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ASSIGNMENT 1 :

1.
Thales
Thales was a philosopher from miletus, a Greek colony in asia minor. Thales is touted as the
father of the philosophy of Greece for he is the first person to philosophize. But alas, his
philosophy was never written it myself, just conveyed by word of mouth through his disciples
[5]. He traveled to many different countries. One of them is Egypt, where he reportedly never
calculate the height of the pyramids by measuring its shadow at the right moment, when long
shadows himself equal to his height. He also told never predicted the occurrence of a solar
eclipse in 585 BC, on the right. Thales believed that the source of all things is water. He believed
that all life originated from water and water to lembali will. She contended as it might be,
because during his dimesir, he must have been watching the plants begin to grow on the land the
Nile delta after the receding of the flood. Perhaps he also observes, that frogs and worms emerge
from the soil that is moist (soil water). He is also an expert in the politics of Miletus at that time
there was still a chance for him to learn the science of mathematics and astronomy [6].
Anaximander
Anaximander was the second after the philosopher thales of miletus is also derived. He lived
about the same time with thales. He was one of the disciples of thales. He contended that our
world is just one of many of the world's emerging and sirna in something called as ' unlimited '.
Not so easy to explain what they knew, but it seems clear that he is not thinking about a
substance known as Thales imaginable. Perhaps knew was that substances which become the
source of everything, must be different from something that it generates, because all objects are
finite, then the creation of something that appears before and after the objects must have '
unlimited '. It is clear that the basic substances that may not be something that is very common as
water or we can view. Although the origin of the theory of natural occurrence is not so clear but
he is a capable and intelligent he is not familiar with Islamic teachings or any other [7].
Anaximenes
Anaximenes is philosophers from the time of his life erupted approximately 570-526 BC she is a
cent of students of Anaximander. His theories about the nature of the sources is that everything
must be "air" or "steam". Anaximenes certainly knows his theories of Thales concerning water.
But he denies his opinion of Thales, which originated from ' the water '. Anaximenes thought that
air is compressed air. We know that when it rained, water squeezed from the air. If the water is
squeezed even harder, she would be on the ground, he thought. She may never see how soil and
sand terperas of ice is melted. He also contended that the fire was the air cleared up. Therefore
the water, land and air was created from fire . View of his philosophy about events of
this nature are essentially the same with the views of his teacher. He taught that the origin of the
goods was one and no amount of [8].
Parmenides
Since around 500 BC, there was a group of philosophers at Elea Italya Greece colonized South.
"people Elea" is interested in this issue. The most important among these is the philosopher
Parmenides (c. 540-480 B.C.). Parmenides beranggapsn that everything that exists must have
always existed. This idea is no stranger to the people of Greece. They considered it appropriate
that everything that exists in the world is eternal. Isn't there something that can arise out of
nothing, and nothing is to be there, thinks Parmenides. However, Parmenides takes the idea even

