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HARVARDCLIMATEJUSTICECOALITION,
ALICEM.CHERRY,
BENJAMINA.FRANTA,
SIDNIM.FREDERICK,
JOSEPHE.HAMILTON,
OLIVIAM.KIVEL,
TALIAK.ROTHSTEIN,
KELSEYC.SKAGGS,
andFUTUREGENERATIONS,

Plaintiffs,

v.

PRESIDENTANDFELLOWSOFHARVARDCOLLEGE(HARVARDCORPORATION),
HARVARDMANAGEMENTCOMPANY,INC.,
andMARTHAM.COAKLEYassheisAttorneyGeneraloftheCommonwealthof
Massachusetts,

Defendants.
_____________________________________________________________________

COMPLAINTFORDECLARATORYANDINJUNCTIVERELIEF

THEPARTIES

1. PlaintiffHarvardClimateJusticeCoalitionisanunincorporatedassociationwithits
principalplaceofbusinessinCambridge,Middlesex,Massachusetts.Itsmembers
educatetheHarvardcommunityaboutthefactsofclimatechangeandadvocatefor
environmentalandclimatejusticebycallinguponinstitutionalinvestorstowithdraw
financialsupportfromcompanieswhoseprimarybusinessactivitiesinvolvethe
extractionandsaleofprehistoric,ornonrenewable,carbonbasedfuels(fossilfuel
companies).
2. PlaintiffHarvardClimateJusticeCoalitionalsobringsthissuitasnextfriendofPlaintiffs
FutureGenerations,individualsnotyetbornortooyoungtoasserttheirrightsbutwhose
futurehealth,safety,andwelfaredependsoncurrenteffortstoslowthepaceofclimate
change.

3. PlaintiffAliceM.CherryisastudentenrolledatHarvardLawSchoolandaresidentof
Cambridge,Middlesex,Massachusetts.SheisamemberofHarvardClimateJustice
Coalition.Shestudiesenvironmentallawandplanstobecomeanenvironmentallawyer
inordertoprotectvaluablenaturalresourcesandhumanhealth.
4. PlaintiffBenjaminA.FrantaisagraduatestudentenrolledattheHarvardSchoolof
EngineeringandAppliedSciencesandaresidentofCambridge,Middlesex,
Massachusetts.HeisamemberofHarvardClimateJusticeCoalition.Hestudiesapplied
physicsandplanstohelpdevelopthenextgenerationofsolarcellstomoveoureconomy
awayfromfossilfuels.
5. PlaintiffSidniM.FrederickisastudentenrolledatHarvardCollegeandaresidentof
Cambridge,Middlesex,Massachusetts.SheisamemberofHarvardClimateJustice
Coalition.Shestudieshistoryandliteratureandplanstoworkintherenewableenergy
industry.
6. PlaintiffJosephE.HamiltonisastudentenrolledatHarvardLawSchoolandaresident
ofCambridge,Middlesex,Massachusetts.HeisamemberofHarvardClimateJustice
Coalition.Hestudiesenvironmentallawandplanstobecomeadefenselawyerfor
environmentalistsadvocatingforactiononclimatechange.
7. PlaintiffOliviaM.KivelisastudentenrolledatHarvardCollegeandaresidentof
Cambridge,Middlesex,Massachusetts.SheisamemberofHarvardClimateJustice
Coalition.Shestudiesorganismicandevolutionarybiologyandplanstobecomean
organicfarmertomoveoureconomyawayfromfossilfuelintensiveagricultural
practices.
8. PlaintiffTaliaK.RothsteinisastudentenrolledatHarvardCollegeandaresidentof
Cambridge,Middlesex,Massachusetts.SheisamemberofHarvardClimateJustice
Coalition.Shestudieshistoryandliteratureandplanstobecomeajournalistand
organizerbuildingpublicsupportforactiononclimatechange.
9. PlaintiffKelseyC.SkaggsisastudentenrolledatHarvardLawSchoolandaresidentof
Cambridge,Middlesex,Massachusetts.SheisamemberofHarvardClimateJustice
Coalition.Shestudiesenvironmentallawandplanstobecomeanenvironmentallawyer
inordertoprotectvaluablenaturalresourcesandhumanhealth.
10. DefendantHarvardCorporationisanonprofitcorporationandpubliccharitychartered
andorganizedunderthelawsoftheCommonwealthofMassachusetts,M.G.L.A.1804
and128,andoverseeingHarvardUniversitysendowment,withitsprincipalplaceof
businessatMassachusettsHall,Cambridge,Middlesex,Massachusetts02138.
11. DefendantHarvardManagementCompany,Inc.isanonprofitcorporationandpublic
charityorganizedunderthelawsoftheCommonwealthofMassachusetts,M.G.L.A.180
4and128,withitsprincipalplaceofbusinessat600AtlanticAvenue,Boston,
Suffolk,Massachusetts02210.DefendantHarvardManagementCompanyprovides

