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EXPERIMENT NO. 1
AIM: To simulate AM Modulation.
SOFTWARE USED: VisSim Comm 6.0
THEORY:MODULATION:-It is defined as the process by which the base band signal (modulating signal)
modifies another high frequency signal called carrier. The carrier is higher in frequency than the
highest base band signal frequency. The baseband signal modifies the amplitude or frequency or
phase of the carrier in modulation process.
AMPLITUDE MODULATION:-In amplitude modulation the amplitude of the carrier is varied
in accordance to the instantaneous value of the modulating signal keeping frequency and phase
constant.
[where, c(t) is carrier signal]
[where, m(t) is modulation signal]
[where, y(t) is modulated signal]
MODULATION INDEX (m):-The relationship between the amplitude of the modulating and
carrier signal is expressed in terms of their ratio known as modulation index (m) and is
mathematically given as
m =Vm/Vc
(1.1)
The modulation index lies between 0 and 1
CALCULATION OF MODULATION INDEX (m):-

Fig.1(a) Modulated Wave


From the above figure we can write
=

(1.2)
(1.3)
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BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Fig.1(b) Block Diagram of AM

WAVEFORM:-

Fig.1(c) Waveform of AM

RESULT: - The Amplitude Modulation has been studied & designed.

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EXPERIMENT NO. 2
Aim: To simulate FM Modulation.
Software Used: VisSim. Comm 6.0
Theory: FREQUENCY MODULATION:- In frequency modulation the frequency of the
carrier is varied in accordance to the instantaneous value of the modulating signal keeping
amplitude and phase constant.
=

t+

) where

0,

t)

t+
(

at t=0,
)

Instantaneous angular frequency of frequency modulation wave after modulation is given as


+

t) where

is the constant of proportionality which represents the frequency

conversion factor. The total instantaneous phase of frequency modulated wave is


=

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Fig.2(a) Waveform of AM

Block Diagram:-

Fig.2(b) Block Diagram of FM

Output:

Fig.2(c) Output of FM

Result: The Frequency Modulation has been simulated and verified.


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EXPERIMENT NO. 3
Aim: To study and simulate the Amplitude shift keying(ASK) modulation and
demodulation.
Software Used: VisSim. Comm 6.0
Theory:
Basically digital modulation techniques may be classified into coherent and non -coherent
techniques, depending upon whether the receiver is equipped with phase recovery circuit or not.
They are:
1. Coherent digital modulation techniques.
2. Non- coherent digital modulation techniques.
Coherent Digital Modulation Techniques:
These are those techniques which employ coherent detection .In coherent detection ,the local
carrier generated at receiver is phase locked with carrier at transmitter.
Non Coherent Digital Modulation Techniques:
These are those techniques in which the detection process does not need the receiver carrier to be
phase locked with transmitter.
Amplitude Shift Keying:
It is a coherent digital modulation technique. In this method there is only one energy carrier and
it is switched on or off depending upon the input binary sequence. It is also known as on off
keying.

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Waveform:

Fig.3(a) Waveform of ASK

Block diagram

Fig.3(b) Block Diagram of ASK


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Output:

Fig.3(c) Output of ASK

Result: The Amplitude shift keying (ASK) has been simulated and studied.

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EXPERIMENT NO. 4
AIM : To study and stimulate the Frequency shift keying (FSK) Modulation and
demodulation
Software Used: VisSim Comm. 6.0.
Theory:
Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) is a frequency modulation scheme in which digital information
is transmitted through discrete frequency changes of a carrier wave. The simplest FSK is binary
FSK (BFSK). BFSK literally implies using a pair of discrete frequencies to transmit binary (0s
and 1s) information . With this scheme , the 1 is called the mark frequency and the 0 is
called the space frequency.

Waveform:

Fig.4(a) Waveform of FSK


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BlockDiagram:

Fig.4(b) Frequency Shift Keying modulation and Demodulation

Output:

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Fig.4(c) Output of FSK Modulation and Demodulation

Result: The Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Modulation and Demodulation has
been studied & simulated.

