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1 THE CONCLUSIVE EVALUATIONS ON THE CONSEQUENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL

ASPECTS FROM THE INCINERATION OF THE BIOLOGICAL MUDS. THE PROCESS OF


INCINERATION ...................................................................................................................................9

1.1 FROM THIS CONSIDERATION UTILITY IS BORN, THROUGH A MODEL OF SIMULATION, TO GET ONLY ALSO IN TERMS
OF RESPECT OF SOME POLLUTING ONES, THE LOADED EMISSIVO AND THE TREND OF THIS LAST, TO VARY SOME TYPE

OF REFUSALS FED IN THE OVEN. THE PLANT OF INCINERATION .......................................................................10


1.1.1 The stoccaggio ....................................................................................................................11
1.1.2 Preparation of the material to be incinerated ....................................................................13
1.1.2.1 Desiccation ......................................................................................................... ......................14
1.1.2.2 Shattering ........................................................................................................................... .......15
1.1.3 Besides the reduction general volumetrica allows an easier gestibilità of the refusal
during the operations of load the oven. Feeding of the oven ......................................................15
1.1.4 Chamber of combustion .....................................................................................................16
1.1.5 The combustive air is introduced in the room through different formalities that vary in
base to the typology of adopted primary oven, to the presence or less than a room of
postcombustione, to the type of incinerated refusal. Grate to steps ............................................17
1.1.6 The cooled cinders are transported through cochleas and ribbons conveyors in the zone of
anticipated stoccaggio, previous a treatment of final deferrizzazione through magnetic
separators. The Oven Rotativo ....................................................................................................19
1.1.7 The combustive air is sent in head together with the refusal in entry and its regulation it is,
for these aspects, simpler. Chamber of postcombustione ............................................................20
1.1.8 In the dimensionare the room of combustion is also had to consider the volume of smokes
brought you by the use of the auxiliary burners. Energetic recovery .........................................22
1.1.9 For instance in the case of dampness treatment is gotten a notable reduction of the
quantity of water evaporated by the systems of demolitions with reduction of the percentage of
vapor in the smokes issued and consequent lowering of the dewy point in the smokes. Systems of
demolition of the pollutants .........................................................................................................23
1.1.9.1 Cyclones ................................................................................................................ ...................26
1.1.9.2 And' an economic and fit system to eliminate the particolato of greater pezzatura. And' generally
considered a preliminary treatment. .......................................................................................... ............26
1.1.9.3 Electrostatic Precipitatori .............................................................................................. ............26
1.1.9.4 You filter to sleeves ............................................................................................................ .......26
1.1.9.5 Dampness Depuratori ............................................................................................................ ....27
1.1.10 Fireplace of issue. ............................................................................................................30

2 TO ELIMINATE HIM TO IT APPLIES TO A PLANT, CALLED OF ANTIPENNACCHIO,


CONSTITUTED BY AN ADDITIONAL FAN AND BY A THERMAL SCAMBIATORE. THE
ENERGY'S PART PRODUCED BY THE INCINERATION IS USED FOR PRODUCING A
CERTAIN QUOTA OF WARM AIR. THIS AIR COMES PREMISCELATA WITH THE DAMP
SMOKES COMING FROM THE INCINERATION, IN WAY OF LOWERING THE DEWY

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TEMPERATURE AND TO AVOID PHENOMENONS OF CONDENSATIONS IN
PROXIMITY OF THE RESULT OF THE FIREPLACE. NORMATIVE PICTURE .................31

2.1 D.P.R. 915/82 (CURRENTLY OLD) ....................................................................................................31


2.2 THIS NORM EXPRESSLY IMPOSED, IN THE INCINERATION THE PRESENCE OF A ROOM OF POSTCOMBUSTIONE TO
COMPLETE THE OXIDATION OF THE FLOWS COMING FROM THE ROOM OF PRIMARY COMBUSTION (STINGS 3.3). THE
CONDITIONS OPERATIONAL THAT THE EXERCISE OF THE ROOM OF POSTCOMBUSTIONE OWED TO GUARANTEE, THEY

WERE THAT THE SMOKES STAZIONASSERO FOR AT LEAST TWO SECONDS TO THE TEMPERATURE OF 950°C AND WITH A
6%V/V LEAST RESIDUAL OXYGEN AND WITH A CERTAIN TURBULENCE. THE TURBULENCE OF THE SMOKES WAS
GUARANTEED BY THEIR SPEED OF ENTRY IN THE ROOM THAT HAD TO BE AT LEAST OF 10 M/SES. D.M. 16/01/1995
TECHNICAL NORMS FOR THE RIUTILIZZO IN A CYCLE OF COMBUSTION FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ENERGY FROM THE
RESIDUES. ............................................................................................................................................32
2.3 THE MEASURE OF THE CO IN ROOM OF COMBUSTION, EVEN IF REQUIRED BY THE LAW NOT ANYMORE,
YOU/HE/SHE IS PERFORMED BY THE MANAGERS OF THE FITTINGSES OF INCINERATION HOWEVER BECAUSE HELD

PROFIT, OVER THAT FOR THE CONTROL OF THE CO IN ISSUE, ALSO FOR MONITORARE INDIRECTLY THAT POLLUTING
NOT ANALYZABLE IN CONTINUOUS, AS IPA, PCB, PCDD AND PCDF. D.M. 05/02/98 INDIVIDUALIZATION OF
THE NON DANGEROUS REFUSALS SUBMITTED TO THE PROCEDURES SIMPLIFIED OF RECOVERY, (AMONG WHICH THAT

ENERGETIC) TO THE SENSES OF THE ARTS. 31 AND 33 OF THE D.LGS. 05/02/97 N°S 22. ................................33
2.4 THE RESIDUAL QUANTITY OF MATERIAL PRESENT INCOMBUSTO IN THE CINDERS HAS TO BE AT THE MOST THE 3%
EXPRESS TRAIN AS CARBON. D.M. 124/00. INCINERATION OF DANGEROUS SPECIAL REFUSALS ...........................36

3 AND' IS THEREFORE AN USEFUL GUIDE TO THE DETERMINATION OF THE


ENERGETIC FLOWS IN THE PROCESS OF INCINERATION AND A SOURCE OF DATA
PROFITS TO THE PURPOSE OF THIS JOB. FORMATION OF THE PRODUCTS OF
COMBUSTION ...................................................................................................................................37

3.1 HEAVY METALS. OXIDES OF SULPHUR - SOX ......................................................................................37


3.2 FOR THE CONSIDERATIONS ABOVE EXPRESS, IN THE MODEL OF SIMULATION IN PROGRESS OF EDITING, IT IS
CONSIDERED THAT THE TOTALITY OF THE ORGANIC SULPHUR IS TURNED INTO SO2. NITROGEN OXIDES NOX .......38
3.2.1 By thermal ..........................................................................................................................38
3.2.2 Oxidation of the organic nitrogen ......................................................................................39
3.3 HYDROCHLORIC ACID HCL ..............................................................................................................40
3.4 THE ANALYSIS OF THE CONTENT OF HCL IN THE SMOKES AWRY OF THE FITTINGSES OF DEMOLITION IT ALLOWS
TO ALTOGETHER GO UP AGAIN TO THE TOTAL CONCENTRATION OF PRESENT ORGANIC CHLORINE IN THE REFUSALS AND

THEREFORE TO APPRAISE THE FITNESS OF THE CONDITIONS OF INCINERATION. CARBON'S MONOXIDE CO ..............40
3.5 DUSTS ...........................................................................................................................................41
3.6 AS THE PRINCIPAL PURPOSE OF THIS JOB IS TO DETERMINE OF THE RESPECTS OR OF THE TRENDS OF ISSUE, THEY
WILL BE LOOKED FOR SOME TECHNIQUES OF MEASURE THAT ALLOW THE CORRELATION OF THE ASHES OF THE

REFUSAL THE PARTICOLATO. HEAVY METALS ..............................................................................................43

4 TO QUANTIFY THE ABILITY EMISSIVA OF THE MUDS OF PURIFICATION,


RELATIVELY TO THE METALS, ANALYSIS IS EFFECTED ON MUD'S SHARES
SUBMITTED TO DIFFERENT THERMAL TREATMENTS, WITH THE PURPOSE TO

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VERIFY THE LOSS ON THE RESIDUES AND ACCORDINGLY THE QUANTITY OF
ISSUED METAL. OPERATIONAL PARAMETERS .....................................................................44

4.1 COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE OF THE REFUSAL ...................................................................................45


4.2 FORMALITY OF FEEDING OF THE REFUSAL ............................................................................................46
4.3 TRITURAZIONE: IT INFLUENCES THE TRIAL THE HOW MUCH A BODY MONOLITA ASKS FOR VERY MORE TIME TO
FINISH THE PROCESS OF INCINERATION, THEREFORE THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE PEZZATURA OF THE INCINERATED

BODIES ENGRAVES IN THE POSSIBILITY TO RAISE THE QUOTA OF RESIDUAL INCOMBUSTO. ....................................47
4.4 TEMPERATURE ................................................................................................................................47
4.5 AT THE SAME TIME HOWEVER THE ELEVATED TEMPERATURE FACILITY THE FORMATION OF OTHER POLLUTING
KINDS, WHAT THE NITROGEN OXIDES, THE MONOXIDE OF CARBON OR THE INCREASE OF THE CONCENTRATION OF

VOLATILE ELEMENTS AS SOME HEAVY METALS. ............................................................................................47


4.6 I OXYGENATE RESIDUAL ....................................................................................................................47
4.7 TIME OF TRANSIT OF THE CINDERS IN THE OVEN ...................................................................................48
4.8 THE TIME OF TRANSIT OF THE CINDERS INSIDE THE ROOMS OF COMBUSTION DEPENDS ON THE SPEED OF THE
GRATE OR THE OVEN ROTATIVO. AN INCREASE OF THE SPEED OF TRANSPORT OF THE CINDERS REDUCES THEIR TIME OF
PERMANENCE IN THE ROOM OF COMBUSTION AND INVOLVES AN INCREASE OF THE PERCENTAGE OF THE INCOMBUSTO

IN THE RESIDUE, AT THE SAME TIME A REDUCED SPEED IMPROVES THE QUALITY OF THE CINDERS BUT IT INCREASES

THE QUOTA OF HEAVY METALS THAT YOU/THEY CAN PASS IN THE SMOKES FOR EVAPORATION. DOSING REACTING ...48
4.8.1 Dampness demolition .........................................................................................................48
4.8.2 A system of dampness demolition, that a very alkaline solution of washing uses e/o with
tall content of solid, improves the surrender of demolition on the sour components of the smokes
but if we consider the particolato in issue, you/he/she can be verified, kind to contact with very
warm smokes e/o with excessive course, a consequential production of dusts from the
evaporation of the liquid of demolition. ......................................................................................48
4.8.3 Demolition to dry ...............................................................................................................48
4.9 THE SAME DAMP OF THE SMOKES IS ABLE IN SOME CONDITION TO PRODUCE AN IMPACCAMENTO OF THE SYSTEMS
FILTRANTI JEOPARDIZING THE EFFICIENCY OF IT. THERMAL RECOVERY ............................................................49

5 IF THE TRIAL, FORESEES BESIDES A DAMPNESS WASHING, THE WARM SMOKES


THEY CAUSE A GREATER EVAPORATION OF THE LIQUID WITH CONSEQUENT
TRASCINAMENTO OF DUSTS COMING FROM THE SOLID DISSOLVED IN IT.
CHARACTERIZATION OF THE URBAN REFUSALS ...............................................................49

6 THE DATA OF THESE TESTS ARE BROUGHT TOGETHER WITH THE RESULTS OF
CHARACTERIZATION OF THE BIOLOGICAL MUDS. CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS
AND PHYSICS OF THE MUDS OF PURIFICATION ..................................................................53

6.1 FOR EVERY PLANT A PLAN OF SAMPLING HAS BEEN PREDISPOSED ON WHICH THE ANALYSES AND THE TESTS ARE
PERFORMED FINALIZED TO THE CHARACTERIZATION OF THE MUDS OF PURIFICATION TO THE GOALS OF THE

INCINERATION. EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS ...................................................................................................54

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6.1.1 The tests of thermal treatment effected on the muds to esteem the issue of the metals, can
be used also for esteeming the formed particolato for evaporation and ricondensazione. Origin
of the champions ..........................................................................................................................55
6.1.2 Damp to 105°C, ashes to 600°C, elementary elementary composition, analysis of the
metals. Analytical methods ..........................................................................................................56
6.1.2.1 Damp to 105°C ....................................................................................................... ..................56
6.1.2.2 Ashes to 600°C .......................................................................................................................... 57
6.1.2.3 Metals ...................................................................................................................... .................57
6.1.2.4 The mineralized solutions are been analyzed then with optic ICP of the Perkin Elmer, model
Optima 4200 DVs. Elementary composition of the muds ...................................................... ...............57
6.1.3 The percentage of oxygen as component of the combustible fraction, have been determined
for difference among the other present macroelementis added to the inactive ones. Resulted
elementary analysis .....................................................................................................................58
6.1.4 This first country of analysis allows to draw the necessary imputs to the model of
simulation to effect the thermal calculations, the calculation and the composition of the smokes
of combustion and the respect of some polluting ones as HCl. NOx, SOx. Experimental tests for
the respect of the particolato .......................................................................................................62
6.1.4.1 Tests of transport eolico ......................................................................................... ...................62
6.1.4.2 The gotten data have not produced the hoped results, in how much the found values were too
influenced by the pretrattamentis of the ashes and some correlation has not been possible. Tests of
incineration ................................................................................................................................. ..........64
6.1.4.3 These values in the model of simulation have been used for esteeming awry the tendency of the
variations of concentration of particolato some systems of demolition. Particolato of ricondensazione
............................................................................................................................................................ ...70
6.1.5 The issue of the elements Á. the, Ca, Fe, Co, Cr him ripartisce fairly among the two
ranges of temperatures considered, the elements Mg, Sn, Zn, As, Be, is mainly sent forth in the
lower range of temperatures, while the elements Ba, Cd, Mn, Pb and Cu macaws mainly sent
forth in the taller range of temperatures. Resulted analysis of the metals ..................................73

7 THE ELEMENTS SN, ZN, BE, CD AND IN MEANINGFUL WAY THE PB, IS MADE
MORE VOLATILE BY THE PRESENCE OF CHLORIDES IN THE INCINERATED
MATRIX. ISSUES FROM THE INCINERATORS OF RSU .........................................................79

8 STRUCTURE OF THE MODEL OF SIMULATION ..................................................................80

8.1 SOME SOPRALLUOGHIS NEAR FITTINGSES OF INCINERATION OF URBAN REFUSALS AND INDUSTRIAL REFUSALS, TO
INDIVIDUALIZE WHAT PARAMETERS ARE NORMALLY MONITORATI AT THE MANAGERS AND AS YOU/THEY ARE USED AND

REGULATED, IN THE MANAGEMENT OF THE OVEN OF INCINERATION. THE VISITED FITTINGSES HAVE BEEN: ASM
BRESCIA, TME VERCELLI, OMA RIVALTA (TO), INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY RIVALTA (TO), CON.SER.VCO
MERGOZZO (NO). FORMULATION OF THE MODEL .......................................................................................81
8.1.1 The elaboration has the following structure: Foglio di lavoro “Tabelle”..........................82
8.1.2 From the exact composition of the smokes and from the chart of the sensitive heats, it
occurs if every merceologia is able of autosostenere the conditions of incineration. .................84

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8.1.3 The data that are elaborated they are the thermal verifications for typology of refusals and
the specific characteristics for single merceologia as the calorific powers, the megacalories for
ton necessary for the autosostentamento. ...................................................................................84
8.1.4 It consists in a schematic representation of the plant in which the data d input and more
meaningful output of the process of incineration appear. ...........................................................85
8.1.6 Graphic sheets ....................................................................................................................85
8.2 METALS DATI DI IMPUT .....................................................................................................................85
8.3 PARAMETERS OF MANAGEMENT OF THE TRIAL DATI DI OUTPUT................................................................86

9 THESE PARAMETERS OF OUTPUT ALLOW TO EXPRESS THE CONDITIONS OF


MAXIMUM LOAD OF PLANT, NOT SIMPLY AS QUANTITY OF REFUSALS FED TO THE
OVEN, BUT WITH A REPRESENTATION MORE REAL THAN IT CORRELATES THE
QUANTITIES OF REFUSALS FED TO THE OVEN, THEIR COMPOSITION, THE
PARAMETERS OF MANAGEMENT OF THE TRIAL AND THE SINGLE OBSERVED
POLLUTANTS. CONSTRUCTION OF THE MODEL OF SIMULATION ................................87

9.1 TECHNICAL FOGLIO"TABELLE" .........................................................................................................87


9.1.1 Chart of composition of the damp air ................................................................................87
9.1.2 Computational charts of the sensitive heats of the gases of combustion ...........................89
9.1.3 Chart of the specific heats ..................................................................................................92
9.2 CHART 27: SPECIFIC HEATS (CP = SPECIFIC HEAT; HVAP = ENTALPIA OF EVAPORATION) FOGLIO
"QUALIQUANTITATIVA"............................................................................................................................92
9.2.1 "Composition qualiquantitativa of the RSUs" ....................................................................92
9.2.2 "Elementary composition of the merceologia of the damp RSUs" .....................................93
9.2.3 Elementary composition of the merceologia of the RSUs dries" ........................................94
9.2.4 Chart riepilogativa .............................................................................................................95
9.3 CHART 31: I RECAPITULATE SOME QUANTITIES OF MERCEOLOGIE FED TO THE OVEN FOGLIO "PARAMETRI DI
PROCESSO"............................................................................................................................................95

9.4 IN THE CHARTS 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, THE COURSES, THE COMPOSITION OF THE SMOKES, THE THERMAL BUDGETS
AND THE RESPECT OF THE POLLUTANTS ARE UNDERLINED PRODUCED BY THE OVEN OF PRIMARY COMBUSTION. SHEET"
ELABORATION" .....................................................................................................................................98
9.4.1 Proceeds therefore to calculate some of the outputs that established us in the layout of the
model. I calculate air in excess .................................................................................................106
9.4.2 Adding this quota to that of the smokes of combustion the volume of the aeriformis is
gotten in all of their complex and from the moment that it is known the composition both of the
combustive air in excess that the composition of the smokes of combustion, we also get the
composition percentage of every component. It verifies functional parameters of the oven ....107
9.4.3 These values find again him in the charts of output inserted in the sheet"
ParametriProcesso", described to pag. 109 and 110. Calculation of the thermal requirement of
the mass fed to the oven .............................................................................................................108
9.5 SHEET" AUTOMERCEOLOGIA" ..........................................................................................................109

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9.6 FIGURE 16: CONTRIBUTION OF EVERY MERCEOLOGIA TO THE COMPOSITION OF THE GASES OF EXPRESS
COMBUSTION IN NMC/KG, (THE STAIRCASE OF RIGHT IS REPORTED TO CO2 AND H2O, THE STAIRCASE OF LEFT IT IS
REPORTED TO SO2, HCL, NO) FOGLIO "AUTORIFIUTI".............................................................................111
9.7 SHEET" FLOWSHEET" ....................................................................................................................112
9.8 SHEET" THERMAL" .......................................................................................................................113
9.9 THE MERCEOLOGIES" ORGANIC" AND" INACTIVE" THEY ARE THE ONLY TWO THAT THEY ASK FOR AN I BRING
ENERGETIC ADDITIONAL. SHEET" DUSTS .................................................................................................114
9.10 SHEET" NOX" ...........................................................................................................................117
9.11 SHEET" HCL" ............................................................................................................................119
9.12 SHEET" SOX" ............................................................................................................................121
9.13 SHEET" METALS" .......................................................................................................................123

10 CONCLUSIONS ...........................................................................................................................127

10.1 VERIFICATION OF THE MODEL .........................................................................................................128


10.2 SIMULATIONS ON HYPOTHESIS OF CONFERMENT AMIAT ...................................................................128
10.3 IMPACT OF THE MUDS OF PURIFICATION IN THE INCINERATION ..............................................................130

11 BIBLIOGRAPHY .........................................................................................................................131

Document automatically translated by Italian into English.

