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NOTES – Infinite Series (Chpt 11)

11.1 Sequences {a n }

If

either ∞ or -∞).

lim a

n →∞

n = L, where L is any real number, the sequence converges, otherwise it diverges (goes to

To find limits:

1) "Divide out", as in:

{a n } =

n

12n

lim

n

→∞

 

1

n

2n

 

= lim

n

→∞

 

1

1/ n

2

 

2) If f(n) = a n , use known limits of f(x):

a n

=

 

1 +

1

n

 

n

Other handy limits:

lim

x →∞

 

1

+

lim

x →∞

 

a

x

 

x

1 +

=

1

x

e

a

 

x

=

3) If f(n) = a n , use L’Hôpital’s Rule on lim

x →∞

{a n } =

n

2

2

n

1

lim

x

→∞

2

x

2

x

1

=

e

 → lim a n →∞ n x n = 0    n! 2x (ln 2)2 x   

lim

n →∞

f (x) :

lim

x

→∞

1

=
− P
converges
2
=
e
converges
 1
n
lim
n
= 1
lim
x sin
1
n →∞
x →∞
 
x
   =
2
=
lim
=
0
converges
2
x
x
→∞
(ln 2) 2

4) Squeeze Theorem

 if lim a n = L = lim b n and n →∞ n →∞

a n ≤ c n ≤ b n

then for all n > some integer N,

lim c

n →∞

n

=

L

This says that if you can fit a sequence between two other convergent sequences that have the same limit (or between a convergent sequence and a number), then the sequence in question will also have the same limit, and thereby converge. It doesn't have to fit between the sequences right away (at n = 1), as long as it's always squeezed after some n value. sin n

Example: in the sequence

π , the value of the numerator is -1 ≤ sin nπ ≤ 1, so the sequence can be

n

2

1

n

2

sin n π

n

2

1

n

2

sin n π

n

2

written as between two sequences:

1

n

2

and

1

n

2

The limit of both

is also zero and the sequence converges.

is zero, so the limit of

Remember, the limits of sums, differences, products and quotients of sequences are the same as the sums, differences, products and quotients of individual limits, so some manipulation may be needed.

For example:

lim

n →∞







3n

2

5n

1

=

3

5

 

 

(1)

=

sin

3

5

 

1

n

 

=

lim

n

→∞

 



3n

5n

1

 

n sin

  = n

1

n





lim

→∞

 

3n

5n

1

 

n

 

lim n sin

→∞

1    n 



If a sequence has an alternating sign in it, like (-1) n , then test the limit of the absolute value:

 if lim a n = 0 then lim a n = 0 n →∞ n →∞

A sequence {a n } is called bounded if it has both an upper bound that it cannot be greater than and a

lower bound that it cannot be less than. A sequence is monotonic if its terms are all nondecreasing (increasing or equal) or all nonincreasing (decreasing or equal).

If {a n } is bounded and monotonic, it converges.

[This is not a test for divergence! A sequence can be not bounded or not monotonic and still converge.]

Note: limits at infinity are also horizontal asymptotes of the graph f(n) = a n , so sometimes you can apply the asymptote rules to check your limits.

11.2 Series - sum of a sequence:

The partial sum of a series is found by adding a certain number of terms in the sequence.

If the sequence of partial sums {S n } has a finite limit (convergent), then the series

a

n

=

1

n

a

n

converges.

n

=

1

If the sequence of partial sums {S n } diverges, then the series

a

n

=

1

n

diverges.

Note: A sequence can converge (

lim a

n →∞

n = L) but its series may diverge!

A

leaving a finite number of terms that determines the sum.

telescoping series is characterized by a sequence where many of the terms cancel each other,

 A telescoping series converges if a n approaches a finite limit. In the series: (a 1 – a 2 ) + (a 2 – a 3 ) + (a 3 – a 4 ) + … (a n – a n+1 ) all the terms cancel except for the first

one and the last one, and the n th partial sum S n = a 1 – a n+1 .

