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A
e^-^^'

THE

GREEK PREPOSITIONS,
STUDIED FROM THEIR ORIGINAL MEANINGS
AS DESIGNATIONS OF SPACE.

BY
F. A.

It is

ADAMS,

Ph. D.

of more importance to us to learn liow the Greeks spoke than to


they said. Jelf.

know what

'>

-.

>

NEW YORK:
D.

APPLETON AND COMPANY,


1, 3,

AND 5

BOND 8TKEET,
1885.

COPTKIGHT,

By

CI',

It

D.

1885,

APPLETON AND COMPANY.

mTRODUCTION.
"Whatevek theory we adopt of the origin of language, it is agreed by all scholars that its words are
derived largely from notions of things in space. This
book presents the results of a study of the Greek
Prepositions from the stand-point of that admission.
No class of words in the Greek is more important
and none are more imperthan the Prepositions
these
are the words that, beunderstood
yet
fectly
all others, bear on their face the suggestions of
yond
But the clew is soon lost that conducts from
space.
;

these primary uses into the wide realm of thought,


And yet
of reasoning, of will, of passion, and life.
such a clew there must be, connecting by real, though

subtle analogies, the primary meanings with all the


meanings which follow.

But

learners of the

Greek

find

no harder thing,

after passing the rudiments, than to fix in

meanings of

The

mind

the

compounded with prepositions.


natural, and on the whole creditable

verbs

difiicnlty is

to the intellect of the embarrassed student.

nothing but his

memory

to aid

him

160839

He

has

neither the Die-

iv

Introduction.

Grammar give instruction liere they


The learner is left with few inauthority.

tionary nor the

give only
citements to his power of discrimination and logical
deduction. The definitions in the Lexicons burden
his

memory
way. Even

they do not instruct him to find his

Greek Prepositions do
not evince any systematic endeavor to interpret the
prepositions through a logical deduction from their
Treatises on the

The
primary meanings as designations of space.
learner under these conditions naturally becomes indifferent
for what he cannot do intelligently, he
;

becomes, after a time, willing not to do at all and,


perhaps, in the end, he adds one to the number of
;

those

who complain

on the Greek with

To show

much time

that they have spent

little profit.

that the picture here outlined

is

not too

highly colored, let a college graduate, who has done


well in his Greek, take, for example, the verb Xeiireiv ;
and, prefixing to

it

successively the prepositions aTro,

hta,
Kara, jrapa, vtto, let him form English
sentences that, if written in Greek, would require the
use of these prepositions respectively compounded
6/c,

iv, eTrl,

His certain failure is the result of


former
defeats, where his natural inquisitivemany
ness has not been encouraged and rewarded.
When he finds the verb nevetv compounded with
ava, with hta, iv and Kara, with irepl and utto, he
with the verb.

finds himself
S>}Xo9,

in a

e/cSv^Xo?,

hke

evSrjXo'i,

difficulty.

KaTdBr]Xo<;,

The
all

adjectives
contain the

Introduction.

notion dear^ with differences wliicli forbid the use


of one for another. What are these differences?

And

through what

lines of

thought does the learner

come to see these differences, so that the knowledge


of them shall no longer depend on a burdened memory, but shall be a natural possession of his instructed

intelligence? The present work is an endeavor to


clear somewhat this
seeming Jungle of the Greek

to

show that it is not a jungle, but a


whose
garden,
alleys and paths have become overgrown through neglect, and lost to view. Or to
speak without a figure the object of this work is
Prepositions

contained by implication in the following Thesis

The Greek

Prepositions, suggestive primarily of


notions of space, show through all their uses such
analogy to the primary meanings as affords aids in-

dispensable to a satisfactory understanding of the lan-

guage.

The motive and

object of the

work, thus stated,

It benaturally lead to the question of its method.


gins by analyzing the notions of space, and the notions

that

accompany these in nature

whole

field of

purpose,

is

it

then seeks for the

human

Thus the
experience.
of thought, passion, and
laid open, and the Prepositions enter it in

analogues of these in

human

own right.
The store-house

life,

their

of facts used in the present study


the language of the Greek Literature the Greek
Language at its best. As the work is Psychological,

is

vi

Introduction.

not Etymological, it does not discuss the origins of


words. It is not tlie forms of the words, but the thought
that underlies them, that

is

here the object of search

not the changing fortunes through which a written


word has passed till it comes to the form in which we

have
that

it

in our

is in

we know

hands

but what the word means

now

our hands, and how it comes to mean what


As the prepositions primarily
it does mean.

we have in these notions,


and others which these carry with them, a point of
departure not a working hypothesis awaiting its
justification, but a basis of facts settled by common
consent; ova primarily means u])^ and Kara down;
hri means primarily on or upon, and vtto means
under / and so of the rest. In beginning at this point
we begin where the learner must begin and where
he must stay till he learns to love the Greek, if he
ever comes to love it at all.
As the ideas of space and the notions these carry
with them were always present, it is reasonable to
beheve that they were operative in the formation of
language from the first; that they served as landmarks pointing out the paths along which human
speech should move. For reasons already suggested,
the present work does not enter this wide and atIt is written with the humbler aim of
tractive field.
denote relations of space,

aiding the students who are learning to read Greek,


and the teachers whose work is to instruct them.

This work makes no claim

to

be a complete

Introduction.

treatise

on

tlie

Greek Preposition.

vii

The author

has

restricted himself to the presentation of the subject


in a single line of observation omitting whatever

was not pertinent to his special object.


In this view he trustfully commends it to the
hospitable reception that will be readily accorded to
a thoughtful endeavor on new ground.

SUGGESTIONS TO TEACHERS.
This book, it is believed, may, with advantage, be put in
the hands of learners as soon as they have left the reading of
detached sentences, and have entered on continuous prose. It

however, be made matter for consecutive


positions are new, and too important to be
treated thus in mass; each point should be elucidated by instances found in the text of the student's daily reading.
The
author would ofter to the consideration of his fellow-teachers
should not

tlien,

recitations.

The

a plan hke the following: Select from the book a single preposition, and make the whole, or a part of the matter relating to
it, and no more, the subject of one, or at most two recitations,
the teacher eagerly lending his maturer thought to the pupils to
them in the new line of study. Then let him direct that for
the next two weeks (or more, at his discretion) that preposition
aid

be marked for special attention whenever it occurs in the readAt the end of this time let all these instances
ing of the class.
be reviewed, in the combined light of the statements in the book
on that preposition, and of the quickened attention which the
Let
pupils will not fail to give to the word thus singled out.
the prepositions be taken up, one' at a time, in a way like this,
and the result will be not to load the memory with words of
definition,

but to quicken the apprehension of the thought that


The past will not be forgotten; and eager

underlies them.

study will daily bring

its

own

reward.

EREATA.
Page

IS, middle, /o?' tokt read ras.


21, liue 8 from bottom, for Kacrx^Gf

21,
27,
29,

31,
31,
39,

43,
44,
45,
59,
60,

Karea-xf read KacrxeBe

KOTeVxe.
line 6 from bottom, /or i.vi(Txov read avicrxov.
top, for Seiv, KoraSfii' read Selv, KaraSelv.
top, foi' ^rjTiiy, ava^-qreiv read ^7)tuv, avaQr]Teti>.
line 9, /or Karti^ov read KaTit^ov.
line 10 from bottom, /or (rrjixdwciev read a-riixaivotev,
top, for iKpTjyeiro read ucpriyelro.
line 2, for opvfjLaySov read 6puj.iay5ov.

from bottom, /or i/jxas read rifxas.


bottom, for can read cave.
liue 4, for rais read rals.
line 1, for rov aiyaXhv read tov alyaXov.
63, line 12 from bottom, /or irotetv read iroiiiv.
65, line 1,/or i<pevpoi read i(pevpoi.
66, line 10 from bottom, /or thing (Od. 19 13), rend thing.
liue 3

Od.

19:13.
68, line 9, for Uposaireip reeid TlposaiTe^v.
69, liue 11 from bottom, /or irposSeiv read irposSeli/.
60, liue 12 from bottom, /or iinSeip read iiriSelv.
74, line 1 from bottom, for Occ.
87, line 7, for yap read yap.
87,
88,

153, /or reKiiv read reXelv. Four instances on this page.


for airoTf\eiv read aitoreKuv. Three instances on this page,
and one in first line of the note.

92, line 8,
96,

read Oec.

for

iis

for aK6v(TavTes read aKovcrauTes.


read els. Four instances on this page.

97, "line 1,/or 'Eis


98, line 4, for 'Eis

read
read

Els.
Els.

Two instances.
98, near bottom, for eis read els.
99, top, for 'Eis read Els, and near bottom, for its read
instances.
101,
101,
102,
102,

line

1,/or

'Els

read

Els.

middle, /or ein(ie\ei(rQai read e-KiixeKetadai.


line 9 from bottom, /or Antis. read Antig.
line

4 from bottom, for

iroieiv

read

Ttoielv.

103, line 1,/or 'Eis read'Els.


104, line 5., for iroiei read iroie'i.
105, line 1,/or 'Eis read Els.
107, line 1,/or 'Eis read Els.
115, near middle, /or 'lovipp read
129, middle,

'lovir]v.

/or assunder read asunder.

els.

Two

COI^TEI^nTS.

CHAPTER

I.

OF SPACE, AND ITS SILENT TEACHINGS.

Words

SECTION
1

of space applied to ideas of time

Applied to description, and to moral conduct


Tliis extension springs from an instinct in humanity
Language limited and poor imagination must supply

2
3
its

defects

The proper starting-point in treating the Prepositions


The mode of study deductive and inductive

CHAPTER
avh AND Kara.

The notion up;

its

II.

UP AND DOWN.

attendant notions,

Second,

First,

Third,
1

Fourth

The notion down;


Fourth

its

attendant notions. First, Second, Tliird,


V

...........

These attendant notions not the result of study, but given in


nature

CHAPTER
ava AND KOTO.
Preposition and Adverb

III.

PRIMARILY ADVERBIAL.
9

their difference

and Kara, down, primarily Adverbial


Kara with the Genitive and with the Accusative,

'Ai/a, tip,

Language limited compared with thought

illustrated

.10
.

11

12

Contejits.

CHAPTER
AND

hih.

IV.

MEANINGS DERIVED FROM ANALOGY.

KOTO.

SECTION

Analogue of

/caro in

motion along the ground

in speech;

in

13-17

judgment
tox iT6\ets, Kara tus v6\eis
'Aya and Kara with numerals
'Aj/o

18

19

'Aya Kparos, KUTa Kparos

20, 21

'Ay" o/xiXop^ Kaff SfxiKov

22,23

CHAPTER
dj/A

'AvdyeffOai, Kardyeadai

'Af ajSacrts, Kardfiaffis

AND Kara

V.

IN COMPOSITION.