financialmanagementservicestoDefendantHarvardCorporation,includingoversight
relatedtotheinvestmentofDefendantHarvardCorporationsendowment.
12. DefendantsmaybesuedintortintheCommonwealthofMassachusettswhenthetorts
committedwereinthecourseofanactivitycarriedouttoaccomplishthecharitable
purposesofDefendantsHarvardCorporationandHarvardManagementCompany,Inc.
M.G.L.A.23185K.
13. PlaintiffsnametheAttorneyGeneralasapartypursuanttoM.G.L.A.128and8G,
whichvestsupervisorypowersovercharitablecorporationsintheAttorneyGeneraland
whichrequirethatshebenamedapartytoactionsinvolvingcharitablecorporations.

JURISDICTIONANDVENUE

14. ThiscourthasjurisdictionoverthismatterpursuanttoM.G.L.A.2124and2141.All
partiescurrentlyresideintheCommonwealthofMassachusetts.
15. VenueisproperunderM.G.L.A.2231.DefendantsHarvardManagementCorporation
andMarthaM.CoakleyhavetheirprimaryplacesofbusinessinSuffolkCounty.

STATEMENTOFFACTS

16. Theburningoffossilfuelsresultsintheemissionofgreenhousegasesthatbecome
trappedintheatmosphere.Asthesegasesaccumulate,theypreventheatfromradiating
backintoouterspaceandleadtoincreasedaveragetemperaturesonthesurfaceofthe
Earth.SeeExhibitA.
17. Thisincreaseinglobalaveragesurfacetemperatureanditsconcomitanteffectsare
colloquiallyknownasclimatechange.
18. Theeffectsofclimatechangeincludechangesintheamountofprecipitation,increased
frequencyandintensityofextremeweathereventssuchasstorms,drought,andflooding,
anddisruptionofecosystems,biologicalresourcesusefulforhumans,andagriculture.
SeeExhibitBat1316.
19. ManyofthephysicalchangestotheEarthsecosystemscausedbyclimatechange,
includingtheextinctionofplantandanimalspecies,themeltingofthepolaricecaps,
oceanacidification,sealevelrise,andchangingclimatezones,areirreversibleona
humantimescale.SeeExhibitBat16.
20. Thedeleteriousgeopolitical,economic,andsocialconsequencesofclimatechangeare
increasinglywelldocumented.Climatechangewilldecreasefoodsecurity,increase
displacementofpeople,andincreasetheriskofviolentconflict.SeeExhibitBat1416.
Theseimpactsare,infact,alreadyoccurring:Forinstance,itiswelldocumentedthat
climatechangehelpedcreatetheconditionsthatcontributedtopoliticalinstabilityand
violencelinkedtotheArabSpring.SeeExhibitC.