If this series converges, the sum S = a 1 -

lim a

n →∞

n

+

1

.

Try creating a telescoping series using partial fractions:

1

n

=

1

1

n(n

+

1)

n

=

1

 

1

1

 

1

1

 

+

 

2

=

n

n

+

1

=

1

2

1

3

 

+

 

1

3

1

4

 

+

 

1

1

n

n

+

1

 

All the terms cancel except 1

1

The sum is

1

1

n

+

1

=

+

1 -

n

1

.

lim

1

+

n

→∞

=

n(n

+

1)

1 – 0

S n = a 1 -

lim a

n →∞

lim n

n

→∞

1

= 0, so this series converges (finite limit)

=

1.

Note: cancellation may not start right away, and not all of the terms toward the end may cancel - you may have more than one term left over at the beginning or the end of the series. Write out the series until you know the pattern.

Geometric series

ar

n

=

0

n

If you don't start n at zero:

= a and converges

1r

if

0 < | r | <1

ar

n

=

3

n

=

ar

n

=

0

n - (ar 0 + ar 1 + ar 2 )

diverges if | r | ≥ 1

repeating decimals:

.080808

=

 

10

8

n

=

0

2

nth term limit for convergent series:

nth term test for divergence:

 1    n 8 /100 8 = = 10 2 1 − 1/100 99 if a n converges then if lim a n ≠ 0 then n →∞

lim a

n →∞

a

n

=

1

n

n

=

0

diverges

Note: If

telescoping series). In fact, the series could either converge or diverge.

lim a

n →∞

n

=

0

, we know nothing! This is not a test for convergence of a series (except a

11.3 Integral test: if f(x) continuous, positive, decreasing, x ≥ N, and a n = f(n),

then

=

N

n

a

n

and

N

f (x)dx

either both converge or both diverge

b

b →∞

Remember, an improper integral converges if the limit exists for lim

a

f (x) dx .

The infinite series does not necessarily converge to the limit of the integral.

Example:

n

= 2

1

→ ∫

2

1

2
x
x
1

dx

= [

arcsec x

]

π

=

2 2

π

3

=

π

6

→ both converge

If the series converges to S, then the remainder R N = S – S N is bounded by 0 ≤ R N

Example:

R 7

7

9

x

3

dx

 ∞ Find the max error when ∑ n = 1

9

n

3

→ R 7

=

.0918

is estimated using the first seven terms.

N

f (x)dx .

Example:

R N

N

1

x

3

How many terms are needed to estimate

dx ≤ .001

1
2
2x

≤ .001

N

1

=

n

1

n

3

to within 0.001?

1

2N

2

.001

p-series:

1

converges if p >1; diverges if 0 < p ≤ 1

n

=

1

n

p

1

is called the harmonic series:

n

=

1

n

1 + 1/2 + 1/3 + 1/4 + ….

(diverges)

N

23

For a series similar to the harmonic series, if the terms are larger than those in the harmonic series (e.g., 1/(n – 1)), expect it to diverge; if its terms are smaller (e.g., 1/(n ln n)), you can’t tell – try the integral test.

11.4 Comparison tests:

Direct comparison test: compare a series to another series whose convergence/divergence is known

for
0 < a n ≤ b n
if
∑ b
n converges then
∑ a
n converges (b n is the comparison series)
if
∑ a
n diverges then
∑ b
n diverges (a n is the comparison series)
1
1
1
Example:
looks like
3
n
+ 3n
,
is a convergent p-series, and
3
n
n
= 1
1 1
1
0
so,
also converges.
3
3
3
n
+ 3n
n
n
+
3n
n
= 1
n
n
3 n
3
∞ 
3
Example:
−1 looks like
,
∑ is a divergent geometric series, and
2 n
 
2
 
 
2
 
n
= 0
n
3
n 3
∞ n
3
0
so,
also diverges.
 