.........
......
.........
.......
....

avUvai, KadUvai

'AvoKaleiv, KaroKaleiv

Apexftf, Karexeiv, avairdveiv, Karavdveti'

Avayvdfji.imiv, avaireldeiy, avax^p^'iv, avariQivai,

25

27

marks of upward
32

(Sec. 7)

Avaviveiv, Karaveveiv

'AvaSely, third

30, 31

KarayiyvdxTKUv

motion in each

25

27, 28, 29

'Avafj.eveiv, Karafiiveiv

'Aj/aSexetrSaj, /caTaSexetrOai,

'

24

avaa-irav, to

pull down

mark of upward motion

.33

...
.........
(7)

34

35, 36

Kardpxeiv, apparent contradiction reconciled


Atii/, to lack, KaraSiiv

......
......
........

37

AiiKvvpai, avaSiiKvwai, KaraSeiKviivai

38

Mayddvitp, ava/xayOdpeiv, KUTafMavOdfeiv

39

'Aua^riTeiv,

avaXvuv

40, 41

42

Kadopav

43,44

Ka.Ta<palvi(TQai, ayacpalveaOai, Karacpavfis

45

'AvafMiyyvyai, Kwrafxiyyvyai
Kre/j'ejj/,

KaraKTelyetv, airoKTflyeiy

&yr}(TKity, KaTadyfiCKetv

'Aya.

46

and Kara, leading to the same

result

by

different paths

47
48

Contents.

CHAPTER
eVJ,

XI

VI.

ON, UPON.

SECTION

Primary suggestion

gravition

Transference of direction, change of power

Two forms

of power suggested in

(ir\

impact

pressure

Sphere of irt enlarged by change of direction


with the Dative
'Eirl with the Genitive
;

with expressions of time


General suggestion of power in eVl
'Eiri

Object of

eTri

....

pictured as lifeless, not necessarily lifeless in fact

58

xu

Contents.
SECTION

aperV, compared
The object of irphs becomes to the imagination active

'Ew' aperrif, irp^s

'Eirl
II.

'H

tV

'EAAaSa, irphs rovs waTSar

ISiSlI
6dhs eV

Uphs rh

euBaifioyiav

aWo

irphs evSaifioviav

rh

4irl

awixa,

aWo

rovs noXeixiovs, irphs tovs Tro\efJ.iovs


Discriminations of eiri and irphs further illustrated

CnAPTER
AND

irphs IN

'Eirexe'f, irpoaix^iv, illustrated,

Applications of the above

90

91

IX.

COMPOSITION

104

and tested

105

106, 107

108

sometimes doing for the Greek mind what the pronoun

iJds

109

does for the English mind


AavOdvicrdai, iirtXavdaveadai
Nevejj', iirtvevetv, Karaviveiv

'AiTe7v, iwaiTely, irpo(raiTe7v

110, 111

114

115

116

Uerofiai, iiriireTOfxai, IdxeiV, iiridxe'v

117

Aftv, to bind, iiriSeiv, npoaSeiv


imv<pr)jj.'^iv

2K7rT6(r0ot, eiriffKiiTTeaOai

IleldeaQai, iiriireldfaOat

120

Bivilv, (Tnlivelv

....

tpecr

'EiTLTvyxdyfiv, Kararvyxdva}', irpoaTvyxdveiv

AfiKvwai, iinBeiKvwai
'E<pUvai, irpoffUvai

121

5iB6i'ai, iiriBiSdyai

TfaixiTTety, iiriyvdixitTeiy, avayvdjiirreiv

2Tpe<peiv, iiri(rrpe<peiv

118 119

Xiyeiv, iiriXeyeiv

iirdyeiv, irpoadyeiv

'Eirirdcrffeiv, irpo(rrd(T(Teiv

112
113

Akoviv, iiraKoveiv, irpocraKoveiv

'Ev(p7]fji.iiy,

92
93

94-103

'EirepwTav, irpocrepwrav, fj.ifj.pri(TKeiy, iiriix'EttJ looking forward to what is yet to come


'Eirl

89

'EttI

7rl

ffiifia

81

82-88

irepeffBai

122
123
124
125

126
12'7

xiii

Contents.

CHAPTER

X.

Trapa.

With

SECTION

128

Genitive, Dative, Accusative

Implied superiority in

its

129

object

in contrast with Kara


Ilapa, meaning against^ explained

CHAPTER
itapa.

Used

XI.

IN COMPOSITION.

......

131, 132

Literal application
'ZKevT],

.130

(TKevd^eiy, TrapacTK-, KaracTK-

napareiveiv

..........
........

134

135, 136

TlapayiyvdiffKeiv

'Aiz/eij/, iiraivetv,

CHAPTER

The notions

.137

AND

off from

6/C.

XII.

OFF FROM, OUT FKOM.

and out from, compared and

from

illustrated

139, 140

the Greek

e/c

discriminated in tracing descent

CHAPTER
7r5
'Airo7r(7rTiV, iKiriirTeii'

'AiroSiSdvat, fKSiBSvai
'

....

141-143

Continued illustrations

and

138

irapaiveiv

OTTO

'AwJ)

133

in morals

AND

XIII.

iK IN COMPOSITION.

.........
......
.....
.

'Eicireipaadai, airoTpeireadai,

iKTpinearBai

'AiroSeiKftiyai, eKSeiKUvvai

QvflffKeiu, aTToOvriaKeiv,

iKOvriaKdv

147
148

.149
.150

......
.

145

.146

A.<piKveia6aty i^iKvelffOat

Ueipaffdai, aTT0ireipa(r6ai

144

151

XIV

Contetiis.

........
..,..,.
........
.......

SECTION

'AiroKTilveiv, KaraKTeifeii'

TeKely, airoTeXely, e/cTeAetf


'EKCpevyeiv, airoipevyiiv

'E^Tiy(7(rdai, a(pr}yei(Tdai

'A-KO(palveiv, iKcpaiveiv

iiraiTilv

'AiraiTiTv,

and

.........
.

is

.162

a standard for the other

AKD

eV.

these two prepositions linked with


primitive and secondary uses

....
e/c

by law of contrast

'Eiffl3o\'fi, ejUjSoAeus,

eV

t^

'EfxfidKKeiv, iicrPdWeiv;

eiri

rou evwvvfiov

1*70, 1*71

172

iix^oKri, irpocrfioKr)

ififidweiv, continued

173

174

ela^iPdCeiv, their difference

175, 176, 177

........
....
......

178, 179, 180, 181

ifj^(pavris

'EKSeiKvvvai, iyBfiKvvi'ai
'Eyxfipf?*'

and

iirixfipe'i'',

66

169

evuvifxep,

'EvSjjAos, eKSrjKos

'EK<paj^s,

167, 168

'EisandeV; discrimination

'Efj.Pifid(fiv,

164

XIV.

'Ety, into ; its

'Eio-jSaAAeji/,

163
165

its

inr))

CHAPTER

'Ets, eV

.158

159, IGO, 161

Neither the Greek, nor the English,


'AttJ)

155

156, 15Y

'Airo55Jmj, iiriSiSdvai
'AiroreXiiy, kTrireXuv

152

153, 154

compared deductively

182
183

The deduction confirmed by usage

184

Tvyxdufiv, iiriTvyxdvfiv, ivTvyxdveiv

185

CHAPTER XV.
vep]

Followed by the Genitive


Followed by the Accusative

AND

VTfep.

186
,

187

xv

Contents.

SECTION
the reason .
nepl followed by the Dative; uirep never;
Discrimination resulting from original suggestion in space

Applied

to a

passage in

188, 189

190, 191

192

Homer

CHAPTER
Trepl

AND

XVI.

vTrep IN COMPOSITION.

193

Intensive force

Tlepififueiv, avaf^iveiv, Karajiiveiv

Uipifxiviiv,

.......

194, 195

Apparent contradictions

changed to dva^, used of the same act

IS*?

the change

CHAPTER

XVII.
198-201

ARE PREPOSITIONS INTERCHANGEABLE?

CHAPTER
ON BOTH SIDES

0;U^f,

Its original

196

the reason of

meaning

XVIII.

OF,

compared with

AROUND, ABOUT.

irepi

CHAPTER

202

XIX.

Vp6, BEFORE, IN FRONT OF.

203, 204

Its original service

ripb

and

ujrip

their high service ethically

205

CHAPTER XX.
<T\}V

The discrimination

AND

jUTa.

illustrated

WITH, AMONG.

206-210

XVI

Contents.

CHAPTER
5ta,

Its

primary suggestion

XXI.

THROUGH, ACROSS.

wide

field for

the Genitive

Illustration of its use with the Genitive

Why

5ta is not followed

......
....

by the Dative

Ata with the Accusative


Criticism of the Lexicon on

11.

247

Illustrations of Zik with the Accusative

....
.....
....
.....

Ata not always suggestive of the nearer and farther side


Aet;/, TTpocrayy-,

Aex^c^at with

|o77-, Trapayy-

Sja, ava, Kara.

^AvaKpiveiv, SiayiyvwaKeiv, Stacpeiyeip

Aiaxeipeiv, iirix^ipuv,

compared

THE GEEEK PREPOSITIONS.


CHAPTER L
OF SPACE, AND

ITS

SILENT TEACHINGS.

The

preponderance in language of words of


in usage rights which are not primatheir own.
As sight is the chief of our senses,

1.

space gives them


rily

the things which are seen furnish the chief materials


The discourse may

in the formation of language.

have passed quite away from the sphere of visible


things, but the speaker, none the less, borrows his
words from this old, exhaustless storehouse.
We
speak of a space of time, a circle of years, of the
stream of time flowing past us, or bearing us along.
2. The
language of space lends itself to morals
an upright man, and an upright tower a straight
story, and a straight stick, are phrases alike intelligi:

When

"

Laban was a
crooked fellow, but, then, Jacob was not square in his
dealings with him," he chose his words, not for their
beauty, but for their special fitness to his thought.
ble.

3.

By

a preacher once said

these frequent references in language to

The Greek Prepositions.

space,

and

we need not think

to objects in space,

of

space through any definition by a physicist, or a metaphysician, or in any labored way at all ; but as felt

and

everywhere and always, by the uninand the unthinking.


Every person who
from
to
infancy
maturity comes silently into
grows
of
about
possession
feelings
space and its objects to
which he may never give utterance of which he may
even be unconscious. These feelings seem to have
no recognition, or very little, in the completed lanrealized,

structed

But, in the formation of that language they


have a work to do they shaped the sjDeech, and, if
by wise and patient questioning we can find what

guage.

these feelings were, we make a gain in the study of


the language. It is not in poetry alone that " more
is meant than meets the ear."
As sometimes we may

read between the lines of the printed page something


that does not meet the eye, so we may find under a

word meanings
trary

to its

that

original

seem

alien,

import

as

and sometimes conrefracted

changed by the medium through which


the ends it is made to serve.
4.

it

light

passes,

is

and

Language does

press thought,

it

except

not, in strictness of speech, exonly suggests. It is helpful, never

names of abstract numbers,


and the terms of pure science. It requires in its
single words that the student use imagination and
reflection.
Without these he may learn the Dictionary and the Grammar, but he will not understand.
adequate

in the

Of

space,

and

its

Silent

Teachings.

not the Greek feeling and instinct, we


must endeavor by reflection, by questioning our refor ourselves
sults, and by repeated trials, to gain
had by
Greeks
the
which
the
of
feeling
something

As we have

birthright.

