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PCHAPTER III

MATERIALS AND METHODS


3.1

General
This chapter deals with the materials used and methods adopted to conduct study on the

characteristics of pervious concrete.


3.2

Material used

3.2.1

Cement
Cement is a fine, soft, powdery-type substance made from a mixture of elements that are found in

natural materials such as limestone, clay, sand or shale. Cement is usually of grey colour. White cement
can also be found but it is usually more expensive than gray cement. Cement is a binding substance with
adhesive and cohesive properties which sets and hardens independently and binds other materials into a
compact-solid. When cement is mixed with water, it can bind sand and gravel into a hard solid mass
called concrete and when cement mixed with water, lime and sand, forms mortar. The cement contains
two basic ingredients namely argillaceous and calcareous. Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) is the most
important type of cement which is environment friendly as well as economical. OPC is classified into
three grades, namely 33 grade, 43 grade and 53 grade depending upon the compressive strength of cement
at 28 days. . Portland cement concrete is one of the lowest-cost and the minimal maintenance material
widely used over the last century because it is very versatile, economical and widespread construction
material available in the world.
Shree Ultra 43 grade OPC was used in this study. It was fresh and free from any lumps. The
properties of cement were determined and are given in chapter IV.
3.2.2

Aggregate
Aggregates are the most mined materials in the world. They are a component of composite

materials such as concrete and asphalt concrete. Generally, aggregates occupy 70% to 80% of the volume
of concrete and have an important influence on its properties. The aggregate serves as dimensional
stability and reinforcement to add strength to the overall composite material. They are granular materials,
derived for the most part from natural rock (crushed stone, or natural gravels) and sands. Due to the
relatively high hydraulic conductivity value as compared to most soils, aggregates are widely used in
drainage applications. For a good concrete mix, aggregates need to be clean, hard, strong particles free of
absorbed chemicals or coatings of clay and other fine materials that could cause the deterioration of
concrete.. Soft and porous rock can limit strength and wear resistance and sometimes it may also break
down during mixing and adversely affect workability by increasing the amount of fines. Using washed
aggregates normally gives a more consistent product. The shape and particle size distribution of the

aggregate is very important and affects the packing and voids content. Single size aggregates and/or a gap
in the grading between coarse and fine aggregates are used in some mix designs.

3.2.2.1 Coarse aggregate


Coarse aggregates are particles greater than 4.75mm, but generally range between 9.5mm to
40mm in diameter and contain only that much of fine material as is permitted by the specifications. The
graded coarse aggregate is described by its nominal size i.e. 40 mm, 20 mm, 16 mm, 12.5mm and 10 mm.
They can either be from Primary source (rock or gravel), Secondary source (by-products of extractive
operations) or Recycled sources (used concrete). The aggregates derive many of their properties such as
chemical and mineral composition, specific gravity, hardness, strength, pore structure and colour from the
parent rocks. All these properties may have considerable effect on the quality of concrete. The particle
size distribution and the shape of coarse aggregate directly influence the flow and passing ability of
pervious concrete and its paste demand. The more spherical the aggregate particles the less they are likely
to cause blocking and the greater the flow because of reduced internal friction. Crushed stone aggregate
(locally available) of nominal size 40mm, 20 mm and 10 mm in the various proportion were used
throughout the experimental study. The aggregates were washed to remove dust and dirt and were dried to
surface dry condition. The properties of coarse aggregates such as specific gravity, bulk density and water
abroption were determined and are given in chapter IV.
3.2.2.2 Fine aggregate
No fine aggregates have been used.
3.2.3

Water
Fresh and clean tap water was used for casting the specimens in the present study. The water was

relatively free from organic matter, silt, oil, sugar, chloride and acidic material as per Indian standard.
3.3

Mix Proportions

For mix proportion selection three trail mixes with different cement - aggregates ratio (i.e. 1:4, 1:6, 1:8)
were selected keeping w/c ratio constant. All three trials were performed on the same aggregates
proportion of 10mm, 20mm and 40mm (i.e. 25%:25%:50%) respectively. After trials mixes, 1:8 gives
best results and prove to be economical as compared to other two mixes because as 1:4 have more cement
slurry which more strength then other two but reduces the pores and which will affect the permeability
and 1:6 gives average result as compare to 1:8.

Mix design method


The basic steps involved in the concrete mix design can be summarized as follows:
i)

Based on the literature the mean target strength is estimated

ii) The water cement ratio is selected for the mean target strength and checked for the requirements
of durability.
iii) The water content for the required workability is determined.
iv) The cement content to be determined from the trial mix ratio and water content obtained in step
(ii) and (iii) respectively and is checked for the water requirements.
v) The relative proportion of coarse aggregates is selected from the characteristic of coarse
aggregate.
vi) The trial mix proportions are determined.
vii) The trial mixes are tested for verifying the compressive strength and suitable adjustments are
made to arrive at the final mix composition.

