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SMSains Muzaffar Syah

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What is Process of transferring energy from one location to another which is


waves? produced by an oscillating or vibrating motion.

 When energy is transferred by a wave from a vibrating source to a distant


How do receiver, there is no transfer of matter between the two points.
waves  When a stone is dropped into a pond, water waves are produced.
transfer  The direction of propagation of the water waves is ffrom left to right.
energy?  The cork represents the water particles.
 The cork does not move together with the wave, instead it moves up and
down about its initial position.
 Waves transfer energy as they move along the water particles.
However, the waves do not carry the water particles along with them.

This shows that wave transferring energy without transferring matter.

What is A Transverse Wave?

A transverse wave is a wave in which the


vibration of particles in the medium is
perpendicular to the direction of
propagation of the wave.

Example: water waves, light waves,


electromagnetic waves

What is Longitudinal Waves?

A longitudinal wave is a wave which the


vibration of particles in the medium is
parallel to the direction of propagation of
the wave.
The slinky spring moves backwards and
forwards to produce a longitudinal wave.
The particles of the medium (spring) m move
parallel to the direction of the wave. The
wave that travels along the spring consists
of a series of compression and rarefraction
rarefraction.

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Activity 1: To observe a longitudinal wave and a transverse wave using a slinky spring.

1. Hold one end of a slinky spring and give a sharp push at the other end of the spring backward
and forward.. Observe the movement of the spring.

(a) Sketch the longitudinal wave produce by the slinky spring.

(b) Label the parts of compression and rarefaction of the spring and the wavelength of the
wave produced.
(c) Show the direction of the vibration of the coloured thread and the direction of propagation
of the wave (movement of the spring.
(d) The coloured
red thread which represents a pparticle of the medium vibrate parallel to the
propagation of the wave.
(e) The wave that travels along the spring consists of a series of compression and
rarefraction.
(f) The wavelength is the distance between two successive rarefraction or two successive
compression

2. Use the same slinky spring move the other end of the spring side ways. Observe the
movement of the spring.
(a) Sketch the transverse wave produced by the slinky spring.

(b) Label the wavelength of the wave produced.


(c) Show the direction of the vibration of the coloured thre
thread
ad and the direction of propagation
of the wave (movement of the spring.

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(d) The vibration of the coloured thread is perpendicular to the direction of the propagation of
the wave.

Conclusion
A longitudinal wave is a wave in which the vibration of the medium is parallel to the direction of
the propagation of wave.
A transverse wave is produced when the vibration of the medium is perpendicular to the direction
of the propagation of wave.

What is a ripple tank?

The phenomenon of water waves can be investigated


using a ripple tank.
The water waves are produced by a wooden bar on
the water surface.

The tank is leveled so that the depth of water in the


tank is uniform to ensure water waves propagate with
constant speed.

How the dark and bright bands are formed on the


screen?

The water acts as a lens to produce a pattern of dark


and bright regions on a piece of white paper placed
under the tank when light passes through it.

Water waves have crests and troughs.

A crest is the highest position of the wave acts as a


convex lens, whereas a trough is the lowest position
acts as a concave lens.

Light rays from the lamp on top will focus onto the
white screen below. The bright lines correspond to the
crests, and the dark lines correspond to the troughs.

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What is meant by a wavefront?

Lines joining all the points of the same phase are called
wavefronts.

The wavefronts of a transverse wave and longitudinal


wave are perpendicular to the direction of propagation
of the waves.

Two types of wavefronts:

1. circular wavefronts 2. plane wavefronts

Describing Waves

Vibration/Oscillation : The movement from one extreme position to the other and back to the same
position.

Amplitdue, a : The maximum displacement from its equilibrium position. SI unit: meter, m
Period, T : The time taken for an oscillation to complete one cycle. SI unit is second (s)
Frequency, f : The number of waves produced in one second. SI unit is Hertz (Hz)
Wavelength , λ: The distance between two successive crests or two successive troughs or the
distance between two successive compressions or two successive rarefactions in
a sound wave.

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Velocity, v :The measurement of how fast a crest is moving from a fixed point. SI unit is ms .

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Displacement-time graph and Displacement-distance graph for a wave.


The motion of an oscillating spring can be plotted on a displacement against time graph.

O is called the equilibrium position. a is the amplitude. T is the period of the oscillation.

Displacement against distance graph

Displacement of a particle against distance measured along the wave

a = amplitude. λ = wavelength

Relationship between frequency and wavelength

At constant speed, when the frequency increases, the wavelength will


decrease. Frequency is inversely proportional to wavelength.

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The relationship between speed, wavelength and frequency

Speed = distance
time
For one complete oscillation, the distance traveled is the wavelength of the wave. The time taken
to travel such distance is period. So,

Speed = wavelength
Period

Since period = 1 __ .
Frequency , therefore speed = frequency x wavelength

v = fλ

Exersise 1

1. (a) The wavelength of the wave in the diagram above is given by letter A

(b) The amplitude of the wave in the diagram above is given by letter D

2. Indicate the interval which represents one full wavelength.

Answer: ABCDE, C-G, B-F

2. What is the frequency of water waves with the wavelength of 4.0 cm and traveling at a speed
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of 1.6 cm s ?