2
 
2 n
−1
∑ 2
n
1
n
=
0
Limit comparison test:

For a given a n > 0 use a b n > 0 with known convergence/divergence to compare it to.

If

lim

n →∞

a

n

b

n

  = L, finite and positive, the series

a

n

and

b

n either both converge or both diverge.

To formulate the comparison series, ignore the coefficients and all but highest powers of n in the

numerator and denominator of the original series.

Examples

=

1

n

a n

1

3n

2

4n

+

5

1
n
= 1
3n
2
2
∞ n
− 10
4n
5
3
+ n
n
=
1

11.5 Alternating series:

(

=

n 1

1)

n

a

n

or

1

=

n

Approximating a sum

(

1

=

n

b n

1

n

2

1
n
= 1
n
2
n
= ∑
5
n
n
=
1
n
=
1
a n > 0
n
+ 1
1)
a
n
a 
n
lim
n →∞
b 
n
1
3
1 3
1
1
3
n
4

converges if

lim a

n →∞

n

=

0

both converge

both diverge

both converge

and

a n+1 ≤ a n

To approximate the sum of an alternating series, calculate the remainder after doing a partial sum:

| R n |

a n+1 .

For example, the remainder after summing the first 6 terms would be | R 6 | ≤ a 7

The total sum will be in the interval defined by:

S n - | R n |

S

S n + | R n |

To find how many terms are needed to approximate a sum to within a certain error:

if desired error < .0001 →

the number of terms of the series needed will be n (if the series starts with n = 1)

a n+1 < .0001

find a n+1 by trial and error

Example: Approximate

1 e with an error less than 0.001 using the series

(

2

1)

n

n

=

0

n

n!

by trial and error: a 3 = 0.0208

a 4 = 0.0026

a 5 = 0.00026 < 0.001

5 terms are needed to achieve the desired accuracy (note the series starts with n = 0):

4 (

2

1)

n

n

= 0

n n!

= 0.60677

1 e

= 0.60653

| R | = 0.00024

Absolute convergence: If

|a | converges, then a converges

n

n

a

n converges absolutely if

|a | converges. This theorem can be used to test not only alternating

n

series but also other series that involve sign changes that don't strictly alternate.

∑ ∞ sin n
has positive and negative terms, but is not an alternating series
2
n
n
= 1
sin n
1
P converges by Direct Comparison Test
2 ≤
2
n
n
∑ ∞ sin n
converges absolutely
2
n
n
= 1

If

a

n

converges but

|a | diverges, then a is conditionally convergent

n

n

=

n

1

(

1)

n

+

1

n

converges but

=

n

1

1

n

diverges, so

n

=

1

(

1)

n

+

1

n

is conditionally convergent

11.6 Ratio Test:

a

n converges absolutely if

lim

n →∞

inconclusive if lim = 1

< 1

a

n diverges if

lim

n →∞

a
n
+
1
a
n

> 1

(or lim = )

The ratio test is especially good to use for series with exponents and/or factorials.

Example:
a
n
+
1
lim
n →∞
a
n
n
4
Does
converge or diverge?
n!
n
= 1
n
+ 1
4
n!
=
lim
=
lim
n
n →∞
(n
+ 1)!
4
n
→∞

=

Root Test:

a

n

converges absolutely if

inconclusive if lim = 1

lim

n →∞

< 1

a

0

converges

n diverges if lim > 1 (or lim = )

The root test also works well for series with n th powers.

Example:
lim
n
| a
|
n
n →∞
2
n
Does
n
11
n
= 1
2
n
= lim
n
n
n →∞
11
converge or diverge?
n
2
n
= lim
= lim
n →∞
11 n →∞
(
n
n
) 2
1
=
11 11

converges

(see "Other handy limits", pg 1)

Strategies

1. nth term approach zero? If not, diverges.