21. Carbondioxideistheprimarygreenhousegascontributingtoclimatechangeandpersists
intheatmosphereforhundredstothousandsofyears.SeeExhibitBat4andDat1.
22. Preindustriallevelsofatmosphericcarbondioxidewereapproximately280partsper
million.SeeExhibitBat3.
23. Currentatmosphericcarbondioxidelevelsareelevatedcomparedtopreindustriallevels
duetohumanactivity,predominantlytheburningoffossilfuels.Currentatmospheric
carbondioxidelevelsareapproximately400partspermillionandareassociatedwith
observablechangesintheearthsclimatethatharmhumanwelfare.Ascarbondioxide
concentrationscontinuetorise,furtherchangesintheearthsclimateareexpectedto
occur,alongwithharmstohumanwelfare,andtherisksofencounteringtippingpoints
increase.Suchtippingpointswouldmakeclimatechangemoredifficulttocontrolwith
severeconsequencesforhumansocieties.SeeExhibitsBat3and79andEat3.
24. AccordingtotheUnitedStatesEnvironmentalProtectionAgency,[t]heevidencepoints
ineluctablytotheconclusionthatclimatechangeisuponusasaresultofgreenhousegas
emissions,thatclimaticchangesarealreadyoccurringthatharmourhealthandwelfare,
andthattheeffectswillonlyworsenovertimeintheabsenceofregulatoryaction.See
ExhibitFat18,904.
25. Therefore,emissionsofcarbondioxideandothergreenhousegasesendangerthehealth,
safety,andwelfareofcurrentandfuturegenerations.
26. Internationalnegotiatorshaveagreedthatthemaximumsafeamountofriseinglobal
averagesurfacetemperatureresultingfromclimatechangeistwodegreesCelsiusabove
thepreindustrialaverage.SeeExhibitGat50.
27. Fossilfuelcompaniesexplorationanddevelopmentactivitieshavealreadyresultedin
globalfossilfuelreservesgreaterthantheamountthatwouldlikelyresultinanincrease
oftwodegreesCelsius.SeeExhibitBat66and68.
28. BurningoffossilfuelscouldresultinmorethanfourdegreesCelsiusofwarminginthis
century,withadditionalwarmingthereafter,ifcurrenttrajectoriescontinueunabated.
Thisamountofwarmingwouldhavecatastrophicconsequences.SeeExhibitBat67.
29. TheCharteroftheHarvardCorporation(Charter),writtenin1650andsubsequently
amended,vestsresponsibilityinthePresidentandFellowsforfurtheringthegoals
specifiedtherein,whichinclude,interalia,theadvancementandeducationofyouth
andthemaintenanceoftheUniversitysphysicalcampus.SeeExhibitH.
30. TheConstitutionoftheCommonwealthofMassachusettsrecognizesauniquepublic
interestinthemissionandgovernanceofHarvardUniversitybyvestingauthorityinthe
legislaturetomak[e]suchalterationsinthegovernmentofthesaiduniversity,asshall
beconducivetoitsadvantageandtheinterestoftherepublicofletters,Mass.Const.pt.
2,ch.5,1,art.III,andbyestablishingadutyoflegislaturesandmagistratestoensure
thecharitableoperationofschools,especiallyHarvard,Mass.Const.pt.2,ch.5,2.The
charitableoperationofschoolsrequiresactinginthepublicinterest,furtheringthe