In studying the Prepositions in this spirit, we


have no regard to alphabetical arrangement, nor
to the number of cases which the prepositions respectNothing of this chance and
ively may govern.
5.

shall

secondary sort will furnish the opening by which to


enter the field before us, "We shall begin with the
in Space which Nature
simplest and broadest notion
the notion of ujp and
presents to human experience

down,

note of explanation, as between the author


and the student or the critic, may be due here to aid
In the derived meanings
in a mutual understanding.
6.

of prepositions they are not allowed to dictate by virtue of their suggestions in space.
They point the
the forecasting question,
the
raise
and
question
way,
The answer in all cases comes from exthat is all.

amining the usage as found in the authors.


Illustrative examples from Greek authors are often
howabridged, or altered, for economy; preserving,
ever, unimpared, whatever
the case in hand.

is

necessary to elucidate

The Greek Prepositions,

CHAPTEE
ava AND Kara,
7.

The

to itself in

II.

up and down.

notion of simple motion upward gathers


human experience other notions, which

accompany it by a necessity of nature. First, such


motion has a fixed place of departure, namely, the
surface of the earth.
Secondly, the line of such motion is into the pathless air, following no prescribed
track, and leaving no trace behind it.
Thirdly, such
motion is against a constant power in nature, thererequires force to produce it. Fourthly, it will
stop of itself, at some undetermined point, and will
return.

fore

it

In like manner, simple motion downward sugFirst, such mogests notions that go along with it.
tion has no fixed, or definite, point of beginning.
Secondly, it is natural, requiring no force to effect it.
Thirdly, it has a fixed place of ending. Fourthly,
the downward moving body remains where it stops.

These notions are not fanciful, or theoretic.


not come from the reading of books, or
do
They
They are given in the
thi'ough study of any sort.
common experience of human life and every boy
big enough to throw a stone knows them as well as
a philosopher. In many minds they may never have
come into distinct consciousness but they are, none
8.

the

less,

there,

doing their work

and, beyond

Avh and

Kara.

Primarily Adverbial.

doubt, tliey have Lad a share in the formation of


every language in the vrorld.

Our present study is to see what share they have


had in the formation of one small part of the Greek
language.

CHAPTER
ava AND
9.

KaT6..

III.

primarily adverbial.

The grammatical term Adverb, when

to notions of space,

is

best explained

with the term Preposition.

This

last

applied

by comparing it
word from lyroe,

placed before
pono carries the suggestion that
another wordthat other word being a substantive or
it is

pronoun. This phrase, preposition and noun, are attached to the verb, the leading word in the sentence,
to complete its

meaning

another term, Adverb,


by
is the complement of the verb.
difference

On

But there

is

form shows that

it

in that place.

that

its

What

then

is

the

what ground may the same word be

in one place a Preposition, and in another place an


Adverb ? It is an Adverb when the noun needed to

complete the sense is understood from the nature of


the case without being spoken. When we say, to drive
on, meaning to drive forward, we call on an adverb
;

be made a preposition by pressing for its


covert meaning ; it means, to drive on the ground

but

it

may

The Greek Prepositions.

6
hefore you.

In the phrase to look around,

we

call

around an adverb but if we say looh around you,


it means the same, but we call around a
preposition.
These examples show how these two parts of speech
trench on each other's ground, and by what an
easy
;

device one

may sometimes be changed into the other.


The naming in these cases is less important than the

interpretation, for the last, if correct, will be sure to


lead to the first.

As designations of motion simply u]) and


ava
and Kara have only an adverbial force;
down,
and they are no more than this in many expressions
of space where they are followed by a noun, and are
called prepositions.
In the phrase, Holding a wreath
10.

uj>

on a golden

staff,

ava aKyyKTpw

(II.

15),

the

preposition is adverbial, the Dative case being the


usual case to denote definite or fixed position. In

the jDhrases, ava poov, up stream ; Kara poov,


stream ^ ava KXlfxaKa, up stairs j Kara xklixaKa,
stairs, the

and Kara

down
down

nouns appear as objects respectively of avh


but these words are still adverbial in force

the accusative case being the natural case to express


;

the distance passed over.


11. In the expression,

He

sent the shaft, Kara


the
aTrj6o<;, straight against
hreast, the character of
the act helps us to the meaning as much as the

prep-

Kara suggests a straight motion, as a stone


dropped in the air falls straight, and the accusative is
the usual case to mark the point where the action terosition

Am

and

Kara.

Primarily Adverbial.

So, to shoot an arrow, Kara aKoirov, is to


straight against the marh ; it can not fail to

minates.

send

it

and a machine might do this. The fact of straight


motion, terminated by the mark, exhausts all there is
in the expression.
But the phrase, to shoot an arrow,
hit,

Kara aKorrov, does not mean straight against the mark;


It
it means to shoot at it with the design to hit it.
may hit, or it may miss, and still be sent, Kara gkottoO.
An engine can not do this, for it has no brains. He

who

shoots,

Kara

o-kottov, will

make allowance

of the arrow, that is, its deflexion


and, for a side wind, if there be one.

fall

here

is causative, showing
the shooter, inciting to his
phrase perfectly clear. It
" to
To^euety Kara gkotzov,

for the

by gravitation

The Genitive

the action of the marTc on


endeavor.

This makes the

Lexicon says :
shoot at, because the arrow

is

not, as the

down upon its mark." This is misleading. It


would imply that the end of the arrow's motion was
The end of the
the mark.
This is not asserted.
arrow's motion was the mark, if it was lucky enough
to hit it
if not, it was something else which it did hit.
The phrase suggests not the end of the arrow's motion,
but the end of the shooter's shooting, namely, to hit
the mark. So, in the words to pour water, Kara ')(eipb<^,
upon the hands, the pith of the phrase is not to show
the way the water runs on the hands, but to show how
the careful servant that had the water behaved to the
If the water had been rimning on the hands
guest.
from a spout, Kara ^eipo? would not have been used.
falls

The Greek Prepositions.

We have been led unawares into positive statements about cases, and tbese statements may seem
dogmatic. They are not dogmatic at all. "We have
simply accepted the hint of l^ature, and following that
hint we find we have in hand just the phrase that
meets the case. The shaft sent Kara arrjdo'i, straight
to the hreast, goes no whit straighter than a stone
goes
when

falling freely to the ground.

The

arr/Oo^ is in

the line of the shaft's motion through its whole course,


just as the point finally struck by the stone falling
freely

is

motion through its


have here the dii'ect object, and

in the line of the stone's

whole descent.

We

of course in the accusative case.

The phrase would be just the same if the object


thus strack were not aimed at, or were not even seen.
But in aiming at a mark the object acts first on
him who throws, inciting and directing his act it is
;

the point of departure, or cause or source of that incitement, and therefore must be in the genitive.

We should not encumber ourselves with the


thought that in actual experience things thrown up
are not

commonly thrown

straight up,

and therefore

can not come straight down.


This is pertinent in
of
but
the
natural imagination
projectiles
treating
and
dowji
as
perpendicular.
pictures uj)
;

He

went on hoard, ava

the genitive

thing calling
the ship.

vtjo^ e^rj,

not that ava with

means on' but, he went up, and the


forth and determining the action was

hva and Kara. Meanings derived from Analogy.

12. If the students asks,


"Wliy dwell

tions in the

translation

on discriminathought that can not be expressed in


It would be a sufficient
answer, if there

were no other, to say It is for this very reason they


are presented and pressed on the attention.
This is
the way to escape from bondage to words to learn
how to treat them as our servants and helpers, not
our masters. Thought is nimble, words are
clumsy
and slow the student should patiently learn the best
:

that these last can do as interpreters of the

CHAPTEE
13.

ava AND KaTa.

first.

lY.

meanings derived from analogy.

As objects naturally fall by the law of gravitation,


the actions of men, when performed
according to their
proper law, have an analogy to motion downward,
and are often designated by the aid of the
preposition
KaTa.
The proper law for a judge is to decide justly,
Kara BiKaiov. The proper law for a witness is to
testify truly, that is, Kar aXT^Oecav.
Cyrus saw that
the Greeks were
conquering all before them, to Ka&
The picture to the imagination is that of
avTov<i.
falling on the enemy. To a Greek phalanx

charging

the

enemy

in battle, the

as the
falling of a stone

onward rush was


;

as natural

hence, to picture this in

The Greek Prepositions.

10
words, Kara

called

is

to see the picture

motion.

Do

on to do

Do

not

fail

memory with

the

its part.

more than a picture a picture

not encumber your

in

This
formula that Kcvra sometimes means before.
would hinder more than it would help. Take into
your thought the whole phrase, in this and in all like
seize the picture it presents to the imagination ;
express this in the best English you can command,

cases

and your work

is

done.

A high authority translates to Kaff avTov<i, the jpart

over against them / this has a show of careful literalness, but the life and motion are all gone, good for
the posts of a gate-way, over against each other, but

poor for a

battle.

So much comes from misdirected


by itself, and try-

nicety, from looking at each word


ing to make it do duty all alone.

Demosthenes says ^(o/jLv to KaG' rnxa<i avTovi^ let


in our own proper way / the way of Marathon, and Salamis, and the noble times of the past,
when each man did his duty. Here is a picture of
motion along the path of a nation's life and history.
:

us

live

Do not be startled if you find yourself using


where
the Greek has KaTa, as in this
there is
%ip
no way over the mountain but KaTa TavTijv Trjv oBov,
14.

hy that road., alonrj that road, or up that road, for


the road was up hill over the mountain. But because
that was the natural way, the Greeks made KaTa serve
the turn, drawing it over from its original meaning
downward, to serve a sense quite its opposite. See

'Am and Kwra. Meanings

derived

from Analogy. 11

Anab. 4 2, 8, Hearing the trumpet eu^y? levro avw


Kara rrjv (f)avepav oSov, they moved swiftly up along the
open road ; the road led up hill, Kara points to the
fact that that was the natural road for travel. See also
4 6, 11, where Kara points to a road that led upward. So, To^eveiv Kara tlv6<; does not mean to shoot
:

from

ahove, but to shoot with the

ever direction that

may

be

aim

what-

to hit, in

Kara here points to the

end in the actor's purpose, just as primarily it points


to the end of motion in space.
15. As Kara is used to denote the natural way of
it is used of the natural
place or sphere of
one's activity (Hdt.).
The Egyptians are a singular
people ; the women cultivate the fields, the men with-

a thing, so

6l dvBpe<; Kar oUovi v(f>alvov<Tt,v.


War
on hy land, by sea, Kara jrjv, Kara OdXarrav
men of our times, ol Ka& r]iJLa<i dvdpcoTroL, that is,

in doors weave,
is

carried

the

the people

whom we

meet, come upon in our daily

now

place ava and Kara side by side.


that for nine days arrows of

life.

