2002-2005 El Templo Mas Antiguo del Mundo y las Primeras Esculturals
Preceramics, Benfer, Robert A. Jr., Benradino Ojeda E., Hugo Ludea R., Neil A. Duncay, Mirriam
Villarreal S., Colegio de Arquelogos, Lima, Per.
2005 Farnum JF, Pechenkina EA, DeSantis T, Benfer R. Preceramic Household Organization and Origins
of Social Inequality on the North and Central Coasts of Peru. Paper presented to the 70th Annual
Meeting of Society for American Archaeology, Salt Lake City, Utah.
2005 A Mito Style Kotosh Calendar in the Chilln Valley at Buena Vista, Benfer, Robert A. Jr.,Neil A.
Duncan, and Bernardino Ojeda, presented to the Society for American Archaeology, Salt Lake, UT.
2003 Quipa (junior author with Neil Duncan), Society for American Archaeology poster.
2003 The First Field Season at Buena Vista, Chilln Valley, Peru, Neil A. Duncan, Robert A. Benfer and
Bernardino Ojeda. Paper presented at the 68th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology,
Milwaukee, WI
2001 The Paloma Project: A Demonstration of Bioarchaeological, Paleoethnobotanical, Zooarchaeological,
Archaeological, and Paleoclimatological Conscilience (senior author with Deborah M. Pearsall and
Elizabeth J. Reitz), in a symposium, Beyond Midden and Mollusc: Bioarchaeology of Coastal
Adaptation, Dale L. Hutchinson, organizer, Society for American Archaeology Meetings, New
Orleans,.
2001 Coastal Adustments to the End of the Holocene Climatic Optimum (senior author with Ekaterina A.
Pechenkina), in a symposium, Adjustments to Coastal Environments, Michael J. Dietz and Robert A.
Benfer, Jr., Organizers and Chairs, American Association of Physical Anthropology meetings, Kansas
City, MO.
2000 Pechenkina EA, Benfer RA Jr. Adjustments to agriculture in early farming communities of northeast
China. Amer. J. of Phys. Anthropol. Supplement 30:248 (paper presented to the AAPA Meetings).
2000 Changing Parental Investment in the Holocene in Coastal Per and Northern China, 28th Midwest
Conference on Andean and Amazonian Archaeology and Ethnohistory, Fort Wayne, Indiana.
1999 Changing Domestic Architecture in a Preceramic Peruvian Village: Analysis of the Central Village
Core (senior author with Joseph A. Vradenburg), paper presented to the 64th Annual Meeting of the
Society for American Archaeology, Chicago, Illinois.

16

*1998 El Quehacer de la Antropologica Fisica: Presente y Futuro, Escuela Profesional de Arqueologia y