educationandwelfareofstudents,andrefrainingfromactionsknowntocauseharmto
thepublicandstudents.SeeExhibitI.
31. DefendantHarvardCorporationhasrecognizeditsobligationasaneconomicand
intellectualleadertorespondtoclimatechange.DefendantHarvardCorporationhas
statedthatthisleadershipextendstoitsinvestments,acknowledgingthecausal
connectionbetweenitsinvestmentsandtheharmscausedbyclimatechange.SeeExhibit
J.
32. AsofNovember14,2014,theHarvardUniversityendowmentcontaineddirectholdings
inpubliclytradedfossilfuelcompaniesworthatleast$79millionand,uponinformation
andbelief,additionalindirectholdingsworthanunknownamount.SeeExhibitK.
33. Uponinformationandbelief,Defendantsinvestmentshelpfinancefossilfuel
companiesbusinessactivities,whichincludeexploration,development,transportation,
andthepromotionofscientificfalsehoods.Theseactivitiescreategreenhousegas
emissions,amongotherenvironmentalandsocialharms,andperpetuateworldwide
dependenceontheburningoffossilfuelsforenergy.
34. AccordingtoresearchproducedatHarvardUniversity,largeportionsoftheHarvard
campusinCambridgeandAllstonareatriskofseverephysicaldamageasaresultofsea
levelriseandintensifiedstormscausedbyclimatechange.Underoptimisticscenarios,
muchoftheareaofthecampusborderingtheCharlesRiverwillbefloodedeverytwoto
threeyearsby2050.SeeExhibitLat23135.
35. Thereisstilltimetoavertthemostcatastrophiceffectsofclimatechange.SeeExhibitB
at18.
36. Thedivestmentofassetsfromcompanieswhoseactivitiesruncountertothemissionof
nonprofitandeducationalinstitutionshaslongbeenrecognizedasaneffectivetoolfor
changingsuchcompaniesbehavior.Divestmentfromcompaniesdoingbusinessin
apartheidSouthAfricaandfromcompaniessellingtobaccoproductswascrucialin
buildingpublicoppositiontosuchcompaniesactivities.SeeExhibitMat915.
37. DefendantsHarvardCorporationandHarvardManagementCompanyhavepreviously
divestedfromcompanieswhoseactivitiesrancountertotheUniversityseducational
mission,recognizingthepowerofdivestmentandtheirobligationtoconducttheir
investmentpracticesinaccordancewiththeirdutiesasnonprofitinstitutions.SeeExhibit
N.
38. Anincreasingnumberofprominentpoliticalandbusinessleaders,aswellas
shareholders,arguethatinvestmentinfossilfuelcompaniesisfinanciallyshortsighted
andinconsistentwithsustainabledevelopmentgoals.SeeExhibitsO,P,andQ.
39. AbroadarrayofHarvardalumniandfaculty,aswellasinfluentialpoliticalleadersand
scientists,havecalleduponDefendantHarvardCorporationtowithdrawitsinvestments
infossilfuelcompanies,citingDefendantHarvardCorporationsdutiesasaneducational

nonprofitanditsabilitytomitigatetheharmscausedbyclimatechangebychangingits
investments.SeeExhibitsRandS.
40. Anincreasingnumberofpublicandprivateinstitutionsandfunds,including13
Americanuniversities,27Americancitiesandtowns,religiousinstitutionsincludingthe
WorldCouncilofChurches,andmanyothershavecommittedtowithdrawingorhave
alreadywithdrawntheirinvestmentsinfossilfuelcompanies.SeeExhibitT.