further. He contended that there is no actual change is called, there is no something different than
before. Parmenides realized that her senses of seeing the world is always changing, but he opted
to common sense than her senses. He is convinced that the senses-senses give inaccurate picture
of the world, a picture that is not the same deengan an overview of human reason. Beliefs that do
not bend on human reason called rationalism. Rationalism is someone who believes that human
reason is the main source of knowledge about the world. In this issue of Parmenides posited two
views.
a) that there is not something that can be changed.
b) that the perception of our senses cannot be trusted.
Heraclitus
His contemporaries Parmenides was Heraclitus who lived approximately 540-480 b.c. She came
from Ephesus in Asia minor. According to Heraclitus, none of the things in the universe that is
still, everything is flowing and is in the process of ' becoming '. He was famous for stating panta
rhei kai uden menei which means, "everything flows and nothing else that remain. [9] "he
assumed that continuous change is the hallmark of the most fundamental nature. It can be said,
that Heraclitus had a greater belief in what he saw from him. "everything keeps rolling", says
Heraclitus. Everything mengalamiperubahan constantly and always moving, nothing is settled,
therefore we ' can't jump on the same river '. Heraclitus argued that the world was characterized
by the presence of kebalkan. If we never get sick, then we will never know what healthy thing,
jia we're never hungry we won't know how it feels satisfyingly, if we were never poor, we'll
never know how rich it is, etc. As Heraclitus Parmenides posited two views about ala mini.
a) that everything changed.
b) that the perception of our senses can be trusted.
2.
Because actually western in past not like now,however now west side have civilization more
than us but actually in past west gotta more learn from islamic civilization,exampels :
The Intellectual Contributions Of Islam To The Western World
Development of science produced by muslim scientists telahmelahirkan works great in a variety
of fields which became a reference for scientists at the next. Among one of these works was in
the field of education, namely: Ghabus Namah (the best advice and moral education) by
Kaikawus Ibn Amir
Iskandar Ibn Washmgir Ibn Ghabus'i Ziar, Syiyarat Namah (the book of government-politics) by
Al-Zinam
Mulk, Gulistan and Bustan (about morals and justice) by Sa'di, Fatihat Al
-Ulum (on issue-related priority persolan science) by Al-Ghazali, dansebagainya. But the Islamic
intellectual contribution in terms of science is not limited in the field of education only. Islamic
intellectual contribution also includes other scientific fields, such as: 1.
Astronomy. among the muslim astronomical experts are: Al Batani, which included 20 of the
world's foremost astronomer; Abu'l-Wefa, which find the slope of the month; Ali ibn Youni, the
inventor of a sundial, and Hassan Ibn Haitam, an inventor who later became basic optic
binoculars Roger Bacon and Kepler. Ibrahim ibn Yahya Al-Naqqash, he may determine the time
of the occurrence of a Solar Eclipse and determine how long. He also managed a modern
membuatteropong can determine the distance between the solar system and the stars.[9] 1.

Mathematics. Math Science also known in Arabic


algebra
(calculation), while the term
alogaritme
derived from the name of its discoverer, i.e.
Al-Khawarinzi
, which had a huge name lengkapMuhammad bin Musa bin Khawarinzi. He was one of the
famous mathematician muslimyang future Caliph Al-Mamun, who wrote a book entitled algebra
Al-jabr Wal-Maakalala
(calculation and symbol).
Physics. physics is also closely associated with the science of astronomy. So it works on optics
as Hassan ibn Haitam (965-1039) is also a foundation for building ilmufisika, which is the basis
for procurement of binoculars and photography. In addition, penelitiannyamengenai magnifying
glass have inspiring to Bacon and Kepler are menemukanteleskop and microscopes.
The chemistry between muslim scientists in the field of kima is Abu Musa Al-Kufi Jakfar
(Djeber), who lived in the second half of the 8th century and has written a sort of summary of
encyclopedias and chemistry.In addition, scientists Abu Bakar Zakaria m. Razi (Razes) in his
book
Al-hawi,
also telahmenguraikan how to make sulfur acid or alkhohol obtained from the destilasigula
process it was leavened, while the discovery of the chemical in the field of industry is a
penemuanmesiu for both sejata and processing paper from cotton materials.Abbas ibn Farnas
complex in chemistry and astronomy, he was the first to discover the making of glass from
stones.
Medicine. one of the experts of medicine muslim who is very well known in the Western world
is Abu Ali Al-Husein Ibn Abdullah Ibn Sina, better known as Ibn Sina or Avicenna. In addition,
Ibn Zohr is also one of the medical experts have introduced legal aspects of observation in the
field of medicine. There is also An-Ibn Nafis had berhasilmempertontonkan blood circulation
accurately, three hundred years before Servet, a doctor from the Portuguese who had been
regarded as the inventor of the first.
Results of the study of literature. top Asian Palacios works
surrealism
in Islam and the book
La DevinaComedia
works of Dante Aleghery who concluded that Dante has got pengaruhyang of the works of Ibn
Arabi and mystical Muhyidin blind poet Abul Ala Al-Maari. whereas the novel is worth the
philosophy of Ibn Tufail's Hayy Ibn Haqzan (the son of life alert) was translated into latin by
Edward MSS. Pococke in 1671 and bukuinilah that inspired Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe
story.
Geography and history. in his book entitled United Kingdom speaking
The Golden Pastures