Antropologia, Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal, Lima.
1998 Diet and Health in the Peruvian Cotton Preceramic and Initial Periods:Asia and Cardal, Julie Farnum,
Ekaterina Petchenkina and Robert A.Benfer, Jr. , paper presented to the 63rd Annual Meeting of the
Society for American Archaeology, Seattle, WA.
1998 Ethnic Diversity in The Early Intermediate: The Skeletal Evidence from Villa Salvador, Ekaterina
Petchenkina, Mercedes Delgado and Robert A. Benfer, Jr, paper presented to the 63rd Annual Meeting
of the Society for American Archaeology, Seattle,WA
1998 Delineating the Inequalities of Urbanism:The Skeletal Biology of the Early Intermediate
Joseph A. Vradenburg, Ekaterina Petchenkina, and Robert A. Benfer, Jr., Society for American
Archaeology, Seattle, Washington.
*1997 The Virtual Environment as an Agent of Change, EDUCOM 97 (senior author with Gail Ludwig and
Bryan Carter), Minneapolis, October, 1997.
*1997 La Realidd Virtul y la Arqueol gia: El Proyecto PalomaMundo, Villa Real University, Lima, Per.
1996 A Virtual Reality Front End to the Paloma Archaeological Knowledge-Base, Society for American
Archaeology Meetings, New Orleans, May, 1996.
*1996 What to do about Missing Data: Delete, Substitute, Regress, or Iterate? (junior author with Brigitte M.
Holt), 10th Congress of the European Anthropological Association, Brussels.
1996 Logic-based Estimate of Age from Skeletal Elements, Amer. Academy of For. Sci., Nashville (presented
on my behalf by Alexander Robling).
1996 Trace Elements in Archaeological Bone: Current Research Involving Reconstruction of Prehistoric Diet,
Health, and Diagenesis (second author with Julie Farnum, M. K. Sanford, and M. D. Glascock,
Workshops in Archaeometry, Buffalo.
1996 A Virtual Reality Front End to the Paloma Archaeological Knowledge-Base, Society for American
Archaeology Meetings, New Orleans.
1996 Disease and Social Collapse in the Initial Period of Central Coastal Peru
(senior author with Joseph Vradenburg, Krystoff Makowski, and Mercedes Delgado), Society for
American Archaeology Meetings, New Orleans.
1996 Comparisons of Dimension of Trace Elemental Distribution in Archaeological Human Bones (second
author with J. F. Farnum and M. K. Sanford, Archaeometry meetings, Urbana, IL.
*1995 Bioindicaciones, paper presented to the Anthropology Colloquim, San Marcos University, February,
1995, Lima, Per .
1995 Chemical and Dental Estimates of Weaning Age for Paloma, Peru (with Julie Farnum, senior author),
23rd Annual Midwest Conference on Andean and Amazonian Archaeology and Ethnohistory, Chicago.
1995 The Basket Household: Life and Death at the Residence of an Extended Family, Paloma, Chilca Valley,
Peru, 23rd Annual Midwest Conference on Andean and Amazonian Archaeology and Ethnohistory,
Chicago.
*1994 Poblacion y Demograf a en Sitio Paloma, Escuela de Arqueolog a, San Marcos University, Lima,
Per .
1994 Iterative Improvement of Missing Data Estimates (junior author with Brigitte Holt), Society of
Vertebrate Paleontology, 54th Annual Meetings, Seattle.
1994 Preference for Indigenous or Western Curing by Herders of the Southern Andes, National Symposium
on Indigenous Knowledge, Tampa, Florida.
1993 Identifying Crops through Phytolith Analysis, junior author with Deborah Pearsall and Delores Piperno),
presented to symposium The Origins of Agriculture, at the Society for American Archaeology Annual
Meetings.

17

1993 Prolonged Virginity in the Coastal Peruvian Preceramic: The Economic Importance of (Fisher)women in
the Early stages of Andean Civilization, paper presented to the 21st Annual Midwest Conference on
Andean and Amazonian Archaeology and Ethnohistory.
1993 Expert Systems in Agriculture (with Louanna Furbee), MU Agricultural Economic Colloquium,
February, 1993.
1993 How Selectionist Explanations Applied to Archaeology Can Be Validated, part 1 of two part
presentation (with Mark Flinn) Can Ideas be Usefully Treated as Like Genes for the Explanation of
Human Culture? to the Department of Anthropology Lecture Series.
1992 Logic Processing, a Solution to Under-determination of Archaeological Explanations, presented to the
symposium South American and Mesoamerican Archaeology, which I chaired, at the 57th Annual
Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, Pittsburgh.
1992 A Better Foundation for Archaeological Knowledge: An Expert System CD-ROM Site Report for
Paloma, Peru, paper presented to the 20th Midwest Andean Conference on Andean and Amazonian
Archaeology and Ethnohistory, Urbana-Champaign.
1992 Linguistic Methods for Developing Concept Trees (junior presented with Louanna Furbee), Medical
Informatics and Expert Systems Presentations, University of Missouri-Columbia.
1992 Continuing Ethnobotanical Research at Paloma and Tres Ventanas, Per (junior author with Deborah
Pearsall), paper presented to the 20th Midwest Andean Conference on Andean and Amazonian
Archaeology and Ethnohistory, Urbana-Champaign.
*1991 Knowledge Acquisition and Knowledge Representation, invited paper for Expert Systems for Social
Applications, World Congress on Expert Systems, Orlando.
1991 Overlap of Lomas and River Valley Preceramic Occupations: 1990 Salvage Excavations at Paloma,
Chilca Valley, Peru, paper presented to the 19th Midwest Andean Conference on Andean and Amazonian
Archaeology and Ethnohistory, Bloomington.
1991 Expert Systems as an Aid to Interpreting Data from Semi-Structured Interviews (senior author with L.
Furbee, G. McKinney, M.J. Fisher, B. Ewigman, J. Campbell, and S. Zweig), paper presented to the 50th
Annual Meeting of the Society for Applied Anthropology, Charleston.
1991 Conference on Andean and Amazonian Archaeology and Ethnohistory, organized with Deborah M.
Pearsall and Alice N. Benfer, University of Missouri.
1990 AI-FORENS: A Knowledge-Based System for Age and Sex Determination from the Os Coxae (senior
author with Louanna Furbee and Edward Brent), paper presented to the Amer. Academy of Forensic
Sciences, Cincinnati.
1990 The Floral Assemblage from Tres Ventanas: Mid-elevation Plants at 4,000 Meters above m.s.l. (junior
author with Deborah M. Pearsall), paper presented to the 18th Midwest Andean Conference on Andean
and Amazonian Archaeology and Ethnohistory, Chicago.
*1990 Ethnosemantics, Informatics, and Nursing Theory: A Method for Developing Nursing Systems (junior
author with Eileen Jackson and Louanna Furbee), Society for Applied Anthropology, York, England.
1989 Validation of Expert Systems (junior author with Louanna Furbee), invited paper presented to
symposium Expert Systems in Cultural Anthropology, American Anthropological Association Annual
Meetings.
*1989 Factors Influencing Women to Seek Prenatal Care, paper presented (with M.J. Fisher, B. Ewigman, J.
Campbell, L. Furbee, and S. Zweig, fourth author) to the North American Primary Care Research Group
Sixteenth Annual Meeting, May, Ottawa, Canada.
1989 Changes in Bone Trace Element Concentration over Time (junior author with Jeremy Edward), invited
paper presented to symposium: Current Research in Paleonutrition, American Anthropological
Association Annual Meetings.
1989 Multivariate Methods which Aid in the Development of Expert Systems, invited paper, symposium on
Expert Systems in Cultural Anthropology, American Anthropological Association Annual Meetings.