STATEMENTOFCLAIMS

COUNTI
MismanagementofCharitableFunds

41. Plaintiffsreassertandreallegeparagraphs140ofthisComplaintandincorporatethem
hereinbyreference.
42. DefendantHarvardCorporation,asanonprofitcorporationorganizedforeducational
purposesunderM.G.L.A.1804andasapubliccharityboundbythepurposes
enumeratedinitsCharter,hasadutytopromotetheadvancementandeducationof
youthandtomaintainitsphysicalcampusforthewellbeingofitsstudents.SeeExhibit
H.
43. DefendantHarvardCorporation,asanonprofitcorporationorganizedforeducational
purposesunderM.G.L.A.1804,asapubliccharityboundbythepurposesenumerated
initsCharter,andasaffirmedbyPresidentDrewFaust,hasaspecialobligationand
accountabilitytothefuture,tothelongviewneededtoanticipateandalterthetrajectory
andimpactofclimatechange.SeeExhibitsHandJ.
44. DefendantHarvardCorporationisboundtothedueapplicationoffundsgivenintrustto
furtheritscharitablepurposes,M.G.L.A.128,includingitsspecialobligationand
accountabilitytothefuture,tothelongviewneededtoanticipateandalterthetrajectory
andimpactofclimatechange.SeeExhibitJ.
45. DefendantHarvardCorporationsinvestmentsareanintegralpartofthedueapplication
ofitscharitablefunds,andDefendantHarvardCorporationisboundtoconsidereachof
itsassetsspecialrelationshiporspecialvalue,ifany,tothecharitablepurposesofthe
institution,M.G.L.A.180A2(e)(2)(viii).
46. DefendantHarvardCorporationsinvestmentinfossilfuelcompaniesisabreachofits
fiduciaryandcharitabledutiesasapubliccharityandnonprofitcorporationtoupholdthe
purposesasdescribedinparagraphs2931above,includingitsspecialobligationand
accountabilitytothefuture,tothelongviewneededtoanticipateandalterthetrajectory
andimpactofclimatechange,becausesuchinvestmentscontributetoclimatechange,
thedegradationofbiologicalresources,damagetopublicenjoymentofnature,harmto

thepublicsprospectsforasecureandhealthyfuture,andtheeffortsofindustryto
impedeanyattemptstoalterthetrajectoryandimpactofclimatechange.
47. DefendantHarvardCorporationsinvestmentinfossilfuelcompaniesisabreachofits
fiduciaryandcharitabledutiesasapubliccharityandnonprofitcorporationtoupholdthe
purposesasdescribedinparagraphs2931above,includingitsspecialobligationand
accountabilitytothefuture,tothelongviewneededtoanticipateandalterthetrajectory
andimpactofclimatechange,becausesuchinvestmentscontributetocurrentandfuture
damagetotheUniversitysreputationandtothatofitsstudentsandgraduates,tothe
abilityofstudentstostudyandthrivefreefromthethreatofcatastrophicclimatechange,
andtofuturedamagetotheuniversitysphysicalcampusasaresultofsealevelriseand
increasedstormactivity.
48. Massachusettspermitsindividualswithaspecialinterestinacharitableorganizationto
bringclaimstoenforcethelawfulmanagementofcharitablefundswhensuchaninterest
ispersonal,specific,andexist[s]apartfromanybroadercommunityinterest.See
ExhibitUat*245.
49. PlaintiffHarvardClimateJusticeCoalitionandIndividualPlaintiffshaveaspecial
interestinthemanagementofDefendantHarvardCorporationscharitablefunds,tothe
extentthattheinvestmentofsuchfundsdirectlyaffectstheadvancementandeducation
ofyouthandthemaintenanceoftheuniversitysphysicalcampus.
50. A.AstoPlaintiffHarvardClimateJusticeCoalition,thisinterestispersonalbecausesuch
investmentmaysupportorimpedePlaintiffHarvardClimateJusticeCoalitionsmission
toeducatetheHarvardcommunityonthefactsofclimatechange.Thismissionis
protectedbyDefendantHarvardCorporationsdutytopromotetheadvancementofall
goodliterature,arts,andsciencesinHarvardCollege,asarticulatedinitsCharter.See
ExhibitH.
B.Thisinterestisspecificbecauseitexistsonlywhensuchinvestmentdemonstrably
supportsorimpedesPlaintiffHarvardClimateJusticeCoalitionsmissiontoeducatethe
Harvardcommunityonthefactsofclimatechangeandtopromoteasafetransitiontoa
healthyandsecureenergyfuture.
C.ThisinterestexistsapartfromanybroadercommunityinterestbecausePlaintiff
HarvardClimateJusticeCoalitionsmembershipiscomposedexclusivelyofHarvard
Universitystudentsanditsmissionisrestrictedtothediscussionofclimatechangewithin
HarvardUniversity.
51. A.AstoPlaintiffsAliceM.Cherry,BenjaminA.Franta,SidniM.Frederick,JosephE.
Hamilton,OliviaM.Kivel,TaliaK.Rothstein,andKelseyC.Skaggs,thisinterestis
personalbecausethesePlaintiffs,asmembersoftheyouthnamedintheCharterof
HarvardCollege,asstudentsofHarvardUniversity,andasfutureHarvardgraduates,are
andwillbeespeciallyaffectedbytheUniversityscurrentandlongtermreputationaland
physicalhealth.