3.4

METHODS
The procedure of methods used for testing cement, coarse aggregates, and concrete are given

below:
3.4.1

Specific gravity
The specific gravity is a dimensionless unit defined as the ratio of the density (mass of a unit

volume) of a substance to the density (mass of the same unit volume) of a reference substance. The
reference substance is water for liquids or air for gases. The specific gravity of the solid is the ratio of its
weight in air to the difference between its weight in air and its weight immersed in water.
3.4.2 Bulk Density
Unit weight (bulk density) is the weight of unit volume of aggregates, usually stated in Kg per
litre. It was calculated to know the estimating quantities of material when batching is done on a
volumetric basis. Bulk density of aggregates is the ratio of weight of loose aggregates and the volume of
container.

3.4.3 Fineness of cement


i)

Weight accurately 100gm of cement in rice plate.

ii)

Place it on standard IS 90 micron sieve breaking down any air-set lumps in the cement sample

with fingers.
iii)

Continuously sieve the sample by holding the sieve in both the hands. Sieve with a gentle wrist

motion for period of 15 minutes.


iv)

Weigh the residue after 15 minutes of sieving.

v)

Repeat the procedure for two more such samples.


Fineness of cement = (weight of residue / weight of sample) X 100 = ........%

3.4.4

Standard consistency of cement


The standard consistency of a cement paste is defined as that consistency which will permit a

vicat plunger having 10 mm diameter and 50 mm length to penetrate to a depth of 33-35 mm from the top
of the mould.
i)

Weigh approximately 400 gm of cement and mix it with a weighed quantity of water. The time
of gauging should be between 3 to 5 minutes.

ii)

Fill the vicat mould with paste and level it with a trowel.

iii) Lower the plunger gently till it touches the cement surface.
iv) Release the plunger allowing it to sink into the paste.
v)

Note the reading on the gauge.

vi) Repeat the above procedure taking fresh samples of cement and different quantities of water
until the reading on the gauge is 5 mm to 7 mm.
3.4.3
i)

Determination of Initial and Final Setting time


Take 400 gm of cement and prepare a neat cement paste with 0.85P of water by weight of
cement where P= standard consistency of cement as found earlier.

ii)

Gauge time is kept between 3 to 5 minutes.

iii) Fill the vicat mould with cement and smoothen the surface of the paste making it level with the
top of the mould. The cement block thus prepared is known as test block.
iv) For initial setting time place the test block confined in the mould and resting on non porous plate
under the rod bearing needle, lower the needle gently in contact with the surface of the test
block.
v)

In the beginning the needle completely pierces the test block. Repeat this procedure until the
needle fails to pierce the block for about 5 mm measured from the bottom of the mould.

vi) The period elapsing between the time when water is added to the time at which the needle fails
to pierce the test block by about 5 mm is the initial setting time.

vii) For determining the final setting time, replace the needle of vicat apparatus by the needle with an
annular attachment.
viii) The cement is considered finally set when upon applying the final setting needle gently to the
surface of the block, the needle makes an impression thereon, while the attachment fails to do so.
The period elapsing between the time when water is added to the cement and the time at which
the needle makes an impression on the surface of the test block while the attachment fails to do
so shall be the final setting time.
3.4.4

Preparation of Test Specimen of Cement (Compressive strength)


Compressive strength of cement is determined from cubes of 70.6 mm X 70.6 mm X 70.6 mm in

size, made of cement mortar with one part of cement and three parts of standard sand.
The quantity of materials for each cube taken as follows:Cement

200 gm

Standard sand :

600 gm

Water

(P/4+3.0) percent weight of cement and sand

Where P is the percentage of water required to produce a paste of standard consistency determined as
described in IS: 4031 (part 4) -1988.

Procedure:
i)

Gauge a mixture of cement and standard sand in the proportion of 1:3 by weight using (P/4+3.0)
percent of water required to produce a paste of standard consistency.

ii) Fill the cube moulds by compacting it for two minutes on a vibrating machine.
iii) Smoothen the top surface of the cubes with flat side of trowel.
iv) Immediately upon completion of moulding, place the cube moulds in an atmosphere of 27C
2C.
v) After 24 hours, remove the specimen from the moulds and keep them in water for curing till
testing.
vi) Test the cubes at 7 and 28 days age in the compression testing machine.
vii) Report the average compressive strength in MPa.
3.4.5

Compressive strength of Pervious Concrete


The quantities of cement, coarse aggregates (40mm, 20 mm and 10 mm) and water for each batch

were weighed separately. All three different sizes of aggregates were placed in the mixer and mixed for 2

minutes. The cement was mixed dry to the aggregates in mixer. Water was added to the mix and then
mixed thoroughly for 3 to 4 minutes in mixer.
Cube moulds were cleaned and oil was applied. The mould was filled 1/ 3 with the concrete and
manual compaction was done with 25 strokes of tamping rod. Again the process was repeated 2 more
times for completely filling the mould. The surface of the concrete was finished level with the top of the
mould using trowel. The finished specimens were left to harden in air for 24 hours. The specimens were
removed from the moulds after 24 hours of casting and were placed in the water tank, filled with potable
water in the laboratory.
Specimens were taken out from the curing tank at the ages of 7, 14 and 28 days. Surface water
was wiped off and specimens were immediately tested on removal from the curing tank. The load was
applied gradually without shock till the failure of the specimen occur and thus the compressive strength of
concrete cubes was found.