16.

We

"We

read

will

(II.

53),

Apollo were sent into the army, dva arpdrov.

own

flight,

Each

own path in the air, made its


and found its own place to stop. These

of these arrows cut


are marks of

its

upward motion

hence dva.

Under this experience of the divine displeasure,


the Greeks offer sacrifice Agarnemnon orders them
;

to

make

a lustration

out the army,

ot,

and

they toiled at this through-

rd rrevovro Kara arpdrov

(II. 1

312-

12

The Greek Prepositions.

This cleansing was the predetermined end of


318).
the command ; there was no spot in the army that

was not embraced in the command.


to

to

It has

an analogy

downward motion, as the shooting has an analogy


To exchange the prepositions
upward motion.

would destroy the picture

Hounds
'Xoipov

jDursued

av vX-qevra

in either case.

the

game

they do not

through, the woods,


their path, but

know

make it as they go like a body thrown upward.


The horse-tamer compels the wild horses to go
along the road, KaS' ohov. The road is the known
the path of a body freely falling is known it
way

find or

straight downward.
To stand up to a fight, laraaOai ava ixayT]v, ava
is here
doing its proper work nothing is more uncertain in its end than a fight, or more sure to call
forth at each moment of its progress the whole power

is

of the actor.

When

first made war


against the Greeks
he
sent
into
Greece, ava rrjv
48),
messengers
to
demand
earth
and
It was a new
water.
'EWdSa,
it
as
country they explored
they went, and did not
the
know
end of their journey till they came to it
like motion upward, tending to some undetermined
point of stopping; hence the preposition ava. But
when Xerxes, at a later day (Hdt. 7 1), was preparing
for his great invasion, he sent to his subject cities,
Kara iroXeis, for their contribution of men and supThese cities were known, and the demand was
plies.

(Hdt. 6

Darius

^Ava and Kara.

Meanings derived frojn Analogy. 13

The same

in accordance with former usage.

father

of history tells us that, when a King of Sparta dies,


the magistrates send messengers through Laconia

own

country, well known, the journey comdetermined


beforehand, like the path of a
pletely
Kara KaicoviKriv.
therefore
stone
;
falling
their

17. From the above cases we may discriminate


between the phrases ava Ta<i 7ro\et9 and Kara tos

The

TToXet?.

explorer, to

lirst

whom

suits the action of

the cities are not

a traveler or

known

before-

hand, and who does not find the end of his journey
till he comes to it.
Such action is like upward moknown
beforehand. The second,
tion
the end is not
Kara racr TTokeiq, implies a knowledge of the cities

before they are visited

this is

analogous to

downward

end predetermined.
stranger
traveling tlirough all the rest of Greece^ ava waaav
Here are three things,
Tr)v 'EWdSa (Hdt. 6 86, 1).
in this stranger's journey, like upward motion
he
did not know his road, but found it as he went he
did not know how far he should go, nor where he
should stop. Again (Hdt. 5 102), the fugitives were
scattered, ava rag TroXea, each one going where he
motion, having

its

like

immigrants coming into a new country

pleased

to seek

new homes, each


"

When wild
And gentle

for himself.

war's deadly blast

is

But

blown,

peace returning,"

then the soldiers return

to

each one knows where he

is

their homes,

going

to stop.

Kar

6lkov<;,

14

The Greek Prepositions.

we have taken our steps wisely thus far,


now walk a little by our own light and say
that, when William the Conquerer sent his officers
among the cities of England to find out their resources, and so make up the Doomsday book, they
went ava ra<i 7r6Xet9 but when afterwards the tax18. If

we

can

gatherers went through the cities, with all the resources catalogued, they went Kara ra<i 7r6\ei<i.

In order to be very plain,

let

from the drudgery of modern

us suppose a case

life.

messenger,
with printed notices in his hands of a popular entertainment, is instructed to leave one at each house in
the town.
There are many houses in the town not
so many notices
what does he do ? He distributes

them as far as they will go, that is, dva ra? olKLa<;.
But on a subsequent day, with more notices than
there are houses, he can be ordered to distribute them,
Kara ra? oiKiwi. In the first case the end of the dis-

was not known beforehand, but was found


by coming to it therefore dva in the second instance
the end was determined beforehand therefore Kara.
These little words, dvd and Kara, can lend themselves to describe the joys and sorrows of childhood.
When, on a glad anniversary, all are in expectation
of gifts, and there are not enough of these to go
tribution

round, tliey can be distributed only dvd tov<; 7rdiSa<;


a wiser love would have provided for a distribution
Kara Tov<i 7rdtSa<i, and then all would have rejoiced

together.

Kva

Meajtings derived

arid Kara.

from Analogy. 15

19. Botli ava and Kara are used with numerals,


but with a difference. 'Am is used when the numeral denotes a group made up for that occasion onl j ;
Kara, when the numeral denotes a well-known group,
as a dozen, a score
the group being thought of as a
unit.
Luke
9
14, make them sit down hy
large
ava
TrevrtjKovra, because the number fifty was
fifties,

a group made up for that occasion only ; the limit of


the group was realized by counting no one knew

where he belonged till he had been counted. But


in the Anab. we find groups of fifty formed under
different circumstances, and for a different end.
They were wanted for daily service, were oflScered
and named, and were handled like large units. These
Once being made up by
acted Kara 7revrr]Koaru<i.
counting, ava irevrrjKovra, they were afterwards
handled by their technical name, TrevrrjKocrrv^:.
We may say Ka6' ev, but not ava ev, for in thinking of one the end is not approached from the beginning, but is contained in it and so the Greek lan;

but not ava ev.


20. The phrases ava Kpdro<i and Kara Kpdro<; are
both used and we are told by some authorities that

guage contains Kad^

ev,

they

may be

used interchangeably, because

up and

down

This is
carry our thought over the same line.
mere groping it neglects to note what is peculiar
to these motions respectively, and leads to grave errors
;

in translation.

speed

till

Free motion upward diminishes in

the last ounce of the impulse that sent the

The Greek Prepositions.

16

Preexhausted, and the motion ceases.


this
is motion
to
the
along
ground,
cisely analogous
as running, when the utmost effort is put forth at
object

is

each moment, without regard to the future.

The

natural end of such running is the exhaustion of the


runner, as the natural end of a stone's motion thrown

upward
This

is

is

the exhaustion of the force that sent

it.

not properly using the strength, but wasting

To run Kara

Kpdroq is to run aceoixUng to the


In a
strength, to run as the runner can hold out.
race of a hundred yards one may start ava Kparo^iy
it.

but if he do this in running a mile, he will surely


be beaten, unless his competitors are as foolish as
The rowers in a boat-race husband their
himself.
strength, knowing that they have a hard pull before

they row Kara KpdTo<; but if they prosper,


and approach the end with plenty of reserved strength,
they may wish to show off, and finish with a spurt

them

dva KpdTo<;.
21. Let us now bring this distinction into the

this last

is

On the day of the


light of a Greek narrative.
battle of Cynaxa (Anab. 1 8) a messenger arrived,
riding at full speed, his horse hathed in sweat,
:

We

cannot
Kpdro^;, thpovvn rw 'iinrai.
miss the meaning of dva Kpdro<; here the rider did
not spare his horse. Let us go on a little further in

ikauvmv dva

the story. The Greeks broke the Persian array in


front of them to Ka9^ avrovi, were thrown out of
line by rapid running, recovered themselves, and then

'Ai/a

and Kara. Meanings derived from Analogy. 17

IvTovQathey began to pursue Kara Kpdro^, calling


out to each other not

to ru7i

fast,

/ir;

Oelv Bpofio),

but

keep their ranks. Here it is equally plain what


Kara KpdTo<i means. They were to advance so as to
keep their line, and so as they could hold out. Supwere interchanged
pose now that these prepositions

to

the messenger coming along


Kara KpaTo^, at a steady pace, such as his horse could
keep up all day ; and the Greeks, once before thrown
into disorder by rapid running, repeating their misfrom their
take, as if they could not learn anything

look at the picture

own

experience
In another place, the barbarians, assaulted in their
in
strong hold, make their escape, fleeing dvd KpdTO<;,
!

at his quickest, as
disorder, each one for himself, and
is the way of barbarians when retreating.

Tliucidides inat another picture.


at
disaster
the
after
us
forms
Syracuse, the
that,
Athenians were greatly depressed, fearing that the

Let us look

enemy would next bring the war

into their territory

wise nation
power, Kara Kpdro^.
It
plans, and comgoing to war does not hurry.
view
just as the
bines, and keeps the end ever in
He
emphatic point of downward motion is its end.

with

all their

dvd Kpdro^ starts off at the top of his


after.
strength, without regard to what comes
22. Kad' ofMikov, dv ofxiXov, among, into, through

who

acts

the crowd.

We

have in

Homer

a story of a

man who went

The Greek Prepositions.

18

Kaff ofiiXov, and of another man who,


day, and into the same crowd, went dv

on the same
and
o/xiXov
;

we

are to examine, and see if the actions differed, so


as to invite and require tlie use of these prepositions

The Trojans and the Greeks


respectively (IL III).
made a truce, with the condition that Menelaus and
Paris should fight as champions for the two sides
respectively ; and thus decide the whole war.

Before the truce, however,


had come forward alone and
of the Greeks to fight with
forth to meet him this took

on the same day, Paris


challenged the bravest
him.
Menelaus came

away his courage, and


the crowd of Trojans, atirt?

he slunk back again into


Ka9' ofiLkov ehv Tpcocov. Reproached for his cowardice
he rallied for the fight the truce was made, and the
Paris was worsted, was on the
combatants met.
;

captive, when
him unseen to
and Menelaus, supposing him to be among
his home
the Trojans, went here and there among the crowd

point of being dragged away as a


Aphrodite rescued him, and carried
;

to find

see

him, dv oyuCkov l^ovra

el nrov iaaOpr^aeiev (II.

36, 449).
23.

Now let us compare these two actions, and


what the preposition does in each case toward

completing the picture.


Paris goes, first, back to his own place, among the
He
Trojans (he had been out of his usual place).
and
left
of
its
back as a stone, lifted out
place,
goes

free,

goes back

secondly, he

went spontaneously,

as

'Am and

Kara

19

in Composition.

and would
it falls.
where
have stayed if he could, as a stone
"We have then, in Paris's action, three marks of downward motion and the Greek mind by instinct took
the preposition whose primary meaning was down.
a stone

falls

thirdly, lie

went

to stay,
lies

Let us now look at the action of Menelaus. First,


he went away from his natural place he went from
the Grecian army, where he belonged, to the Trojan
he
secondly, he did not know how far he should go
was to go till he could find Paris thirdly, he was
going to return. All these are characteristics of up-

ward motion

(see 7, 8).