B.Thisinterestisspecificbecausetheinterestexistsonlywhensuchinvestment
demonstrablyaffectsthesePlaintiffswork,enjoyment,andopportunitiesasstudentsand
graduatesofHarvardUniversity.
C.Thisinterestexistsapartfromanybroadercommunityinterestbecause,asHarvard
Universitystudents,thesePlaintiffsdoandwillreapparticularacademic,economic,and
qualityoflifebenefitswhensuchinvestmentisconductedinaccordancewithDefendant
HarvardCorporationsfiduciaryandcharitableduties.
52. DefendantHarvardCorporationsinvestmentinfossilfuelcompaniescausesdirectand
particularizedharmstoPlaintiffHarvardClimateJusticeCoalitionandIndividual
Plaintiffsthataredistinctfromthosesufferedbythepublic.
53. PlaintiffHarvardClimateJusticeCoalitionandIndividualPlaintiffsareharmedbythe
managementofDefendantHarvardCorporationscharitablefunds,totheextentthatthe
investmentofsuchfundsdirectlyaffectstheadvancementandeducationofyouthand
themaintenanceoftheuniversitysphysicalcampus.
54. PlaintiffHarvardClimateJusticeCoalitionisharmedbecauseinvestmentinfossilfuel
companiesdirectlysupportsclimatechangedenial,whichinterfereswithPlaintiff
HarvardClimateJusticeCoalitionsmissiontoeducatestudentsonthefactsofclimate
changeandtopromoteasafetransitiontoahealthyandsecureenergyfuture.See
ExhibitsVandW.
55. PlaintiffsAliceM.Cherry,BenjaminA.Franta,SidniM.Frederick,JosephE.Hamilton,
OliviaM.Kivel,TaliaK.Rothstein,andKelseyC.SkaggsenjoymentofHarvard
UniversitysacademicresourcesandscholarlyenvironmentisdamagedbyDefendant
HarvardCorporationssupportoffossilfuelcompanies,whichhasachillingeffecton
academicfreedomandthewillingnessoffaculty,students,andadministratorstopublicly
confrontclimatechange.ThesePlaintiffsareunabletoenjoythefullbenefitsoftheir
studyofenvironmentallawbecauseDefendantHarvardCorporationssupportoffossil
fuelcompaniesimpedestheirabilitytoassociatewithlikemindedcolleaguesandtoavail
themselvesoftheopenscholarlyenvironmentthatDefendantHarvardCorporationhasa
dutytomaintain.
56. PlaintiffsAliceM.Cherry,BenjaminA.Franta,SidniM.Frederick,JosephE.Hamilton,
OliviaM.Kivel,TaliaK.Rothstein,andKelseyC.Skaggsfutureenjoymentofthe
Universitysphysicalcampuswillbegreatlylessenedbydamagetothatcampuscaused
bysealevelriseandincreasedstormactivityresultingfromclimatechange.
57. PlaintiffsAliceM.CherryandKelseyC.Skaggsstudyofenvironmentallawandtheir
preparationforcareersasenvironmentallawyersareimpededbyfossilfuelcompanies
promotionofscientificfalsehoods,whichDefendantHarvardCorporationfundsand
enables.Fossilfuelcompaniesundueanddeleteriousinfluencedistortsacademic
researchintolegalremediesforclimatechangeandstymieseffortstousethelawto
addressclimatechange.DefendantHarvardCorporationsfinancialsupportofthis