The model is available g in the site

http://digilander.libero.it/Sandrifabio/

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Premise

The matter of the thesis is the characterization of the biological muds,

produced by the fittingses of treatment waters reflue, to the goals of the

coincenerimento with urban solid refusals (RSU) and to the impact that these

determine to the fittingses of purification of the smokes to service of the plant

of termodistruzione.

For impact to the fittingses of purification you smoke, he intends the variation

of the concentration of the present pollutants in the smokes, to vary some

proportions with which the various refusals are introduced in the oven and to

the combustion of the biological muds.

The study starts with the initial structuring of a simple model of managerial

simulation that, departing from the composition of the refusals in entry to the

plant of incineration and from the operational conditions, it furnishes a

thermal budget in the various sections, the hourly course of the smokes, their

macroscopic composition and a respect of some of the present pollutants.

This activity has been developed in collaboration to the societies AMIAT SpA

and SMAT SpA, parties to the development of the matter of this thesis, in

how much, one of the possible solutions in study for the muds' disposal

produced by the fittingses of purification managed by the SMAT, are really

the conferment near the future termovalorizzatore in phase of preliminary

planning from the AMIAT. The study, in his/her accomplishment, he/she will

take in examination:

− the process of incineration and the different configurations of plant;

7
− the normative vigente and that historical that it controls the disposal e/o

thermal recovery of the refusals;

− The processes of formation of the products of combustion;

− The influence of the operational parameters on the formation of the

issued kinds;

− the characterization of the RSUs

− the characterization to the purpose of the incineration, through the

chemical analysis, of the muds of purification;

− the characterization through the bibliographical search of the

consequential issues from the incineration of RSU;

− the formulation of the basic model of simulation on a spreadsheet;

− the harvest and the graphic representation of the results of the

elaboration on the possible managerial sceneries considered by the

Amiat;

8
1 the conclusive evaluations on the consequential environmental aspects

from the incineration of the biological muds. The process of

incineration

The process of incineration of the urban refusals, preferably called today

termovalorizzazione e/o termoutilizzazione of the refusals, it is a process of

checked combustion, that has to assure an enough degradation of the

present organic substance in the refusals and, if possible, of all the more

harmful by-products of combustion for the human health.

Inside the oven three flows of subject produce him, a gaseous flow, a flow of

particolato and substances condensabili, called" flying ashes", equal to 2 -

3% of the RSU in entry and a flow of heavy cinders equal to 15 - 25% of the

RSU in entry.

Figure 1: Scheme of the principal flows to the the nterno dell'inceneritore

In the gaseous flow they are present the gaseous pollutants produced by the

combustion that they are oxides of sulphur, nitrogen oxides, carbon's

monoxide, composed inorganic of the chlorine and of the fluorine, composed

organic volatile, PCDD and PCDF, heavy metals.

9
The flying ashes, that constitute the lightest component of the cinders,

eolicamente is transported by the smokes of combustion, for which up to the

sections of demolition of the dusts, this flow is united to that gaseous.

It finally needs to mention that some of the issued substances, even if not

expressly normate, when they spread in atmosphere beyond certain

concentrations, they result particularly undesirable in how much you/they can

provoke troublesome odors accenting the environmental impact of the

installation.

The quantity of pollutants that altogether they run away from the fittingses of

demolition I am a fundamental aspect of the environmental impact

determined by a termodistruttore.

1.1 From this consideration utility is born, through a model of simulation, to

get only also in terms of respect of some polluting ones, the loaded

emissivo and the trend of this last, to vary some type of refusals fed in

the oven. The plant of incineration

10
Figure 2: Sees of a plant of incen erimento nel suo insieme

The fittingses of incineration differentiate him among them for the followings

aspects:

− the matrix e/o combustible matrixes;

− the typology of the oven;

− the trials adopted in the purification of the smokes and with what order

you/they are performed.

In general we can describe a plant of incineration divided in the followings

sections.

1.1.1 The stoccaggio

The stoccaggio of the refusals happens in enormous vasconi covered with

armed cement, where the refusal is directly unloaded by the means of

harvest through special mouths of unloading.

11
Figure 3: Formality of unloading of the RS U e bacino di stoccaggio

To reduce the emanation of odors to the outside the whole area is in

depression, in how much the mouths of unloading, that constitute the only

connection with the outside are really the takings of necessary combustive air

to the combustion of the refusals.

The material stoccato, through opportune means of lifting you/he/she is

mixed, in the attempt to homogenize, as far as possible the different

components of the refusal and subsequently envoy to the combustion

through special tramogge.

Often some typologies of refusal, normally coming from discards of selected

refusals and with high calorific power, stabs come in separate areas to be

able to increase the caloric power of the mixture of refusals under particular

conditions, for instance when the atmospheric precipitations determine, a

harvest of very damp RSU.

12
Figure 4: Equipment for her movimentazione del RSU

Figure 5: Movimentazione of the RSU nel bacino di stoccaggio

1.1.2 Preparation of the material to be incinerated

The preparation of the materials to be incinerated mainly involves two

treatments, not always binding, in how much the characteristics of

incenerabilità of a refusal depend from the adopted technologies and from

the sizing of the oven.

13
The treatments that can suffer the refusals before the dispatch in room of

combustion are:

1.1.2.1 Desiccation

The preliminary desiccation of the refusals determines, to the goals of the

incineration, the following advantages:

− an increase of the calorific power of the refusal;

− a faster combustion;

− a smaller quota of damp in the smokes.

The desiccation of the refusals rarely comes however adopted near the plant

of incineration for the difficulties tecniche/economiche that rises up, despite

the availability of the heat of discard of the incinerator, not usable to the goals

of the energetic recovery.

Among the difficulties above you mention we can quote, as example, the

additional plant of treatment of the issues of the vapors and gas produced by

the desiccation.

The desiccation finds instead I employ on some typologies of refusals as the

biomasses, where possible processes of bioessicazione are on the place of

production of the refusal. In this trial the development of heat is intrinsic to

the materials themselves for which the quantities of air to be treated are

least.

In absence of the preliminary treatment of desiccation, this last develops him

in the first section of the oven of incineration, that will owe therefore to

14
opportunely be dimensionato to increase the time of permanence of the

refusals inside the room of combustion.

1.1.2.2 Shattering

The shattering is performed in mills to hammers or to blades, it allows the

reduction of the pezzatura and a best miscelazione of the refusal, with

consequent greater homogeneity of the combustion.

The reduction of the pezzatura of the refusal involves smaller times of

incineration of the" monoliths", for increases him relationship

superficie/volume.

1.1.3 Besides the reduction general volumetrica allows an easier gestibilità

of the refusal during the operations of load the oven. Feeding of the

oven

The feeding of the refusals happens through tramoggie that carries the

refusal or directly in the room of combustion or in rooms of load to service of

spintori that introduces the refusal in head to the oven .

Figure 6: Chambers of combustion e con carica a tramoggia

With the use of spintori the influx of air limits him from the mouths of entry of

the refusal, allowing a more correct distribution of the combustive air on the

same refusal.

15
This typology of feeding, common to many ovens for RSU, introduce also the

disadvantage of a discontinuous feeding with consequent oscillation of the

optimal parameters of the incineration.

In the modern ovens of incineration RSU is obviated to the problem of the

discontinuity of load, increasing the numbers of spintori in way of making the

most constant loading (es. ASM of Brescia). This technology improves

notably the homogeneity of the characteristics of the smokes in the room of

postcombustione, allowing an easier formulation of the optimal parameters of

incineration.

1.1.4 Chamber of combustion

The primary rooms of combustion are of different type, the most common are

with grate to steps and rotating drum: over the 70% of the fittingses of

termodistruzione funzionanti in Italy.

In the first zone of the oven the phase of desiccation of the refusal happens,

it follows the phase of combustion and for last the completion of the

combustion of the cinders.

The modern rooms of combustion, thanks to you improve her performances,

you/they have allowed to overcome the imposition of a following room, said

of postcombustione, anticipated expressly in the normative trail.

16
1.1.5 The combustive air is introduced in the room through different

formalities that vary in base to the typology of adopted primary oven,

to the presence or less than a room of postcombustione, to the type of

incinerated refusal. Grate to steps

Figure 7: Sc hema del forno a griglia

And' the most diffused type in the fittingses of incineration of the RSUs,

thanks above all to his/her managerial elasticity.

The grate of combustion is modularly conceived generally.

In the most modern fittingses, every form is endowed with a proper

independent system that handles the movement of the same element and

the requirement of combustive air, thanks to a system of television cameras

to infrared that notice the temperatures on the surface in the various zones of

17
the grate and it intervenes on the regulations of combustive air and speed of

transport.

The fundamental characteristic of the grate consists in the possession a

surface of horizontal combustion and a movement checked that it favors the

blending of the combustible material. This allows to get some elevated

outputs with a smaller length.

Figure 8: Representation of the grate inside the la camera di combustione

In the first zone of the grate the desiccation of the material happens,

subsequently the zone of primary combustion is had where the most

elevated temperatures are reached, values of 1100-1200 oCs.

18
The grate in this zone is provided of a system of cooling, or with the same

combustive air or with cooling to liquid that one allows temperature of

superior exercise.

Thanks to a good distribution of the combustive air a reduction of the total

flow is gotten limiting the thermal formation of NOx.

The air of primary combustion comes insufflata to different speeds in the

different zones inside the layer of combustible material. The flow of middle

crossing is in the order of the 0.3 Nmc/ses for mq.

These values have subsequently been taken as reference for the tests of

transport eolico effected on the ashes.

Subsequently, in the grate oven, the air of secondary combustion is frontally

insufflata and subsequently to the room of combustion, in way of getting a

strong turbulence in the impending gases the layer of combustion.

In the terminal part of the grate the completion of the combustion of the

cinders is had, that are extracted for fall inside a hydraulic watch at the end of

their run that, besides handling their express cooling it prevents uncontrolled

entries of air.

1.1.6 The cooled cinders are transported through cochleas and ribbons

conveyors in the zone of anticipated stoccaggio, previous a treatment

of final deferrizzazione through magnetic separators. The Oven

Rotativo

And' constituted by a rotating drum with an axle of inclination among the 5°

and 15°.

19
The rotation of the drum guarantees the continuous remixing of the cinders

and to their advancement. The duration of the trial is tightly tied to the speed

of planned rotation.

And' a turned product typically to the industrial refusals, toxic harmful and

hospital with high calorific power. And' however predisposed for

contemporarily treating also solid refusals, liquid to tall and low PCI, muds

palabili and pompabili.

Figura 1: Forno rotativo

1.1.7 The combustive air is sent in head together with the refusal in entry

and its regulation it is, for these aspects, simpler. Chamber of

postcombustione

The room of post combustion can be described as a zone of completion of

the combustion of the smokes produced by the room of primary combustion.

In the recent normative the room of postcombustione is not expressly

imposed, but it still comes often adopted in how much it allows to check with

greater guarantee the respect of the conditions imposed by the norm.

The plant of incineration owes in fact to possess one" zone" of combustion in

which the mass of the smokes that you/they reach its inside is in a condition

of strong turbulence, you debbono to remain for superior once to the two

20
seconds, to a superior temperature of 850°c, in presence of a quota of

superior oxygen to the 6% v/v.

To respect these conditions the room of postcombustione possesses two

fundamental dimensional parameters, the section of entry and his/her

geometry, not always individuabili with certainty in an only primary room.

The section of entry, owed to the senses of the DPR 915/82, to determine a

least speed of entry of the smokes of 10 m/ses, this value so expressly is not

recalled by the recent normative DM 503/97, even if in the same decree the

necessity of turbulence is confirmed in the smokes.

In the construction of the model, sees the computational simplicity,

you/he/she is held opportune to insert the evaluation of this parameter

however.

The volume of the room of postcombustione has been being determined for

the time of residence of the smokes, least 2", and from the course of the

smokes to the temperature of exercise of the oven.

In the dimensionare the room of postcombustione must have remembered

that the middle time of permanence of the smokes is not a completely

exhaustive parameter with the purpose to get the efficiency of the treatment,

in fact it is also main point the distribution of the times of permanence of the

smokes around his/her own middle value.

The standard deviation of the times of retention mediates some mass of the

smokes you/he/she can be valued with some based techniques on

dimensional parameters of the room, but being beyond the purpose of this

job, the model is not applied to in object.

21
The room of postcombustione is besides endowed with burners auxiliary able

to raise whenever the temperature to its inside every makes him necessary

and of the possibility to introduce combustive air, said secondary, if the

concentration of the oxygen is inferior to the imposed limits.

1.1.8 In the dimensionare the room of combustion is also had to consider

the volume of smokes brought you by the use of the auxiliary burners.

Energetic recovery

The energetic recovery is strongly a factor caratterizzante of the modern

fittingses of disposal for incineration .

Figure 10: Representation of the formalities of recup ero dell'energia termica

The energetic recovery happens in the modern fittingses of incineration of

the RSUs both with the production of electric energy, through the production

of vapor overheated to tall pressure and whirlwind, both with the direct use of

the non usable heat in this street, for instance the teleriscaldamento.

The joining of these formalities of recovery of the thermal energy of the

refusals economically makes this process of more favorable disposal in

comparison to the past, so much that today of he/she prefers to use for this

typology of fittingses the term" termovalorizzazione."

The section of energetic recovery also develops an important function in the

purification of the smokes.

22
In fact with the rapid cooling of the smokes the possibility of secondary

reactions of formation of pollutants reduces him, for instance the formation of

diossine" ex novo", besides the lowering of temperature determines a

contraction of the courses of the smokes in the fittingses of purification.

The advantages of an efficient cooling of the smokes awry some systems of

demolition are manifold and they go besides the simple sizing of the

fittingses.

1.1.9 For instance in the case of dampness treatment is gotten a notable

reduction of the quantity of water evaporated by the systems of

demolitions with reduction of the percentage of vapor in the smokes

issued and consequent lowering of the dewy point in the smokes.

Systems of demolition of the pollutants

Figure 11: Scheme of an impi anto di depurazione fumi

23
The choice of the most proper tools to demolish the issues of pollutants in

atmosphere, depends from the type of burnt refusal and from the available

technology during the layout of the project of the plant abbattitore.

A plant of demolition that furnished acceptable performances for the

normative trails today is not enough.

The technological development of the processes of incineration is not alone

assembled on the technologies of real purification, but really for the costs of

investment and managerial of these last, you/he/she is assembled on the

development of the rooms of combustion.

Ovens are produced that use quantitative of combustive air smaller, really to

reduce both the formation of pollutants as the nitrogen oxides, both to reduce

the volumes of the smokes to treat.

In conclusion you/he/she is introduced the philosophy that the room of

combustion is the first system of demolition of the pollutants.

The emanation of normative more and more severe you/they have

addressed the planners to relatively use new technological solutions

however. For instance to reduce the issues of particolato, the adoption of

demolitions they are made necessary to dry or semisecco followed by filters

to sleeves.

The conclusion can be drawn that her" appropriate technology" recalled by

the normative one it is always at the street of evolution and it is established

from the combination of the national laws with those sovranazionalis (in our

case, European).

24
Even if from an environmental point of view the ideal is to be able to always

adopt the best applicable technology, mainly economic considerations always

allow not such choice.

It is worth besides the principle that, to the of the' of the demolition of the

pollutants, all the efforts must be made" awry", that is' in the choice of the

technology of the primary trial, to have the tendency to decrease the more

possible the issues.

The fittingses of demolition can technologically be divided in" fittingses to

damp" and" fittingses to dry."

The fittingses to damp they develop their action of demolition of the

pollutants through:

− the impact among the particles of the liquid of demolition and the liquid

particles solid e/o of the pollutants, with consequent capture in the liquid

mass of the particolato;

in the action of absorption on the surface of the liquid of demolition of the

present sour gases, facilitated by the alkalinity of the same liquid, that is

produced with addition of basic reagents.

The fittingses to dry they develop their action through an on-line dosing of a

basic reagent, mortar or bicarbonate elegantly pulverized, to absorb the sour

pollutants and of a reactive adsorbitore what the active coal for the organic

substances and the mercury. Dusts are subsequently extracted by the

gaseous flow using opportune systems filtranti.

In the detail the equipments used more frequently are:

25
1.1.9.1 Cyclones

They are among the equipments most common and they are used for

demolishing the present particolato in the smokes, they exploit the centrifugal

strength produced by a curvilinear run forced of the gaseous flow.

1.1.9.2 And' an economic and fit system to eliminate the particolato of

greater pezzatura. And' generally considered a preliminary

treatment.

1.1.9.3 Electrostatic Precipitatori

The electrostatic precipitatore (ESP) it uses an electric field to separate the

particolato and to address him/it toward the surface of harvest. The particles

are electrically loaded making to pass her through a zone he/she dictates

crown, that is an inside space of the electrostatic precipitatore in which a gas

is highly present ionized. The crown is normally constituted by negative ions.

The effect of position is more felt by the greatest particles since introduces a

greater section to their entry in the crown.

The so loaded particles are attracted by metallic plates loaded with opposite

position, where they unload him and they join in particles of greater

dimensions that fall in an underlying tramoggia.

1.1.9.4 You filter to sleeves

The filtration of the dusts is a very effective mean for the removal of the

particolato from a gas. The efficiency of removal is superior to that of the

most greater part of the other systems for the control of the issues of

microscopic particles. This is that fraction of particolato that has special

26
importance for evaluation of the issue of breathable dusts and for some other

aerosols of carcinogenic and toxic organic mixtures.

The filtration is essentially constituted by groups of rather long cylindrical

knapsacks and you climbs on on a frame, the parameters that determine the

output in the demolition of the particolato are:

the surface filtrante in relationship to the mass of smokes to be treated;

the porosity of the fabric;

the temperature of exercise;

the quantity of particolato and the distribution as pezzatura.