2. Special type – geometric, p-series, telescoping, alternating?

3. Apply Integral Test, Root Test, Ratio Test?

4. Compare the series to one of the special types?

11.8 Power Series: represent f(x) exactly (over a specified interval)

f(x) =

0 a (x

n

=

n

c)

n power series centered at c

The domain of f(x) is all x for which the series converges (always includes c). The domain can be either a point, an interval, or the entire real line.

Every power series converges at its center:

a

n

(c

c)

n

a

0

. [for series, (x – c) 0 = 1, even if x = c]

=

n

=

0

Radius of Convergence (R) Only one is true:

1) R = 0 if the series converges only at c. 2) The series converges absolutely for |x – c| < R and diverges for |x – c| > R. R determines the interval of convergence around c: (c – R, c + R). 3) R = if the series converges absolutely for all x.

To find the radius of convergence, use the Ratio Test:

lim

n →∞

a
n
+
1
a
n

1)

n

0

=

(3n)!(x

1)

2n

n!

c = 1

lim

n →∞

diverges for |x – 1| > 0 converges only at the center c = 1

(3n

+

3)!(x

1)

2n

+

2

(n

+

1)!

(3n)!(x

1)

2n

n!

R = 0

=

 < 1 lim 3(x − n →∞

2

1) (3n

+

1)(3n

2)

3)

n

=

0

(4x)

n

c =

0

lim

n →∞

converges if 4|x| < 1 or |x| < ¼

= 0

n

(2x)

n

n!

c =

converges for all x

0

lim

n →∞

R =

R = ¼
n
+ 1
(2x)
(n
+ 1)!
n
(2x)
n!

= 4|x|

→ converges on interval (-¼, ¼)

=

lim

n

→∞

2x
n
+
1

= 0 < 1

+

2)

= ∞

To find the exact interval of convergence, the endpoints need to be tested separately for convergence.

=

0

n

(x

2)

n

+

1

(n

+

1)3

n

+

1

for |x| > 2,

lim

n →∞

c = 2
n
+ 2
(x
− 2)
n
+ 2
(n
+ 2)3
n
+ 1
(x
− 2)
n
+ 1
(n
+ 1)3

converges if |x – 2 | < 3

= lim

n →∞

(x
2)(n
+
1)
3(n
+ 2)

=

| x

2 |

3

<

1

R = 3 and the series converges on at least the interval (-1, 5).

Test the original series for the endpoints x = - 1 and x = 5:

If x = –1, the series is

=

0

n

(

3)

n 1

+

(n

+

1)3

n

+

1

=

=

0

n

(

1)

n

+

1

n

+

1

which converges by the alternating series test.

If x = 5, the series is

=

0

n

3

n

+

1

(n

+

1)3

n

+

1

=

=

0

n

1

n

+

1

The interval of convergence is [-1, 5).

which is a divergent p-series.

Differentiation and Integration of Power Series

If

f(x) =

=

0

n

a

n

(x

c)

n

= a o + a 1 (x – c) + a 2 (x – c) 2 + a 3 (x – c) 3 + …… has R > 0,

then f(x) is differentiable on (c – R, c + R), and:

f '(x)

=

f (x)dx

=

n

1

=

na (x

n

C +

=

0

n

c)

a

n

n

1

=

a 1 + 2a 2 (x – c) + 3a 3 (x – c) 2 + …

(x

c)

n

+

1

(n

+

1)

=

C + a o (x – c) +

a

1

(x

c)

2

2

+

a

2

same R

(x

c)

3

3

+ ….

same R

Note: The power rules of derivation and integration apply only to the exponent on the (x – c) term. Any other "n's" in the original series are not affected – they are part of a n – e.g., (-1) n .

Radii of convergence are the same. Intervals of convergence may differ because of endpoint behavior.

11.9

Representation of functions with power series

Geometric power series

A function can be represented by a geometric series if it has the form

a

1r , because

a

1r

=

The radius of convergence for a geometric series is:

lim

n →∞

n
+
1
r
n
r

< 1

or | r | < 1.