, Hasan Ali Al-Masudimemaparkan a complete overview of every country he had visited once in
the mid-10th century. In fact history shows that for more than three centuries of European
cartography paraahli always quote the works of muslim geography, such as the works of
NasrudinTusi as well as observations of Al-menuyusun who have successfully Koshaji results on
his diCina and correcting calculation of latitudes of the Earth as well as the size of the Earth.
While in bidangsejarah, Ibn Miskawaih is a famous muslim historians who passed away on
the year 1030. In his book entitled
Tajarib Al-Umam
(the experience), iamemaparkan the story of the history of Persian and Arabic up to his lifetime
danmenyatakan that the Arab invasion of Persia has been going on since long before Islam was
born.Ibn Jubair from Valencia wrote about Muslim lands in Medetarinia and Sicily. DanIbn
Battuta of Tangier reaches the ocean Pasai and China. Ibn Al-Khatib compiled riwayatGranada.
Sociology and political science, Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406 M) is the philosophical thinkers of
sociology and history terkenaldalam peraddaban West. One of his books is referred to as
Prolegomena
public membahasrefleksi of human history and a wide range of human civilization as a result of
differences in climate, the life of the nomads as well as that norms and ataulatar have settled
back a different civilization, including social science, institutional danseni that they develop.
Meanwhile, Al-farabi wrote a very famous book on political tentangfilsafat entitled
Madinatul Fadhilah.
Fine art architecture and muslim Architecture. it looks in the form of a Palace and a mosque that
is a glittering future influence on the art of building a church in the middle ages in Europe. As
the influence of the architecture of the mosque at Cordova of the Cathedral Church
Notre Dane du Puy
in wujudlengkungan stacking three, double-lobe, horseshoe arches and the elements of the two
colours yangmerupakan feature of mosques in Cordova
3
Renaissance
The term Renaissance is derived from the Latin "renaitre" which means "life" or "born again".
The renaissance sense is concerned the birth or her life back classic Greece and Roman culture in
the lives of Western society.
In a more specific sense, the Renaissance is defined as a period of history in which the
development of Western culture entered a new period in all aspects of human life, such as the
sciences, technology, art in all its branches, the development of the belief system, the
development of the political system, institutional forms new belief systems and others.
Aufklarung

The philosophy of the eighteenth century in Germany called the age of the enlightenment or age
Aufklarung in United Kingdom known as the Enlightenment, a new age where intelligent
thought a tried resolve contention between rationalism and empiricism.
geosentrism
In astronomy the ball, the former is a way of looking at/defines the positions of celestial objects
with the Earth as its Center.
Because of the distance the sky objects so huge when compared to the size of the Earth, then his
position on the celestial sphere often must be defined no longer depends on the position of an
observer on the surface of the Earth, but the Earth himself became its centre. Most celestial
coordinates are the coordinates the geocentric coordinates. This is done for convenience only.
The former term often refers also to the "theory of the former", which is a model of the universe
in which the Earth is its Center.
Dialectic
The absence (Dialectic) comes from the word dialogue which means two-way communication,
this term has been around since the time of ancient Greece when diintrodusir the understanding
that everything changed (panta rei).
Later Hegel's dialectic concept perfected and simplified it to interpret the dialectic into a trilogy
of thesis, antithesis and synthesis of anti. According to Hegel, there is no single absolute truth
because it applies to the absence of law, revolutionary fervor was simply the absolute
(changes/conflicts over the thesis by anti-thesis became the synthesis).
According to Tan Malaka in his book entitled Madilog (materialism, Dialectics, logic) dialectics
contains 4 things:
Time;
A Contradiction;
Reciprocity; and
The ins and outs (nexus)
Postmodernism
Postmodernism is the movement of the late 20th century in art, architecture, and the criticism it
is a departure from modernism. Postmodernism include interpretation of skeptical of culture,
literature, art, philosophy, history, economics, architecture, fiction, and literary criticism. It is
often associated with deconstruction and post-structuralism due to its use as a term gaining
popularity significantly at the same time as the twentieth century in the post-structural thinking.
4