1.1.9.5 Dampness Depuratori

As already mentioned, the dampness depuratoris include an ample range of

systems, aventi thick double function, removal of the particolato and

adsorbimento of one or more gaseous pollutants.

The cooling and the umidificazione of the gases that occur in a dampness

depuratore can create side effects.

The use of these systems in fact it introduces the problem of the liquid

effluentis that you/they need further processes of treatment or particular

zones of stoccaggio. These disadvantages often do what I/you/he/she

address us toward systems of purification to dry.

The dampness depuratoris use all the same principles base, that is they

have a damp surface that acts as I bombard for the particles, that are

previously accelerated, creating some gradients of speed.

The particolato is captured through three fundamental mechanisms:

27
− Impact - when the particles directly strike the damp surface;

− Interception - when the particles come to be himself/herself/themselves

so much next to the damp surface from captured venir;

− Diffusion - when the particles, pushed by the motion browniano, they

strike the damp surface and you/they are captured.

The output of everybody and three the mechanisms it grows to the increase

of the number of the drops target, to the difference of speed between

particles and drops and to the inertial characteristics of the particles.

The principal dampness depuratoris addressed to the separation of

particolato are:

Future (from the homonym geometry)

That to Future it is the mechanism of privileged demolition in the applications

to fittingses of incineration.

Its dominant position is born from the elevated attainable output, from the

effectiveness of the gas-liquid contact for the adsorbimento of the gases and

from its mechanical simplicity.

Besides, from when it is technically possible to realize" Future" to varying

geometry, it is possible to maintain an ample output for different values of the

course of the gases.

The depuratore type Future it is separated in the three zones:

− the convergent zone, where the gas is accelerated to the maximum

speed by a duct;

28
− the zone of throat, where the liquid is introduced using a sprinkler or more

simply, introducing him/it in the flow of the gases;

− a divergent zone, where the flow is decelerated up to its initial speed.

The ample difference of speed between the liquid and the gas in the zone of

the throat, ago yes that this is nebulized.

Since in this zone the gradients of speed are the most greater, it is here that

the solid most greater part of the massive goccia/particellas is verified.

The I unload of a" Future" you/he/she is often shaped to straight angle, so

that the water you and you are deposited acting from reserve of fluid. Towers

of washing

It generally concerns cylindrical reservoirs in which there are some nozzles

that sprinkle in countercurrent or in equicorrente the liquid of washing.

The tower can be empty or filled with inactive bodies, that have the purpose

to increase the surface of capture of the particolato, thanks to the liquid film

that covers them.

Assisted mechanically

The simplest systems contain to their inside of the rotating disks that they

produce and they project some droplets on the inside walls of the tower.

These droplets, crossing the section of the column, they cross and they

englobe the particolato dragged by the gaseous flow.

The atomization of the liquid is in these fittingses independent from the flow

of the gases, reason for which I/you/they are proper to treat particularly

varying gaseous flows.

29
1.1.10 Fireplace of issue.

The fireplace of the issue has to guarantee that the flow of residual pollutants

is quickly dispersed in atmosphere.

The speed with which the pollutants are dispersed in atmosphere depends

from the height of the fireplace and from the content entalpico of the smokes.

The gases in fact they raise him over the point of issue thanks to the quantity

of motion possessed to the result and from the effect of galleggiamento that

is determined by the different temperature with the surrounding air.

The height to which the plume of smokes raises him over the point of result is

defined" raising of the plume."

Commonly he believes that a height of the fireplace of around 60 ms is

generally enough.

You/he/she can be verified to the immission of the smokes in atmosphere,

the formation of a very visible plume, due to the condensation. This

drawback, even if it has a purely psychological aspect, you/he/she can cause

different problems with the populations inhabitants the zone where the site

rises, in how much the presence of the white smoke is connected to

phenomenons of pollution.

30
2 To eliminate him to it applies to a plant, called of

antipennacchio, constituted by an additional fan

and by a thermal scambiatore. The energy's part

produced by the incineration is used for producing

a certain quota of warm air. This air comes premiscelata with

the damp smokes coming from the incineration, in way of lowering the

dewy temperature and to avoid phenomenons of condensations in

proximity of the result of the fireplace. Normative picture

The evolution of the norms and the legislative terms allow us to preliminarily

individualize the most important parameters of trial and their correlations with

the pollutants in issue. The study has taken therefore in examination the

legislative passages that have influenced the construction of the I model of

simulation.

The legislation and the considered norms are under you list.

2.1 D.P.R. 915/82 (currently old)

It defined, in the dispositions deliberated by the 27/07/1984 Interministerial

Committee for the first application of the art. 4 of the D.P.R. 915/82

concernentes the disposal of the refusals, the technical formalities of

incineration.

31
2.2 This norm expressly imposed, in the incineration the

presence of a room of postcombustione to complete the

oxidation of the flows coming from the room of primary

combustion (stings 3.3). The conditions operational that

the exercise of the room of postcombustione owed to

guarantee, they were that the smokes stazionassero for

at least two seconds to the temperature of 950°c and with

a 6%v/v least residual oxygen and with a certain

turbulence. The turbulence of the smokes was guaranteed by their

speed of entry in the room that had to be at least of 10 m/ses. D.M.

16/01/1995 technical Norms for the riutilizzo in a cycle of

combustion for the production of energy from the

residues.

In this norm they were defined the conditions of combustion of the refusals

that, for them nature, didn't ask for particularly severe conditions. Among the

other refusals the muds of purification were mentioned from also waters

reflue and the relative characteristics chemical-physics that these had to

possess for being able as source of energy to be used (All. 1 point 23).

These prescriptions have been taken back then by the D.Lgs. 05/02/98 n°22s

and they are described in the following paragraph, with the exception of the

efficiency of combustion that was expressed with the following relationship:

32
CO2
Equazione 1
CO2 + CO

what you/he/she had to have maintained to superior values to 99%

With this expression it was set in relationship the parameter" efficiency of the

combustion" with the guarantee of containment of the pollutants in issue

consequential from an incomplete combustion.

2.3 The measure of the CO in room of combustion, even if required by the

law not anymore, you/he/she is performed by the managers of the

fittingses of incineration however because held profit, over that for the

control of the CO in issue, also for monitorare indirectly that polluting

not analyzable in continuous, as IPA, PCB, PCDD and PCDF. D.M.

05/02/98 Individualization of the non dangerous refusals

submitted to the procedures simplified of recovery,

(among which that energetic) to the senses of the arts.

31 and 33 of the D.Lgs. 05/02/97 n°s 22.

In this norm the typology of the refusal object of the thesis is individualized,"

dried Muds of purification waters reflue" and the requisite that allow the

thermal recovery of it (All.2 stung suball.1 10):

Damp max 20%

P.C.I. min. 8500 kj/kgs (2030 kcal/kgs)

The fittingses to be fit to the thermal recovery of these refusals have to

introduce the followings requisite:

33
− least potentiality of 6 MWs,

− T° min. in room of combustion of 850°,

− least time of permanence in c.c. of 2 ses,

− way of least oxygen in c.c. 6%.

The quoted values are not binding when this refusal is incinerated in a

plant authorized to the senses of the D.M. 503/97, but they are

meaningful however to individualize, as a rule, the values recognized as

enough to guarantee a good combustion. D.M. 503 of 19/11/97. Rule

concernente the prevention of the atmospheric pollution

provoked not by the fittingses of incineration of RSU and

dangerous special refusals.

And' currently the norm of reference, in how much it defines not for the

fittingses of incineration for RSU and dangerous special refusals, the

pollutants and the limits to respect in the issues, besides the technical

requisite that have to introduce the fittingses turned to the trial.

With reference to this norm I/you/they have been identified the pollutants that

could be object of a correlation with the quantities and the typology of the

incinerated refusals.

The express limits are reported twos different temporal arcs.

Polluting principals normati

I alternate storm 24 hs 30'

34
Carbon's monoxide CO 50 mg/mcs 100 mg/mcs

Total dusts PT 10 mg/mcs 30 mg/mcs

Organic substances SOV 10 mg/mcs 20 mg/mcs

Hydrochloric acid HCl 20 mg/mcs 40 mg/mcs

Oxides of sulphur SO2 100 mg/mcs 200 mg/mcs

Nitrogen oxides NO2 200 mg/mcs 400 mg/mcs

The concentrations of these pollutants must have normalized to a 11%

reference oxygen to the volume of dry smoke to 0°C and 273 °Ks.

The formula of standarizzazione is the following:

 21 − 11   273 + C °   760 
ConcSTD = Conc. ×   ×   ×   Equazione. 2
 21 − O2 mis   273   PmmHg 

The plant of incineration, for the respect of the norm, it has to guarantee the

followings conditions of operation and final results:

Chamber of combustion

The characteristics of the room of combustion have to be those express for

the room of post combustion from the D.P.R. 915/82 to exception of the

temperature that has been decreased by 950°C to 850°C and of the

turbulence of the smokes, that is pointed out only in generic terms.

Thermal recovery

The plant of incineration has to be endowed with a section of such energetic

recovery to guarantee an established least surrender in the 75% of the

calorific power of the refusals in thermal energy and in the case of

35
transformation in electric energy the correspondence among electric and

thermal energy you/he/she is determined by the following relationship:

  MWprodotti 
16 +  5
 Equazione 3
  

Residual incombusto

2.4 The residual quantity of material present incombusto in the cinders has
to be at the most the 3% express train as carbon. D.M. 124/00.

incineration of dangerous special refusals

This norm takes back the D.M. 503/97 with some changes. The reading of

the conditions of management of the trial allows to draw some important

considerations on the mutual influence among some parameters, in fact:

− it asks for a raising of the temperature from 850° to 1100° in presence of

substances superior organoalogenate to 1%. This prescription is born

from the necessities to assure enough kinetics of reaction to guarantee a

degradation e/o not formations of microinquinanti what PCDD and PCDF.

it has allowed a reduction since 6% the 3% of the way of least oxygen in

presence of pulverized refusals, liquid or gaseous, reporting the speed

of combustion to the physical characteristics in which the refusals

introduce him. Norm One 9246. Determination of the energetic

performances of the ovens of incineration

And' a norm that furnishes the indications for the determination of the

energetic performances in the ovens of incineration for RSU assimilable e/o

with recovery of heat.

36
Further to point out in the detail the flows of mass and energy that compose

the" system incineration" in his/her complex, it brings in the appendix B, in

form tabellata, the thermal dispersions for irraggiamento and for in operation

convention of the. T° among air environment and walls of the oven.

3 And' is therefore an useful guide to the determination of the energetic

flows in the process of incineration and a source of data profits to the

purpose of this job. Formation of the products of

combustion

To be able to build a model of simulation is necessary to know the processes

of formation of the pollutants taken in examination, in fact these produce him

in the phase of incineration of the refusals with different trials, that ask for

different conditions of reaction and often in contrast among them.

The pollutants that I/you/they have been taken in examination in the study

are:

− Nitrogen oxides;

− Oxides of sulphur;

− HCl;

− Dusts;

3.1 Heavy metals. Oxides of sulphur - SOx

The formation of SOx in the smokes gaseous drift mainly from the

combustion of the present sulphur in the refusals to exception of the present

37
quota as sulfate, in how much these salts are generally very stable and few

volatile.

The quantity of SO3 that can be formed by the oxidation of the SO2 is, under

the operational conditions of our interest, inferior of four orders of greatness.

3.2 For the considerations above express, in the model of simulation in

progress of editing, it is considered that the totality of the organic

sulphur is turned into SO2. Nitrogen oxides NOx

The formation of the NOxes is intrinsic to the phenomenon of the combustion

when air is used as combustive, studies on their formation have brought back

the phenomenon twos principal trials.

3.2.1 By thermal

The direct reaction between oxygen and nitrogen with formation of No and in

smaller measure of NO2 it happens to superior temperatures to the 1100°C.

This is the necessary order of greatness of the energy to break the bonds of

the molecules of O2 and N2. A respect of the NOxes produced for by thermal

you/he/she can be gotten by the constants of equilibrium.

 − 21600 
X NO = 3.69 × exp  × X N 2 × X O2 Equazione 4
 1.98 × T 

where Xs are the molar fractions

The formation of NO2, generally inferior to the 1%, it is not influential in the

total calculation of the NOxes.

38
Normally applying this relationship to the present conditions in the room of

combustion of an incinerator concentrations of inferior NOx to 250 mg/Nmcs

they are calculated.

3.2.2 Oxidation of the organic nitrogen

The production of NOx from the oxidation of the organic nitrogen is clearly

favorite in comparison to the production for by thermal, in how much the

breakup of the bond between N and C asks for a very inferior energy. Insofar

the whole organic nitrogen is turned into a process of combustion in NOx.

From the studies effected on the composition of the RSUs, as it results in the

following paragraphs, the organic nitrogen generally present is to a

concentration that originates a quantity of superior NOx to that that

determines him from the equation 4. Of it that is possible to consider in the

respect of production of this alone pollutant that product for this street under

these conditions achieves.

You study on the relationship among her% in weight of contained nitrogen in

the fuels and the NOx produced in their combustion, show the foundation

than above express.

How much above you/he/she is also recognized by the EPA in many his/her

studies.

A case abreast of this thesis, is almost her independence of the NOxes in

issue from the residual oxygen in the smokes in the incinerators of refusals

coming from the industry of the ennoblement of the paper and the wood,

constituted by polverino of resin melaminica, ureica and cellulose, where the

lack of sensitive improvements is noticed in the issue of NOx with the

39
employment of the ricircolo of the smokes combusti, normally effected for

limiting the formation of thermal NOx.

How much above it is justified with the fact that in these typologies of refusals

the production of thermal NOx is not meaningful in terms of issue.

For the considerations above express, in the model of simulation in progress

of editing, it is considered that a refusal determines a variation of the issue of

the polluting NOxes, if the concentration of organic nitrogen in the refusal

involves a production of superior NOx to the thermal equilibrium.

3.3 Hydrochloric acid HCl

The formation of the HCl in the smokes gaseous drift from the combustion of

present organic chlorine in the refusals.

This direct relationship and biunivoca between organic chlorine and

hydrochloric acid, besides being exploited for esteeming the production of

HCl departing from the content of chlorine in the refusal, you/he/she can also

be used in inverse sense.

3.4 The analysis of the content of HCl in the smokes awry of the fittingses

of demolition it allows to altogether go up again to the total

concentration of present organic chlorine in the refusals and therefore

to appraise the fitness of the conditions of incineration. Carbon's

monoxide CO

The formation of the CO in the processes of combustion is common

phenomenon and very studied.

40
The CO is the principal product of the incomplete combustion and you/he/she

can be used as tracing of the efficiency of the trial and the pollutants

produced by an incomplete combustion.

The surrender of the combustion, also in non exhaustive way, it is calculated

through the formula:

CO2
η= Equazione 5
CO + CO2

The importance of the measure of the concentration of CO in the smokes of

trial, goes over therefore to that of a pollutant whose issue is normata.

In the formation of CO the most important parameters are the temperature of

reaction and the way of oxygen in the environment of reaction.

The equation that regulates the process of formation of the monoxide of

carbon is mainly the following

 − 67000  X CO 2
X CO = 3 × 10 4 × exp × Equazione 6
 1.98 × T  X O2

As it is noticed, tall values of temperature and low concentrations of oxygen

move the equilibrium toward the formation of the monoxide of carbon.

The presence of other reactive kinds as OH, H, H2O, can invalidate the

gotten respects applying the relationship above described, as the existence

of zones of combustion in which a lack of oxygen subsists.

3.5 Dusts

The dusts in a process of incineration mainly produce him through two

streets, the formation of particolato to the action of the combustion that to

41
suffer a transport eolico and the formation of particolato for condensation of

produced substances is lent for physical characteristics or you evaporates to

the temperature of the room of combustion, as for instance some heavy

metals and their salts.

The first fraction of particolato springs from the inactive presents in the

various combustible matrixes, for instance inactive positions in the plasticses

or in the papers, the inactive presents in the wood or in other organic

matrixes as the muds of purification.

The other inactive subjects, assimilable to monoliths as glass, ceramics,

metallic manufactured articles, don't determine etc a meaningful variation to

the load emissivo for this parameter.

The second fraction of particolato mainly derives from those substances that

to the temperatures of job of the oven, around 850°C-1000°C, they pass

vapor to the state and subsequently ricondensano when the smokes, of

which I/you/they am a component, inferior temperatures are cooled to,

generally in the 180°C order.

The various pezzatures of particolato substantially result indistinct for the

principal components, while in appreciable way are differentiated for the

components constituted by volatile elements, that result to be also the most

toxic.

In fact for phenomenons of volatilizzazione and condensation on elegant

particolato to elevated relationship superficie/massa, the most toxic mixtures

as As, Pb, Cd assemble him in the flying ashes to smaller granulometria.

42
The particolato held back with the inferior surrender by the systems of

demolition is really the fraction most elegant that results enriched in volatile

toxic elements.

The exact determination of the quota of particolato that is formed during the

combustion of a refusal and its distribution granulometrica, needs analytical

techniques and rather complex instrumentations, that e/o can hardly be

retrieved to apply in an operational environment as a plant of incineration.

A model of applicable simulation to an incinerator of refusals has to

excessively use not of simple and executable techniques in times long.

3.6 As the principal purpose of this job is to determine of the respects or of

the trends of issue, they will be looked for some techniques of measure

that allow the correlation of the ashes of the refusal the particolato.

Heavy metals

The present heavy metals in issue can be or to the gaseous state (Hg) or as

particolato.

The particolato can directly be born in the phase of combustion, for the least

volatile metals, or for ricondensazione of the metallic vapors on the

particolato in the phases of cooling you smoke, for the most volatile metals.

The most important metals to the thin emissivis are, for epidemiological

reasons, the mercury, the cadmium and the lead.

The ability emissiva of a refusal destined to the incineration depends on the

concentration of the metals in the initial refusal and in what chemical kinds

are found or you/they can be found during the process of combustion.

43
4 To quantify the ability emissiva of the muds of purification, relatively to

the metals, analysis is effected on mud's shares submitted to different

thermal treatments, with the purpose to verify the loss on the residues

and accordingly the quantity of issued metal. Operational

parameters

The most greater difficulties that rise up in the management of a plant of

incineration are tightly correlated to the variability of the refusals to incinerate.

The manager of the plant checks the efficiency of the trial through a correct

management of the feeding of the refusal and maintaining some physical

parameters within certain sets held optimal.

The correct management of the refusal is finalized to maintain as far as

possible constant the thermal load introduced in the oven and the load of

pollutants that can be developed during the combustion.

This condition is opportunely gotten premiscelando the refusals in the basin

of stoccaggio and maintaining to disposition a certain quantity of refusal to

high calorific power, generally constituted from material plastic, to correct the

thermal load in entry to the oven.

The optimization of the trial happens subsequently through the control of

physical and chemical parameters what temperatures, depressions, flows of

combustive air, dosing of reagents, etc.

