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AQUINAS UNIVERSITY

COLLEGE OF LAW
PROFESSIONAL SCHOOLS CAMPUS
LEGAZPI CITY

EVIDENCE
COURSE OUTLINE
I.

Admissibility of Evidence
A. Rule 128 secs 1-4
Reyes v. Court of Appeals 216 SCRA 25 (1993)
People v. Turco 337 SCRA 714 (2000)
Sasan v. NLRC GR No. 176240 October 17, 2008
People v. Malibiran April 24, 2009

B. Relevance:
Sections 3 & 4, Rule 128
Bautista v. Aperece, 51 O.G. 205 (1995)
Lopez v. Heesen, 365 P. 2D 448 (1961)
State v. Ball, 339 S. W2d 783 (1960)
People v. Galleno 291 SCRA 761
C. Competence
1. Section 3, Rule 128
2. Exclusionary Rules under the 1987 Constitution, e.g.
Sections 2 and 3, Art III
Sections 12, Art III
Section 17, Art III
Case:
People v. Navarro GR No. 121087 August 26, 1999
3. Statutory Rules of Exclusion, e.g.
Section 201, Tax Reform Act of 1997
RA 1405, Law of Secrecy of Bank Deposits
RA 4200, otherwise known as the Wiretapping Act
i. Gaanan v. IAC, 145 SCRA 112 (1986)
ii. Salcedo- Ortanez v. Court of Appeals, 235 SCRA 111 (1994)
iii. Ramirez v. Court of Appeals, 248 SCRA 590 (1995)
iv. People v. Laguio GR No. 128587 March 16, 2007

II.

What need not be proved


A. Rule 129, Secs 1-4; Rule 10, Sec. 8
B. Cases
1. Judicial Notice
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AQUINAS UNIVERSITY
COLLEGE OF LAW
PROFESSIONAL SCHOOLS CAMPUS
LEGAZPI CITY

EVIDENCE

City of Manila v. Garcia, 19 SCRA 413 (1967)


Baguio v. Vda. De Jalagat, 42 SCRA 337 (1971)
Prieto v. Arroyo, 14 SCRA 549 (1965)
Yao-Kee v. Sy-Gonzales 167 SCRA 736 (1988)
Tabuena v. CA 196 SCRA 650 (1991)
People v. Godoy, 250 SCRA 676
BPI Savings v.CTA, 330 SCRA 507 (2000)
SJS v. Ho. Atienza GR No.156052 February 13, 2008
Greenhills East Association, Inc. vs. E. Ganzon, Inc., G.R. No.
169741, January 22, 2010.

2. Judicial Admissions
Lucido v.Calupitan, 27 Phil 48 (1914)
Torres v. CA 131 SCRA 24 (1984)
People v. Maliao 594 SCRA 669

III.

Real and Demonstrative Evidence


A. Rule 130, Sec.1 & 2
B. Cases:
People v. Bardaje 99 SCRA 388 (1980)
Sison v. People 250 SCRA 58 (1995)
Adamczuk v. Holloway, 13 A. 2d 2 (1940)
State v. Tatum, 360 P. 2d 754 (1961)
People v. Delantar 514 SCRA 115
Intel Technology Phils. Inc. v. CIR 522 SCRA 657
Heirs of Marcelino Doronio v. Heirs of Fortunato Doronio 541 SCRA
479
Pineda v. Heirs of Eliseo Guevara 515 SCRA 627

IV.

Best Evidence Rule


A. Rule 130, Secs 2-8; Rule 132, Secs. 25 and 27;
Electronic Commerce Act (RA 8792), Secs 5, 6-15; Rules on Electronic Evidence
(REE), Rule 2, Sec. 1; Rule 3; Rule 4.
B. Cases:
Air France v. Carrascoso, 18 SCRA 155 (1966)
Meyes v. United States, 171 F. 2d 800 (1948)
People v. Tan, 105 Phil 1242 (1959)
Seiler v.Lucas Film LTD 797 F. 2d 1504 (1986)
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AQUINAS UNIVERSITY
COLLEGE OF LAW
PROFESSIONAL SCHOOLS CAMPUS
LEGAZPI CITY

EVIDENCE

V.