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3. Measure the wavelength and calculate the speed of the wave. The frequency of the wave is 50
Hz.

Λ = 2 cm
v = (50) (2)
-1
= 100 cm s
-1
=1ms

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4. If the speed of light is 3.0 x 10 m s , what is the frequency of light with the wavelength of 8.0
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x 10 m?
8 8
f = v/λ = 3.0 x 10 / 8.0 x 10 = 0.375 Hz

5. From the graph, calculate:

(a) Amplitude
A = 10 cm

(b) Period
T = 0.4 s

(c) frequency

f = 1/T = 1/0.4 = 2.5 Hz

6. A graph shows a wave produce by a


slinky spring vibrating at frequency 8
Hz. What is:
(a) amplitude
A = 10 cm

(b) wavelength

λ = 1.0 cm

(c) wave speed


-1
v = fλ = 8 x 1.0 = 8.0 cm s

7. Which of the graphs has a higher frequency?

A B

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Damping in an Oscillating System

What is Damping is the decrease in the amplitude of an oscillating system when its
damping? energy is lost as heat energy.
The amplitude of an oscillating system will gradually decrease and become zero
when the oscillation stops.

What causes 1. External damping of the system is the loss of energy to overcome frictional
damping? forces or air resistance.
2. Internal damping is the loss of energy due to the compression and extension
of the molecules in the system.

Sketch a
graph to
show
damping

Resonance in an oscillating system

External  To enable an oscillating system to go on continuously, an external force must


Force be applied to the system.

Force  The external force supplies energy to the system. Such a motion is called a
oscillation forced oscillation

Natural  The frequency


cy of a system which oscillates freely without the action of an
frequency external force
force.
Resonance
 Resonance occurs when a system is made to oscillate at a frequency
equivalent to its natural frequency by an external force. The resonating
system oscillates at its maximum amplitude.

Activity 2: Damping effect in a vibrating system


1. Set up the apparatus as shown below.
2. Fix a saw blade horizontally on the leg
of a laboratory bench using a GG-clamp.
3. At the other end of the blade, fix a piece
of plasticine (50 g)
4. Move the plasticine to the position X
and release it.
5. Observe the position Y reached by the
plasticine.
6. Observe subsequent Y positions of the
plasticine.

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Observation:
What changes do you observe in the position Y The position Y becomes closer over several
over several oscillations? oscillations

Conclusion:
The position Y becomes …………………(farther / closer)) to the equilibrium position each time the
plasticine oscillates.

Discussion
1. Why does the spring oscillate closer Its amplitude decreases.
and closer to the equilibrium position?
2. What happens to the energy possessed
by the plasticine and the blade? Energy possess decreases and lost to heat.

3. What happens to the oscillation of the


blade after a long time? It will stop.

4. What is the name given to this


phenomenon? Damping

5. How do you overcome the damping


effect of the oscillation Give external force or push the plasticine ball.

6. A mother puts her baby to sleep in a (a) What happen to the sarong cradle when
sarong cradle. She needs to the mother stops moving the cradle up
continuously move the sarong cradle and down?
up and down.
Amplitude decreases

(b) Suggest a reason for the movement of


the sarong cradle discussed in (a).

Damping, lost energy to heat

(c) What must you do if you want to help the


mother to maintain the movement of the
cradle?

Move the cradle up and down / give


external force

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Experiment in  The frequency of a simple pendulum depends on the length of the pendulum.
Barton’s
pendulum

 In Barton’s pendulum experiment, there are many pendulums tied to the rope.
How does Two of the pendulum are of the same length
resonance  When pendulum B oscillates, all the other pendulums are forced to oscillate.
occur in the  But pendulum D oscillates with the largest amplitude, ie, pendulum D
two resonates
pendulum of  Pendulum B and pendulum D are of the same length.
equal length?
 Frequency B equal Frequency D
 Therefore, pendulum B causes pendulum D to oscillate at its natural
frequency.

Good effects Explain how the tuner in a radio enables us to select the programs we are
of resonance interested.
 The circuit in the tuner is adjusted until frequency of the radio waves
produced in the radio is equal to the frequency transmitted by a particular
station. Resonance is achieved. The frequency transmitted by a particular
station will be selected. Hence a strong electrical signal is produced.

How does a
guitar work? When the guitar string is plucked, the string will
start to vibrate and produce distinct sounds.
The guitar string is attached to the sound box of
the guitar.
The vibrating string forces air particles inside the
box to vibrate at the same natural frequency as the string.
The sound box vibrates with the string and sets more air particles to vibrate thus
producing loud sound.

Bad effects of Explain how the Tacoma Bridge collapsed.


resonance  The movement of the wind might have the same frequency as the natural
frequency of the vibration of the bridge.
 As a result, resonance occured
 The action of the wind caused the bridge to vibrate with a large amplitude
and it collapse.

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