As you/he/she can be inferred by the processes of formation of the

pollutants, the different conditions of exercise have an immediate impact on

the quality of the incineration and on the issue sodas of pollutants.

44
These parameters go to determine of the different conditions and

specifications of job that we can generically define" load of plant." The

definition of the maximum load of plant is fundamental in a correct

management of the trial.

Generally the load is simply correlated to the quantity of refusals fed, but this

is too much superficial and not enough. One of the objectives of the model of

simulation are to define in more correct way the conditions of maximum load

of the plant.

The maximum load of a plant to the thin emissivis is a complex evaluation

and not univocal and it is function, over that of the quantity of refusals fed,

also of the operational conditions (managerial flexibility), of the formalities of

feeding, of the quality of the refusal combusto (flexibility in the feeding) and

of the sought after analitis (the control's choice).

We see to title of example as these factors they go to influence the

parameters object of study.

4.1 Composition and structure of the refusal

We see some examples in which the characteristics of the refusal influence

the composition e/o quantity of the smokes in issues.

The presence of chlorine, nitrogen or of organic sulphur determines the

formation of HCl, NOx and SOx.

The presence of chlorine contemporarily to precursors and under favorable

environment conditions it determines a greater formation of PCDD and

PCDF.

45
The presence of inactive polverizzabili to the operational conditions involves

an increase of the load of dusts.

A very combustible substance asks for a greater quantity of combustive air.

The consequences are a possible temporary reduction of the way of oxygen

with reduction of the surrender of combustion and an increase of the courses

of the smokes.

The variations of course of the smokes caused by the different composition it

determines oscillations in the outputs of the systems of demolition.

4.2 Formality of feeding of the refusal

As already mentioned in the description of the process of incineration and

more in the detail of the formalities described in the chapter of" feeding of the

oven", different operational formalities have the following effects:

− piston feeding: in comparison to a continuous they determine greater

oscillation of the parameters of management, with consequent difficulty in

the management of the optimal parameters of management, therefore

worse quality of the trial.

46
4.3 triturazione: it influences the trial the how much a body monolita asks

for very more time to finish the process of incineration, therefore the

distribution of the pezzatura of the incinerated bodies engraves in the

possibility to raise the quota of residual incombusto.

4.4 Temperature

An elevated temperature increases the speeds of combustion of the organic

substances improving for these parameters the quality of the issues, as it

reduces the way of incombusti in the cinders.

4.5 At the same time however the elevated temperature facility the

formation of other polluting kinds, what the nitrogen oxides, the

monoxide of carbon or the increase of the concentration of volatile

elements as some heavy metals.

4.6 I oxygenate residual

As for the temperature an elevated concentration of oxygen in the smokes

involves a best combustion of the organic substances, understood the

monoxide of carbon, but it behaves an increase of thermal NOx.

Besides an increase of the concentration of the residual oxygen indirectly

involves an increase of the course of the smokes with greater thermal

requirement to maintain the temperature of incineration.

If the calorific power of the refusals is not enough the lowering of the

temperature of the smokes or a greater consumption of auxiliary fuel it is

had.

47
4.7 Time of transit of the cinders in the oven

4.8 The time of transit of the cinders inside the rooms of

combustion depends on the speed of the grate or the

oven rotativo. An increase of the speed of transport of the cinders

reduces their time of permanence in the room of combustion and

involves an increase of the percentage of the incombusto in the

residue, at the same time a reduced speed improves the quality of the

cinders but it increases the quota of heavy metals that you/they can

pass in the smokes for evaporation. Dosing reacting

Also the dosing of the reagents involves a variation of the loaded emissivo.

We see some cases in which the dosing of reagents can cause unexpected

effects.

4.8.1 Dampness demolition

4.8.2 A system of dampness demolition, that a very alkaline solution of

washing uses e/o with tall content of solid, improves the surrender of

demolition on the sour components of the smokes but if we consider

the particolato in issue, you/he/she can be verified, kind to contact with

very warm smokes e/o with excessive course, a consequential

production of dusts from the evaporation of the liquid of demolition.

4.8.3 Demolition to dry

In the system of demolition to dry an excessive dosing of reagent, what

bicarbonate or dust of active coal, improve the demolition of some polluting

48
ones, however you/he/she can cause an overload of the systems filtranti with

reduction of their efficiency and consequent increase of the issues of dusts.

4.9 The same damp of the smokes is able in some condition to produce an

impaccamento of the systems filtranti jeopardizing the efficiency of it.

Thermal recovery

The boiler of thermal recovery develops an important role in the reduction of

the load to the fittingses of demolitions.

An optimal cooling of the smokes involves a conspicuous reduction of the

speeds of the gaseous flows allowing the heaviest particolato to separate

himself/herself/themselves from the gaseous flow before the systems of

demolition.

Contrarily a thermal recovery of redoubt efficiency reduces this preliminary

deposition of the dusts and at the same time determines an increase of the

speeds of the smokes in the systems of demolition, with consequent greater

load and smaller of efficiency.

5 If the trial, foresees besides a dampness washing, the warm smokes

they cause a greater evaporation of the liquid with consequent

trascinamento of dusts coming from the solid dissolved in it.

Characterization of the urban refusals

The matter of the study is based on the behavior and impact of the muds of

purification in the process of incineration and on the loaded emissivo of

these.

49
To complete the model and to make him/it usufruibile, with the purpose to

meaningfully determine that parameters impattanti, both on the process of

incineration and on the polluting load emissivo, is necessary to extend the

study to other typologies of refusals.

For the components" traditional" of the RSU many useful data to the

construction of the model have been retrieved.

The characterization of the RSU has articulated in two phases, a

bibliographical and an experimental.

The bibliographical part consists in the market composition of the refusals

combustible and following chemical characterization;

The market analysis of the urban refusal is necessary to be able to

hypothesize in what context is inserted the refusal in study and therefore to

verify what variations it behaves its coincenerimento with the RSUs.

Acquired information are finalized therefore to the definition of the behavior of

these refusals in the processes of combustion and to the nature of the

pollutants that you/they can originate him in the smokes.

The consult bibliographical sources, also in the limits of the variables in

game, that you/they can also determine sensitive variations, you/they have

brought to a description of the elementary composition of the component

merceologies the RSUs as illustrated in chart 1 .

50
Chart 1: the elementary composition of the me rceologie degli RSU umidi

For convenience the data have been reported to the dry one in the chart 2

Composizione elementare delle merceologie sul secco


Elemento C H N S O Cl Ceneri
% % % % % % %
Legno 49,0 5,9 0,25 0,13 41,3 0,12 3,3
Carta 43,9 6,0 0,25 0,38 41,1 0,28 8,1
Plastica 66,4 9,2 1,05 0,35 9,4 3,5 10,1
Tessili 49,5 6,6 4,1 0,3 36,5 0,3 2,7
Organico 44,7 6,5 2,7 0,25 32,0 1,0 12,7

Chart 2: the elementary composition of the merceologies of the RSUs dries

Questi dati associati alla composizione merceologica ed alla quantità dei

rifiuti da incenerire determinano alcuni dei dati di imput del modello.

The market composition of the refusal varies in base to the zone of harvest,
to the typology of harvest (undiversified or less), to the type of pretrattamenti
that the RSU suffers. In the chart 3 are brought the composition market of the
urban refusals in relief in some zones of Italy.

Chart 3: Example of variability of the composiz ione di RSU per provincie

51
Other information that expound the variability of the refusals are brought in

the chart 4 in which the composition of the RSUs is underlined in base to the
Variazioni nella composizione del RSU
RSU T.Q. Racc. diff. Racc. diff.
Secco/Umido Fraz. Secca
Composizione % % %
Legno 6 8 7
Carta 26 20 16
Plastica 12 17 14
Organico 28 21 35
Inerti 13 12 10
Altro 15 22 18
presence and of the type of diversified harvest.

Chart 4: Example of variability of the RSU in base alle modalità di raccolta

These information, even if indicative, you/they have allowed a first simulation

of base of the model.

In a first phase arbitrarily proceeds to choose as reference the market

composition of the refusals found by the Region Piedmont in 1994. To

complete the description we finally bring, in chart 5 and 6, the range of

concentration of some elements and metals normally present in the RSUs.

Campo di variabilità dei


metalli presenti negli RSU
Sostanza Grammi/ton

Arsenico 4-5
Cadmio 3-4
Campo di variabilità dei
Cromo 73 - 849
metalli presenti negli RSU
Mercurio 0,2- 7
Manganese 175 -411 Sostanza %
Nichel 16 - 80 Azoto 0,5 - 2
Piombo 268 - 2500 Zolfo 0,1 - 0,5
Rame 93 - 2500 Cloro 0,7 - 0,8
Zinco 634 - 3500 Ceneri 15 - 20
52
Chart 5: Metals in the RSU T abella 1 :Elementi in RSU

These data have subsequently been integrated, in how much a term of

comparison is made with some matrixes of the RSU necessary, what wood,

papers, plasticses and fabrics, following some experimental tests of

characterization effected on the muds of purification.

6 The data of these tests are brought together with the results of

characterization of the biological muds. Chemical


characteristics and physics of the muds of
purification

To make the exhaustive job, since it is implied that the muds' characteristics

finalized to the incineration, launch both in base to the type of depurative

trial, and to the process of stabilization of the employed muds, a preliminary

study is made on these matters, that it allowed a characterization of the muds

in base the formalities of production necessary.

− The biological muds to the goals of the incineration can be classified in:

− Mud of purification aerobically stabilized or anaerobically

− Mud filtropressato without additive inorganic or with additive inorganic.

This different origin of the mud sensitively modifies the elementary

composition of it and therefore the behavior from a thermal point of view and

from a point of view emissivo.

53
Another important variable to be considered they are the formalities of

filtering, the type of trial employee and the possible additive employed.

In the Province in Turin the cliquish fittingses of purification potentially

meaningful in terms of production of mud they have all fittingses of anaerobic

digestion of the mud, for which you/he/she is held opportune to focus

himself/herself/themselves on this typology.

6.1 For every plant a plan of sampling has been predisposed on which the
analyses and the tests are performed finalized to the characterization of
the muds of purification to the goals of the incineration. Experimental

analysis

− The important chemical and physical parameters to the thin emissivis and

the management of the process of incineration, recognized as priority in

to influence the termodistruzione I am:

− Calorific power

− Requirement of combustive air for the combustion stechiometrica

− Thermal Autosostentamento to the conditions of exercise

These data have been esteemed effecting the elementary analysis of the

mud of purification taken in examination, agreement as C, H, Or, N, Cl, S,

inactive, damp.

The gotten data allow us to appraise the sour components, oxides of sulphur

and hydrochloric acid, produced in the combustion.

54
Analogous reasoning can be made for the nitrogen oxides, in how much the

present organic nitrogen in the refusals transforms him for over 98% in No,

but in some cases for this component, as you/he/she is previously seen, to

keep in mind is also necessary of the equilibrium of the reaction of formation

of the thermal NOxes.

To esteem the tendency of a refusal to create particolato is made necessary

to experiment a technique of measure of the ashes that allowed to get a

correlation between this measure and the dusts. To quantitatively differentiate

the ashes for pezzatura is determined" the effect trascinamento" of the

gaseous flows on the ashes.

To esteem the tendency of the muds of purification to release heavy metals is

thought to analyze the present metals in the damp mud of purification and in

the mud submitted to various treatments of incineration.

This activity to make more complete proceeds then to modify the matrix of

the mud with the addition of chlorides as solution of chloride of sodium, to

verify the possible influences that this component can cause to the volatility

of the metals.

6.1.1 The tests of thermal treatment effected on the muds to esteem the

issue of the metals, can be used also for esteeming the formed

particolato for evaporation and ricondensazione. Origin of the

champions

Muds' champions coming from the two more meaningful fittingses of the city

area, 111 of YYY and 222 of YYY, become in the meantime both of

55
ownership KKK, they are produced by a process of anaerobic digestion and

they suffer two treatments of different filtropressatura. The muds had

produced since 111 filtropressa are dehydrated, through previous

conditioning with mortar and ferric chloride, the 222 muds are you dehydrate

through filtronastri with dosing of an organic flocculante, commonly called"

polielettrolita." The flocculante has the purpose to admit the particles that

constitute the mud of purification, facilitating the release of the present water

improving in such way of it the disidratabilità.

Recently the 222 plant is equipped also with a system of centrifugazione that

uses, currently in parallel to the precedent, a dosing of aluminum policloruro,

commercially denominated" alpoclar."

On these typologies of mud some analyses are retrieved effected besides

during the last years by the Department ARPA ZZZ on behalf of the Societies

that managed the fittingses of purification, 111 and 222.

On the champions, carefully homogenized, they are determined:

6.1.2 Damp to 105°C, ashes to 600°C, elementary elementary composition,

analysis of the metals. Analytical methods

6.1.2.1 Damp to 105°C

A share of the champion, previous accurate omogeneizzazione has been set

to desiccation for 24 hs in heater to 105°C.

Middly the share of the champion is of around 150 - 200 grams.

56
6.1.2.2 Ashes to 600°C

Previously the dried champions have been ground in mortar and

subsequently a share of these has been incinerated to 600°C for 60 minutes.

Middly the share of the champion is of around 5 grams.

6.1.2.3 Metals

The analysis of the metals is performed on the damp champion for the

search of the mercury and on the dry one for the other metals.

The share for the determination of the mercury, around 2 grams, you/he/she

has been mineralized in mixture solfonitrica (5 mls of HNO3 + 5 mls H2SO4)

to bagnomaria for 2 hours.

The share for the determination of the other metals, around 1 gram

you/he/she has been mineralized in regal water (6 mls HCl + 3 mls of HNO3

+ 1ml H2O2s) with microwave ovens.

6.1.2.4 The mineralized solutions are been analyzed then with optic ICP of

the Perkin Elmer, model Optima 4200 DVs. Elementary

composition of the muds

The determinations have been conducted through analysis

gascromatografica of the gases of combustion in current of oxygen of the

refusals. The employed instrumentation has been CHNS-or EA 1108

ELEMENTAL ANALYZER of the Charles Erba.

The shares of the dried champions to 105°C, opportunely ground, you are

been analyzed in four replicas.

57
The curves of setting of the tool are been drawn on five points using as

standard BBOT. (2,5-encore-(5-tert. - butyl-benzoxazol-2-yl)-thiophen) avente

formulates bruta C26H26N2O2S and the following elementary composition:

C = 72.53%; H = 6.09%; N = 6.51%; Or = 7.43%; S = 7.44%.

The chlorine has been determined through the technique of the bomb of

Mahler and following determination of the chlorides with ionic

chromatography Dionex. On champions with scarce tendency to the

combustion a change of the matrix is effected with miscelazione of

antracene.

6.1.3 The percentage of oxygen as component of the combustible fraction,

have been determined for difference among the other present

macroelementis added to the inactive ones. Resulted elementary

analysis

Analysis damp, ashes, elementary of the plant" Á."

In chart 7 are summaries the results gotten on the mud I dehydrate with

aluminum policloruro (alpoclar). The values are all express train in

percentage reported to the annoyed champion to 105°C except the first two

columns. 105°C t.qs. and 600°C t.qs. what reported are to the damp

champion.

Chart 7: elementary analysis of the muds of purification (SSV =solidi sospesi

volatili)

58
The value of the organic oxygen has been esteemed using the equation 7

%Oorg = 100 − %C − % H − % N − % S − % Inerti Equazione 7

59
Analysis damp, ashes, elementary of the plant" B"

With the same formalities of chart 7, in chart 8 are reassumed the analyses

on the mud I dehydrate with ferric chloride.

Fango filtropressato con carica di inerti a base di FeCl3


Dati riferiti in % sul fango secco a 105°C
Campione 105°C t.q. 600°C t.q. SSV C H N S O

1 20,1 9,3 54 27,1 4,2 4,0 0,90 17,5


2 29,2 15,0 49 18,7 3,3 2,0 0,05 24,6
3 30,6 19,7 36 17,4 3,2 1,8 0,05 13,2
4 30,8 21,5 30 16,5 3,0 1,6 0,20 8,9
6 52,6 38,1 28 16,3 1,9 2,2 0,10 7,1
7 23,2 13,2 43 26,6 3,8 5,1 0,05 7,6
8 38,0 25,1 34 18,4 2,9 1,7 0,05 10,9
9 38,3 26,7 30 15,7 2,6 1,5 0,05 10,4
10 37,1 25,8 30 15,8 2,7 1,6 0,05 10,3
11 32,3 7,1 78 58,5 2,7 7,0 0,20 9,6
12 35,7 22,6 37 16,8 2,9 1,8 2,30 12,9
13 35,7 22,6 37 16,8 2,9 1,8 2,30 12,9
14 34,0 24,4 28 15,1 2,7 1,5 0,05 8,9
15 45,9 33,7 27 14,0 2,1 1,3 0,38 8,8
16 45,1 32,1 29 14,6 2,4 1,4 0,50 9,9
17 39,9 27,6 31 16,5 2,7 1,5 0,20 9,9
19 35,6 25,3 29 16,6 2,6 1,5 0,05 8,2
20 35,7 23,7 34 15,5 2,8 1,5 0,05 13,8
21 47,2 34,6 27 12,7 2,7 1,3 0,05 9,9
22 39,8 26,9 32 16,6 2,6 1,6 0,10 11,5
23 40,5 26,3 35 16,0 2,8 1,5 0,40 14,4
24 38,8 23,9 38 17,3 2,8 1,7 0,07 16,5
25 25,2 13,4 47 23,0 3,8 3,0 0,56 16,5
26 38,4 24,3 37 18,6 2,7 1,8 0,14 13,5
27 40,9 25,9 37 16,2 2,6 1,6 0,05 16,2
28 42,0 30,3 28 15,0 2,4 1,4 0,05 9,1

Media 36,6 23,8 36,3 18,9 2,8 2,1 0,3 12,0

Dev.. Std 7,4 7,5 11,0 8,7 0,5 1,3 0,6 3,9

Chart 8: elementary Analysis d ei fanghi di depurazione

60
Unlike the values of the chart 7 are noticed a greater quantity of inactive.

Elaborating her two series of data reported to the analyses elementary and

more precisely bringing the values of the elementary analysis of the mud of

the second plant (B) to the same value of inactive of the mud of the first plant

(Á.), using the equations 8 and 9, it is gotten, as underlined in the chart 9, to

good correspondence of the elementary compositions of the values of C, H,

Or and discreet for the N.

Instead The difference on the values of the sulphur is sensitive

percentualmente. Fortunately on these values possible differences don't

determine meaningful variations on the total issues.

Chart 9: Comparison of the rises ultati a parità di inerti

600t.q." B" / 105t.q." B"


Fattore = Equazione 8
600t.q." A" / 105t.q." A"

%C elaborato = Fattore × %C"B" Equazione 9

Gives the wish of the manager of the plant, if the choice of the incineration of

the muds becomes real, to modify the formalities of dehydration of the muds

with a trial that doesn't ask for addition of inactive reagents, is considered

61
priority the values gotten on the muds dehydrated with the employment of the

alone polielettrolita.