People v. Tandoy 192 SCRA 98 (1990)


US v. Gregorio 17 Phil 522 (1910)
Fiscal of Pampanga v.Reyes 55 Phil 905 (1931)
Vda. De Corpus v. Brabangco (CA) 59 OG 8262 (1963)
Maritime v. AFWU, May 24, 1977 GR L-28999
Villa Rey Transit v. Ferrer 25 SCRA 845 (1968)
Michael & Co. v. Enriques 33 Phil 87 (1915)
De Vera v. Aguilar 218 SCRA 602 (1983)
Manila Mining v. Tan GR No. 171702 February 12, 2009
Edsa Shangrila v. BF Corp GR No. 145842 June 2008
Arceo v. People GR No. 142641 July 17, 2006
MCC Industrial Sales Corp. v. Sangyong Corp. GR No. 170633
October 17, 2007
Gaw v. Chua GR No. 160855 April 16, 2008
Nissan North Edsa Operating Under the name Motor Carriage, Inc.
vs. United Philippine Scout, G.R. No. 179470, April 20, 2010.

Parol Evidence Rule


A. Rule 130, Sec. 9; Art 1403 of the Civil Code
B. Cases:
Enriquez v. Ramos 6 SCRA 219 (1962)
Canuto v. Mariano, 37 Phil 840 (1918)
Yu Tek v. Gonzales, 29 Phil 384 (1915)
Land Settlement & Dev. Corp. v. Garcia Plantation 7 SCRA 750 (1963)
Maulini v. Serrano 28 Phil 640 (1914)
PNB v. Seeto 91 Phil 756 (1952)
Woodhouse v. Halili 93 Phil 526 (1953)
Robles v. Lizarraga Cruz, 50 Phil 387 (1927)
Cruz v. Court of Appeals 192 SCRA 209 (1990)
Lechugas v. CA 143 SCRA 335 (1986)
Inciong v. CA 257 SCRA 578 (1996)
Ortanez v. CA 266 SCRA 561 (1997)
Suatengco v. Reyes December 17, 2008
Sps. Manuel and Victoria Salimbangon vs. Sps. Santos and Erlinda
Tan, G.R. No. 185240, January 21, 2010.
Financial Building Corporation vs.. Rudlin International Corporation,
et al./Rudlin International Corporation, et al. vs. Financial Building
Corporation, G.R. No. 164186/G.R. No. 164347. October 4, 2010
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AQUINAS UNIVERSITY
COLLEGE OF LAW
PROFESSIONAL SCHOOLS CAMPUS
LEGAZPI CITY

EVIDENCE
VI.

Interpretation of Documents
A. Rule 130, Secs. 10-19; Arts. 1370-1379, Civil Code
B. Cases:
Lambert v. Fox 26 Phil 588 (1914)
Capital Insurance v. Sadang 21 SCRA 1183 (1967)

VII.

Qualifications of Witnesses
Cases:

People v. Elarcosa GR No. 186539 June 29, 2010


People v. Tuangco 345 SCRA 429
Republic v. CA January 18, 2001

A. Mental Incapacity or Immaturity


Rule 130, Secs. 20 & 21
People v. De Jesus, 129 SCRA 4 (1984)
People v. Salomon, 229 SCRA 402 (1993)
People v. Mendoza GR No. 113791 February 2, 1996
Halili v. Halili GR No. 165424 April 16, 2008
People v. Ubina 527 SCRA 307
B. Marital Disqualification
Rule 130 Section 22
Ordono v. Daquigan 62 SCRA 270 (1975)
People v. Castaneda 88 SCRA 562(1979)
People v. Francisco 78 Phil 694 (1947)
Lezama v. Rodriguez 23 SCRA 1166 (1968)
C. Dead Mans Statute
Rule 130 Section 23
Guerrero v. St Claires Realty & Co. 124 SCRA 553 (1983)
Abraham v. Recto-Kasten 4 SCRA 298 (1962)
Goni v. CA 144 SCRA 222 (1986)
Tongco v. Vianzon 50 Phil 698 (1927)
Lichauco v. Atlantic Gulf 84 Phil 330 (1949)
Razon v. IAC 207 SCRA 234 (1992)
Sunga-Chan v. Chua 363 SCRA 249

VIII.