In f(x) =

1

1x , a = 1, r = x, and the function can be represented by

0

=

n

x

n on its interval of

0

=

n

ar

n

.

convergence, which would be the radius |x| < 1 around the center c = 0, or ( –1, 1).

The graph of 1 + x + x 2 + x 3 + … will match the graph of

1

1x on the interval (–1, 1).

To determine a geometric series with center c, where f(x) =

1

:

1x

1) replace x in f(x) with (x – c) and compensate for that subtraction:

 1 1 P = 1 − (x + 1) + 1 2 − (x + 1) → a = ½ and r = (x + 1)/2

c

=

–1

P

replace x with (x + 1)

1

=

 

1

1/ 2

x

1 (x

+ 

1) / 2

1

n

+

 

| x + 1 | < 2

a

:

1r

2) change to

1

2

(x + 1)

<

1

centered at –1 =

= ½ [1 + (x + 1)/2 + (x + 1) 2 /4 + (x + 1) 3 /8 + ….]

(|x – c| < R)

1x

This converges when

2

2

n
= 0
x
+
1
2

The interval of convergence is (-3, 1) and the graphs will match on that interval.

Example: f(x) =

3

4 x ; find the geometric power series centered at -2

3

=

4 x

3

4 (x + 2) + 2

=

3

=

6 (x + 2)

1/ 2

1 (x + 2) / 6

=

x

2

1

 

+ 

 

6

2

n

=

0

converges when

Handy operations

1)

If f(x) =

n

= 0

a

n

x

x
+
2
< 1
6
n , then f(x N ) =

| x + 2 |

n

= 0

a

n

x

nN

<

6

or on the interval (-8, 4)

n

This means you can build a series for x and then substitute x N for x in the series.

Example: Find a power series for f(x) =

2

2+ x

2

centered at c = 0.

2
Find a series for
:
2+ x
Substitute x 2 for x:
∑ (
n
= 0
2
x
2
<
1
x
< 2
2

1)

2

2+ x

1

1(x / 2)

=

0

n

 

n
x
2
 
2
x
2

=

<

=

n

0

1

=

=

(

1)

n

n

n
2
x
2 
− 2 < x <

converges when

or interval of convergence (

 

x

2

 

n

2,
2

2)

If f(x) =

=

n

0

a

n

n

x

and g(x) =

n

=

0

b x

n

n

, then f(x) ± g(x) =

n

=

0

(a

n

±

b

n

) x

n

)

This is useful if you can split up a function into two functions, like using partial fractions.

Example: Find a power series for f(x) =

2x

x

2

1

=

1

x

+

1

+

1

x

1

2x

x

2

1

1

x

+1

1

x

1

2x

x

2

1

=

=

=

1

1(x)

1

1

x

=

n

0

(

=

1)

n

=

=

n

0

=

0

n

(

x

n

+

(

x)

1)x

n

n

=

=

0

n

(

1)x

n

=

0

n

=

(

1)

=

n

0

n

x

n

(

  −

1)

n

centered at c = 0.

| x

| x

−  

1

x

|

|

n

<

<

1

1

interval of convergence (-1, 1)

Note: If you add two series with different intervals of convergence, the interval of convergence of the sum will be the intersection of the separate intervals.

11.10 Taylor polynomial functions (P n (x)) approximate other elementary functions (f(x)) around

a central value c. In other words, the polynomial will produce a similar graph to the function graph over a limited range around c. f(x) must have n derivatives at c.

for P n expanded around a value c: P n (x) = f(c) + f '(c)(x – c) +

"

(c) (x

f

2!

n

(c) (x

f

n!

c)

2

+ …

c)

n

f(c) = P 0

if c = 0 → Maclaurin polynomial

Example:

Find P 6 (x) of cos(x) around center c = 0.

 f(x) = cos x f '''(x) = sin x f (6) (x) = -cos x f '(x) = -sin x f (4) (x) = cos x f ''(x) = -cos x f (5) (x) = -sin x c = 0

P 6 (x) = cos(0) – sin(0)(x – 0) +

cos(0)

2!