EXPERIMENT NO. 5
Aim:- To study and simulate Phase Shift Keying(PSK).
Simulator Used:- VisSim Comm 6.0
Theory:In Phase Shift Keying (PSK) modulation technique, the modulated output switches between inphase and out-of phase component of the carrier for every one to zero transitions of
modulating signal. The carrier frequency chosen for PSK modulation are 1MHZ (0 Degree) and
1 MHZ (180 Degree).The phase detector works ion the principle of squaring loops. First step in
PSK detection is the square wave conversion using a Schmitt trigger. This enables the PSK
detector to be built around digital ICs. BPSK (also sometimes called PRK, Phase Reversal
Keying, or 2PSK) is the simplest form of phase shift keying (PSK). It uses two phases which are
separated by 180 and so can also be termed 2-PSK. A binary phase shift keying signal can be
given as: s(t) = A m(t) cos 2fct

Block Diagram:
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Fig. 5(a) Phase Shift Keying Modulation and Demodulation

Output:-

Fig. 5(b) Carrier Signal

Fig. 5(c) Modulating Signal

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Fig. 5(d) Modulated Signal

Fig. 5(e) Demodulated Signal

Result:- The Phase Shift Keying(PSK) modulation and demodulation has been
studied and simulated .

EXPERIMENT NO. 6
Aim: To study and simulate Pulse Amplitude Modulation.
Software used: VisSim Comm. 6.0
Theory:Pulse-amplitude modulation, acronym PAM, is a form of signal modulation where the message
information is encoded in the amplitude of a series of signal pulses.. In this the signal is sampled
at regular intervals and each sample is made proportional to the magnitude of the signal at the
instant of sampling. These sampled pulses may then be sent either directly by a channel to the
receiving end or may be made to modulated using a carrier wave before transmission.

Block Diagram:-

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Fig:6(a) (Pulse Amplitude Modulation)

Output:-

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Fig:6(b) Output of Pulse Amplitude Modulation

Result: The Pulse amplitude Modulation has been studied and simulated.

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EXPERIMENT NO. 7
Aim: To study and simulate Pulse Position Modulation.
Software used: VisSim Comm. 6.0
Theory:Pulse-position modulation (PPM) is a form of signal modulation in which M message bits are
encoded by transmitting a single pulse in one of 2M possible time-shifts. This is repeated every T
seconds, such that the transmitted bit rate is M/T bits per second. It is primarily useful for optical
communications systems.

Block Diagram:-

Fig:7(a) Pulse Position Modulation

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Output:-

Fig:7(b) Output of Pulse Position Modulation

Result: The Pulse Position Modulation has been studied and simulated.

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EXPERIMENT NO. 8
Aim: To simulate DPSK Modulation.
Software Used: VisSim. Comm 6.0
Theory:
Differential phase shift keying (DPSK), a common form of phase modulation conveys data by
changing the phase of carrier wave. In Phase shift keying, High state contains only one cycle but
DPSK contains one and half cycle. High state is represented by a M in modulated signal and low
state is represented by a wave which appears like W in modulated signal DPSK encodes two
distinct signals of same frequency with 180 degree phase difference between the two. This
experiment requires two 180 degree out of phase carrier and modulating signals. Sine wave from
oscillator is selected as carrier signal. DSG converts DC input voltage into pulse trains. These
pulse trains are taken as modulating signals. In actual practice modulating signal is digital form
of voice or data. Sine wave is selected as carrier and 180 degree phase shift is obtained using
Opamp as shown in figure below.

Block Diagram:

Fig:8(a) DPSK modulation

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Output:-

Fig:8(b) Output of DPSK modulation

Result:- The DPSK modulation has been studied and stimulated.

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EXPERIMENT NO. 9
Aim: To simulate DPSK Demodulation.
Software Used: VisSim. Comm 6.0
Theory:
Differential phase shift keying (DPSK), a common form of phase modulation conveys data by
changing the phase of carrier wave. In Phase shift keying, High state contains only one cycle but
DPSK contains one and half cycle. High state is represented by a M in modulated signal and low
state is represented by a wave which appears like W in modulated signal DPSK encodes two
distinct signals of same frequency with 180 degree phase difference between the two. This
experiment requires two 180 degree out of phase carrier and modulating signals. Sine wave from
oscillator is selected as carrier signal. DSG converts DC input voltage into pulse trains. These
pulse trains are taken as modulating signals. In actual practice modulating signal is digital form
of voice or data. Sine wave is selected as carrier and 180 degree phase shift is obtained using Opamp as shown in figure below.

Block Diagram:

Fig:9(a) DPSK Demodulation


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Output:-

Fig.9(b) Output of DPSK demodulation

Result: - The DPSK Demodulation has been studied and stimulated.

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