CHAPTER
avh AND Kara

A ship

ent

V.

composition.

from

a fixed place, the coast,


forth into the pathless sea, has an analogy to an obinto
ject sent up from the fixed surface of the earth
24.

the pathless air

sailing

this invites the

employment

preposition ova, and the action of the ship


by the word avd<yea-dai.

is

of the

denoted

By a like analogy, to sail from the pathless sea to


The Grethe fixed land is expressed by Kardjeadai.
cian reader or hearer may never have seen a ship, or
stood by the sea-side

but he has a model of thought,

The Greek Prepositions.

20

in his experience from boyhood, when he threw stones


into the air, that prepares him to understand avcvyeadaL

and KaTayeaOai witliout dictionary or study, and with


a picturesqueness for which the English has no equivnot for want of words, but for lack of the
alent

quick imagination to interpret them. Language is so


poor in its resources that nimble thought borrows the

words up and doimi, and makes them suggest motion


along the surface of the earth

but there

an analogy

is

that justifies the boldness.


25. "When the Ten Thousand Greeks took service

under Cyrus, the Younger, the expedition was called


an am/3acrt9, not because they went into a higher
country, but they went from their known home to
Their return home was, by a
a region unknown.
Thuc. 6 16, To the
sent seven chariots, kirra ap/jura
of the sending was fixed and known,

like analogy, called Kard/Saai'i.

Olympic games
the end
It was the
like the end of free downward motion.
the
races
were to
on
the
appointed day,
city where,
take place; the place of the games, and the roads
leading to it all well known. The races were subsequent, separated from the sending by intervening
time, and are not embraced in the verb KadrjKa.
'Avievai,, to release, from the bonds of sleep (II. 2
when honeyed sleep
34), VT av ere jxekl^pwv virva avyr},
from
man
released
let up
The
shall release thee.
KudT^Ka

Also, to send
sleep goes forth of his own free will.
forth to the uncertain chances of battle (II. 20 118),
:

'Am and

Kara in Composition.

avrjKe ^ot^o^i 'A'ttoWcov,

forth.

21

Phoebus Apollo hath

Note the uncertain

seiit

him

issue of the action in both

cases.

26. Katetv, to

hum,

dvaKuUiv, to begin to

hum,

to

In motion upward there is one fixed point,


and only one the beginning. So, in a fire, there is
one thing fixed the beginning beyond this all is
uncertain, whether it will die out or become a conflagration KaraKaieiv, to bum up, consume the picture, to the Greek, was to burn till the burning came

kindle.

to an end, for want of fuel


suggests that the fuel has all
27. 'Ave')(eiu, to

<pm, the light

the English expression

gone up in flame.

hold up, as

raf; j(dpa'i, the

hands, to

avex^crOai, mid, to hold one's self up,

as against something that would overpower, or crush


hence to sustain, bear, endure (Anab. 1 7, 4), av 8e
ravra dz/acr^T^o-^e, if you can endure this the noise

of their shouting, that


it

up

against
tain ; (II. 15

my will,

you can hold yourselves

is, if

Kurex'^iv, to hold down, hold fast, de186), if he shall keep me back against

iifiaKeovra Kadi]^eL

(II.

11

702), These (the

horses) the king detained, civa^ tou9 Xirirov^ Kaa')(6e


But dvi'x^ecv has a meaning to o^estrain, to
KUTea-^e.

23 426), avex 'ittttov;, check the horses


(II.
TroWaxrj avLa^pv i^ewvrov, I often
(Hdt. 1 42)
how can dva and Kara, so wide
checked myself
asunder, lend themselves to meanings so near alike ?

check

',

Karkx^w means to hold hack from acting


dvix^Lv, to check an action already going on.

at

all

When

The Greek Prepositions.

22

a thing, or a creature,

is

quite at rest,

its

natural state

doion, Kara (men and stones are here alike) and


that
to keep it from acting is to keep it where it is
a
whether
But
when
creature
acts,
is, down^ Kaik-^eiv.
is

man or beast, his acting becomes, for the time, his


natural state, and anything contrary or opposed to
this finds expression in ava.^ the opposite of Kara.
28. UaveaduL, to pause f' avairaveaOai implies that
the suspended action will be resumed when the cause

that interrupted

it

be removed

shall

a falling
power that

as

stone, if stopped, will fall again if the

stopped it is withdrawn. Homer says (II. 17 550),


the
winter suspends the works of men, avkiravae
:

works

will

stopping

go on again when spring returns.

is final

the verb

29. M-eveiv, to

time, that
is

some

is, till

taken away

to

is

remain,

If the

Karairaveiv.

dvaju,iveiv, to

transient

remain for a

ground for remaining

await, wait for, as to wait

for

day, dvafiiveiv rjSi


the power that holds up a thing from falling
;

the

dva suggests transiency, because


is

nat-

urally thought of as transient Kara^evecv, to remain


His mother went
permanently (Cyri. Insit. 1 4).
;

away, but Cyrus remained

{Kare/xeve)

and was edu-

cated there.
30. Ae'x^eaOat, to receive; dvaZexGcrdat, to catch,
as arrows upon a shield,
arrest something on its flight
blows upon the body KaraBe'^eadai, to receive per-

manently, as principles in the soul


to their

homes

these

banished citizens

are received to remain, as

^Kva and Kara in Composition.

23

the ground to remain but


blows received on tlie shield, or on the body, do not
II. 5
619, the shield caught many a javelin,

stones

are

received on

stay.

We

avehe^aru.
may say, then, that when a company
of ball-players adojjt rules for their playing, the verb
these rules are to be permanent;
is Karahex^adaL

but when in practice one of them catches the ball in


the ball does not
its flight, the verb is dvaSexea-dai
;

remain up.
31. To know, jLyvcoa-Keiv, KaTor/fyvooa-Keiv, to know
what one has a special interest in knowing. The act
alKaTory always implies some standard of judgment
the
act is always
the
result
of
mind
and
in
the
ready
;

This is like downward


to place the object in a class.
to
a
Avayiyvcoamotion, tending
preappointed end.
^

Kcv (1) does not


well,

know

mean,

certainly

as the

(2)

it

Lexicon

says, to

know

does not denote a moral

judgment, which Kararf often does (3) it suggests


and in this fact it has an anqlogy
difliiculty of knowing,
with upward motion (4) the knowledge it predicates
is pictured as springing from the shrewdness and wit
;

of the knower.

The

student

who

faithfully studies

the famous 47th Prop, in Euclid, and so knows


not a knowledge expressed by avwy.
32.
is,

As motion

to the natural

force to effect

it,

uj),

ava,

is

it,

has

contrary to nature, that

power of gravitation, and requii-es


actions which compel things, or per-

sons, contrary to their natural state, or bent, are deThe spear's point
scribed by aid of this preposition.

24

The Greek Prepositions.

was

lent hach, aveyvd/x^dr}

al')Qir] (II. 3
348).
the
ro
look, ava-KTv^a^
rolling
/31/3\lop (Hdt. 1
^
AvaTTTvacreLv rb Kepa<i, to wheel back the

TJn-

125).

wing (Anab.

10, 9).

straight

the

The

natural state of the spear


that of the book, to be rolled up

wing of an army,

to be in line.

to

is
;

be

that of

Avaireideiv, to

persuade one against his natural lent ; those who


could not be persuaded by arguments {Xo'yoi'i) were
won over hy money, dveirelOovro y^pi^jnacnv (Cyri. Inst.
7:5). Xerxes was at first indisposed to make war
against Greece, but Mardonius won him over, aveTretcre (Hdt. 7
6).
Avaxo^peiv, to go hack.
Going
back is opposed to the natural instinct, whether
^

bodily

or mental.

Men

and beasts alike are constituted to


To make them go back requires force,

go forward.
as truly as

does to stop a falling stone, or

it

from the ground

I
1

2,

lift it

hence avd.

take hack, dvaTiOeixai, what I said before (Mem.


44) a man's natm-al bent is to stand to what he
;

has said.
33. ^eveiv,

way and

nod ; Hector's

nodded

crest

(II. 1

this

he stood before his wife (II. 6 470)


nod and thereby confirm, ending all

that, as

Karaveveiv, to

debate

to

514, 527, 558).

nod upward, i. e., in refusal (II. 6


moderns do not indicate refused by an upward or backward motion of the head perhaps the
Greeks did not, but used dva in its derived sense
of resistance, o]3positionwhich on second
thought.
""Avavevetv, to

311).

We

'Am and

Kara

25

in Composition.

will observe, amounts to the same tiling, for relaxing the will lets the head fall forward arousing
it in opposition throws the head back (see Sec. 7,
3).

you

In

way we may understand

this

Convin., ch.

3,

[loKa

the phrase in Xen.

avaairdaa'^ to irpoa-wKov,
ava suggests the constraint

crefjivoi^

pulling a long face /


used to draw the features into the desired expression,

though that was very different from drawing the


face up.

bind up, as twigs into a fagot, or


flowers
into
a wreath, or chaplet.
What is
;
there in such an action analogous to something in
34. ^Kvaheiv, to

bundle

upward motion
ance

The

ava carries

force that overcomes resist-

this suggestion, just as uj? does,

fortunately, in the English phrase to hind up, hind


up tight, the preposition up serves the same pur230se.
The band used in binding up the hair of women is
called avaheaiir}.

Crowning the

Gre(f>dvoi<i dvaScov viKoivTa^


fillets for binding the hair.

something
fiM ivl

ship.

V7]l,

fixed.

they

victors with garlands,

as if the garlands were


KaTaSety, to bind fast to

Od. 14 345,
:

KareSijcrav ivaeX-

e/ie

hound me fast in

thing dvahovjxevov

may

the

welUenched

be moved

not so a

thing KaTaSov/xevov.
35.
It

The compound

Kardp'^eiv

invites

seems to combine incompatible notions.

dpx^iv,

which means

to

attention.

How

can

join to itself Kara,


Karapx^iv means to begin

begi?i,

which suggests finality ?


an action which has been completed

in

thought before

The Greek

26
it is

begun

in act

as to

planned beforehand
celebration, that

The beginning
out before
1

is

is

begin a battle that has been

to begin a public sacrifice, or


to proceed by a prescribed order.
;

of an action that has not been thought

not expressed by Kardp-xeLv.

Cyrus, when

4, 4,

Prepositio7is.

a youth,

those exercises in which he

would

knew

Cyri. Inst.

select out^
e^vPX^^i

himself to be

defi-

cient, and lead, Kar^jp^ev, his associates through the


exercises leaping on the horse, throwing the dart,

exercises was all in his mind


when he began hence Kara.
Mem. 2 3, 11, If you wished to win over one of the
men of mark, so that, when he had an entertainment,
he should invite you, how would you act ? / would
hegin, Kardp-)(^oi/xi, by inviting him, when I had an
The end was in view from the beentertainment.
etc.