Privileged Communication
A. Marital Communications
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AQUINAS UNIVERSITY
COLLEGE OF LAW
PROFESSIONAL SCHOOLS CAMPUS
LEGAZPI CITY

EVIDENCE

Rule 130, Sec. 24 (a)


People v.Carlos 47 Phil 626 (1925)
Lacurom v. Jacoba 484 SCRA 206

B. Attorney- Client Privilege


Rule 130 Sec. 24 (b)
Uy Chico v. Union Life 29 Phil 163 (1915)
Regala v. Sandiganbayan 262 SCRA 124 (1996)
Barton v. Leyte Asphalt and Mineral Oil Co. 46 Phil 938 (1924)
Orient Insurance v. Revilla 54 Phil 919 (1930)
Hickman v. Taylor 329 US 495 (1947)
Upjohn Company v. US 449 SCRA 383 (1981)
In re Grand Jury Investigation 732 F. 2d 447 (1983)
US v. Mc Partlin 595 F. 2d 1321 (7th Cir 1975)
US v. Gordon-Nikkar 518 F. 2d 972 (5th Cir 1975)
US v. Nobles 422 US 225 (1975)
People v. Sandiganbayan 275 SCRA 505 (1997)
C. Physician-Patient Privilege
Rule 130 Section 24 (c )
Lim v. Court of Appeals 214 SCRA 273 (1992)
Krohn v. Court of Appeals 233 SCRA 146 (1994)
D. State Secrets
Rule 130 Section 24
US v. Nixon, (AB) 418 US 683 (1974)
Banco Filipino v. Monetary Board 142 SCRA 523 (1986)
E. Paternal and Filial Privilege
Rule 130 Section 25 Art. 215 Civil Code
People v. Publico 17 CAR (2s) 703 (1972)
F. Newsmans Privilege
RA 53, as amended by RA 1477
Matter of Farber (AB) 394 A. 2d 330 (1978)

IX.

Admissions and Confessions


A. Admissions against Interest
Rule 130 Sections 26 & 32
Viacrus v. CA 44 SCRA 176 (1972)
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AQUINAS UNIVERSITY
COLLEGE OF LAW
PROFESSIONAL SCHOOLS CAMPUS
LEGAZPI CITY

EVIDENCE

Keller & Co v. COB 141 SCRA 86 (1986)


People v. Paragsa 84 SCRA 105 (1978)
People v. Alegre 94 SCRA 109 (1979)
Griffin v. California 380 US 853 (1965)
Alejandra S. Lazaro, et al. vs. Modesta Agustin, et al., G.R. No.
152364, April 15, 2010.
People v. Espanol 579 SCRA 326 GR No. 175603 February 13, 2009
Maagad v. Maagad 588 SCRA 649
Pentagon Steel Corporation v. CA 591 SCRA 160

B. Compromises
Rule 130 Section 27
Veradero v. Insular Lumber 46 Phil 176 (1924)
US v. Torrres 34 Phil 994 (1916)
People v. Godoy 250 SCRA 676 (1995)
People v. De Guzman 265 SCRA 228 (1996)
People v. Yparriguirre 268 SCRA 35 (1997)
People v. Maqui 27 Phil 97 (1914)
C. Res Inter Alios Acta
Rule 130 Section 28
People v. Alegre 94 SCRA 109 (1979)
People v. Raquel 265 SCRA 248 (1996)
People v Bokingo G.R. No. 187536 August 10, 2011
D. Exceptions to the Res Inter Alios Acta Rule
1. Partners/ Agents Admissions
Rule 130 Section 28
Mahlandt v. Wild Candid
Survival and Research Center 588 F. 2d 626 (8th Cir. 198)
2. Co- conspirators Statements
Rule 130 Section 30
People v. Cabrera 57 SCRA 715 (1974)
People v. Yatco 97 Phil 941 (1955)
People v. Chaw Yaw Shun 23 SCRA 127 (1968)
People v. Serrano 105 Phil 531 (1959)
People v. De La Cruz GR No. 173308 June 25, 2008
People v. Santos GR No. 176735 June 26, 2008
Tamargo v Awingan G.R. No. 177727 January 19, 2010
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AQUINAS UNIVERSITY
COLLEGE OF LAW
PROFESSIONAL SCHOOLS CAMPUS
LEGAZPI CITY

EVIDENCE
3. Admission by Privies
Rule 130 Section 31
Alpuerto v. Pastor 38 Phil 785 (1918)
City of Manila v. Del Rosario 5 Phil 227 (1905)
E. Confessions
1. Art III Section 17, 1987 Constitution Rule 130 Section 33, Rule 115 (e)
2. Cases:
People v. Compil 244 SCRA 135 (1995)
People v. Wong Chuen Ming 256 SCRA 182 (1996)
People v. Alegre 94 SCRA 109 (1979)
People v. Yip Wai Ming 264 SCRA 224 (1996)
People v.Magueda 242 SCRA 565 (1995)
Parker v. Randolph 442 US 62 (1979)
People v. Rapeza 520 SCRA 596

X.

