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Vibration Analysis Report


Customer:

Antony Croston
Engineering Analyst
Smiths Aerospace Components - Burnley Ltd
1 Bentley Wood Way,
Network 65 Business Park,
Hapton, Burnley,
Lancashire
BB11 5TG
England

Date:

30th January, 2004

Prepared by:

Ron Frend

Engineers on site:

Ron Frend
Liam Frend

Contents:

Table of Contents:

LIST OF TABLES .................................................................................................3


INTRODUCTION & BACKG ROUND ....................................................................4
Description of tested equipment ........................................................................................................................ 4
The purpose of the test........................................................................................................................................ 4

SITE ACTIVITY.....................................................................................................5
Measurement procedure ..................................................................................................................................... 5
Equipment used on site....................................................................................................................................... 5
Vibration Measurement equipment .................................................................................................................. 5
Discussion of results ............................................................................................................................................ 6
Results Overview Tabulated.......................................................................................................................... 6
Test 1 Head fully assembled.......................................................................................................................... 7
Test 2 Top seal removed.............................................................................................................................. 11
Test 3 Top seal replaced and lower bushing removed............................................................................... 14
Calculated data .................................................................................................................................................. 18
Conclusions ......................................................................................................................................................... 19

Table of Figures & Illustrations:


List of Figures
FIGURE 1 - TEST RIG CONCEPT ..................................................................................................................... 4
FIGURE 2 FREQUENCY RESPONSE @ 70MM (FULLY ASSEMBLED) ................................................. 7
FIGURE 3 FREQUENCY RESPONSE @ 60MM (FULLY ASSEMBLED) ................................................. 8
FIGURE 4 FREQUENCY RESPONSE @ 50MM (FULLY ASSEMBLED) ................................................. 9
FIGURE 5 FREQUENCY RESPONSE @ 40MM (FULLY ASSEMBLED) ............................................... 10
FIGURE 6 FREQUENCY RESPONSE AT 70MM - TOP SEAL REMOVED............................................. 11
FIGURE 7 FREQUENCY RESPONSE TO 10KHZ AT 70MM - TOP SEAL REMOVED ........................ 12
FIGURE 8 FREQUENCY RESPONSE AT 50MM - TOP SEAL REMOVED............................................. 13
FIGURE 9 FREQUENCY RESPONSE AT 70MM - BUSHING REMOVED.............................................. 14
FIGURE 10 FREQUENCY RESPONSE AT 60MM - BUSHING REMOVED............................................ 15
FIGURE 11 FREQUENCY RESPONSE AT 50MM - BUSHING REMOVED............................................ 16
FIGURE 12 FREQUENCY RESPONSE AT 40MM - BUSHING REMOVED............................................ 17

List of Tables
TABLE 1 RESULTS OVERVIEW...................................................................................................................... 6
TABLE 2 CALCULATED NATURAL FREQUENCIES FOR DIFFERENT PROBE LENGTHS............ 18
TABLE 3 VORTEX SHEDDING FREQUENCY............................................................................................ 18

Introduction & Background


Description of tested equipment
In order to validate the design of a temperature/pressure probe capable of radial traverse, Smiths Aerospace
Components Burnley Ltd have a requirement to quantify vibration levels in a rig test environment. The
rig concept is shown in figure 1. The initial test, however, was carried out with the test probe securely
mounted on a milling machine table so that the probe may be lowered to several exact positions.

Figure 1 - Test Rig Concept


The probe is capable of sensing at a variety of depths, and as such, its natural frequency will change
depending on its position. It is highly unlikely that the probe (of circular section) can be designed such that
any resonant frequencies are avoided. Therefore the damping provided by various components within the
probe drive enclosure must be shown to minimise resonant amplitudes to within acceptable levels. The
probe will also be subjected to a drag loading due to a gas flow passing over it.

The purpose of the test


The test is required to identify the presence or otherwise of any natural frequencies in the subject piece over
a variety of probe positions and under several build configurations as required and detailed in the next
section.

Site activity
Measurement procedure
1.

Mount the fully assembled probe on the milling machine table such that the probe head is securely
located

2.

Install the inductive displacement transducer so that is 2mm from the probe (mid-range) as indicated
on the probe local readout. Route the analogue output from the probe to the Guardian data collection
node. Run Iscope on the local PC. All data recorded using peak hold averaging at 5kHz Fmax.

3.

At pre-defined probe immersions tap the probe gently to excite the natural frequency. At each probe
immersion realign the displacement probe and record an image of the frequency spectrum showing
excited frequencies.

4.

Remove the top seal and repeat step 3.

5.

Replace the seal and remove the bottom bush. Repeat step 3.

Equipment used on site


Vibration Measurement equipment
Guardian Iconet collection node

model ITA-1

Guardian Software

Iconet

PC

Space-walker 333Mz PII, 64 MB DRAM

Displacement transducer

Keyence EX-V02 with EX-110V head


40 kHz sampling rate

Discussion of results
Results Overview Tabulated
Table 1 Results overview
Frequency Hz
Insertion depth
mm
70
60
50
40

As Installed
706.3
2131 (slight)
2644(slight)
2200

Top Seal removed


706.3
1100
1750

1750

Bush removed
137.5
168.8
187.5
212.5

Table 1 shows the natural frequencies that were detected during the trial. Note that at 60mm and 50mm
immersion with the head fully assembled the results were inconclusive with secondary frequencies (shown
in the next column) also showing up. With the seal removed there were no distinct frequencies to show at
60mm and 40 mm immersion. With the bush removed all frequencies were quite distinct.