Plato and Aristotle's pemiikiran equation


Neither Plato nor Aristotle was the civilization of classical Greece. They were born and raised in
a civilization that is known as one of the cornerstones of Western civilization today. According
to Plato, the ideal of reciprocity States concerned with virtue. According to Plato, virtue is
knowledge. On the basis of which Plato saw the importance of the institution for the life of the
Union. A state judge ignored the Plato principle virtue is far from the coveted State of man. They
are eligible to be rulers are simply those who fully understand the principles of this virtue. Plato
mentions such a statesman-philosopher king. King-philosophers should understand the various
symptoms of the disease of society, to detect it early, and looking for ways to cure it.
Knowledge, thus becoming the main terms must and a statesman.
Reciprocal relations and the Division of labor is the basic principle of the social State of the
Union to another. Plato assumed the appearance of a country because of a reciprocal relationship
and a sense of interdependence among fellow human beings. To meet its needs, the human need
of others. This allows the occurrence of relationship exchange-traded in the social life of man.
Countries in this respect obliged the mutual exchange noting and should strive to make all the
needs of the community are met as best as possible.
Plato's ideal State is also based upon the principles of prohibition of private possession, either in
the form of money, property, family, child, and wife. According to Plato, with the right to private
ownership will be created envy and social disparities and make everyone trying to accumulate
personal wealth without limit. All of this will lead to unhealthy competition. A ban on possession
of money since Plato saw that the possession and use of the money to private interests be bad for
the country. Possession of uncontrolled capital by creating a sharp economic disparity between
the rich and poor. Plato affirmed the principles of the State of the Union is only valid for the
rulers of the country, namely those from the class of guards, for the slave does not apply.
There were allegations that Plato is anti democratic thinkers. His opinion in the democratic
system of Government, will eventually give birth to Government tyranny. Every person shall
have the freedom to do anything without any strict control of the State. In a country of
democracy, individual freedom and political pluralism was honoured. All citizens have the
freedom to express the aspirations and political idealism without feeling worried and requiring
State intervention will be against it. In Plato's terms, democracy was packed with independence
and freedom of speech, and everyone can do whim. The violence is justified in the name of
freedom and equality. Penjungkirbalikan bulk of morality and reason is justified on the grounds
of freedom.
According to Aristotle, the emergence of the State are inseparable from the human political
figures which he says as a zoon politicon, that being that participating in politics. Aristotle
portrays the State as an organism of the body. The country was born in a simple shape, and then
developed into a strong and mature, after it was destroyed, immersed in history. The components
of the country's villages comprising family units. The family is the lowest federal units, while the
highest is the State. The country is formed due to the people who need each other. This is why in
civic and State life will always happen the relationship of interdependence among individuals in
society.
Regarding the size or area of a country should not too extensive, but also not too small. So when
the State is too small, hard to defend yourself and easily overpowered the other countries.
Whereas when big and spacious too, it will be difficult to keep. In terms of the ideal according to