Conduct and Character as Evidence


A. Rule 130 Secs. 34-35; Rule 132, Section 14
B. Cases:
US v. Pineda 37 Phil 457 (1918)
People v. Irang 64 Phil 285 (1937)
People v. Soliman 53 OG 8083 (1957)
People v.Babiera 52 Phil 97 (1928)
US v. Mercado 26 Phil 127 (1913)

XI.

Hearsay Rule
A. Testimonial Knowledge
Rule 130 Sec 36
People v. Brioso 37 SCRA 336 (1971)
People v. Cusi 14 SCRA 944 (1965)
People v. Gaddi 170 SCRA 649 (1989)
Leake v. Hagert 175 N.W. 2d 675 (1970)
US v. Zenni 492 F. Supp. 464 (1980)
People v. Malibiran April 24, 2009
Development Bank of the Philippines and SM Investment Corp.,G.R.
No. 180439, December 23, 2009.
B. Exceptions
1. Dying Declaration
Rule 130 Sec 36
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AQUINAS UNIVERSITY
COLLEGE OF LAW
PROFESSIONAL SCHOOLS CAMPUS
LEGAZPI CITY

EVIDENCE

People v. Laquinon 135 SCRA 91 (1985)


People v. Sabio 102 SCRA 218 (1981)
People v. Salison GR No.L- 115690 Feb. 20, 1996
Gerardo v. People GR No. 173608 November 20, 2008
People v. Cabrillas G.R. No. 175980 February 15, 2012
People v. Reyes G.R. No. 189834, March 30, 2011
People v.Bello G.R. No. 173476 February 22, 2012

2. Declaration Against Interest


Rule130 Section 38
People v. Majuri 96 SCRA 472 (1980)
People v. Toledo 51 Phil 825 (1928)
Fuentes v. CA 253 SCRA 430 (1996)
Lazaro v. Agustin G.R. No. 152364 April 15, 2010
Sabili v COMELEC G. R. No. 193261, April 24, 2012
3. Pedigree
Rule 130 section 39
Gravador v. Mamigo 20 SCRA 742 (1967)
People v. Alegado 201 SCRA 37 (1991)
Tison v. CA 276 SCRA 582 (1997)
Nepumuceno v. Lopez G.R. No. 181258 March 18, 2010
De la cruz v. Gracia G.R. No. 177728 July 31, 2009
4. Family Tradition
Rule 130 section 40
Ferrer v. de Ynchausti 38 Phil 905 (1918)
Herrera v Alba G.R. No. 148220 June 15, 2005
5. Common Reputation
Rule 130 Section 41
Ferrer v. de Ynchausti 38 Phil 905 (1918)
City of Manila v. Del Rosario 5 Phil 227 (1905)
CSC v Belagan G.R. No. 132164 October 19, 2004
6. Res Gestae
Rule 130 Section 42
People v. Lungayan 162 SCRA 100 (1988)
People v. Putian 74 SCRA 133 (1976)
People v. Tolentino 218 SCRA 337 (1993)
People v. Cudal GR No. 167502 October 31, 2006
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AQUINAS UNIVERSITY
COLLEGE OF LAW
PROFESSIONAL SCHOOLS CAMPUS
LEGAZPI CITY

EVIDENCE

People of the Philippines v. Romy Fallones y Labana, G.R. No.


190341, March 16, 2011.