The polielettrolita is an organic flocculante that has the function to admit the

particles of mud facilitating the release of the water and the dehydration.

6.1.4 This first country of analysis allows to draw the necessary

imputs to the model of simulation to effect the thermal

calculations, the calculation and the composition of the smokes

of combustion and the respect of some polluting ones as HCl.

NOx, SOx. Experimental tests for the respect of the particolato

6.1.4.1 Tests of transport eolico

To esteem the particolato produced by the combustion of the refusal, is

thought about submitting the ashes, produced by the incineration to 950°C,

to of the tests of transport eolico.

The purpose is to verify the quantity of particolato trascinabile from the

gaseous tide that the combustion of a particular refusal determines.

Experimentally he is provveduto to introduce upward a champion of ashes in

a mullion of glass endowed with porous setto and of insufflare from the lower

part of the compressed air, measuring the course of it with a flussimetro with

staircase from 50 to 3300 ml/mins.

Proceeding for step of following courses and weighing the fraction of ashes

remained at the end of every treatment the quantity of ashes is measured

dragged by the gaseous tide.

62
The order of greatness of the flow has been select taking as reference that

present near the plant of incineration with grate oven of the incinerator JJJ of

HHH, equal to around 0.3 Nmc/ses for mq, correspondents to 1800 ml/cm2s.

This speed has been corrected then in consideration of the different

stringiness and density that the gaseous flow has to the operating

temperature of the room of combustion.

As it results from the charts retrieved in literature, the stringiness of the gases

in the passage from the Tamb to the temperature 1200°k aumentes of around

2 - 2.5 times.

In consideration of the law of Stokes the courses are corrected for better

drawing near to the real conditions.

The ashes coming from the incineration in mitten result friable, for which is

made necessary to simulate the action disgregatrice determined by the

movement of the cinders inside the oven.

Therefore the tests of transport are effected eolico, as above described,

submitting the same share of ash to different treatments of grinding.

The grinding has been effected in eccentric mill with container and agate

balls, varying the speed of rotation and the duration of the treatment.

63
6.1.4.2 The gotten data have not produced the hoped results, in how much

the found values were too influenced by the pretrattamentis of the

ashes and some correlation has not been possible. Tests of

incineration

In to determine the ashes with the methodic traditional, that foresees the

incineration in capsule of porcelain to 600°C, he finds the formation of smoke

that is emitted by the analyzed material.

You/he/she is supposed that part of the smoke was also constituted by a

fraction of inactive that partially came lost.

If the supposition is correct, this phenomenon can be exploited, cause of an

analytical error in the determination of the ashes, really to draw an useful

value to the respect of the quantity of particolato produced by a refusal. In

fact the error for defect in the determination of the ashes, is associabile to the

lightest particolato, as product in absence of external flows of air.

An analytical procedure is used that allowed the measures of ashes under

two different environment conditions, whose difference determined a

measure correlabile to the most elegant particolato.

Proceeds effecting tests of incineration in beute of pyrex from 50 mls with

occlusion of the neck with a wool filter of quartz, normally employed in the

preparation of the bottle-holders of collecting in the issues to tall

temperatures.

The employed filter has been gotten containing around 150 wool mgs of

quartz among the two disks filtranti MFS quartz fiber of the thickness of 1.30

64
mms and with efficiency on particles 0.3. m of the 98% DOP. The function of

the wool of quartz is mainly of support and separation among the two filters.

With this shrewdness the spillage of the gases of combustion allows him but

the particolato holds back him formed him. Then an increase of the

measured ashes should be underlined.

The first tests have furnished results abreast of the presuppositions, for

which proceeds to sharpen the analytical technique.

The reliability of the filter is occurred so at first built in terms of behavior in the

incineration. You/he/she is occurred that the system filtrante, in his/her whole

it loses in absolute terms, around 15 mgs of mass, a value that sensitively

alters the experimental values. You/he/she is decided therefore to condition

the whole constituent material the filter as the whole glassworks, in mitten to

600°C for two hours and preserving him/it in drier with gel of anhydrous

silice.

Further verification was that to make sure himself/herself/themselves some

complete combustion of the organic component, to avoid to consider an

organic particolato formed him in partial conditions of pyrolysis as inorganic

particolato.

The insurance of the complete combustion, after some verifications,

you/he/she is reached repeating the treatment thermal previous cooling of

the beuta, to introduce new combustive air inside the same one.

The tests are repeated on then shares of champion of the mud of purification.

The results are brought in the charts 10 and 11.

65
Chart 10: experimental Tests of respect of the par ticolato emesso dai fanghi

Whose elaboration has determined the final result of chart 11 :

Chart 11: I Recapitulate of the% of partic olato emessa dalle ceneri

The final result has been express as lost ashes in reference to the ashes,

that is applying the equation 10.

% MediaCeneriBeuta − % MadiaCeneriCapsula
% Particolato = Equazione 10
% MediaCeneriBeuta

From the elaboration of these results of the ashes of the muds of purification

he/she esteems him a middle loss of the ashes as 5.16% particolato with a

0.61% standard deviation.

From these calculations we can draw, as before conclusion, that middly the

mud of purification examined releases around the 5% of the proper inactive

as particolato.

To have a term of comparison they are repeated these tests on market

matrixes common to the RSUs what wood, papers, plasticses and fabrics.

The results are brought in the charts 12, 13, 14, 15.

66
Determinazione delle ceneri su di alcune merceologie a 600°C
Programmata da Tamb a 600°C in 1h e incenerimento a 600°C per 1 h.
Carta 1 tara tara + secco tara + ceneri 600°
Capsula 100,4977 101,7862 100,6686 13,26%
tara tara + secco tara + secco + filtro tara + ceneri + filtro
Beuta con filtro 36,0142 37,3061 37,6714 36,5719
tara + filtro filtro ceneri % inerti
36,3795 0,3653 0,1924 14,89%
Differenza netta 1,63%
% di ceneri perse 10,94%

Carta 2 tara tara + secco tara + ceneri 600°


Capsula 102,5411 103,6286 102,6900 13,69%
tara tara + secco tara + secco + filtro tara + ceneri + filtro
Beuta con filtro 36,1558 37,1947 37,5054 36,6250
tara + filtro filtro ceneri % inerti
36,4665 0,3107 0,1585 15,26%
Differenza netta 1,56%
% di ceneri perse 10,26%
Media ceneri capsula 13,48%
Media ceneri beuta 15,07%
Media delle deviazioni 1,60%

Chart 12: experimental Tests of respect of the parts colato emesso dalla
carta

From these tests he esteems that:

The paper produces a quantity of particolato equal to around the 10.5% of


his/her own ashes.

67
Determinazione delle ceneri su di alcune merceologie a 600°C
Programmata da Tamb a 600°C in 1h e incenerimento a 600°C per 1 h.
Plastica 1 tara tara + secco tara + ceneri 600°
Determinazione
Capsula delle ceneri
96,1844 su97,0298
di alcune merceologie
96,2000 a 600°C
1,85%
tara
Programmata da Tamb a 600°C tara + secco
in 1h e incenerimento a 600°C pertara
1 h.+ secco + filtrotara + ceneri + filtro
Beuta con
Legno 1 filtro 36,7021
tara 37,8966
tara + secco tara38,1964
+ ceneri 37,0400
600°
Capsula tara + filtro
100,5115 filtro
101,5575 ceneri
100,5264 % inerti
1,42%
37,0019
tara 0,2998
tara + secco 0,0381 3,19%
tara + secco + filtrotara + ceneri + filtro
Beuta con filtro 36,1308 37,0383 Differenza
37,3525 netta 1,34%
36,4609
tara + filtro filtro % diceneri
ceneri perse %42,15%
inerti
36,4450 0,3142 0,0159 1,75%
Plastica 2 tara tara + secco tara + ceneri
Differenza netta 600°
0,33%
Capsula 101,8333 103,5935 % di 101,8676
ceneri perse 1,95%
18,70%
tara tara + secco tara + secco + filtrotara + ceneri + filtro
Legno 2 filtro
Beuta con 36,4782
tara 38,2362
tara + secco tara38,5920
+ ceneri 36,8930
600°
Capsula 101,0004
tara + filtro 102,2317
filtro 101,0231
ceneri 1,84%
% inerti
36,8340
tara tara0,3558
+ secco 0,0590
tara + secco 3,36%
+ filtrotara + ceneri + filtro
Beuta con filtro 35,6178 36,5268 36,8012 netta
Differenza 35,9130
1,41%
tara + filtro filtro % diceneri
ceneri perse %41,94%
inerti
35,8922
Media ceneri capsula 0,2744 0,0208 2,29%
1,90%
Media ceneri beuta Differenza netta 0,44%
3,27%
Media delle deviazioni % di ceneri perse 19,43%
1,38%
Media ceneri capsula 1,63%
Media ceneri beuta 2,02%
Media delle deviazioni 0,39%

Chart 13: experimental Tests of respect of the particol ato emesso dalla
plastica

From these tests he esteems that:

The plastics produces a quantity of particolato equal to around the 42% of

his/her own ashes.

Chart 14: experimental Tests of respect of the par ticolato emesso dal legno

From these tests he esteems that:

68
Determinazione delle ceneri su di alcune merceologie a 600°C
Programmata da Tamb a 600°C in 1h e incenerimento a 600°C per 1 h.
Tessuti 1 tara tara + secco tara + ceneri 600°
Capsula 102,7525 103,8106 102,7809 2,68%
tara tara + secco tara + secco + filtro tara + ceneri + filtro
Beuta con filtro 36,3943 37,5277 37,8101 36,7111
tara + filtro filtro ceneri % inerti
36,6767 0,2824 0,0344 3,04%
Differenza netta 0,35%
% di ceneri perse 11,57%

Tessuti 2 tara tara + secco tara + ceneri 600°


Capsula 95,2894 96,5197 95,3200 2,49%
tara tara + secco tara + secco + filtro tara + ceneri + filtro
Beuta con filtro 36,0201 36,9837 37,3140 36,3773
tara + filtro filtro ceneri % inerti
36,3504 0,3303 0,0269 2,79%
Differenza netta 0,30%
% di ceneri perse 10,90%
Media ceneri capsula 2,59%
Media ceneri beuta 2,91%
Media delle deviazioni 0,33%

The wood produces a quantity of particolato equal to 19% of his/her own

ashes.

Chart 15: experimental Tests of respect of the parts colato emesso dai
tessuti

From these tests he esteems that:

The fabrics produce a quantity of particolato equal to 11% of his/her own

ashes.

69
6.1.4.3 These values in the model of simulation have been used for

esteeming awry the tendency of the variations of concentration of

particolato some systems of demolition. Particolato of

ricondensazione

Another component of the particolato is that determined by the

ricondensazione of the substances evaporated in room of combustion. From

the analysis of the metals on the residues incinerated to different temperature

the quantities of particolato of obtainable ricondensazione they are esteemed

by these.

Muds have been incinerated to 600°C, to 775°C and 950°C. On every of

these fractions the concentration of residual metals and the percentage of

the residue you/he/she has been determined for allowing the following

consistent elaborations in to express the concentration of metals in

comparison to the residue to 105°C.

The mud in the incineration releases both particolato and in phase vapor

subject to ricondensazione, but reasoning in comparison to of the tendencies

it is not essential to exactly distinguish the two quotas. You/he/she is partially

assumed insofar here in arbitrary terms, that the loss of metal among the

105°C and 600°C is to attribute to the formation of lost particolato during the

combustion, while the loss of substance among the 600°C and 950°C is to

attribute only to the evaporated quota. The arbitrariness of this choice

consists in the fact that in the first fraction, that lost among the 105°C and

600°C, can subsist both the phenomenons.

70
The gotten results are brought in the charts 16 and 17, where the total

Rilascio di metalli dai fanghi di depurazione


% dei Residui
308% 100% 44,240% 42,634% 41,79%
Temperatura di trattamento
Umido 105° 600° 775° 950°
mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg
Alluminio 22756 66482 142138 149800 133325
70088 66482 62882 63866 55717
Arsenico 1,3 3,2 6 4,9 4,9
4,00 3,20 2,65 2,09 2,05
Bario 92,3 283 647 695 576
284 283 286 296 241
Berillio 0,3 0,8 1,3 1,3 1,2
0,92 0,80 0,58 0,55 0,50
Cadmio 0,5 1,4 3,2 3,4 2,5
1,54 1,40 1,42 1,45 1,04
Calcio 5836 18079 36878 36342 35655
17975 18079 16315 15494 14900
Cobalto 15 44 92 87 80
46 44 41 37 33
Cromo 108 330 666 667 584
333 330 295 284 244
Ferro 6192 18420 36561 35633 31889
19071 18420 16174 15192 13327
Magnesio 4692 13512 23920 23617 21103
14451 13512 10582 10069 8819
Manganese 114 346 752 742 647
351 346 333 316 271
Piombo 51,2 156 336 352 266
158 156 149 150 111 350

Rame
300

196 586 1250 1250 900 250

200

604 586 553 533 376


150

100

50

Stagno 315 888 1477 1737 1308


0
0 0,5 1

970 888 654 740 546


Zinco 1329 3797 7181 6968 6401
4093 3797 3177 2971 2675
percentages of metal are tabbed sent forth by 20° to 950° and the

percentages of metal sent forth in the two ranges of temperature, from 20°C

to 650°C and from 600°C to 950°C.

71
Chart 16: The data in Blue they are the raw results gotten by the analysis,
the data in red they are the elaborated again data rif erendoli al secco 105°C.

Rilascio % di metalli dai fanghi di depurazione


% totale di % totale di % totale di
metallo emessa metallo emessa metallo emessa

da 20°C a 950°C da 20°C a 600°C da 600°C a 950°C


Alluminio 20,5% 10,3% 10,2%
14372 7207 7165
Arsenico 48,9% 33,7% 15,2%
1,96 1,35 0,61
Bario 15,4% -0,7% 16,0%
43,7 -1,9 45,6
Berillio 45,7% 37,8% 8,0%
0,42 0,35 0,07
Cadmio 32,2% 8,1% 24,1%
0,50 0,12 0,37
Calcio 17,1% 9,2% 7,9%
3075 1660 1414
Cobalto 27,6% 11,9% 15,7%
12,8 5,5 7,3
Cromo 26,6% 11,4% 15,3%
88,6 37,8 50,8
Ferro 30,1% 15,2% 14,9%
5745 2897 2848
Magnesio 39,0% 26,8% 12,2%
5633 3869 1763
Manganese 23,0% 5,3% 17,7%
80,6 18,5 62,1
Piombo 29,5% 5,8% 23,7%
46,5 9,1 37,4
Rame 37,7% 8,4% 29,3%
228 51 177
Stagno 43,7% 32,6% 11,0%
424 317 107
Zinco 34,7% 22,4% 12,3%
1419 917 502

Chart 17: Percentage of issued metals to the various ones temperature ed in


mg/kg

72
Figure 12: Issue of contained metals in the muds in conc. >1000mg/kg

Figure 13: Issue of contained metals in the muds in conc. < 1000mg/kg

As you/he/she can be observed by the figures 12 and 13 the elements Sn,

Mg, Zn, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cus introduce a quota of superior issue to 30% in

comparison to the initial content of metal in the muds.

6.1.5 The issue of the elements Á. the, Ca, Fe, Co, Cr him ripartisce fairly

among the two ranges of temperatures considered, the elements Mg,

Sn, Zn, As, Be, is mainly sent forth in the lower range of temperatures,

while the elements Ba, Cd, Mn, Pb and Cu macaws mainly sent forth

in the taller range of temperatures. Resulted analysis of the metals

The muds of purification coming from the two fittingses taken in examination

to analysis of the metals have been submitted for appraising a middle

composition of these analitis for then to elaborate the results gotten in base

to the results of the preceding paragraph.

Also for these analitis some analyses are been retrieved on besides the

muds effected during the last years by the area from the Department ARPA of

Grugliasco.

The results of this first phase are summaries in the charts 18 and 19:

73
Chart 18: Analysis of the metals on the muds d isidrati con "Alpoclar".

74
Fango filtropressato con carica di inerti a base di FeCl3
Dati riferiti in mg/kg sul fango secco a 105°C

Al As Cd Fe Hg Ni Pb Cu Zn
1 10811 3,0 1,4 27027 3,0 108 243 1108
2 12461 1,6 28037 2,2 93 280 1433
3 9202 30675 77 215 1012
4 24876 19900 189 348 995
5 13699 44521 82 205 1404
6 6397 3,0 3,4 27719 3,4 107 256 1386
7 9804 9,8 49020 2,0 95 196 1078
8 6494 1,6 32468 68 195 1104
9 2,4 3,6 16393 0,9 200 273 965
10 9634 0,4 50096 2,7 50 91 308 1503
11 4255 2,6 3,4 36170 1,9 106 255 511 1830
12 6579 3,1 3,1 28509 2,0 132 307 285 1820
13 5703 3,6 4,9 24715 3,6 114 589 418 1825
14 4,7 1,3 8621 112 259 948
15 7895 42105 105 1395
16 8403 2,0 0,8 36415 67 207 1120
17 13015 7,4 0,9 26030 3,9 239 130 152 542
18 84 45 169 899
19 12712 5,5 31780 1,1 191 74 191 1398
20 9747 2,3 13,1 29240 5,3 97 234 57 1501

Media filtro a pressa


10099 3,9 3,2 31023 2,7 127 154 244 1263

Chart 19: Analysis of the metals on the muds disidra ti con "Cloruro ferrico"

Media dei dati in mg/kg sul fango secco a 105°C dei due impianti
Al As Cd Cr Fe Mn Hg Ni Pb Cu Se Zn
12544 2,577 2,732 438 20904 219 1,883 100 179,5 332,4 1,73 1745

Chart 20: Averages of the analyses of the metals on the muds I valori

riassuntivi di tabella 20 sono stati presi come base di riferimento nelle

elaborazioni finali, assieme alle percentuali di emissione di ciascun metallo,

75
per stimare il carico di metalli ai sistemi di abbattimento e stimare la

produzione di particolato per ricondensazione dei sali metallici evaporati.

To complete the picture of the behavior of the muds, to the goals of the issue

of metals, the incidence of a coincenerimento is appraised with then refusals

containing raise concentrations of inorganic chlorides.

To such purpose he is provveduto to modify the matrix of the mud of

purification with addition of a solution of brine so that to bring the

concentration of NaCl in comparison to the dry one to 105°C to around 30%.

To 100 grs of damp champion of 50 grams brine they are added you satisfy

12.5 grams NaCl.

The mud so enriched in NaCl you/he/she has been submitted to the same

analyses of the metals on the different residues as previously effected.

In the charts 21 and 22 are brought the values of the analytical results and in

the figures the elaboration resultant graphics.

Chart 21: Issue of metals in presence of chlorides; The data in Blue they are
the raw results gotten by the analysis, the data in red they are the elaborated
again data rif erendoli al secco 105°C.