Aristotle, the State is like a polis or city state. About the power of the State policy that, Aristotle
argued that because the State is the highest level, then he has absolute power.
According to Aristotle, the political institutions of the State is the most sovereign, though that
does not mean the country has no limitation of power. The country has the highest authority
because it is a political institution that has the most high and noble goal. The purpose of the
establishment of the State is to prosper the entire citizens, rather than specific individuals. With
the welfare of the whole community, then the individual well-being will be achieved by itself.
Aristotle posited some form of State. The shape of the country is closely related to aspects of
morality. It is evident from the number of the country which is good and bad state. A good
country is a country that is able to achieve its objectives, while the reverse is bad. Aristotle also
established several criteria in looking at the shape of the State. First, how many people hold the
power, whether exercised by one person, several people or many people? Second, what is the
purpose of the establishment of the State?
Based on that criteria, Aristotle classifies countries in several categories. The monarchy, when
power lies in the hands of one person, it aims for the good and well-being of all, is the best form
of Government. The monarchy should be ruled by a ruler who is a philosopher, arif, and wise.
There is also a Government dominated by the aristocracy, where some of the people and in the
interest of the general good aim. As for democracy itself, Aristotle does not see it as a good
governance. He considered when a country is held by many people and is only intended for the
sake of their interests, the form of such a country is a democracy and the form of such countries
regarded Aristotle is not ideal and even has a negative connotation.
Differences in the philosophy of Aristotle with Plato's Philosophy
A new system of teaching of classical philosophy which is considered as the golden age of
philosophy developed by Plato and Aristotle Socrates ' teachings based on knowledge and
conduct natural philosophy evolved before Socrates. Socrates was Plato's teacher while Aristotle
was a pupil of Plato. Thoughts of Socrates followed by Plato as Plato himself was also followed
by Aristotle. However in some ways turned out to be much difference from all three although
there are some others as well, and was the successor of the previous thought.
Socrates did not write anything about philosophy or more, many our knowledge of philosophers
that just appeared in the works of Plato, who was succeeded by his disciple of Socrates. Plato
and Aristotle clash in addition due to the significant age difference too because in some ways the
thought much differently. However, in addition to the contrary, Plato and Aristotle also
complementary to each other.
Aristotle was one of Greece's renowned Philosophy of his day to the present, previously
appeared his teacher Plato himself. As a student of Aristotle wanted to continue his teacher
thought but in fact next Aristotle had a different conception of thinking with his own. Aristotle
thought was almost on a par with his own surpassing his teacher Plato and those in the field of
ethics and epistemology, Plato has advantages in terms of kepelaporan, it is Aristotle's jawabanjawabannya, but that produces a Platolah managed to find basic questions should be
dipertanyakannya from the beginning
Together with Plato and Socrates, Aristotle's philosophy is very important for the Western world
and the world. The significance of Aristotle's thoughts and caused widespread about all things,
ranging from the moral, aesthetic, logic, science, politics and metaphysics. Aristotle's political
philosophy in General constitute a review of a wide variety of countries, and how is the best way

to run it. His understanding of politics is really very deeply. The fact is that eventually led to his
applying a pragmatic stance as something utterly contrary to Plato's idealistic approach
Aristotle thought Plato (his teacher) has to flip over down everything. He agrees with his teacher
that particular horse "changed" (being big and burly, for example), and that no horse lives
forever. He also agreed that the real shape of the horse is immortal. But the idea of the horses
was the concept that formed the human after the see (observe, experiencing) a number of horses.
The horses have no Idea of its existence itself: idea-horse was created from existing traits on (at
least) a number of horses. For Aristotle, the notion is in the objects.
Over the years Aristotle actually opposed the philosophy of Plato is fundamental. However, the
theory of metafisikanya still an adaptation of Plato's metaphysics. If Plato looked at the shape of
the shape as ideas that has its own existence, then Aristotle regarded more as forms the essence
of the society in the substance of the world and the forms do not have its existence on its own.
Aristotle proposed a number of arguments for the theory of Plato's Idea hit and yet it turns out
even hit up universalnya own theories. As a result, plato's theories that have been modified in the
form of Aristotelian doctrine became so dominant in the development of medieval philosophy.
Aristotle looked at the height of the poem by stating it has a value of more than history, because
it is more philosophical besifat. History is only dealing with specific events (in particular),
whereas poetry closer to the universal. In this regard he contradicts himself and is more revealing
view of Plato.
With its love of everything that is abstract and mathematically, Plato seems to be very closely
with such a life, but against mathematical approach to Aristotle's moral. It is not possible to
mengkalkulasikan things about kindness. Moral virtue is a State of memamng between the two
extremes, but it is more dependent on the nature of a personal situation that enclosing them.
Aristotle is a mindset change that is radical. According to Plato, the reality the highest is that we
think with our minds, is the highest reality, according to Aristotle, is that we see with our eyessenses. Aristotle did not deny that that man has the innate nature of sense, and not just a sense
that fall into consciousness was by hearing and vision. But that's precisely the reason which is
the characteristic that distinguishes humans from other creatures. An empty mind and human
consciousness until he had something. Therefore, according to Aristotle, the man no innate ideas.
Aristotle, as Plato, trying to find a universal principle of knowledge. Unlike Plato who States that
the universal is that go beyond the particular objects and is the prototype or exemplar, according
to Aristotle, that universal found in every particular. Aristotle called it the essence or core
objects. This is what separates the realists from Plato to Aristotle that idealistic.
Aristotle was known as foundress of logic, he is an expert on metaphysics which is almost on a
par with his own surpassing his teacher, Plato and the in the field of ethics and epistemology,
Plato has advantages in terms of kepelaporan, it is Aristotle's jawaban-jawabannya, but that
produces a Platolah managed to find basic questions should be dipertanyakannya from the
beginning.
Plato's theory of ideas, it contains so many errors that are quite clear. However, the idea that any
important advances in the philosophy of donating, because this is the first theory that emphasizes
the universal problem, which in various forms, survived until now.
A brief discussion on the thought of Plato, we can deduce the existence of a fundamental
difference between the two about an essential reality. Plato on the opinion, that the experience
was just a memory (be innate, intuitive) in a person's response to what has actually been known
from the world of the idea, reportedly before the man entered in this sensorial world. According