7. Entries in the Course of Business


Rule 130 Section 42
Palmer v. Hoffman 318 US 109 (1943)
Philamlife v. Capital Assurance Corp. CA 72 OG 3941
Land Bank of the Philippines vs. Monets Export and Manufacturing
Corp., et al., G.R. No. 184971, April 19, 2010.
Cansino v. Prudential Shipping and Management Corporation 516
SCRA 296
8. Official Records
Rule 130, Section 44
Caltex v. Africa, 16 SCRA 448 (1996)
People v. Leones, 117 SCRA 382 (1982)
Manalo v. Robles Trans. Corp. Inc. 99 Phil 729 (1956)
People v. Cabuang 217 SCRA 675 (1993)
People v. Gabriel GR No. L-107735 Feb. 1, 1996
Tarapen V. People GR No. 173824 August 28, 2008
Valeroso v. People GR No. 164815 February 22, 2008
9. Commercial Lists
Rule 130, Section 45
State v. Lungsford, 400 A. 2d 843 (1979)
PNOC Shipping v. CA 299 SCRA 402 (1999)
Estrada v. Noble (CA) 49 OG 139
10. Learned Treaties
Rule 130, Section 46
11. Prior Testimony
Rule 130, Section 47
Tan v. CA 20 SCRA 54 (1967)
Ohio v. Roberts, 448 US 56 (1980)

XII.

Opinion Rule
A. Rule 130, Secs. 48-50
B. Cases:
Dilag & Co. v. Merced 45 OG 5536 (1949)
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AQUINAS UNIVERSITY
COLLEGE OF LAW
PROFESSIONAL SCHOOLS CAMPUS
LEGAZPI CITY

EVIDENCE

XIII.

US v. Trono 3 Phil 213 (1904)


People v. Adoviso, 309 SCRA 1 (1999)
State v. Garver 225 P. 2d 771 (1950)
US v. Stifel, 433 F. 2d 431 (6th Cir. 1970)
Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, 113 S. Ct. 2786 (1993)
United States v. Bonds 12 F. 3d 540 (1993)
Gomez v. Gomez-Samson 514 SCRA 475
China Banking Corp v. CA 528 SCRA 103

Burden of Proof and Presumptions


A. Rule 131 Secs. 1-4
Hacienda Bigaa, Inc. vs. Epifanio V. Chavez, et al., G.R. No. 174160,
April 20, 2010.
Hubert Nuez vs. SLTEAS Phoenix Solutions, Inc., G.R. No. 180542,
April 12, 2010.
B. Cases:
1. Civil Cases
Pornellosa v. LTA, L-14040 Jan. 31, 1986
IFC v. Toblas 78 SCRA 28 (1997)
Cavile v. Litania- HongMarch 13, 2009
Solid Brothers West Marketing vs. Century Canning Corporation,
G.R. No. 165377, February 16, 2010.
Ermelinda Manaloto, et al. vs. Ismael Veloso III, G.R. No. 171365,
October 6, 2010.

2. Criminal Cases
People v. Pajenado 31 SCRA 812 (1970)
US v. Dube 520 F. 2d 250 (1st Cir 1975)
People v. Verzola, 80 SCRA 600 (1997)
Patterson v. New York, 432 US 19 (1977)
People v. Umanito GR No. 172607 October 26, 2007
People v. Erquieza GR No. 171348 November 26, 2008
Anthony L. Ng vs. People of the Philippines, G.R. No. 173905,
April 23, 2010.
3. Presumptions
Pascual v. Angeles 4 Phil 604 (1905)
Ormachea v. Trillana, 13 Phil 194 (1909)
People v. Padiernos, 69 SCRA 484 (1976)
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AQUINAS UNIVERSITY
COLLEGE OF LAW
PROFESSIONAL SCHOOLS CAMPUS
LEGAZPI CITY

EVIDENCE

XIV.

Yee Hem v. United States 268 US 178 (1925)


County Court of Ulster City v. Allen 442 US 140 (1979)
Sandstorm v. Montana 442 SCRA 510 (1979)
Sasan v. LRC GR No. 176240 October 17, 2008
Blue Cross v. Olivares GR No. 169737 February 12, 2008
Royal v. DFS December 10, 2008
Spouses Morris Carpo and Socorro Carpo vs. Ayala Land,
Incorporated, G.R. No. 166577, February 3, 2010.

Presentation of Evidence

A. Examination of Witnesses
(Rule 132, Secs. 1-18)
B.

Rule on Examination of a Child Witness


Case:
1.
People v. Rama 350 SCRA 266

C.