76
Rilascio % di metalli dai fanghi di depurazione con Cl-
% totale di
% totale di % totale di metallo
metallo emessa metallo emessa evaporata
da 600°C a
da 20°C a 950°C da 20°C a 600°C 950°C
Alluminio 15,2% 8,6% 6,5%
7833 4454 3379
Arsenico 44,6% 42,6% 2,0%
1,32 1,26 0,06
Berillio 71,4% 23,4% 48,0%
0,53 0,17 0,36
Cadmio 44,3% 21,9% 22,3%
0,55 0,27 0,28
Calcio 3,2% 0,3% 2,9%
394 36 359
Cobalto 17,3% 9,8% 7,5%
6,0 3,4 2,6
Cromo 25,5% 12,2% 13,3%
62,7 30,0 32,8
Ferro 27,3% 12,6% 14,7%
3915 1804 2111
Manganese 7,9% 7,6% 0,3%
20,4 19,8 0,7
Piombo 93,5% 33,7% 59,9%
112,7 40,6 72,1
Rame 20,1% 11,4% 8,7%
94 53 41
Stagno 45,4% 50,4% -5,0%
339 376 -37
Zinco 49,9% 22,1% 27,8%
1535 681 854

Chart 22: Issue of metals in presence of chlorides, in percentage and in


mg/kg, in the ranges of temperature considerati

The graphic representations of the charts 21 and 22 are in the figures 14 and

15.

77
Emissione di metalli dal fango con Cloruri
60%
% metallo totale emessa t.q.

% metallo totale emessa con


50%
cloruri
% metallo emessa tra 20°- 600°
40% % metallo emessa tra 20°- 600°
con cloruri
% metallo emessa tra 600°- 950°
30%
% metallo emessa tra 600°- 950°
con cloruri
20%

10%

0%
Al Ca Fe Sn Zn

Figure 14: Issue of present metals in conc. >1000mg/kg in presence of


chlorides

Emissioni di metallo dal fango con cloruri


100%
% metallo totale emessa t.q.
90%
% metallo totale emessa con cloruri
80% % metallo emessa tra 20°- 600°
70% % metallo emessa tra 20°- 600° con cloruri
% metallo emessa tra 600°- 950°
60%
% metallo emessa tra 600°- 950° con cloruri
50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%
As Be Cd Co Cr Mn Pb Cu

Figure 15: Issue of present metals in conc. < 1000mg/kg in presence of


chlorides Dai grafici in figura 13 e 14 possiamo trarre le seguenti indicazioni:

78
The elements Á. the, Ca, Fe, As, Co, Cr, Mn and Cu macaws not particularly

influenced by the presence of chlorides in the incinerated matrix, or where

him am, they legionary their volatility.

7 The elements Sn, Zn, Be, Cd and in meaningful way the Pb, is made

more volatile by the presence of chlorides in the incinerated matrix.

Issues from the incinerators of RSU

To the elegant solo to have some terms of comparison for the results of the

model of simulation, a bibliographical search you/he/she is effected on the

issue consequential from the fittingses of incineration of the RSUs and

biological muds of purification, awry of the systems of demolition. The results

have been:

Issues of pollutants from incinerators of RSU:

Dusts: average = 2800 mg/Nmcs

Dev. Std = 870 mg/Nmcs

SO2: average = 132 ppms

Dev. Std = 56 ppms

HCl: average = 416 ppms

Dev. Std = 172 ppms

Note: in the original documents the data are express with an oxygen of

reference to 7%. The data above brought they have already been correct

with an oxygen of reference to 11%, in accord with the normative European,

using the equation 11.

79
Issues of pollutants from incinerators of biological muds of purification:

Dusts: average = 52 kg/Tons

SO2: average = 14 kg/Tons

NOx: average = 2.5 kg/Tons

21 − 11
FattoreDiCorrezione = Equazione 11
21 − 7

8 Structure of the model of simulation

Before proceeding to the construction of the spreadsheet proceeds to:

− A preliminary study of the techniques of presentation dates, that allowed

an easy employment of it, flexibility of use or situations adaptation

different and besides facility of following implementations;

As it drives for reaching this result, besides the comparison with the future

technicians potentially utilizzatori, a manual of graphic visualizations is used,

that furnishes profits suggestions on the techniques of graphic presentation.

− A bibliographical search of formulas physical-mathematics able to

determine for by theoretical the data of trial not ricavabili or of difficulty

acquisition necessary to the development of the model.

80
8.1 Some sopralluoghis near fittingses of incineration of
urban refusals and industrial refusals, to individualize
what parameters are normally monitorati at the managers
and as you/they are used and regulated, in the
management of the oven of incineration. The visited fittingses
have been: ASM Brescia, TME Vercelli, OMA Rivalta (To), Industrial
Chemistry Rivalta (To), CON.SER.VCO Mergozzo (No). Formulation

of the model

The first part of the model object founds him on simple calculations

stechiometrici that allows to esteem the macroparametris of a process of

incineration.

For facility of use, diffusion and fitness to reach the preset purposes

you/he/she is chosen as computer base a simple briefcase of job of the

application Excel of Microsoft.

To improve its legibility the data of Imput they are in boldfaced Blue

character, the intermediary elaborate data are in red character, the elaborate

data that determine a result of particular interest are in boldfaced red

character.

Some cells of the worksheet are connected to notes (triangulates red aloft to

the right of the cell) that they expound the meaning and the use of the data in

them contents.

Of the cells of control are inserted then for appraising the presence of coarse

errors that you/they can be salesclerks in phase of digitation of the data with

message in character purple.

81
8.1.1 The elaboration has the following structure: Foglio di lavoro

“Tabelle”

And' the worksheet in which the program goes to seek the available chemical

and physical data in literature, necessary to the developments of the

calculations.

In this worksheet the following charts are transcribed:

− Composition of the dry air

− Pressure of vapor in the air in comparison to the temperature and to the

relative damp.

− Elaboration to draw the composition of the air in comparison to the

temperature and to the relative damp.

Chart of the sensitive heats of the component gases the air and elaboration

through the regression of the curve to draw the sensitive heat in the interval

of temperatures of interest.

You are been inserted for last some charts related to the concentration of the

kinds NOx and CO to the equilibrium. These elaborations, also not belonging

to the model, they furnish some additional information on the course of the

process of incineration. For convenience you are been inserted in this

worksheet. Worksheet" Qualiquantitativa"

And' one of the two sheets of imput, and more precisely in this worksheet

digitati the data come related to the quantities and quality of refusals fed to

the oven.

82
They are present four charts.

In the first chart, denominated" composition qualiquantitativa of the RSUs"

the data are imputed related to the annual quantities of refusals conferred to

the incinerator and the composition market percentage of these refusals.

In the second chart, denominated" elementary composition of the

merceologies of the damp RSUs" the data are imputed related to the

elementary composition of the different merceologies that you/they constitute

the express refusals in percentage in comparison to the damp fraction.

In the third denominated chart" elementary composition of the merceologies

of the RSUs dries" the data percentages are elaborated damp expressing the

composition to the dry one.

The fourth chart recapitulates the quantities fed for merceologia.

The following worksheets acquire the data of the elementary

composition of the dry fraction. Worksheet" Parameters of trial"

In this worksheet the environmental and managerial operational parameters

are imputed related to the oven.

For convenience you/he/she is preferred to introduce in the same sheet

some parameters of output, directly tied up to the first. Among the

parameters of output we remember the courses of the smokes, the thermal

budgets and the respect of the pollutants products.

Worksheet" Elaboration"

83
Through the simple stechiometria of the reaction of combustion the volumes

of gas are drawn for every single merceologia getting the total volume of the

gases of combustion and their composition.

Worksheet" Auto merceologia"

And' a worksheet where the quantities of smokes and heat are recapitulated

produced by every component merceologia the refusal.

8.1.2 From the exact composition of the smokes and from the chart of the

sensitive heats, it occurs if every merceologia is able of autosostenere

the conditions of incineration.

Worksheet" Auto refuses"

And' a worksheet similar to the precedent.

8.1.3 The data that are elaborated they are the thermal verifications for

typology of refusals and the specific characteristics for single

merceologia as the calorific powers, the megacalories for ton

necessary for the autosostentamento.

Worksheet" Flow sheet"

It represents the I recapitulate graphic of the operation of the oven

incinerator.

84
8.1.4 It consists in a schematic representation of the plant in which the data

d input and more meaningful output of the process of incineration

appear.

8.1.5

8.1.6 Graphic sheets

In conclusion they follow the worksheets that recapitulate the elaborate data

and they represent them in graphic form, the spreadsheets are:

− Thermal

− Dusts

− NOx

− HCl

− SOx

8.2 Metals Dati di imput

The individualized input data are:

− Characteristics of the combustive air

− Quantity of used auxiliary fuel

− Quantity of RSU conferred to the plant of incineration

− Market composition of the RSUs

− Composition of the merceologies of the RSUs in terms of combustible

fraction, inactive and damp.

85
− Elementary composition of the combustible fraction of the different

merceologies

− Percentage of heavy cinders produced by the inactive presents in the

single merceologie

− Structural elements of the plant

8.3 Parameters of management of the trial Dati di output

The parameters of interest that are produced by the model are:

− Course of the smokes in the various sections

− Composition of the smokes (CO2, N2, O2, No, Ar, H2O)

− The calorific power of the refusals in the various formalities of expression

− Middle molecular weight of the smokes

− Times of permanence in second

− Turbulence of the flows reported to the speed of entry to the

postcombustore expressed in m/s

− Determination of the necessary heat to reach the temperatures of

incineration in Mcal/h

− The requirement stechiometrico of combustive air in Nmc/h

− Thermal calculations

− Respect of the production of pollutants for NOx, HCl, SOx, Particolato,

Metals.

86
9 These parameters of output allow to express the conditions of maximum

load of plant, not simply as quantity of refusals fed to the oven, but with a

representation more real than it correlates the quantities of refusals fed

to the oven, their composition, the parameters of management of the trial

and the single observed pollutants. Construction of the model

of simulation

9.1 Technical Foglio"Tabelle"

The charts to start the model of simulation, that takings have been in

examination for first, are:

− Chart of the pressures of saturated vapor to the various temperatures in

the range from 0°C to 80°C;

Chart of the composition of the atmospheric air;

Through these two charts the composition of the damp air is elaborated in

comparison to the temperature and to the relative damp of the same one.

9.1.1 Chart of composition of the damp air

To get the composition of the combustive air is applied an algorithm of

selection that automatically inserts, in the chart 23, the pressure of the

saturated vapor to the temperature environment digitata in the worksheet"

ParametriProcesso"

Multiplying the pressure of saturated vapor for the relative damp of the air,

digitata always in the sheet" ParametriProcesso", the partial pressure of the

atmospheric damp is gotten.

87
Pvap = Pvap.sat. × %Ur Equazione 12

Gotten the pressure of the vapor in the air the percentage you/he/she is

calculated in volume of the aqueous vapor.

Pvap
% v v Vap = × 100 Equazione 13
760

and from this the reduction percentage of the other present elements in

atmosphere.

% v v X ariaumida = % V V X aria sec ca × (100 − % v v Vap ) Equazione 14

Gotten the percentages of the gases in damp air the relationships of the

single components they are calculated in comparison to the oxygen, values

that then you/they are used in the stechiometria of reaction.

% vv X
RapportoStechi om etrico = Equazione 15
% v v O2

Subsequently, always in the same section for convenience, the PM of the

damp air is calculated with a simple average weighed of the single molecular

weights in comparison to the quantities present percentages in the air.

 PMO2 × %O 2 + PM N 2 × % N 2 + PM Ar × % Ar + PM H 2O × % H 2 O 
PM =  
 Equazione 16
 100 

Composizione aria secca e umida


aria secca Parametri % gas aria umida Rapporti O 2 Calcolo PM

% O2 20,95% T° aria 0° 80° 20 % O2 20,71% 1 6,63


% N2 78,08% Umid.rel. 50,0% % N2 77,18% 3,727 21,63
%(Ar+altri) 0,97% Px 17,54 %(Ar+altri) 0,96% 0,046 0,38
100,00% P vap 8,77 % H 2O 1,15% 0,056 0,21
100,00% P.M. medio
Controlli OK OK 28,84 88
Chart 23: Co mposizione dell'aria umida

9.1.2 Computational charts of the sensitive heats of the gases of

combustion

From this chart 24, drawn by the" M.Giua" they are drawn the equations that

express the correlation between temperature and sensitive heat of the

various gases of combustion .

Chart 24: computational Chart of the sensitive heats of the constituent gases
i prodotti di combustione

The equations are drawn with regression polinominiale of the 6° degree, to

reduce the error of the curve to an inferior value to the 0.1%, as it results in

the chart 24.

They are planned then the computational formulas that permetteno to

draw the sensitive heat for every gases, give of base to calculate the

necessary heat to heat the gases of combustion to the anticipated

temperature for the incineration and the heat surrendered by the

smokes in the recuperatore of energy, assuming the temperatures from

the sheet" ParametriProcesso." Chart computational formation of NOx

to the equilibrium.

 C2 
X NO = C1 × exp  × X N 2 × X O2 Equazione 17
 1.98 × T 

89
From the equation 17, that it represents the chemical equilibrium of the kinds

involved in the formation of thermal NOx, the concentration of equilibrium of

the NOxes is drawn to the environment conditions of the incinerator. This

value is not him to consider as the indeed present value, in how much it

doesn't keep in mind of the kinetics of reaction, however it assumes

importance when the concentration of NOx produced by the present Norg in

the refusals is inferior to this value.

The values C1 and C2 are inserted in the chart 25, while the values X of the

molar fractions is drawn by the model of simulation.

Equazione di
equilibrio
Formazione NO
kp 3,46E-05
C1 3,69
C2 -21600
R 1,987
e 2,7183
T 920

pO2 atm 0,09


pN2 atm 0,69
pNO atm 8,6E-06
ppm NO 9
Tabella 2: Calcolo degli NOx

In the chart 25 are performed the calculation of the NOxes to the equilibrium

introducing the values resulted of the simulations of the present molar

fractions of the O2 and the N2 in the cells of otuput from the sheet"

ParametriProcesso."

Chart computational formation of CO to the equilibrium

90
 C 2  X CO 2
X CO = C1 × exp × Equazione 18
 1.98 × T  X O2

From the equation 18, that it represents the chemical equilibrium of the kinds

involved in the formation of CO, the concentration of equilibrium of the CO is

drawn, to the environment conditions of the incinerator. Computational

formalities are identical to those described for The NOx.

The values of the constants and results of the elaboration are brought in

chart 26.

Equazione di
equilibrio
Formazione CO
kp 3,63E-12
C1 30000
C2 -67000
R 1,987
e 2,7183
T 920
Patm 1
pO2 atm 0,09
pCO2 atm 0,08
pCO atm 9,3E-13
ppm CO 0,00

Tabella 3: Calcolo del CO

91
9.1.3 Chart of the specific heats

It consists in the chart 27 where the specific heats of the cinders of

combustion and the water are brought, comprehensive of the heat of

evaporation.

Calori specifici
Cp inerti 0,4 kcal/kg
Hvap acqua 600 kcal/kg
Cp acqua 1 kcal/kg

9.2 Chart 27: specific Heats (Cp = specific Heat; Hvap = Entalpia of

evaporation) Foglio "Qualiquantitativa"

This worksheet is composed from three charts, in which him digitano the data

related to the quantity of refusals and to their composition and a fourth grade

of I recapitulate.

The first three charts are named:

9.2.1 "Composition qualiquantitativa of the RSUs"

In the chart 28 are inputati the annual quantities conferred to the oven and

the market compositions, wood, paper, plastics, textile, organic, muds,

inactive, that compose the RSUs .

92
Chart 28: I Recapitulate qualitative and quantitative of the refusals fed to the
forno d'incenerimento

9.2.2 "Elementary composition of the merceologia of the damp RSUs"

In the chart 29 are digitati the data percentages of the elementary

composition of every merceologia of the refusal. The elements considered

are C, H, Or, N, S, Cl, H2O, Inactive.

The data related to the muds of purification and the inactive ones, in this

chart they are gotten for calculation, therefore in red character in how much

for this typologies the are retrieved already express data to the dry one.

Composizione elementare della merceologia degli RSU umidi


Composizione Umido C H N S O Cl Ceneri Acqua
Legno 41,2% 5,0% 0,2% 0,12% 34,6% 0,1% 2,8% 16,0%
Carta 34,7% 4,8% 0,2% 0,29% 32,5% 0,2% 6,4% 21,0%
Plastica 56,5% 7,8% 0,9% 0,25% 8,0% 3,0% 8,6% 15,0%
Tessili 37,1% 5,0% 3,1% 0,20% 27,4% 0,2% 2,0% 25,0%
Organico 17,9% 2,6% 1,1% 0,12% 12,8% 0,4% 5,1% 60,0%
Fanghi 25,5% 4,2% 3,1% 0,6% 17,1% 0,0% 34,5% 15,0%
Inerti 9,8% 1,5% 0,3% 0,10% 4,8% 0,0% 83,5% 0,0%
Combustibile 88,2% 9,8% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 2,0%
Combustibile kg/h 100

Chart 29: I Recapitulate some elementary composition of the constituent


merceologies the refusals alimentati al forno

93
9.2.3 Elementary composition of the merceologia of the RSUs dries"

In the chart 30, the transformation of the reported data to the dampness

effects him in reported data to the dry one applying the equation 19:

 %umido 
% sec co =   Equazione 19
 1 − % H 2 O 

Composizione elementare della merceologia degli RSU secchi


Composizione Secco C H N S O Cl Ceneri Scorie
Legno 49,0% 6,0% 0,3% 0,14% 41,1% 0,1% 3,3% 81,3%
Carta 43,9% 6,1% 0,2% 0,4% 41,1% 0,3% 8,0% 89,0%
Plastica 66,5% 9,2% 1,0% 0,3% 9,4% 3,5% 10,1% 58,0%
Tessili 49,5% 6,7% 4,1% 0,3% 36,5% 0,3% 2,7% 88,4%
Organico 44,8% 6,5% 2,8% 0,3% 32,0% 1,0% 12,8% 83,0%
Fanghi 30,0% 4,9% 3,7% 0,70% 20,1% 0,0% 40,6% 94,9%
Inerti 9,8% 1,5% 0,3% 0,1% 4,8% 0,0% 83,5% 99,1%
Combustibile 90,0% 10,0% 0,0% 0,00% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0%
Combustibile kg/h 98

Chart 30: I Recapitulate some composition of the refusals nell e merceologie


considerate

Also in this chart they make exception the two merceologies" inactive" and"

muds", that as values inputatis of blue color appear.

94
Besides the column appears" also cinders", that points out the percentage of

inactive non-volatile, drawn with the analytical technique described in the

paragraph 6.1.6.2.

9.2.4 Chart riepilogativa

In the chart riepilogativa 31 have been calculated and added the quantities of

every merceologia fed with every refusal. These annual quantities are those

that are acquired by the worksheet" Elaboration."