to Plato, without going through the experience (observations), when the man trained in terms of
intuition, then he must have been able to stare down the world ideas and therefore then has a
number of ideas on all things, including about goodness, truth, justice, and so on.
Plato developed the approach of rational nature-deductive as easily found in mathematics. The
Problem produced skepticism by Plato is the keterlemparan of the human spirit into the sensorial
world of prison, namely the body. This is a question there ("being") and mengada (being,
"becoming"). Mimesis is one discourse left by Plato and Aristotle since the golden age of the
philosophy of the ancient Yunoni, until in the end Abrams put it into one of the main approaches
to analyze literature in addition to expressive approach, pragmatic and objective. Mimesis is the
capital of the approach to the sociology of literature was born from her dozens of other methods
of literary criticism.
Mimesis comes Greece language which means imitation. In conjunction with literary criticism
mimesis is defined as an approach that approach in reviewing literature always sought to relate
literary works with reality or reality. Differences in the views of Plato and Aristotle to be very
interesting because both are early natural philosophy, these connect between the question of
philosophy to life.
Aristotle posited a very sharp critique of Plato's opinion about ideas, that there are human beings
and human beings, so a concrete human only. But there were no human Ideas in reality. The
same applies also to the idea of a triangle and all the other ideas. But Aristotle Plato's assumption
that to resolve problems of science spoke about the General and fixed. Science does not talk
about this or that but a triangle in General.
Aristotle's political philosophy in General constitute a review of a wide variety of countries, and
how is the best way to run it. His understanding of politics is really very deeply. The fact is that
eventually led to his applying a pragmatic stance as something utterly contrary to Plato's
idealistic approach
Aristotle and Plato are both seen as two of the founders of the philosophical and even coloring
and foundress and its provisions. Differences in both only on the system used and also because
of different ages at the same time.
The Thinking Of Plato
Among the most important is the thought of Plato's theory of ideas, which is the beginning of an
effort that examines the issue of universal matter unresolved until now.This theory is most
logical, partly metaphysical in nature. With his opinion that, according to Kees Berten (1976),
Plato manages to reconcile his opinion Heraklitus with his opinion Permenides, according to
Heraklitus everything is always changing, it can be justified according to Plato, but only for the
physical world (Pancaindra), while according to Permenides everything is absolutely perfect and
can't be changed, it can also be justified according to Plato, but applies only to the world the idea
of course.
Plato explains that, if there were a number of individuals have the same name, they surely also
have an "idea" or "forma" together. For example, although there are many bed, actually there is
only one "idea" bed. As shadows on the mirror is simply the appearance and not "real".
Similarly, various particular beds were not real, and it is only a clone of the "ideas", which is the
only real bed and created by God. About the bed on this one, which is created by God, we can
gain knowledge, but about the various beds made by Carpenter, who could we get is just another
opinion.