(x – 0) 2 + sin(0) (x – 0) 3

3!

P 6 (x)

+

=

cos(0)

1

4!

(x – 0) 4 +

x

2

2! +

x

4

4!

sin(0)

5!

x

6

6!

(x – 0) 5 +

cos(0)

6!

(x – 0) 6

P 6

To approximate values using either Taylor or Maclaurin:

cos (0.1):

x

=

0.1

expand cos(x) around c = 0

P 6 (0.1) = 0.995004165

vs

P 6 (x) = 1 – x 2 /2! + x 4 /4! – x 6 /6! 0.995004165 actual

ln(1.1): expand ln(x) around c = 1 P P 4 (x) = (x – 1) – (x – 1) 2 /2 + (x – 1) 3 /3 – (x – 1) 4 /4

x

=

1.1

P 4 (1.1) = .095308333

vs

.095310180 actual

ln(1.1): expand ln(1 + x) around c = 0 → P 4 (x) = x

x

=

0.1

– x 2 /2 + x 3 /3 – x 4 /4

Taylor’s Theorem – estimating the remainder

Error (remainder) = | R n (x) | = | f(x) – P n (x) |

If f is differentiable through n + 1 in interval I containing c, for each x there is a z between x and c

such that

To find the

Example:

R n (x) =

max| f

(n

+

f

(n

+

1)

(z) (x

1)!

(n

+

c)

n

+

1

and

| R n (x) |

| x

c |

n

+

1

(n

+

1)!

max| f

(n

+

1)

(z) |

.

1)

(z) |

, you can often use the endpoints of the interval between x and c.

Find the error in approximating sin(0.1) with a 3 rd order approximation.

 sin x (with c = 0) → P 3 (x) = x – x 3 /3! P 3 (0.1) = 0.09983333 c = 0 x = 0.1 0 < z < 0.1 f (4) (x) = sin x

R

R

3 (x)

3

(.1)

4

4!

.00000042

max sin z

and

max | sin z | = sin 0.1

(actual R = 0.09983342 – 0.09983333 = 0.00000009)

How many terms for desired accuracy?

Determine the degree of the Maclaurin polynomial P n to use to approximate e 0.75 with an error < 0.001.

f(x)

=

e x

f (n+1) (x) = e x

x

= 0.75

c

=

0

0

<

z

< 0.75

max |e z | = e 0.75

| x

c |

n

+

1

(n

+

1)!

max| f

(n

+

1)

(z) |

=

e

0.75

(0.75)

(n

+

1)

(n

+

1)!

< 0.001

Taylor and Maclaurin series

by trial and error, n = 5

If a power series converges to f(x), then it must be a Taylor or Maclaurin series:

f(x) =

Taylor

=

0

n

n

(c) (x

f

n!

c)

n

Maclaurin c = 0

or

f(x) =

=

0

n

f

n

(0) x

n!

n

Remainder R n (x) =

f

n

+

1

(z)

(n

+

1)!

(x

If

lim R

x →∞

n

=

0

for all x in interval I, then the Taylor series for f converges and equals f(x).

c)

n

+

1

Binomial series

The series for f(x) = (1 + x) k is

R = 1

 k(k − 1)x 2 k(k − 1)(k − 2)x 3 1 + kx + + 2! 3! x x 2 1 3x ⋅ 3 1 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 5x 4 1 + − + − + → 2 2 2 ⋅ 2! 2 3 ⋅ 3! 2 4 ⋅ 4! x 3 + + 3! ( − 1 ) n 2 n x n 1 = − 2x + 4x 2 − 8x 3 + n! 2! 3!

2

x

2!

=

0

n

the series converges on (-1, 1)

1 + x

=

(1 + x) ½

f(x) =

Using the table of Taylor series

Basic power series can be adapted to functions by:

substitution – can be done in the basic series.

Find the power series for e