Tlie course of

ginning
0)87)9,

hence

there

Kara.
Socrates began a song, VPX^^
was no forethought called for, only

therefore the simple verb is used. Afterwards he began his argument anew, Karrip-xe his
argument was directed at every step to reach the

memory

forethought conclusion.
36. Whenever the end

is
mentally seen from the
then
the
beginning,
beginning is naturally expressed

by KUTapxetv, whether

it

be beginning of a campaign

in war, or of a dinner with its prescribed courses ;


or of a public celebration, or a school examination, or

a day's work planned by the master, on the farm, or


in the shop.

'Am and

27

kotcl in Composition.

37. Aeii^, to want, to lack


KaraBeiv, to come short
He left a pyramid
of a fixed standard (Hdt. 2 134).
much smaller than his father's, it lacked twenty feet,
;

Kara

eiKoai TToBoov KaraBiouaav

mid

Cheops the

of

greatest

points to the pyraand, hence, the ac-

cepted standard, to which other pyramids were to be

compared.
'

38.

AvaSeiKvvvai, to shoio hy lifting up, or by


as the opening of gates or

some equivalent token,


doors, that all

may

see

raising

a concerted

signal,

making proclamation KaraSeiKvuvaL, to discover and


make known some important truth or art, prized by
:

all as

a possession (Hdt. 4

who made known,

42).

KaTahd^a<i,

" ISTecos was the


that

first

Libya, Africa,

."
So Columbus
was surrounded by water, except
was the first who showed, KaTaS6i^a<i, that there was
In ancient times,
a new world west of the Atlantic.
" the Carians were the first to show
how, KaTahei^avTe<i,
In
to bind crests upon their helmets" (Hdt. 1 171).
was
the
first
who
modern times, Professor Morse
showed how, KaTaSei^a<;, to send word across the con.

tinent in a

moment

39. MavOdveiv,

of time.
to

learn hy inquiry

avaiJ,,

to

The Lex.,
search into to see what a thing contains.
The
to learn again, to iiiquire closely, is in error.
word means neither the one nor the other of

When

one examines an

these.

without prepossession,
and finds successively the minerals it contains, his
finding is expressed by avafJuavOdvuv but if, starting
ore,

28

Tlie

Greek Prepositions.

with the belief or hope that the ore contains gold, he


searches and finds that, his finding is expressed by
KaraixavQaveiv.

Cyrns, fond of learning, was ever inquiring of


those about

him how

were, aei

rov<i

irapovra'i
his questionsthings
had no settled aim therefore
avrjpfora

avd

(Inst.

1:4).

Helen says (Od. 4

250),

I recognized

questioned him, avr^poirtov.


out everything she could therefore avd

him and

She questioned

which she found were not in her mind

till

to find

the things
she found

them.

had poured poison


His learning' answered
mind it was matter of

learned, KarejjbaOov, that he

into your drink (Cyri. Inst).

the one great question in his


life and death for his grandfather, therefore Kara.
The spies having learned, about the army, Karathis was the very object they were sent for
the
inquiry to an end, as the striking upon
brings
the ground by a falling stone brings its motion to

fiadovre^

it

an end.
Hecognizing him,

they

Mil him, KaraiiaOovre^

The recognition brings the search


KTaveovcrtv (Hdt.)
to an end ; their purpose was to kill him when they
should recognize him.

"When one

travels aimlessly in a foreign land,

he

leams many things this is fiavddveiv. Another traveler, going with prepared questions, finds the answers
to these questions

this

is

KaTajxavOdveiv.

'Ai/a

40.

To

and Kara

search,

^v'^eiv

29

in Composition.

ava^T^reiv,

thing to see what one can find in it.


eh. 2) says that his accusers charged

to

examine a

Socrates (Apol.
search-

him with

viro jr]<; airaving into everything imder the earth, ra


What is the force of ava in this
ra di/^r]Tr]K(o(;.
It cannot denote upward in space, for
sentence?
motion downward not upviro
7>}9 denotes
searching
ward. 'Am has here its derived meaning, suggestive

when a stone is
known beforehand how

of indefiniteness in the result, as

thrown upward,
far

of

it

it

cannot be

will go, so dva^7]Telv, to search without

what you may

an idea

find.

If the student be willing for the sake of science


to accept a very lowly illustration of dva^r)Teiv, let

him look

at the early

scavenger bending over a heap

hand

;
or, rising to the dignity of
If
the matter were searched
1
:
137),
history (see Hdt.
one
of these things would
to the hottoyn, dva^'nTeofxeva,

of rubbish, hook

in

'Am

in the above cases quite drops


its primary suggestion of space, and serves the important dynamic idea which is affiliated with it.

be discovered.

41. 'AvakveLv, to set free, as (Od. 12


BecTficov

honds ;

200)

i/j,

8'

e'/c

dveXvaav, and they set me free from my


the result of this act was that he who had

been bound was now free to go as his own will

prompts

the will

is

as free as air.

But

to

let loose

the dogs upon the game is not dvaXveiv, for dogs have
To undo the web, dvaXvetv, the act
not free will.
To dissolve a
leaves the threads free and floating.

30

The Greek Prepositions.

body

into its

unknown

those elements are; or

elements,
to take a

and so find wliat


live

analyze dynamite, and find what

it

example

to

made

is

of.

KaraXi^eii/, to separate the known parts of a thing,


and so destroy the thing, as a bridge, the frame of a

house, a government.
42.

The verb KaQopav

is

sometimes said to mean

the same as the simple verb opav^ and it is said sometimes to mean to see clearly ', these statements are

means to see what you are looking


have
a special interest in seeing.
If
you
one loses a jewel, and searches for it, he may see a
hundred other things, and ever so clearly; thus far

misleading.

for what

It

his seeing is expressed by the simple verb


opav\
but, when he sees what he was looking for, it is

KaQopav.^

Xerxes, looking towards the shore, surveyed his


land forces and his ships (Hdt, 8:44).- Looking towards, KaOopav it was in order to see, and thereby

determine the great question before him, that he


dered the survey.

The looking was indeed down, from the


but this

is

or-

tower,

not the emphatic thing in the action,

Kvpo<i KaOopa

TOP /3aai\ea,

Kal

lero

iir

dvTov,

Even where the seeing is clear, the indispensable condition justifying the use of Kara is that the seeing answers an important question.
In Romans 1 20, KaOoparai, the invisible things of Him are
'

clearly seen, the seeing

questions.

answers the most important of

all

possible

and Kara

^hvh,

31

Composition.

ujpon him (Anab.


He was looking for the king ; the moment he
the action of looking for him ceased and

sees the Tcing

Cyrus
1

in

9).

and rushed

saw him,

or seeing
gave place to another. Here the looking
was not down, but Kara is called for none the less
the seeing ended a question already in the seer's

mind.

When

those in front

came upon the height and

the sea, a great shout arose; KareiSov rrjv 6aX


Well might a shout arise at
4 7,
arrav

saw

(Anab.

21).

this long:- wished sight.

when

Observe that a

the guide promises to lead

little

them

before,

to a place

where they would see the sea, he uses the simple verb,
he had no longing for the
oy^ovrat Tr}v dakarrav
not
need
he
did
and
so
Kadopav to express his
sight

thought.

They
the

sent out scouts, to the right and left, and on

hills, that, if

anywhere they should

see

anything,

direction, they should signal it; et ttou rt


'KoOev Kadopwev a-rjfidivoiev
they went for the sole

any

purpose of seeing, therefore Kara.


It may be said that the looking in this case would
be a looking down, and that this is all that Kara means.
This is quite a mistake. Even if the looking were

down, that

what

is

not an essential point in the act it was


see and not how they should be
;

they should

looking when they saw it, that was to determine their


future action. But it was by no means certain that
their looking would be down.
If, when half way up

The Greek Prepositions.

32

heights, thej had seen the enemy on ground above


them, the action would be KaOopdv, just as much as if
they had climbed to ground above the enemy, and
tlie

from there looked down upon them.

See (14j Kara

ravTTjv oSov.

43.

mean

The Adjective
clearly in

sometimes said to

Kara<^avrj<i is

This

sigJtt.

is

misleading.

If a

mind thought of,


thing
Kara^avrj'i,
or
feared
before
it
is
seen.
The clearness is
desired,
sufficient
and need be no more than sufficient to
is

it

is

in the

determine the identity of what


in the

mind

before.

Anab.

is

seen with what was


6, 1,

The

tracks of

horses wpjpeared, i^aivero


the sight was unlooked
If they had
for, therefore the simple verb is used.
been looking for signs of the enemy, the verb would
;

have been Kara^alveraL.


Further on in the narrative

(1

the battle

8, 8), as

drew

on, the gleam of spears was visible, here and


there, through the cloud of dust visible, Kara<^avel(;.
:

They were not in fact clearly seen, but they were just
what the Greeks were looking for they were seen
clearly enough to settle the question that was in all
minds. The glimpse of the spears showed that the
battle was upon them.
44. A meteor appears, ^alverat
a comet foretold
and expected appears, Karac^alvera.
The day dawns begins to appear ava^aiverai.
45. Od. 4 41, They threw before the horses spelt,
and therewith mixed white barley, ave^t^av a chance

'Am and

Kara in Composition.

mixture, fulfilling no predetermined end, a


or less of either ingredient does not matter
ava.

Anab. 7

2, 3,

the people in the

83
little

more

therefore
After a time they mixed with
and made their home there

cities,

The mixing was

final, securing the end


of peaceful living together.
Horses mingling in a race, avaixfyvvjievoi (Soph.
El. 715).
Not a purposed mingling, but

KaTeyuv^vvvTO.

about by chance, each horse doing his best

coming
hence

avd.
II.

24

529,

To whomsoever

Zeits giveth

a min-

gled lot, & fiiv K aixfjii^a^ {Karafii^a<i) hoirj Zei)? the


divine allotments were all measured, placed, and
;

fixed in purpose before they passed into fact

voi

hence

The mingled blossoms in the field are avafii'^vvfiethey come by chance, and each grows as it can

but the same blossoms in the gardener's bed, placed


for harmonious effect, are KaTafju^vvfjievoi.
Stones of
colors lying in a box, dva/xi'yvufxevoi; the same
stones cut and set in a Mosaic, Kara/jiiyvv/xevoi, ; they
realize a picture that was complete in the artist's mind
all

before he put his hand to the work.


46. KTeiveLv is from a root that means to stride, to
cut by striking hence to kill; KaraKrelvetv, to strike

down,

to strike dead, to hill, as in


deadly conflict,

usually implying deadly purpose ^not by accident,


nor in execution of the law. When death comes

by

accident, the
3

end reached

is

not the end sought.


^

The Greek Prepositions.

34
In Anab. 4

85,

25,

iratSa

ukcov

KaraKravoctv,

the

natural suggestion that the death was designed is


When death comes
forestalled bj the word cikcoi/.

by sentence
but

death

verb

is

of the law, the end sought


the vindication of the law

treated

not the
the

but this
sometimes airoKrelveiv
a special suggestion, which will be
in its place.
U. 6 409, Soon the

Kreivecv,

carries

last

is

and

of

The killAchaians will slay thee, KaratcraveovaLv.


in
it would be the
conilict
be
would
deadly
ing
end sought.
But see II. 15 587, Like a wild beast that hath
done some evil thing, Tiamng slain a dog or a herdsman, Kvva KTeiva<i rj ^ov/coXov. The killing was not
in pursuit of an intelligent purpose
it was from

blind instinct.