The difference between knowledge and opinion, according to Plato, is that people who have
knowledge of means to have knowledge of "something", that "something" that existed, because
that does not exist would mean nothing. Therefore the knowledge is not possible either, because
logically impossible to be mistaken. While the opinion could have been mistaken, because
opinion may not be about what did not exist, for this is impossible and unlikely anyway about
that existed, because this is knowledge. So surely opinion about what exists and what doesn't
exist at once.
Then we arrived at the conclusion that the opinion was about the world that appears on the
senses, whereas knowledge is about the eternal world of the supra-sensorial; for example,
opinions relating to particular objects are beautiful, while the knowledge related to the beauty
itself. From here Plato brings us to the difference between the world of the intellect with the
sensorial world. Plato attempted to explain the difference between a clear intellectual vision and
vision blurred with the sensorial perception of the way compared to the sense of sight. We can
see objects clearly when the sun shone upon it; in the Dim light of our vision blurred; and in the
darkness, we can't see at all. According to him, the world of ideas is what we see when the object
is sunlit while the world where everything is not immortal is the world blurred because the
temaramnya light. But to give a clear picture of what it knew, Plato gives a proverbial, the
proverbial about the cave.
According to the proverbial that, those who have no knowledge of philosophy could relate
gratitude as imprisonment in the cave, which can only look one direction because her body is
bound, while behind them there is an api that is turned on and in front of it there is a wall of the
cave. They can only see the shadows reflected on cave walls by the light of the fire. They can
only assume the shadows it as fact and cannot have the notion of objects that are a source of
shadows.
While people who have knowledge of philosophy, he is described as one who is able to get out
of the cave and can see everything a real and aware that before he was deceived by shadows. But
when he returns to the cave to tell his friends about the real world, he can no longer see the
shadows clearly when compared with his peers, so that in the eyes of his friends, he seemed to be
more dumb than before he was free.
Thus Plato's thinking about the reality of the truth. Plato's theory of ideas, according to the
author, contains several errors which are quite clear. Although so, thinking it was important
advances in the philosophy of donating, because this is the first theory that emphasizes the
universal problem, which in various forms, survived until now. Aristotle's Thought
Aristotle criticized Plato's opinion about sharp ideas, according to one who was not public and
remain in the realm of ideas but in physical objects itself, for it was Aristotle posited the theory
hilemorfisme (Hyle = material, Morphe = shape). According to this theory, every physical object
has two things that shape and material. For example, a sculpture must have two things that is
material or feedstock such as wood or stone statues, and forms such as forms of horse or human
form, both of which cannot be separated from each other, these are just examples to facilitate
understanding, because in the view of Aristotle's material and shape it is a metaphysical
principles for consolidated the dimungkinkannya science on the basis of concrete objects in any
form. The theory of hilemorfisme also became the basis for his view of mankind, human beings
consist of matter and form. The form is the soul, and because the form had not been separated

from the material, then the consequence is that if a man dies, his soul (form) will also be
destroyed.
Further, Aristotle proposed a very good argument to refute the theory of Plato's idea. The most
solid argument is about the "third person"; If a man is a man because he resembles the human
ideal, then there are other human remains to be more pained the ordinary man and the human
ideal of yesteryear likened himself.
Now we come to the new statement, which at first will seem difficult. It is said that the soul is
the "forma" from the body. In Aristotle's thought system, jiwalah, which causes the body to
become something, that has unity and purpose. The goal is to see the eyes, but the eyes can not
see if separated from the body. Actually, the view is of the soul.
Aristotle relied on observations of a city as a base to reach a perfect knowledge. This is very
different from Plato. Different from Plato, Aristotle also rejected the dualism of man and choose
"hilemorfisme": anything that is found in the world are integrated is the embodiment of the
material ("hyle") something of the form ("morphe") are the same. The form gives the timeliness
of material (or substance) of the individual concerned.
Material (substance) gives the possibility ("dynamic", Latin "potentia") to the embodiment
(timeliness) form in a different way every individual. Then there are many different individuals
in the same type. Herakleitus and Parmendides dispute resolved by stressing the unity between
the two primary symptoms are "fixed" and "changed.