influencecontributestothediminishmentofPlaintiffsAliceM.CherryandKelseyC.
Skaggseducation.
58. PlaintiffBenjaminA.Frantasstudyofrenewableenergytechnologyandhispreparation
foracareerasarenewableenergyscientistareimpededbyfossilfuelcompanies
promotionofscientificfalsehoods,whichDefendantHarvardCorporationfundsand
enables.Fossilfuelcompaniesundueanddeleteriousinfluencedistortsacademic
researchintoscientificremediesforclimatechangeandstymieseffortstomakea
transitiontoacleanenergyeconomy.DefendantHarvardCorporationsfinancialsupport
ofthisinfluencecontributestothediminishmentofPlaintiffBenjaminA.Frantas
education.
59. PlaintiffSidniM.Fredericksstudyofhistoryandliteratureandherpreparationfora
careerinrenewableenergyareimpededbyfossilfuelcompaniespromotionofscientific
falsehoods,whichDefendantHarvardCorporationfundsandenables.Fossilfuel
companiesundueanddeleteriousinfluencedistortsacademicresearchintoscientific
remediesforclimatechangeandstymieseffortstomakeatransitiontoacleanenergy
economy.DefendantHarvardCorporationsfinancialsupportofthisinfluence
contributestothediminishmentofPlaintiffSidniM.Frederickseducation.
60. PlaintiffJosephE.Hamiltonsstudyofenvironmentallawandhispreparationfora
careerasadefenselawyerforenvironmentalactivistsareimpededbyfossilfuel
companiespromotionofscientificfalsehoods,whichDefendantHarvardCorporation
fundsandenables.Fossilfuelcompaniesundueanddeleteriousinfluencedistorts
academicresearchintolegalremediesforclimatechangeandstymieseffortstousethe
lawtoaddressclimatechange.DefendantHarvardCorporationsfinancialsupportofthis
influencecontributestothediminishmentofPlaintiffJosephE.Hamiltonseducation.
61. PlaintiffOliviaM.Kivelsstudyoforganismicandevolutionarybiologyandher
preparationforacareerasanorganicfarmerareimpededbyfossilfuelcompanies
promotionofscientificfalsehoods,whichDefendantHarvardCorporationfundsand
enables.Fossilfuelcompaniesundueanddeleteriousinfluencedistortsacademic
researchintolowcarbonfarmingandstymieseffortstomakeatransitiontoenergysafe
agriculture.DefendantHarvardCorporationsfinancialsupportofthisinfluence
contributestothediminishmentofPlaintiffOliviaM.Kivelseducation.
62. PlaintiffTaliaK.Rothsteinsstudyofhistoryandliteratureandherpreparationfora
careerasajournalistandorganizerbuildingsupportforactiononclimatechangeare
impededbyfossilfuelcompaniespromotionofscientificfalsehoods,whichDefendant
HarvardCorporationfundsandenables.Fossilfuelcompaniesundueanddeleterious
influencedistortsacademicresearchintosolutionstoclimatechangeandstymiesefforts
tobuildpopularsupporttoaddressclimatechange.DefendantHarvardCorporations
financialsupportofthisinfluencecontributestothediminishmentofPlaintiffTaliaK.
Rothsteinseducation.

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COUNTII
IntentionalInvestmentinAbnormallyDangerousActivities