3.4.6

Workability of Pervious Concrete


Workability is that property of freshly mixed concrete or mortar which determines the ease and

homogeneity with which it can be mixed, placed, consolidated, and finished. Workability is not just based
on the properties of the concrete, but also on the nature of the application. The strength and durability of
hardened concrete, in addition to labour costs, depend on concrete having appropriate workability.

Workability test methods have been classified in terms of the type of flow produced during the
test. Commonly used test methods are:1. Slump Flow Test
2. Confined Flow Test
3. Compaction Factor Test
4. Ring Penetration Test
5. Cone Penetration Test
6. Vee Bee Consistometer Test
7. Flow Table Test
8. Inverted Slump Cone Test
There are many more methods for finding workability of concrete. Compaction factor test was used for
finding workability of freshly prepared pervious concrete in laboratory in this research. The apparatus for
compaction factor test consist of a rigid frame that supports two conical hoppers vertically aligned above
each other and mounted above a cylinder. A freshly mix concrete was filled in the top hopper but not

compacted. The door on the bottom of the top hopper was opened and the concrete was allowed to drop
into the lower hopper. Once all of the concrete had fallen from the top hopper, the door on the lower
hopper was opened to allow the concrete to fall to the bottom cylinder. The excess concrete was carefully
struck off the top of the cylinder and the mass of the concrete in the cylinder was recorded. This mass was
compared to the mass of fully compacted concrete in the same cylinder achieved with hand rodding or
vibration. The compaction factor is defined as the ratio of the mass of the concrete compacted in the
compaction factor apparatus to the mass of the fully compacted concrete.

3.4.7

Void ratio of Pervious Concrete


Void ratio (e) of any concrete specimen is defined as the ratio of volume of voids (Vv) to the

volume of solids (Vs). Void Ratio (e) is also related to porosity (n). Strength of the concrete specimen can
be judged from its void ratio. As higher the void ratio lower will be the strength and vice versa. Void ratio
(e) was found by simple experiment performed in a laboratory by submerged the 28 days cured cube in
the bucket filled with water. A valve was made in the bucket to maintain the constant level of water. The
cube was submerged in the bucket and waited for a minute for air bubbles to be removed. Then the valve
was opened and increased water above the valve was collected in measuring jars. The Volume of water
collected was the volume of solids (Vs). Volume of solid (Vs) was subtracted from the total volume of
cube (150mm X 150mm X150mm) to find the volume of voids (Vv) in the cube specimen. Void ratio (e)
was derived from the formula:-

The relationship between void ratio (e) and porosity (n) ids expressed as:-

3.4.8 Permeability of Pervious Concrete


Permeability of concrete generally refers to the rate at which water or other aggressive
substance (sulphates, chlorides ions, etc.) can penetrate concrete. It plays an important role in the
long-term durability of concrete. Lower the permeability higher the durability of concrete is
recommended. But in pervious concrete permeability should be high for allowing infiltration and
storm water percolation to underlying soil, reducing runoff volume, peak flow, pollutant loads and
facilitating groundwater recharge. Permeability of concrete primarily depends upon its porosity. There
are different methods for finding the permeability of concrete and they are:1.

Constant Head Method

2.

Falling Head Method

Out of these two constant head method was adopted for the research. Apparatus was prepared
from the local market. Research experiments were performed at tubwell because high flow rate of
water is required to perform the experiment. After creating a constant head, the outlet water is
collected in bucket 3 times for each specimen and time of flow was recorded with the help of stop
watch.

The basic concept of Constant Head Method is to make water flow through concrete under
pressure and measure the flow rate under Steady State flow condition. The specimens were
placed in the test cells and the annular space was filled with some sealing compound so that
the flow occurred only in one direction i.e. from top to bottom. Measurements were taken at
the bottom surface after achieving the Steady-State flow condition. Darcys law has been
used to determine the co-efficient of permeability. The equation used is

Ks

Where,

QL
AH

Ks Coefficient of saturated permeability (m/s)


Q Volume of flow rate (m 3/s)
A Cross-sectional area (m2)

L Specimen thickness in the direction of flow (m)


H Head of water causing flow (m)