REE, Rule 10
1. Examination in Open Court
People v. Estenzo, 72 SCRA 428 (1976)
Galman v. Pamaran, 138 SCRA 294 (1985)
People v. Perez December 24, 2008
2. Leading Questions
State v. Scott, 149 P.2d. 152 (1944)
3. Impeaching Ones Own Witness
Becker v. Elsenstodt, 158 A. 2d 706 (1960)
4. Cross Examination
Dela Paz v. IAC 154 SCRA 65 (1987)
Fulgado v. CA 182 SCRA 81 (1982)
Capital Subdivision v. Negros Occidental, 52 OG 4627 (1956)
US v. Mercado, 26 Phil 127 (1913)
US v. Marshall, 762 F.2d 419, 5th Cir. 1985
5. Impeachment by Bias
US v. Abel 469 US 45 (1984)
US v. Harvey 547 F. 2d 720 (2d Cir. 1976)

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AQUINAS UNIVERSITY
COLLEGE OF LAW
PROFESSIONAL SCHOOLS CAMPUS
LEGAZPI CITY

EVIDENCE
6. Impeachment by Prior Inconsistent Statement
Villalon v. IAC 144 SCRA 443 (1986)
People v. Resabal 50 Phil 780 (1927)
US v. Webster, 734 F. 2d. 1191 (7th Cir. 1984)
People v.Buduhan GR No. 178196 August 6, 2008
Leyson v. Lawa October 11, 2006
7. Impeachment by other means
US v. Mercado 20 Phil 127 (1913)
Mosley v. Commonwealth, 420 Sw2d 679 (1967)
Coles v. Harsh 276 P. 248 (1929)
US v. Medical Therapy Services, 583 F. 2d 36 (2d Cir. 1978)
Newton v. State 127 A. 123 (Md. 1924)
State v. Oswalt, 381 P. 2d 617 (1963)
8. Refreshing Recollection
State v.People 319 S. E. 2d 177 (1984)
9. Recalling Witness
People v. Del Castillo 25 SCRA 716 (1968)
Victorias Milling Co. Inc. Ong Su 79 SCRA 786 (1991)
10. Exclusion of Witness
People v. Sandal 54 Phil 883 (1930)
State v. Bishop 492 P. 2d 509 (1972)
D.

Authentication and Proof of Documents


Rule 132, Secs. 19-33; E-commerce Act Secs 5, 6-15; Ree, Rules 5, 6, 9
& 11
Bunag v. CA 158 SCRA 299 (1988)
Heirs of Lacsa v. CA 197 SCRA 234 (1991)
Bartolome v. IAC 183 SCRA 102 (1990)
Pacific Asia Overseas Shipping Corp. v. NLRC 161 SCRA 122 (1988)
Zalamea v. CA 228 SCRA 23 (1993)
People v. Monleon 74 SCRA 263 (1976)
Salison v. People 253 SCRA 758 (1996)
People v. Lazaro 317 SCRA 435 (1999)
People v. Burgos, 200 SCRA 67 (1991)
IBM Phils. Inc. v. NLRC 305 SCRA 592 (1999)
US v. Russo, 480 F. 2d. 1354 (6th Cir. 1973)
US v. Croft, 750 F. 2d 595 (CA Wis. (1984))
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EVIDENCE

US v. Weatherspoon 581 F. 2d. 595 (7th Cir. 1978)


Perma Research v. Singer Co. 542 F. 2d 111 (2nd Cir. 1976)
Heirs of Arcilla v. Teodoro GR No. 162886 August 11, 2008
GSIS v. Cordero March 17, 2009

E.

Offer and Objection


Rule 132 Secs. 34-40
People v. Carino 165 SCRA 664 (1988)
Interpacific Transit v. Aviles 186 SCRA 394 (1990)
De los reyes v. IAC 176 SCRA 394 (1989)
People v. Yatco 97 Phil 940 (1955)
PHILAMGEN v. Sweet Lines 212 SCRA 194 (1992)
Catuira V. CA GR No. 105813 September 12, 1994
Sheraton Palace v. Quijano (CA) 64 OG 9116
Vda. De Onate v. Court of Appeals 250 SCRA 283 (1995)
Dizon v. CA April 20, 2008
Tabuena v. LBP GR No. 180557 September 26, 2008
People v. Santos GR No. 171452 October 17, 2008
People v. Ortiz 598 SCRA 452

F.

Weight and Sufficiency of Evidence


Amora v. People GR No. 154466 January 28, 2008
People v. Muit GR No. 181043 October 8, 2008
People v. Ochate 385 SCRA 353

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