63. Plaintiffsreassertandreallegeparagraphs162ofthisComplaintandincorporatethem
hereinbyreference.
64. DefendantHarvardCorporationcurrentlyinvestsatleast$79millioninfossilfuel
companies,asallegedinParagraph32.
65. DefendantHarvardManagementCompanyprovidesservicestofacilitatethose
investments,asallegedinParagraph11.
66. Fossilfuelcompaniesbusinessactivitiesareabnormallydangerousbecausethey
inevitablycontributetoclimatechange,causingseriousharmtoPlaintiffsFuture
Generationspersonsandproperty,asallegedinparagraphs1628abovebecausethis
harmoutweighsthevalueoffossilfuelcompaniesbusinessactivitiesbythreateningthe
futurehabitabilityoftheplanet,asallegedinparagraphs1628aboveandbecausethis
harmisappreciablymoreseriousandmoreirreparablethanthatcreatedbycomparable
industries,makingfossilfuelcompaniesbusinessactivitiesnotamatterofcommon
usage.
67. Noamountofreasonablecarebyfossilfuelcompaniescansubstantiallyreducetherisk
ofsuchharmbecausedoingsowouldrequireeithercurtailmentoffossilfuelcompanies
ownbusinessactivitiesormitigationeffortsbyotherpartiesthatwouldlikelylower
demandforfossilfuelcompaniesproducts.
68. Defendantsknowwithsubstantialcertainty,orshouldknowwithsubstantialcertainty,
thatDefendantHarvardCorporationsinvestmentsfundfossilfuelcompaniesbusiness
activitiesandthatthoseactivitiesharmPlaintiffsFutureGenerationsbycontributingto
climatechange.PastactionandstatementsbyDefendantHarvardCorporation
demonstrateitsknowledgethatitsinvestmentshaveenvironmentalandsocial
consequences,includingclimateimpactsthatfossilfuelcompaniesbusinessactivities
aresignificantcontributorstoclimatechangeandthatclimatechangeposesaserious
threattoourfuture.SeeExhibitsJ,X,andY.Additionally,theroleoffossilfuel
companiesbusinessactivitiesinperpetuatingclimatechangeanditsattendantharmsis
widelyunderstood,particularlyamonginstitutionsofhighereducation.
69. Uponinformationandbelief,Defendantsinvestmentsinfluencethedecisionsofother
institutionalinvestorsbecauseDefendantsareleadersamonginstitutionsofhigher
education.AnywithdrawalofDefendantHarvardCorporationsinvestmentstherefore
wouldlikelyinspireactionelsewhere.
70. BycontributingdirectlyandindirectlytoPlaintiffFutureGenerationsharm,Defendants
investmentsmakeanappreciabledifferencetothemagnitudeofthatharm,andany
withdrawalofsuchinvestmentswouldlikelymitigateit.

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71. PlaintiffsHarvardClimateJusticeCoalitionandIndividualPlaintiffsassertPlaintiffs
FutureGenerationsrightsontheirbehalfbecausePlaintiffsFutureGenerationsare
unabletoappearbeforethecourt.
72. PlaintiffsHarvardClimateJusticeCoalitionandIndividualPlaintiffsalsoassertPlaintiffs
FutureGenerationsrightsinrecognitionofthevaluesenshrinedinthePreambleofthe
MassachusettsConstitution,whichaspirestocreateasolemncompactwitheachother
...forourselvesandposterity.
73. PlaintiffsHarvardClimateJusticeCoalitionandIndividualPlaintiffsalsoassertPlaintiffs
FutureGenerationsrightsinrecognitionofthevaluesenshrinedinthePreambleofthe
UnitedStatesConstitution,whichdeclaresasharedinterestinpromot[ing]thegeneral
welfare...andsecur[ing]theBlessingsofLibertytoourselvesandourPosterity.

PRAYERFORRELIEF

74. WHEREFORE,PlaintiffsprayforajudgmentagainstDefendantsasfollows:
A. AninjunctionorderingDefendantstoimmediatelywithdrawDefendantHarvard
Corporationsdirectholdingsinfossilfuelcompanies
B. AninjunctionorderingDefendantstotakeimmediatestepstobeginwithdrawing
indirectholdingsandtocompletewithdrawalwithinareasonableperiodoftime
tobedeterminedbythecourt
C. AdeclarationthatDefendantHarvardCorporationisinbreachoftheobligations
containedinitsCharterand
D. Suchotherreliefasthiscourtdeemsjust.

Datedthis19thdayofNovember,2014.
AliceM.Cherry
BenjaminA.Franta
SidniM.Frederick
JosephE.Hamilton
OliviaM.Kivel
TaliaK.Rothstein
KelseyC.Skaggs

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