Od. 16 lOG,

KaTaKTd/j,evo<;, slain in

the death was purposed


therefore KaraK.
act

Od. 12 375, 'Ol


:

his

Tcine.

The

l3od<;

killing

it

my own

was the end sought

cKrafiev

rj/xei^,

halls

in the

we had slain

was not the end sought,

it

was

the bootytherefore we have

Cyrus had a fight with a bear

the means to the end


the simple verb.

Anab.

9, 6,

^he

much, but at last he hilled him, Karmave


he meant to kill the bear, and did what he meant.
It follows, therefore, if this view be correct, that no
irrational creature can do the act expressed by KaraKTeivetv, for no such creature can form an intelligent
suffered

'

purpose
before

Ava and Kara

it is

in

85

Composition.

purpose limited and complete in thouglit

begun in act/

at first view
single passage (Herod. 2 75) seems
to conflict with this position ; but it is, in fact, confirmatory of it. Tbe story is that the Ibises do not
let

the winged serpents pass

by them and come

into

the land, but kill them, KaraKreiveLv. The Ibis was


regarded as divine it was therefore raised above the
;

brute condition, and

made

of

forming
capable

purpose therefore, of doing the

an

in-

act, KaTo-

telligent
KTelveiv here

is

attributed to

it.

47. v^aKeiv, to die,' KaraOvrjaKeiv, to die at the


hands of one who purposes to kill the outward act

formed beforehand; to die not


nor
by disease,
by accident, nor by old age, nor by
II. 22
the
law.
sentence of
355, Hector dying, Karaof
Achilles, who meant to kill
BvrjaKwv, by the hands

fulfilling a purpose

him.
106, Achilles to Lykaon, a suppliant, die
KarOave koX JldTpoK\o<;,
tlunu also, Odve koX av
II.

21

'
Such, at least, seems to have been the Greek opinion, so far as I
have been able to gather it in reading. Perhaps the reading has been
defective but I have preferred not to wait for an impossible leisure,
;

but note the point as possibly marking one of the hiding-places of

Greek thought.
In any case, the opinion here ventured invites no reference to
modern Biology nor docs it impair the honors of those rare creatures
of ancient story companions of man inspired or trained
" Who bear a
memory and a mind,
;

Raised far above the law of kind."

36

Greek Prepositions.

TJie

PatroMos

Observe how vapid would be


Kara were omitted here. It would

also died.

the phrase

if

mean only that Patroklos died, as all men die, perhaps in his bed. Note also how the imperative, Odve,
asks no help from Kara ; the lifted arm told the purpose (II. 21 106, 107).
:

II.

89,

There

the

is

died in the days of

old,

died, KaTaTe6v7]Mro'i

tomb of

whom

champion who
glorious Hector sleiu ;
a

slew, KareicTave

icara points

which made the fallen hero


a
of
monumental
tomb.
worthy
48. 'Am and Kara may serve to express the same
to the deadly conflict

general idea through different pictures to the imagi-

Xen. Cyr. 1 1, Arj/jiOKpariai KarekvOrjo-av,


democracies have teen overthrown ; oXijapxMi, avrjnation.

the

oligarchies have heen overthrown;


suggests the idea of a structure demolished

prjvrai,

ond, of a thing taken up and borne away


of destruction is virtually in both.

CHAPTEE
irrl,

49.

EvEETTHiNG

is

first

the secthe idea

YI.

ON, UPON.

on, or upon, something

by force

of gravitation.
When the object uj)on which a thing
or
on
which
it rests, is named, we have a noun
comes,
in hand, which requires a preposition to introduce

it,

'EttI, on,

and show

its

37

upon.

relation to the

word^ before

This

it.

object on, or upon which


preposition
is
motion is arrested,
put in the Accusative. To fall
on the ground., eVt to SdireSov, to seat one's self tcpon
is

The

IttL

throne, iirl Opovov


that of power passing

The

picture to the thought is


the subject of the verb to

from

The primary power

the object of the preposition.


space

is

dicular

that of gravitation

its

and impact, or pressure

direction
is its

is

in

perpen-

unvarying con-

comitant.
50.

But not much of human power

is

spent in a

Men

usually employ their


along the surface of the earth,

perpendicular direction.

strength in movements
and not in motions up and down.

We

must

there-

fore be ready to shift this path of power, if we would


find eVt fruitful with human uses, and from perpendicular

make

it

horizontal,

whenever we find the

lines

of action run in that direction.


51.

Before doing

this,

however,

we

will note the

accompanying notions which eVl always carries with


it.
First, the object which falls iipon another exerts
power upon it by impact that is, by the accumulated

force of gravitation suddenly arrested.


Secondly, the
continues
to exert
another
rests
that
.upon
object

power upon

it

the continued force of gravitation

in other words,byby

its own weight.


are
not
These
ingenious statements, thought out
ISTo
a
to help
theory ; they simply state the facts.
in
the
no
is
taken
effort is put forth,
physical
step

1608{.iV^

38

Greek Prepositions.

TJie

world where the power of gravitation does not go


along with it, aiding, guiding, or obstructing and deand eVl is one of the witnesses in the Greek
feating
;

Our
language of this constant, inevitable power.
note
the
facts
to
draw
to
and, then,
study is, first,
;

all fair

deductions from them.

now we

52. If

shift the direction of

power, as

we

up and down, make it


proposed
horizontal
the
level
earth
where living creatalong
ures with man have their home we do not thereby
to do, and, instead of

dismiss eVt, the old witness of gravitation, but we


it with us into this new field, and allot to it a

take

wider, and

more varied

The power,

service.

work or ready for work,


not here the power of gravitation but, in the
dumb creatures, it is the animal instincts and habits ;
53.

ever at

is

in

man

it

is

the whole range of the passions and

as-

But
pirations, the hopes and fears that rule his life.
in both spheres, brute and rational, iirl carries the
suggestion of power of some sort, physical or mental ;
and the object of the preposition is in the Accusative.

They came
they came
enter

to the river,
to the

city,

eVl rov
eirl

ti-jv

irora/jiov, to

cross

ttoXlv, to take

it

it,

or

it.

54. If the

movement be

a journey

from a

distant

place, carrying the suggestion of the purpose and


hope to reach, rather than of the realization, then

that

distant object

Greece,

iir

is

'EXXaSo?

in

the Genitive

for home,

iir

to sail

oIkov

for

he hegan

'Etti, on,

to

39

upon.

lead them into line of hattle, vcfirjyhro iirl <f)aX(vy<yo^


with the Genitive, with a view to biding them

eVt
into.

the
genitive here is causative, suggesting to
to the endeavor.
incites
which
the
thing
imagination

The

55. Eest, or position

expressed by
axi'Kfl'^

standing on

fixed, or definite, is

if

the

on

flesh

the car, eirl

tw

spits,

iirl

if

the

Bl^pfo

somewhere upon, movably, or


is
follow^ed by the Genitive
eVt
upon,

is

position

on.,

the Dative

indefinite,

transiently

the men carry the


sitting on the shore, eV aKri]<i
burdens on their heads, eVl roiv Ke^aXeoyv the enemy
are on the Tnountains, iirl twv opdv he danced on the
;

table, eirl

56.

pens

is

6pxw^'^''

expressed by the Genitive

XevovTO'i,

57.

Tpa'Tret,'t]<i

Time somewhere within which


some

fijne

in the

Bearing in mind

7'eign

thing hap eVl AeovTo<i


^aat-

of Leo.

comes against
down on it
comes
what

that whatever

a thing horizontally, as well as

we are prepared
gravitation, exerts power upon it,
to see how first, and last, and all through, eVl is the
from the subject to the object ;
index of

by

power passing

by suggesting some near, better


from the known to the
in Geometry we determine the position of a point from
as in old English
its relation to other points whose position is known
Jock of the mill may discriminate from Jock of the hill.
In the above examples the shore (okct^s) is known the persons
'

The Genitive here helps

known thing
unknown as

it

is

to locate

as the point of departure

spoken of are located by referring to


mountains, the table.

this

known

locality

so of the

40

The Greek Prepositions.


he was sent eVt

Tr]v ap'x/jv, to his province., to rule


eVt
ra
;
go
oifka, to their arms., to take them ;
he went eVl rrjv dvpav, to the door, to open, or shut
it ; they went eVt to helrrvov, to their
dinner, to eat
as,

to

it

it

they went eV^

tov<; irdXe/ntov';, agairist the

enemy,

to assault them.
58.
less,

The

may

activity

it

object of eVt, commonly pictured as lifebe in fact not lifeless, or passive ; but any

may have

will

be derived from the nature

of the case, and will not be suggested by the phrase


where it is introduced by eVL

The treatment of eVt is here suspended, to be resumed in a comparison of it with prepositions which
follow.

CHAPTER
viro,

59.

The

along with

it

VII.

under; accessory notions.

notion expressed by under, viro, takes


other notions which accompany it by a

necessity of nature and experience.


First, of all it
carries the suggestion of its correlative on, or over,
irrl,

or virep.

Nothing

can.

be under which has not

something on, upon, or over it.


60. Secondly, this correlation of

under with

on,

or over, naturally suggests a comparison ; that which


is under is thought of as inferior to that which is on,

'Tiro,

41

Under ; Accessory Notions.

it.
Thirdly, that whicli is under is in a defrom the light. As light comes from
withdrawn
gree
is under something must of necesthat
which
above,
receive
a
less
degree of light than that which is
sity
over or ujpon it. It follows from this that viro readily

or over

lends itself to express the notions of retirement, con-

cealment, deceit.
61.

That which

under

is

is

naturally thought of

which

as passive to the pressure of that

is

uj^on

it

sometimes subdued, crushed, destroyed by it as, for


example: the blossom under the stone that is laid
foot of the ox.
uj)on it the snail trodden under the
62. But that which is under has some power of
;

resistance

and

this

may become

to the imagination

the leading feature of the ]3icture as, Milo the athlete


stood under the weight of the full-grown ox. Here
;

the power of life countervails the downward pressure


of gravitation. But lifeless things may give the same
under the corsuggestion as, for example the post

ner of the house supported the wall above it.


63.
will next look at the cases which

We

these are just as

many

as the

xrrro

ways in which

governs
the position under can be presented to our thought
;

and these are

three.

64. Firsts the position under, vtto, may be suggested without regard to the coming into that position, or the leaving of

it.

II.

hecatombs heneath a 'plane

under

the wall,

i.

e.,

2 307,
:

tree,

We were offering

vivo

TrXaravidrw

near the wall, viro

Telxe'i (H.

The Greek Prepositions.