9.3 Chart 31: I Recapitulate some quantities of merceologie fed to the oven
Foglio "Parametri di processo"

In this worksheet I am inputati in the cells inserted in the charts 32 and 33 the

physical data, related to the air environment and to the operational

parameters of the oven, that we can reassume in temperatures, structural

volumes, times of annual job, concentrations of oxygen residual.

These information together with those of the sheet" qualiquantitativo"

you/they are elaborated in the following spreadsheets.

Chart 32. Data related to the air environment

95
Chart 33: I Recapitulate some input data related to the management and to

the structure del forno d'incenerimento

For convenience of use and visualization, in the same sheet the data of more

meaningful output are inserted, calculated in the spreadsheet" Elaboration"

described in the paragraph 9.4, that allow to immediately individualize the

effect of the variables of trial.

In the charts 34, 35, 36, 37,38 underlying the various voices are recapitulated

Chart 34: you Bring hourly of the gases of combustion and I recapitulate

some condizis oni di lavoro del forno

96
Riepilogo composizione dei fumi Calcolo PM,
Kg/h % gas PM
H2O liquida 16084
Inerti 21466
Nmc/h
CO2 42378 7,71% 1865583
SO2 102 0,02% 6521
HCl 333 0,06% 11794
NO 964 0,18% 28908
N2 376988 68,57% 10560950
O2 OK 49478 9,00% 1583289
Ar aria 4683 0,85% 187101
H2O vap OK 74827 13,61% 1348087

Totale OK 549753 100,0% 28,36

Chart 35: I Recapitulate some composition of the gases produced by the

combustion to the conditions of management inputate in tabella 33

Calcoli termici termico in combustione


Calorie sviluppate totali 239134 Mcal/h
Calorie sviluppate dai rifiuti 238084 Mcal/h
Potere calorifico medio 3095 Kcal/kg
Delta T° fumi nella combustione 850 °C

Chart 36: Energy developed by the fuel to usiliario e dai rifiuti

97
Calore necessario Calore recuperato in caldaia
Kcal/Mc Kcal/h Kcal/Mc
540 8685530
32 686921

426 18041895 303 12828168


426 43332 303 30810
426 141598 303 100679
279 269146 190 183329
279 105299044 190 71724347
279 13819959 190 9413452
279 1308146 190 891043
332 24860925 231 17306180
Mcal/h Mcal/h
173156 112478

Chart 37: necessary Heat to raise the temperature of the gases to the values

foreseen by the incineration and the heat recuperato dalla caldaia

Carico inquinante al sistema di abbattimento


ppm mg/Nmc
NOX 1753 2190
SO2 185 529
HCl 605 999
Polveri Kg/h mg/Nmc
1000 1819

Chart 38. I recapitulate some pollutants products in the oven of incineration

9.4 In the charts 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, the courses, the composition of the
smokes, the thermal budgets and the respect of the pollutants are
underlined produced by the oven of primary combustion. Sheet"

Elaboration"

The worksheet is separated in sections, one for every merceologia.

98
In the account that follows as example you/he/she is taken the" Wood", the

elaborations that will follow are a simple reiterations of the based calculations

obviate me of it on different input data.

Chart 39: Vision of together of the elaborazione stechiometrica

For convenience of illustration you/he/she has been separated in the colored

zones.

In the yellow zone, represented by the chart 40, the general annual quantity

of the merceologia you/he/she is visualized in examination conferred to the

oven of incineration, in the case of example the wood.

Legno 67023 Ton/a

Chart 40: total Quantity of the merceologia alimentata con i vari RSU

This quantity, uniform for the annual hours of job, inputate in the sheet"

ParametriProcesso", it furnishes the hourly feeding, that we find again to the

voice damp kg/ora, of chart 41 .

Chart 41: elementary Composition of the mer ceologia riferita al secco

The rest of the data is always acquired by the input sheets previously

described. With these information the first elaborations are effected, harvests

99
in chart 42, from which the merceologia is gotten, divided in its components

of water, inactive and combustible or organic subject.

The applied formulas are:

kgH 2O = kgUmido × %umidità Equazione 20

kgSecco = kgUmido − kgH 2O Equazione 21

kgCeneri = kgSecco × %Ceneri Equazione 22

kgFraz.C om b. = kgSecco − kgCeneri Equazione 23

kgScorie = KgCeneri × % Scorie Equazione 24

kg / hPolveri = kg / hCeneri × (1 − % Scorie) ) Equazione 25

Componenti rifiuto

Kg/h H2O 1489


Kg/h secco 7819
Kg/h Ceneri 261
Kg/h Comb.secco 7559

% scorie su ceneri 81,3%


Kg/h scorie 212
Kg/h polveri 49

Chart 42: Composition of the refusal in term of co mbustibile, acqua e inerti

From the elementary composition of the merceologia on dry base you/he/she

is calculated, in chart 43, the elementary composition of the only combustible

fraction.

100
% Elem, Fraz.C om b. = % Elem.Fraz.Secca / (1 − %ceneri) ) Equazione 26

Calcolo volumi gas

Elem. P.A. % Comp. Elem.


fraz. Comb.
C 12,0 50,74%
H 1,0 6,16%
O 16,0 42,55%
N 14,0 0,30%
S 32,1 0,15%
Cl 35,5 0,11%

P.M. OK 100,00%
Kmoli n° 7558,67

Chart 43: elementary Composition of the s ola frazione combustibile

In chart 44, from the elementary composition of the only combustible fraction,

through the formula of DULONG-PETIT they are calculated the superior

calorific powers (PCS) and inferior (PCI) of the refusal.

PCS (kcal / kg ) = 8130 × %C + 33977 × (% H 2 − %O2 ) + 2228 × % S Equazione 27


8

From the gotten value the heat of evaporation of the consequential water is

taken away by the reaction of combustion to get the inferior calorific power.

P.C.I . = P.C.S . − % H × 9 × 600 Equazione 28

Subsequently calorific powers are calculated also considering the quota of

inactive and the quota of inactive anymore the damp.

101
Calcolo potere calorifero

% di carbonio 50,74%
% di idrogeno 6,16%
% di ossigeno 42,55%
% di azoto 0,30%
% di zolfo 0,15%
% di ac.cloridrico 0,11%
P.C.S. solo fraz. Comb. 4413
P.C.I. solo fraz. Comb. 4081
P.C.S. fraz. Comb. +inerti 4266
P.C.I. fraz. Comb. +inerti 3945
P.C.S.. T.q. 3584
P.C.I.. T.q. 3218

Chart 44: express calorific Powers on the combustible fraction, on the


combustible fraction more gs li inerti, sul tal quale.

Subsequently they are determined, in chart 45, the volumes of the gases of

combustions in base to the stechiometria of reaction.

The reaction stechiometrica of combustion of the refusal with formula bruta

CxHyNkSjClwOz, is the following:

Cx x CO2 ,

Hy (y-w)/2 H2O ,

Nkorg k No ,

Sj j SO2 ,

Clw w HC l

Oz = it escapes to the quota of oxygen coming from the combustive air.

102
From these reactions the quantity of oxygen stechiometrica is calculated to

the complete oxidation coming from the air.

(Y − W ) K Z
" m" = X + + J + − = coef .stech.OssigenoComburente Equazione 29
4 2 2

From the value of the coefficient of the atmospheric oxygen multiplied for the

relationships of composition of the atmospheric air, the coefficients of the

composition of the nitrogen air are gotten, argon, atmospheric water

introduced with the combustive oxygen.

From the value of the kg/hs of the alone quota of consequential fuel from the

refusal fratto the PM I get the Kmolis of combustible subject introduced in the

oven.

kg MateriaCombustibile
KmoliMat.C om b. = h Equazione 30
PM

From the product of the Kmolis, for the pedicis of reaction of the combustion,

the kmolis of every present elemento/sostanza are gotten.

KmoliX = KmoliMat.Comb. × PediceX Equazione 31

From the product of the Kmolis of the elemento/sostanza for the molar

volume the volume of every single gas is gotten produced by the combustion.

VolumediX = KmoliX * 22.414 Equazione 32

103
Reazione Pedice comp. Kmoli elem. Nmc/h

C 4,22 319,3
H 6,11 461,7
O 2,66 201,0
N 0,02 1,6
S 0,00 0,3
Cl 0,00 0,2
+
O2 4,44 335,3 7516
N2 16,53 1249,7 28011
Ar 0,21 15,5 348
H2O aria 0,25 18,7 418,7

CO2 4,22 319,3 7156,9


H2O comb. 3,05 230,8 5172
SO2 0,00 0,3 8
HCl 0,00 0,2 5,30
NO 0,02 1,6 35,7
N2 16,53 1249,7 28011
Ar aria 0,21 15,5 348,0
H2O aria 0,25 18,7 418,7

Chart 45: Visualization dell a reazione stechiometrica

Finally to get the volume of the smokes of combustion with oxygen

stechiometrico doesn't remain but the quota of vapor to add coming from the

damp of the refusal and the quota of vapor produced by the hydraulic watch,

to service of the primary oven, when the cinders fall in the tramoggia of

harvest.

The hydraulic watch in which the tramoggia of unloading of the cinders of

incineration is drowned guarantees the cooling of this last and at the same

time prevents the introduction of air in uncontrolled way from this street.

104
The formula applied for calculating the volume of produced vapor is:

KgScorie / h × Cp × ∆T × 22.414
H 2 Ovap GuardiaIdraulica = Equazione 33
600 × PM H 2O

You gets so, in chart 46, the volume smokes total produced by every single

merceologia.

Aria comburente Nmc/h 36294

Volume fumi Nmc/h 43160


Vol. vap. comb. Nmc/h 5591
Vol. vap. umid. Nmc/h 1855
Vol. vap. G.I. Nmc/h 150
Vol. tot. Vap. Nmc/h 7595
Vol.fumi secchi Nmc/h 35565

Mcal/h disponibili 33360

Chart 46: Volume of the smokes of combustion produced dalla merceologia

in esame

For convenience, at the end of this elaboration, the calculation of the energy

is inserted also developed by the refusal with the following formula,:

Mcal / h = kg / hFraz.C om b. × P.C.S .Fraz.C om b. Equazione 34

The calculation above detailed you/he/she is reiterated for the

typologies of the refusals and fuels in entry to the oven of incineration,

getting in such way, previous sum of the various components, the

105
global volume of the smokes produced by the reaction of combustion,

with oxygen stechiometrico.

In accord to the demands progettuali of the AMIAT The model foresees the

following typologies of refusals, wood, paper, plastics, textile, organic, muds,

inactive.

These typologies opportunely recombined in the correct percentages

determine the characteristics of the refusals.

With the information until here elaborate we can draw the first conclusions

that are already been anticipated in the worksheet" ParametriProcessi" in the

charts of output.

9.4.1 Proceeds therefore to calculate some of the outputs that established

us in the layout of the model. I calculate air in excess

Considering that in the ovens of incineration he always works with a way of

oxygen in excess in comparison to the value stechiometrico, as already

essay, this excess is law normato and has to be superior to 6% in the damp

smokes.

In the trials in study this parameter is normally measured and recorded in

continuous inside the room of combustion.

The volume of air in excess to be introduced is of easy determination, being

to this point, notes all the necessary variables to the calculation:

VolumeFumi × TenoreOssigenoFumi
VolumeAriaEccesso = Equazione 35
TenoreOssigenoAria − TenoreOssigenoFumi

106
9.4.2 Adding this quota to that of the smokes of combustion the volume of

the aeriformis is gotten in all of their complex and from the moment

that it is known the composition both of the combustive air in excess

that the composition of the smokes of combustion, we also get the

composition percentage of every component. It verifies functional

parameters of the oven

From the knowledge of the dimensions of the oven he can draw then

important parameters of operation of the oven what time of permanence and

speed of entry to the rooms of postcombustione or vice versa to draw

important data for the sizing in phase of planning.

In the first case it is enough to calculate the course of the smokes to the

conditions of job of the incinerator and to respectively divide her for the

geometric volume of the room of postcombustione and for the section of

entry for to get the two parameters above mentioned and normati.

PortataFumiAllaT °
TempoPermanenza = Equazione 36
VolumeCamera

PortataFumiAllaT °
VelocitàIngresso = Equazione 37
SezioneIngressoCamera

PortataFumiAllaT °
VelocitàAttraversamentoFumiSulRifiuto = Equazione 38
SezioneGrigliaForno

107
9.4.3 These values find again him in the charts of output inserted in

the sheet" ParametriProcesso", described to pag. 109 and 110.

Calculation of the thermal requirement of the mass fed to the

oven

This calculation is fundamental for the verification of the correct operation of

the oven in how much it allows to know the thermal requirement to maintain

the optimal operational temperature.

The requirement is gotten by the elaboration of the followings data of imput:

course of the smokes, composition of the smokes, T° in entry of the subject,

operational T° of the oven, quota of present water in the refusals, quota of

ashes gotten.

Departing from the sensitive heats of every present component in the

smokes is possible to calculate the thermal requirement of the mixture

aeriforme of reaction to reach the operational temperature.

The data of the sensitive heats to the various temperatures have been

elaborate, through the technique of regression polinominiale, to get the

equation that represents the in operation course of the temperature of it.

For the cinders produced by the primary oven, being these cooled by the

present water in the hydraulic watch, a variation of temperature is assumed

equal to 80°C.

Equazione 39

Mcal / h = ∑ ( Nmc / hGasX × Cal.Sens.Gas X ) + kg / hScorie × Csp Scorie + kg / hH 2O × Hv H 2O

108
9.5 Sheet" Automerceologia"

In this worksheet it already continues the elaboration of the data results to

get the acquired information in different forms.

Riepilogo composizione fumi e fabbisogno termico


Fumi con Aria in Fumi con Kcal/mc Kcal/h Nmc/Kg
Legno kg/h 9309 O2=0% eccesso O2 reale
CO2 Nmc/h 7157 7157 426 3046941 0,77
H2O vap. Nmc/h 7595 383 7978 295 2352964 0,86
SO2 Nmc/h 8 8 426 3325 0,0008
HCl Nmc/h 5 5 426 2255 0,0006
NO Nmc/h 36 36 279 9986 0,0038
N2 Nmc/h 28011 25605 53616 279 14975937 5,76
Ar + gas Nmc/h 348 318 666 279 186048 0,07
O2 Nmc/h 0 6870 6870 279 1918975 0,74
Totale Nmc/h 43160 33176 76336
Kcal/kg
H2O liquida kg/h 5643 600 3385763
Inerti kg/h 261 32 8341

Mcal/h necessarie Mcal/h 25882


Mcal/h disponibili Mcal/h 33360

Chart 47: Composition of the smokes and thermal requirement to raise the

temperature of the gases a quella d'incenerimento

In this section he/she is wanted to draw the composition of the smokes,

understood the air in excess and the thermal requirement to the incineration,

for single merceologia.

From the sheet" Elaboration" the composition of the gas of combustion of the

merceologia is already acquired in examination and him rieseguono the

calculations facts for the total smokes, to get the combustive air in excess.

109
From the exact composition of the smokes and from the quantities of every

single kind the thermal requirement is calculated.

The charts that will follow in the following worksheets, represent the results

drawn more simply in the various formalities of expression e/o a grouping of

data.

From this new elaboration, it is possible, through a graphic representation to

appraise the contribution of every typology of merceologia to the formation of

the mixture of the gases of combustion.

Nmc/Kg
Contributo alla composizione dei fumi
1,80
CO2
0,05
1,60
H2O vap.

1,40
SO2

HCl 0,04

1,20
NO

1,00 0,03

0,80

0,02
0,60

0,40
0,01

0,20

0,00 0,00
i
li

o
a

i le
a

hi
o

t
tic

er
i

ic
t
gn

ss

ng
ar

ib
an

In
as
Le

Te
C

st
Fa
rg
Pl

bu
O

om
C

110
9.6 Figure 16: Contribution of every merceologia to the composition of the
gases of express combustion in Nmc/kg, (the staircase of right is
reported to CO2 and H2O, the staircase of left it is reported to SO2,
HCl, No) Foglio "Autorifiuti"

The charts that follow represent the results drawn more simply in the various

formalities of expression e/o a grouping of data of interest .

Chart 48: Expression of the superior and inferior calorific powers of the
merceologies, in operation of the frazioni prese in esame

Alimentazione del forno in kg/h per merceologia


Composizione Legno Carta Plastica Tessili Organico Fanghi Inerti
Ton/h Ton/h Ton/h Ton/h Ton/h Ton/h Ton/h
RSU t.q. 2,973 8,745 11,834 1,749 13,991 0,000 19,005
Ingombranti 1,468 0,000 0,245 0,489 0,000 0,000 0,245
Scarti Racc.Diff. 0,628 0,238 0,315 0,025 0,201 0,000 0,268
Sovvalli RSA 3,889 1,944 1,944 0,972 0,000 0,000 0,972
Sovvalli compost 0,351 0,117 0,117 0,117 0,351 0,000 0,117
Fanghi depuraz. 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 3,611 0,000

Chart 49: I Recapitulate some feeding of the incinerator s uddivisa per


merceologia

111
Fabbisogno termico per innalzare la T° dei gas di combustione per merceologia
Composizione Legno Carta Plastica Tessili Organico Fanghi Inerti
Mcal necessarie per Ton 2780 2532 4467 3123 1749 2263 1029
Chart 50: specific thermal Requirement to raise to the temperature of
incineration the gases of combustion produced by every merceologia,
express in Mcal for Ton di merceologia combusta

Fabbisogno termico per innalzare la T° dei gas di combustione per merceologia


Composizione Legno Carta Plastica Tessili Organico Fanghi Inerti
Mcal/h Mcal/h Mcal/h Mcal/h Mcal/h Mcal/h Mcal/h
RSU t.q. 8267 22141 52863 5462 24472 0 19561
Ingombranti 4082 0 1093 1528 0 0 252
Scarti Racc.Diff. 1745 602 1405 78 351 0 276
Sovvalli RSA 10813 4923 8686 3036 0 0 1001
Sovvalli compost 975 296 522 365 614 0 120
Fanghi depuraz. 0 0 0 0 0 8171 0
Totale 25882 27962 64570 10470 25437 8171 21209

Chart 51: thermal Requirement to raise to the temperature of incineration the


gases of combustion prodott i da ciascuna merceologia

Chart 52: produced Heat and necessary to raise the temperature of the
gases of combustion produced by cia scuna tipologia di rifiuto

9.7 Sheet" FlowSheet"

And' the schematic representation of an oven of incineration with the

visualization of the input data and output of the model, localizzatii in the

zones of reference.

112
In the scheme represented in figure 16 you/he/she is reassumed the

structure of an incinerator.

In this scheme they are underlined both the input data and the data of more

meaningful output.

Their graphic position is in relationship to the real position of the parameter of


trial. Figure 17: Flow Scheet dell'impianto

9.8 Sheet" Thermal"

With this worksheet they begin the representation graphics of all the

elaborate data. This series of worksheets is already constituted by a chart

riepilogativa of the resultant data from the elaborations sights and from the

graphic representation of the recapitulated data.