18

1989 Individual Differences in Expert Systems with Behavioral Implications, paper invited to symposium
Expert Systems in Anthropology, American Anthropological Association Meeting, Chicago.
1988 Excavations at Tres Ventanas Cave, in the Puna of the Chilca Valley, paper presented (with Deborah
Pearsall) to the Midwestern Conference on Andean and Amazonian Archaeology and Ethnohistory, Ann
Arbor.
1988 The Palomans Toasted, then Salted their Dead, paper presented (with Jeremy Edward, junior author) to
the Midwestern Conference on Andean and Amazonian Archaeology and Ethnohistory, Ann Arbor.
1988 Trace Element Analysis of Prehistoric Hair--A Paleopathological Perspective, invited paper (with John
Typpo, junior author), for the symposium Trace element Analysis--Implications for Paleopathological
Research, Paleopathology Association Meeting, Kansas City.
1988 Knowledge Based Systems and Forensic Anthropology, invited paper presented to the symposium
Modern Approaches to Forensic Anthropology, American Anthropology Association Meetings, Chicago.
1988 Trace Element Analysis of Prehistoric Bone, invited paper (with Jeremy Edward, junior author),
presented to the symposium Trace element Analysis--Implications for Paleopathological Research,
Paleopathology Association Meeting, Kansas City.
1986 Middle and Late Archaic Adaptation in Central Coastal Peru, Invited paper, The Maritime Foundation
of Andean Civilization Hypothesis, Society for American Archaeology Meetings, New Orleans.
1986 Tests of Paloma Stratigraphy. Midwestern Conference on Andean and Amazonian Archaeology and
Ethnohistory, Columbia, Mo.
1985 Maritime/Terrestrial Components of Diet: 1984 Excavations at Three Cotton Preceramic Period Sites
(senior author with Glendon H. Weir and Elizabeth J. Reitz), Midwestern Conference on Andean and
Amazonian Archaeology and Ethnohistory, Chicago.
1985 A Methodology for Quantifying Phytolith Assemblages in Comparative and Archaeological Contexts
(junior author with D. M. Pearsall and M. K. Trimble). Phytolith Conference, Ann Arbor.
(40 additional papers presented between 1968 and l985)
BOOK REVIEWS:
1996 Mortuary Practices and Skeletal Remains at Teotihuacn, by M. L. Sempowski and M. W. Spence, Latin
American Antiquity 7:378-380.
1979 Figuring Anthropology, by David H. Thomas, American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 49:394396.
1979 Mathematics in the Archaeological and Historic Sciences, edited by F. R. Hodson and others, American
Anthropologist 81:656-552.
1973 Computers in Anthropology and Archaeology, Robert G. Chenhall, American Anthropologist 75:506507.
1970 Towards a Statistical Overview of the Archaic Cultures of Central and Southwest Texas, by LeRoy
Johnson, Jr., American Antiquity 35:118-119.
1970 Analytical Archaeology, by David L. Clark, American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 33:121-122.
1969 Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 1967 and Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 1966, American
Anthropologist 71:983-988.

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