Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 7

MIT OpenCourseWare

http://ocw.mit.edu
6.013/ESD.013J Electromagnetics and Applications, Fall 2005

Please use the following citation format:


Markus Zahn, 6.013/ESD.013J Electromagnetics and Applications, Fall
2005. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology: MIT OpenCourseWare).
http://ocw.mit.edu (accessed MM DD, YYYY). License: Creative
Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike.
Note: Please use the actual date you accessed this material in your citation.
For more information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit:
http://ocw.mit.edu/terms

6.013 - Electromagnetics and Applications

Fall 2005

Lecture 21 - Receiving Antennas


Prof. Markus Zahn

December 6, 2005

I. Review of Transmitting Antennas (Short Dipoles)


A. Far elds (r )

z
v

I (0)

dl eff

I (0)

+ dl 2

I (z) dz

dl 2

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


2

= H
= E0 sin()ejkr , E
0 = Idle k , =
E
jkr
4

B. Intensity Sr
Sr =

1
H
= 1 |E
|2
Re E
2
2
0 |2
1 |E
=
sin2 ()
2 k 2 r 2
e |2 k42 2
1 |Idl
=
sin2 ()
2 r2
2 16 2
k
e |2 k 2
|Idl
=
sin2 ()
32 2 r2

C. Total time average power P



P =
d
0

d Sr r2 sin()

e |2 k 2
|Idl
=
12

1 2
2 dle 2
= |I| R R =
2
3

radiation resistance

D. Gain
G(, ) =
=
=

Sr
P /(4r2 )

2 sin2 () 12(4r
2
e
|Idl
|2
k

2 |Idl
2

r
|2
k
32
2
e
8

3
sin2 ()
2
1

II. Receiving Antennas


Z

inc = E
0 , H
inc =
In absence of receiving antenna: E

H0 . With d1 , over size scale of antenna, E0 and


0 are approximately spatially uniform. In presence
H
of receiving antenna, electric and magnetic elds are
and normal H
are zero
perturbed so that tangential E
along the perfectly conducting length of the antenna.

S1
c

d1

Eo

+ a _I1
_1
V
_ b

For d1 <<

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

=E
0 + E
1
E
=H
0 + H
1
H

(1)
(2)

Surface S1 above intimately hugs the antenna so that

da
0 + E
1 n
E
=
da E
=0
S1

= 0)
(tangential E

0 + H
1) =
da n
(H

S1

=
da K

S1

+d1 /2

dz I1 (z) = I1 deiz

(4)

d1 /2

Another useful relationship:

da (E0 H0 ) n
= (E0 H0 )
S1

da n
=0

(5)

S1

Integral of normal over closed surface is zero:

dV f =
da f n,

Take f = 1, f = 0 =
da n
=0
V

(3)

S1

(6)

Scalar Triple Product Identity:


(
a b) c = a
(b c)

(7)

(Interchange of cross and dot)


Complex power supplied by receiving antenna

n
P =
da S

(8)

S1

+ H
)
H
) = 1 (E
0 + E
1 ) (H
S = (E
0
1
2
2

) + E
(H
+ H
)

=
E0 (H0 + H
(9)

1
1
0
1

1
(H
n
0 (H
0 + H
1 ) n
0 + H
1 ) n
P =
da S
=
da E
+
da E

(10)

1
2
S1
S1
S1
2

0 (H
0 + H
1 ) n
da E
=

(H
+ H
) n
da E

0
0
1
S1

+ H
) n
0
=E
da (H

0
1

S1

S1

0 I1 deiz
= E
(from (4))

H
n
H
n
1 (H
0 + H
1 ) n
da E
=
da E

+
da
E

1
1
0
1
S1
S1
S1

(11)
(12)

|I1 |2 (R+jX)

where R is the radiation resistance

and X is the antenna reactance

0 E
da E1 H0 n
=
da H

1
S1
S1

(E
+ E
) n

=
da H

0
1
0
S1

=
da H0 (E0 + E1 ) n
= H0

S1

+ E
1 n
da E

S1

= 0 (from (3))
1
1
P =
E0 I1 deiz + |I1 |2 (R + jX) = V1 I1
2
2

(13)

Thevenin Equivalent Circuit

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

0 de
VT H = Voc = E

(de = deiz )

III. Transmitting and Receiving Antennas


A. Circuit Description

^
I1

I2

V1

V2

Two port network

Z12 =

V1

I2 I1 =0

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

V1 = I1 Z11 + I2 Z12
V2 = I1 Z21 + I2 Z22
V2
Z21 =

I1 I2 =0

Reciprocity Theorem: Z12 = Z21


Z11 = R1 + jX1
B. Antenna Thevenin Equivalent
I1 Circuits
Vth1

I2

Z*22

V1

Z22 = R2 + jX2

Vth2

V2

Receiver (Balanced load Z*22 to cancel


reactance X2)

Transmitter

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

Vth1 = I2 Z12 =

dl = E
dl
E
1
1
e

dl
Vth2 = I1 Z21 = E
2
e

P2 =

2 dle sin()|2
1 |Vth2 /2|2
1 |Vth2 |2
1 |E
=
=

2 R2
8 R2
8 2 dle 2
3

2
2
2
2

1 |E
1 |E
2|
2 | sin () 3
P2 = Arec (, ) Sr = Arec (, )
=
8
2
2
2
2

Arec (, ) = sin2 ()
= Grec (, )
2
4
4

C. Representative Parameters
1. Minimum received power 1020 watts
For total transmitted power of 1 watt, how far away can the receiver be at f = 1
GHz?
Prec =

Ptrans
2
G
G
trans
rec
2
4r
4
Sr

f = c =

Arec (,)

108

3
c
=
f
109

= .3 m

3
sin2 () (for short dipoles) (identical transmitting and receiving antennas)
2

Take = Gtrans = Grec =


2
2
2

Ptrans

2
r =
Gtrans Grec
Prec
4
2
1
9
.3
= 20
10
4
4

Gtrans = Grec =

= 1.28 1017 m2
r = 3.58 108 m = 3.58 105 km 200, 000 miles
2. For data transmission, receivers need Eb > 4 1020 Joules/bit

Power received = M Eb where M is the data rate, bits/s

9
9
109 watts received power allows M = 10Eb = 4101020 = .25 1011 bits/s

1 CD = 700 106 bytes = 5600 106 bits (1 byte = 8 bits)

M = .25 1011 bits/sec 4.5 CD/sec

3. Distance is not a barrier to wireless communications

r = 1 lightyear = 3 108 m/s 3 107 s/yr = 9 1015 m/yr

Ptrans =?
c
= .1 m
f
M = 1 bit/s, Eb = 4 1020 Joules/bit
f = 3GHz =

Prec = M Eb = 4 1020 Watts


Gtrans = Grec = 107
5

Ptrans

2
Prec 4r

=
Gtrans Grec

2
4(91015 )
20
4 10
.1
=
14
10
= 512 Watts

For M = 2.4 kb/s Ptrans 1.2 MW (with a 1 year delay each way)
4. Optical Communications: E = hf, h = 6.625 1034 Joule-sec (Plancks Constant)
a. Radio Photons
f = 1 GHz E = 6.625 1025 Joules/Photon
Eb
EN = Eb N =
photons/bit
E
4 1020
=
6000 photons/bit
6.625 1025
b. Optical Photons
c
3 108
=
6 1014 Hz
.5 106
.5 106
Eb
4 1020
N=
=
.1 photon/bit
hf
6.625 1034 6 1014

= 0.5 m f =

Оценить