Chart 53: I Recapitulate I tread li termici per merceologia

Figure 18: Representation grafica della tabella 53

Tabella riassuntiva autosostentamento alla T° di


combustione per rifiuti
Disponibili Necessarie Differenza
Mcal/h Mcal/h Mcal/h
RSU t.q. 143518 132899 10619
Rifiuti Ingombranti 8413 7571 842
Scarti Raccolta Differenz. 5901 5270 631
Sopravaglio Rifiuti Solidi Assimilabili 37888 33021 4867
Sopravaglio compost 3601 3446 155
Fanghi 9752 9467 285
Totali 209073 191674 17399

Chart 54: I Recapitulate calc oli termici per tipologia

113
Mcal/h Bilancio termico per tipologia
160000 Disponibili
Necessarie
140000
Differenza
120000

100000

80000

60000

40000

20000

0
RSU t.q. Ingombranti Scarti Sovvalli RSA Sovvalli Fanghi
Racc.Diff. compost

Figure 19: Representation grafica della tabella 54

These graphs underline what of the merceologies in examination and what

typologies of refusal reach, in absence of thermal dispersions, the

autosostentamento to the incineration.

9.9 The merceologies" organic" and" inactive" they are the only two that
they ask for an I bring energetic additional. Sheet" Dusts

In this worksheet they are picked the data elaborated again related to the

dusts and graphically represented. The data are brought in the chart 55 and

in the of the figures 20, 21, 22 and 23.

Chart 55: Harvest of the data of the dusts for merceologia, the column"
load%"
Kg/h it Carico
is the percentage
polveri all'impiantoof pollutant produced
di abbattimento by the merceologia in
per merceologia

examination in comparison to the total one, the column". averages" it is the


1200
difference among the average without the merceologia examination
1000and the
1000
average with all the examined merceologies, the remainders columns
800
macaws described in the
522figs ure 20, 21, 22, 23.
600

400
126 155
200 77 64
49 8 0,2
0
114
ili

ti
rta
o

o
a

hi

ile

le
er
gn

tic

ic
ss

ng

ta
ib
Ca

an

In
Le

Te

To
as

st
Fa
rg

bu
Pl

m
Co
Figure 20: dusts' Production in kg/h for every fed merceologia (from chart 55)

In figura 20 è evidenziato il contributo all'inquinante in esame rispetto alle

quantità di singole merceologie, alimentate al forno d'incenerimento.

As it is noticed the component that potentially produces greater particolato it

is the plastics.

mg/mc Carico polveri all'impianto di abbattimento


3000 2664 2637
2500 2307

2000 1826
1665
1500
957
1000
638
500 279
125
0
ili

ti
rta
o

hi

le
ile
er
gn

tic

ic
ss

ng

ta
ib
Ca

an

In
Le

Te

To
as

st
Fa
rg

bu
Pl

m
Co

Figure 21: dusts' Concentration determined by every mer ceologia (da


tabella 55)

115
In figure 21 are underlined the contribution to the pollutant in examination, in

term of concentration, gotten by the relationship among dusts and smokes

produced by the single merceologies, you feed to the oven of incineration.

Kg/Ton Produzione specifica di polveri per Ton di merceologia


40,0 36,1
35,0
30,0
25,0
20,0 17,6
15,0
8,7 7,5
10,0 7,0
5,2
5,0 2,3 2,5
0,0

ile
ti
co
a

li
o

hi
si
rt

er
tic

ib
gn

ng
i
an
s
Ca

st
In
as

Te
Le

Fa

bu
rg
Pl

m
Co

Figure 22: Production specifies of dusts for ton of merceologia in cenerita (da
tabella 55)

mg/mc Andamento delle medie e contributi sulle medie


2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0
ile
o

ti

e
a

ili

hi
rta
o

nic

tal
tib
r
tic

-500
gn

ss

ng

Ine
Ca

To
us
Te

ga
Le

Fa
Pla

mb
Or

-1000
116
Co

-1500

-2000
Figure 23: dusts' Concentrations in absence of the merceologia in
examination (blue) and the difference among concentration determined by
the merceologia in examination and the average (yellow), negative values of
the yellow bars point out that the merceologia produces an inferior quota of
dusts to lla media (da tabella 55)

9.10 Sheet" NOx"

In this worksheet they are picked the data elaborated again related to the

nitrogen oxides and graphically represented. The data are brought in the

chart 56 and in the of the figures 24, 25, 26 and 27.

Chart 56: Harvest of the data of the NOxes for merceologia, the column"
load%" it is the percentage of pollutant produced by the merceologia in
examination in comparison to the total one, the column". averages" it is the
difference among the average without the merceologia examination and the
average with all the examined merceologies, the remainders columns
macaws described of it lle figures 24, 25, 26, 27.

Figure 24: Production of NOx in kg/h for every fed merceologia (from chart

56) In figura 24 è evidenziato il contributo all'inquinante in esame rispetto alle

quantità di singole merceologie, alimentate al forno d'incenerimento.

As it is noticed the components that potentially produce greater quantity of

NOx they are the plastics, the organic one, the fabrics and the muds .

Figure 25: Concentration of NOx determined by every mer ceologia (da


tabella 56)

117
In figure 21 are underlined the contribution to the pollutant in examination, in

term of concentration, gotten by the relationship among NOx and smokes

produced by the single merceologies, you feed to the oven of incineration.

Kg/Ton Produzione specifica di Nox per Ton Di merceologia


80,0

70,0 66,4 67,4

60,0

50,0

40,0

30,0
23,6
20,0
18,2

10,0 5,1 3,4 6,0


0,0
0,0
ile
o

i
o

ti
ta

ili

gh
a

ic
gn

er
ic

ss

ib
ar

an

an
st

In

st
Le

Te
a

rg

bu
F
Pl

om
C

Figure 26: Production specifies of NOx for ton of merceologia incenerita (da
tabella 56)

Figure 27: Concentrations of NOx in absence of the merceologia in


examination (blue) and the difference among concentration determined by
the merceologia in examination and the average (yellow), negative values of
the yellow bars point out that the merceologia produces a quota of inferior
NOx to lla media (da tabella 56)

118
9.11 Sheet" HCl"

In this worksheet they are picked the data elaborated again related to the

sour cloridirco and graphically represented. The data are brought in the chart

57 and in the of the figures 28, 29, 30 and 31.

Chart 57 Harvest of the data of the HCls for merceologia, the column"
load%" it is the percentage of pollutant produced by the merceologia in
examination in comparison to the total one, the column". averages" it is the
difference among the average without the merceologia examination and the
average with all the examined merceologies, the remainders columns
macaws described of it lle figures 28, 29, 30, 31.

Figure 28: Production of HCl in kg/h for every merceologia to limentata (da

tabella 57)

In figure 28 are underlined the contribution to the pollutant in examination in

comparison to the quantities of single merceologie, feeds to the oven of

incineration.

As it is noticed the component that potentially produces HCl it is

pricipalmente the plastics.

119
Carico HCl all'im pianto di abbattim ento
mg/mc
2500 2309

2000

1500

1002
1000
762

500
286 251
115
0 0 0
0

ti
ta

ili
a

ico

hi
o

le
le
er
ss
gn

tic

ng

ta
ar

ibi
an

In

To
Te
as
C
Le

st
Fa
rg

bu
Pl

om
C
Figure 29: Concentration of HCl determined by every mer ceologia (da

tabella 57)

In figure 29 are underlined the contribution to the pollutant in examination, in

term of concentration, gotten by the relationship among HCl and smokes

produced by the single merceologies, you feed to the oven of incineration.

Figure 30: Production specifies of HCl for ton of merceologia incenerita (da

tabella 57)

Figure 31 Concentrations of HCl in absence of the merceologia in


examination (blue) and the difference among concentration determined by
the merceologia in examination and the average (yellow), negative values of
the yellow bars point out that the merceologia produces a quota of inferior
HCl to lla media (da tabella 57)

120
9.12 Sheet" SOx"

In this worksheet they are picked the data elaborated again related to the

SOxes and graphically represented. The data are brought in the chart 58 and

in the of the figures 32, 33, 34 and 35.

Chart 58: Harvest of the data of the SOxes for merceologia, the column"
load%" it is the percentage of pollutant produced by the merceologia in
examination in comparison to the total one, the column". averages" it is the
difference among the average without the merceologia examination and the
average with all the examined merceologies, the remainders columns
macaws described n elle figures 28, 29, 30, 31.

Figure 32: Production of SOx in kg/h for every merceologia to the imentata

(da tabella 58)

In figure 32 are underlined the contribution to the pollutant in examination in

comparison to the quantities of single merceologie, feeds to the oven of

incineration.

As it is noticed the components that it potentially produces SOx I am the

plastics and the paper.

121
mg/mc Carico SOx all'im pianto di abbattim ento
1200
1029
1000

793
800

600
429
368 354
400
292 277 266

200

0
0

ti
ta

ili
a

hi
o
o

le
ile
er
ss
tic
gn

ic

ng

ta
ar

ib
an

In
as

Te

To
C
Le

st
Fa
rg

bu
Pl

om
C
Figure 33: Concentration of SOx determined by every commodity ologia (da

tabella 58)

122
Figure 34: Production specifies of SOx for ton of merceologia incenerita (da

tabella 58)

Figure 35 Figure 36 Concentrations of SOx in absence of the merceologia in


examination (blue) and the difference among concentration determined by
the merceologia in examination and the average (yellow), negative values of
the yellow bars point out that the merceologia produces one quota di SOx
inferiore alla media (da tabella 58)

9.13 Sheet" Metals"

Analysis give you effect on the muds and on the respects of metals released

during the process of incineration it is possible time to esteem the

quantitative load of metals to the depuratoris, sprung by the incineration of

the muds of purification.

The hourly quantity of incinerated mud, multiplied for the concentration of the

present metal in the mud, multiplied for the total percentage of issue drawn

with the tests of laboratory, the issue is foretold in mg/h of every examined

metal, as it results from the equation 39.

mg / hMetallo = kg / hFango × Conc.Met.mg / kg × %emissioneTot Equazione 40

The results are recapitulated in chart 59.

The same calculation is repeated replacing the percentage of total issue with

the percentages of issue found in the two ranges of temperature, from 20°C

to 600°C, from 600°C to 950°C, as from equations 40 and 41.

Equazione 41

123
mg / hMetallo = kg / hFango × Conc.Met.mg / kg × %emissione(20°C − 600°C )

Equazione 42

mg / hMetallo = kg / hFango × Conc.Met.mg / kg × %emissione(600°C − 950°C )

The results are recapitulated in the charts 60 and 61.

Concentraz. Emissione Emissione


Metalli
iniziale specifica oraria

Conc. >1000 mg/Kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/h


Alluminio 12500 2500 9027778
Calcio 18000 3060 11050000
Ferro 21000 6300 22750000
Magnesio 14000 5460 19716667
Stagno 970 427 1541222
Zinco 1750 595 2148611
Conc. >1000 mg/Kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/h
Conc. >500 mg/Kg
Arsenico 2,6 1,27 4601
Bario 280 120 434778
Berillio 1 0,46 1661
Cadmio 2,70 0,86 3120
Cobalto 46 12,9 46511
Cromo 440 119 429000
Manganese 220 50,6 182722
Piombo 180 54 195000
Rame 330 122 440917

Chart 59: I Recapitulate some issue sti mata dei metalli dal fango

For issue it specifies him it intends the quantity of metal sent forth, express in

mg for kg of incinerated refusal.

124
For instance, considering the case of the aluminum, from the charts 59, 60,

Metalli Frazione di Frazione di Composiz.


emissione emissione emissione
tra 20°C e tra 20°C e tra 20°C e
600°C 600°C 600°C

Conc. >1000 mg/Kg % mg/h %


Alluminio 10% 4166319 7%
Calcio 9% 5399550 9%
Ferro 15% 10499125 18%
Magnesio 27% 12598950 21%
Stagno 33% 1066911 2%
Zinco 22% 1283226 2%
58%
Conc. >500 mg/Kg
Arsenico 34% 2946 0,01%
Bario 0% 0 0,000%
Berillio 38% 1267 0,002%
Cadmio 8% 720 0,001%
Cobalto 12% 18398 0,03%
Cromo 11% 161320 0,27%
Manganese 5% 36664 0,06%
Piombo 6% 35997 0,06%
Rame 8% 87993 0,15%
1%
61, can affirm that the total issue of metal is equal to the 20% of the present

quantity in the mud, left again to 10% in the range among 20°C and 600°C

and to the remainder 10% in the range among 600°C and 950°C.

Chart 60: Issue of metals from the muds in the range of temperature from

20°C a 600°C (vedi testo)

In the chart 60 the composition of the dusts is esteemed also sent forth by

the muds in the range of temperature among 20°C and 600°C; the quantity of

metals sent forth has been compared to dusts' quantity determined with the

analytical technique described in the paragraph 6.1.6.2. In this respect he

commits an error for defect, because the computational formalities of the

particolato produced in this range it doesn't keep in mind of that product for

125
ricondensazione of the chemical kinds evaporated to inferior temperatures to

the 600°C.

Metalli Frazione di Frazione di Composiz.


emissione emissione emissione
tra 600°C e tra 600°C e tra 600°C e
950°C 950°C 950°C

Conc. >1000 mg/Kg % mg/h %


Alluminio 10% 4166319 15%
Calcio 8% 4799600 8%
Ferro 15% 10499125 18%
Magnesio 12% 5599533 10%
Stagno 11% 355637 1%
Zinco 12% 699942 1%
51%
Conc. >500 mg/Kg
Arsenico 15% 1300 0,002%
Bario 43% 401300 0,684%
Berillio 8% 267 0,000%
Cadmio 24% 2160 0,004%
Cobalto 16% 24531 0,042%
Cromo 16% 234647 0,400%
Manganese 18% 131989 0,225%
Piombo 24% 143988 0,245%
Rame 29% 1 0,000%
2%

Chart 61: Issue of metals from the muds in the range him temperature from

600°C a 950°C (vedi testo)

In the charts 61 the composition of the dusts is esteemed also sent forth by

the muds in the range of temperature among 600°C and 950°C; the quantity

of metals sent forth has been compared percentage of the residue to the

126
quantity of dusts of calculated ricondensazione as reduction in the

incineration from 600°C to 950°C.

In to observe the charts 60 and 61 he underlines the enrichment of the flying

ashes in toxic heavy metals. In fact in the chart 60, can observe a

relationship among the toxic metals on not toxic it is of 1,7% while in the

chart 61 this relationship climbs to 3,9%.

Tabella 4: vedi testo

In chart 62 are underlined the respect of metals released by the muds of

purification in terms of concentration, in the first column the reported

concentrations to the present concentration are brought in room of

combustion, in the second column the concentrations standarizzate (oxygen

al'11% and anhydrous smokes).

10 Conclusions

The conclusions that can be drawn here since by the job finished are to be

reported to three different matters analyzed in the thesis:

− a first verification of the answers of output gotten by the model of

simulation;

− the application of the model in the hypotheses of conferment it decided

from the AMIAT;

− the impact of the muds of purification in the incinerator of RSU.

127
10.1 verification of the model

The model has been used in the verification of the courses and the

macroscopic composition of the gases of combustion, near incinerators of

industrial refusals of the Piedmontese area. The select incinerators introduce

the characteristic to be fed in quantitative and qualitative terms in

homogeneous way, useful characteristic to reduce the error of respect

determined by the tied up uncertainty to the knowledges of the refusals. The

difference of respect of these parameters with the measurements effected in

field they are varied among 5% and 15%.

A following verification has been performed comparing the respects of the

consequential specific issues from the matrix" muds of purification" with the

experimental results published by the EPA17 reported to the incineration of

the same refusal. The respects reenter in the interval of the published data.

10.2 Simulations on hypothesis of conferment AMIAT

The model has been used for simulating the conditions of operation of the

process of incineration in the different hypotheses of management of the

cycle of the refusals, foreseen by the Amiat.

The hypotheses of considered feedings are three, in which the quantities and

the typology are varied on the RSUs (as you divide market).

The first hypothesis consists in:

I refuse solid urban not selected 350829 ton/annos


Bulky 17619 ton/annos
You discard diversified harvest 12050 ton/annos
Sovvalli picked up assimilable urban 70000 ton/annos
Sovvalli compost 8420 ton/annos

128
Muds purification 26000 ton/annos

The second hypothesis consists in:

Fraction comb. RSU 185083 ton/annos


Bulky 17619 ton/annos
You discard diversified harvest 12050 ton/annos
Sovvalli picked up assimilable urban 70000 ton/annos
Sovvalli compost 8420 ton/annos
Muds purification 26000 ton/annos
The third hypothesis consists in:

Fraction comb. RSU + organic 293379 ton/annos


Bulky 17619 ton/annos
You discard diversified harvest 12050 ton/annos
Sovvalli picked up assimilable urban 70000 ton/annos
Sovvalli compost 8420 ton/annos
Muds purification 26000 ton/annos

The input data have normally been completed with the market compositions

of the various refusals considered and with the data of trial present in the

urban incinerators.

The respects gotten by the three hypotheses are:

Chart 63: Respects of the parameters of operation of the incinerator of the


different condizios ni ipotizzate dall'AMIAT.

As the most substantial differences you/he/she can be observed they find

him in the courses of the smokes of combustion, in the recovered energy and

in the produced cinders.

129
The variations in terms of concentration of the pollutants to the fittingses of

1
600000
3
500000 2

400000

300000
1
200000
1 2 3 2 3
100000

0
Nmc/h Mcal/h kg/h x 10

Portate Calorie recuperate Scorie prodotte

demolition result contained.

Figure 37; G rafico della tabella 63

Figure 38; Gra fico della tabella 63

10.3 impact of the muds of purification in the incineration

The impact of the muds of purification to the goals of the incineration can be

valued under two separate aspects, the ability of autostenere the thermal

conditions of the incineration and the environmental impact.

130
− From a thermal point of view you/he/she can be affirmed that with the

degree of damp hypothesized inferior of 15%, the muds of purification

have a balanced budget to the goals of the incineration and positive in

comparison to the energetic recovery.

− From the point of view of environmental impact the muds of purification

have in comparison to the other merceologies he/she took in examination

a greater production it specifies of NOx and SOx, an intermediary specific

production of dusts and a production of void HCl. The generation of these

pollutants in relationship to the volume of consequential smokes of

combustion from the incineration of the muds, doesn't altogether alter in

meaningful way the concentrations of pollutants in the smokes uscenti

from the oven of incineration.

In consideration of the annual conferments foreseen by the SMAT SpA,

inferior to the 5% of the totality of refusals digested by the incinerator and by

the effected simulations they don't emerge side effect environmental for the

incineration of the muds of purification

An advantage that sets for this form of disposal of the muds of purification,

besides the energetic recovery, it is the reduction of the volumes digested in

dump.

11 Bibliography

131