Test 1 Head fully assembled


70mm Immersion

Figure 2 Frequency response @ 70mm (fully assembled)


In Fig 2 we see a clear response at 706 Hz with lower frequencies excited so as to display as a ski slope.
This low frequency ski slope appears to be related to the natural frequency of the TOP of the probe with the
probe head attached this gives relatively high end mass with the cantilever fixed point being at or near the
top seal.

60mm Immersion

Figure 3 Frequency response @ 60mm (fully assembled)


There was no clear response at 60mm immersion although there is a small response at 1750Hz with a broad
band response at around 2100Hz although the calculated natural frequency is 1047Hz.

50mm Immersion

Figure 4 Frequency response @ 50mm (fully assembled)


There is no distinct frequency response at 50mm immersion.

40mm Immersion

Figure 5 Frequency response @ 40mm (fully assembled)


Several frequencies are apparent at 40mm immersion although non are as dominant as the low frequency
ski slope. Responses are apparent at 1750Hz and 2250Hz with a broad band response about 3500Hz.

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Test 2 Top seal removed


70mm Immersion

Figure 6 Frequency response at 70mm - top seal removed


The response at 70mm is almost identical as with the probe fully assembled except that the low frequency
response ski slope is much more pronounced. The response is almost certainly due to a combination of a
longer cantilever effect with the top seal removed and reduced damping by the top seal.

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70mm Immersion 10kHz

Figure 7 Frequency response to 10kHz at 70mm - top seal removed


As the vibration response is most severe with the top seal removed it was decided to take an extended
vibration signature to 10kHz to ensure there would be no response at or near vortex shedding frequency.
As may be seen from the above figure there was no response at or near the frequency calculated.

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50mm Immersion

Figure 8 Frequency response at 50mm - top seal removed


As with the response at 70mm immersion, 50mm immersion gives a similar response to the fully built
probe except that the low frequency response ski slope is much more pronounced.

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Test 3 Top seal replaced and lower bushing removed


70mm Immersion

Figure 9 Frequency response at 70mm - bushing removed


In Fig 8 we see a very distinct response at 137.5Hz which coincides very closely with the calculated
response for a length of 165mm. This indicates that with the bushing in place the probe uses the bushing as
a fulcrum but with the bushing removed the probe length cantilevers from the top cavity.

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60mm Immersion

Figure 10 Frequency response at 60mm - bushing re moved


Again the response at 60mm is poor but there is a definite response at 162Hz which corresponds to a probe
length (calculated) of 150mm.

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50mm Immersion

Figure 11 Frequency response at 50mm - bushing removed


The response at 50mm immersion is very distinct with a pronounced response at 1875.Hz.

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40mm Immersion

Figure 12 Frequency response at 40mm - bushing removed


Again, 40mm immersion shows a distinct response, in this case at 212.5Hz.

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Calculated data
Mass/unit length kg/m
area1
area2
1 metre length

0.00010030
0.00006222
0.00003808
0.00003808

m2
m2
m2
m3

density of steel

8000

kg/m3

0.30464832

kg/m

203

Gpa

mass/unit length
E for steel
I for the tube

6.80037E-11

Table 2 Calculated natural frequencies for different


probe lengths
Natural Frequency Hz
1st
2nd
3rd
Order
Order
Order
Length mm
160
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40

147.29
167.59
192.38
223.12
261.85
311.63
377.07
465.52
589.17
769.53
1047.42
1508.28
2356.68

920.58
1047.42
1202.39
1394.49
1636.59
1947.67
2356.68
2909.49
3682.32
4809.56
6546.35
9426.74
14729.28

2581.81
2937.52
3372.16
3910.91
4589.88
5462.34
6609.43
8159.79
10327.23
13488.63
18359.53
26437.72
41308.94

Table 3 Vortex shedding frequency


Vortex Shedding
Frequency = fD/V=0.22
f= 0.22V/D
D=
0.0113
V=
300
Fv = 5840.708

m
m/s
Hz

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Conclusions
1.1. The top seal has the beneficial effect of reducing the effective length of the top of the probe as
well as acting as a dampener. With the top seal removed the low frequency response was much
increased in amplitude.
1.2. The bushing has the beneficial effect of effectively reducing the length of the probe. Without the
probe in place, the natural frequencies were much reduced in frequency but dramatically
increased in amplitude.
1.3. With the probe in fully built configuration there was very little response with immersions of
60mm and 50mm. A response was noted at 70mm. The response at 40mm immersion was slight.
1.4. Due to the effect of the probe top cantilever effect, the probe head should be restrained during
normal operation to avoid fatigue failure which may result from excessive vibration at natural
frequencies.
1.5. Even with the worst case scenario there was no response at or near the vortex shedding frequency
as calculated.

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