42
21

These pictures, and those

277).

like

them, nat-

urally take the dative case after t'Tro, as the case exSometimes the verb implies
pressive of position.
motion, but the act looks forward to the position and
rest that shall follow

footstool for the feet

II.

14 24,
:

He

under

literally,

shall place a
the feet, viro

iroaiv.

The

dative after viro sometimes expresses the au-

thor, instrument, or agent ; Od. 3 304, hehjxrjTo he


\ao^ vTTo avTw, and the jpeoiple were subdued under
:

him.

15

II.

637, i^S^rjOev

"EKTopi, they were

v<f)

II. 11
121, Themselves also
jput in fear hy Hector.
were filled with fear before the Argives^ vir ^ApyeLoiat.
65. Secondly, the position under, vtto, may be the
:

end of a motion in space

as, vtto

aireo^} rjkaa-e firjXa,

This form of exflocTcs into the cave.


takes
the
accusative
after
case
virb.
pression
As the dative after vtto is sometimes used with

he drove his

verbs of motion, so the accusative after vtto sometimes


denotes position merely. 11. 2 603, KpKahiav vtto
^

KvW')]V7)<i

Cyllene.

6po<; alirv, Arcadia along under rugged


In such instances the objects are usually

large, inviting the

by

mind

to traverse space in thinking,


the light.
QQ. The third and last form of connecting things
the preposition vtto, is where the object of vtto is

e. g,,

the earth, the

air,

the starting point of the motion (Od. 9 141), a spring


of clear water flowed out from a cave, vtto aireLov;.
:

This form

calls for the genitive case.

II.

248, to

'Ttto,

Under ; Accessory Notions.

rescue the sons of

of

tlie

Achaians

war-din

the

from

the Trojans^ inro Tpcocov opvfiayBov

43

vtto,

from

under.

Motion into or under

is followed
by the genitive
tov
inro
cnrohov rfkaaa
/xo^ov
phrase e'^cb
stake
into
the
I
the
thrust
TToXKrj<i^
hurning embers j

in the

cTTToSo?, embers, is not pictured as a unit, but as a


loose mass, affected by the stake only at the point where
the stake was thrust in it is a partitive genitive.

the

So (Od. 11

52),

he had not been buried beneath the

wide-wayed earth, vivo, any idiere beneath six feet


of it was space enough
67. 'Ttto with the genitive suggests primarily the
prevalence of its object over some one else, as if that
But it is used in genother were prostrate under it.
eral to mark the agent of an action after
passive verbs.

While primarily picturing, as it were, to the eye, the


victories and subjugations of war, its wide embrace
serves for actions the most kindly and beneficent.
Mem. 2 2, 3, Whom can we find more greatly bene:

fited

by any than are children by parents

<yoveaiv

vtto

These two prepositions, being

68.

some extent a treatment

vite to

correlative, in-

side

by

side, that

may be seen in the light of the other e</)teVat


^etpa? rvvl, to lay hands on one (Od. 20 39) v<pi,evai
Oprjvvv TTocTLv, to jplace a footstool under one's feet
(II. 14
240).
each

Wine

drives even the wise

man

to sing, icpirjKe

The Greek Prepositions.

44:

(Od. 14
VTT

To each dam

404).

e/x/Spvov TjKev eKaarTT)

he put

(Od. 9

to such,
Tie hath sent

its

young

309).

woes upon the Argives, icjiPjKev (II. 1 445).


Subthe
to
Med.
mitting
body
pains, vj>elaa (Eur.
24).
Observe in tlie above example the suggestion of
power in eVt, and of subordination in viro.
69. ^'Apx^iv, to he first in doing a thing / as to
lead is characteristic of a ruler, the word comes nat:

mean to rule ^ iirapxeiv, to rule


exercise authority ujpon a particular district
urally to

eirdp'xco iroXKrj'i,

T ride over

over
;

%(pa?

a large country (Xen. Cyr.

in an act thought of as
the cause or incentive to other acts Kke a founda-

4:6,

2)

virapxetv, to he

Socrates

tion.

fi/rst

(Mem. 2:3)

brothers to love each other

is
;

urging two alienated


a great provisioji

it is

for friendship, irpo<i (pcXlav fiiya virdp'^eL, to be sprung


from the same parents.
This word is very appropriate in the criminations
and recriminations of those engaged in war each

side charging the other with beginning the quarrel.


The word suggests the foundation in man's fortune

and

life

that

on which the structure of character

rests.

It is

used in expressing acts of kindness, where he

who

hegins hy doing hi7id actions, vTrdpxet ev iroicav,


receives the like in return.
Anab. 2 3, 23, If any
one will hegin with showing us Icindness, vfid<; ev
:

TTOioiv virdp^T},

we

will not be

outdone by him, at least


making kind returns.

to the extent of our power, in

'Ttto,

But
1

evil for evil

5, I shall

45

Under ; Accessory Notions.

more common

is

point out the one

in history.

Hdt.

who legan aggressions


dSUav epycov e? tou<;

against the GreeTcs, rov virdp^avra

"EWrjva^. Hdt. 4:1, Darius wished to be revenged


on the Scythians, who, in days gone by, had invaded
Media and so hegan the quarrel., vinjp^av dScKir)'?.
In like manner the French and the Chinese, in this
the other with
year of grace, 1884, are each charging

beginning the wrong, virdp^ai dBiKia<;.


70. 'Eirdyeiv, virdr^eiv (Hdt. 2 108), The multitude whom he brought upon the land, eirrj'yd'yeTO ; to
:

bring

war on

a people, eTrdyeiv TroXe/xov

to bring

on

woe, Trrj/xa, servitude, 8ov\etav, virdyeiv ^vyov virirov;,


The end to be reached
to lead horses tinder the yohe.
is

under the yoke,

to have the horse

the chariot

the

leading

important

is

i.

e.,

harnessed to

preparatory, and subor-

a necessary condition to
This is analogous to vtto aireo'i I'jkacre /xifka,
that end.
where the end to be gained is to have the flock in the

dinate

cave

the driving

In Xen. Yenat. 4
the dogs out

when

for

the same

only as

a necessary condition to that end.


Kvva<;, to take
4, we find dyeiv

is
:

Tm

exercise ; the act is its own end ; but


act is subordinate to a further end,

namely, to find the game, we find virayuv Td<; Kvva<;


the haunt of the
(4:5); but further, when they find
to
rouse
him, iird'yeLv
boar, they set the dogs foi'ward
Ta9 Kvva<i. The compound vTrdyeLv is also used to
out
present a picture analogous to the water running
before
from
from the can, vtto airelovi ; viray-, away

The Greek Prepositions.

46

For, to a living
away from under me
is before him
what
motion
forward
creature,
against
is as natm-al as striking on what is under it is to a fall-

me

literally,

ing stone.

and

'ETTt

horizontal direction, as

pendicular

motion against something

that which obstructs

me
me

it is viro.

II.

885,

is

eVt,

He

and

assailed

with the might of a god, but my swift feet bore


out of his reach, virrjveiKav, literally, lore from

under.

Anab. 3

TrapeKoXevero,
071,

play their parts in this


did
primarily in the perthey
viro

i.

virdyeiv,

He
e.,

4, 48, toI'^ yJkv

efiirpoaOev vTrwyeiv

on those before him to move


to make room for those pressing on
called

behind them.
71. The English preposition under does not bear
"We can
transference to this horizontal direction.
" stand from under " this
;
suggests perpendicular
say
motion ; but, if we change the line of motion in the

threatening object to horizontal, the Greek could say,


as before, virdyeTe, but the English preposition under

no longer serve.
Matt. 13 44, He goetli and eelleth all that he
he goeth, virwyei ; the
hath, and buyeth that field
the
buying the going is merely
emphatic point is
will

preparatory it helps the picture, but is not essential


in grammatical form the two verbs
to the thought
;

are co-ordinate, but in thought there is a clear subMore commonly the subordinate action
ordination.

Anab. 1:8, 15, Xenoasked him if he


as
to
so
Cyrus,
join
riding
up,
phon
is

expressed by the participle.

Under ; Accessory

'Ttto,

47

Notioits.

To
riding up^ vTrekdaa^i.
translate this riding up gently^ or slovdy, does not
commend itself it does not suit the business of the
would give any orders

hour.

To

say that viro here points to the fact of

Xenophon's subordination in rank


less

that goes without saying

it

to
is

Cyrus

is

need-

inept moreover,

there being nothing in the story at this moment to


It seems to denote
call for a reference to that fact.

simply the subordination of Xenophon's act at the


time to the act of Cyrus as a question for instruc-

tion

is

necessarily subordinate to the

answer expected.

72. Me//eti/, to remain, abide, wait; v7ro/j,eviv, to remain under ^ to hear^ s^istain, endtire / the actor is sta-

tionary, and acts as in resistance to a downward pressure.


Od. 1 -ilO, ovK vTrefieivev yvcofievat, he did not
:

wait for us to know him did not bear the pressure


of our inquires. Plato Epis, / hore hitter reproaches^
Bta^o\a<i 8va"^ep6l<i vire^xeivov.

dure chastening,

Epis. Heb., If ye en-

viro^evere.

remain on.
Cyr. Inst. 1 4, The
horse stumbled U]3on his knees, and nearly threw
Cyrus over his head, yet he held on, iirefMecvev.
''Eirifieveiv,

to

When

connected with rational acts eVt suggests the


ground or basis of the act, and points forward to the
result.
The rain continued falling, efieve TrtTrrcyy;
Peter continued Jcnocklng, eVeyu-eye Kpovcov
Peter
had a motive and an object. The dog continued
the creditor continued dunniug his
barking, e/xei^e
Od. 17 275-277, Either do thou
debtors, eirefisve.
;

The Greek Prepositions.

4:8

am left behind or do thou remain^


I will go hri points to the purpose of
and
enijxeivov^
the action, which was in the minds of both.
Od. 11 351, Let the stranger be patient, much as
he desires to return, and wait^ iirliJieivov, until the
morrow, till I shall have filled the full measure of the
The waiting is for an object in the mind of
gift.
the speaker namely, to make up the full measure of
the gift. Had the waiting been a halt upon a march
to be resumed as a matter of course on the morrow,
the verb would not be iirifju, but avafx, (see Sec. 7).
So, II. 6 340, Wait, eTrlfievov, till I put on my
armor eVt looks forward to the object to be gained
by waiting namely, the putting on of the armor it
is a note beforehand showing that there is an object
go, while I

It is therefore in the
to be gained by waiting.
and
would
have no right to be,
a
connective,
thought
but for the phrase that follows. The preposition and

the following phrase are in fact correlatives. That


we cannot suggest this play of thought in a neat

English phrase
amples.
because

But

is

true here, as in countless other ex-

let

us not refuse to learn the Greek

we cannot always

translate it exactly into

English.
73. If the conqueror j>mfe the yoke ujpon the conbea/r it,
inro^epetv ;
quered, iTTiTtdevai,, the conquered
if

in battle one side moves

eirep'xea-Oai,

eTnirlirTeiv,

tion vTTo, under.

upon the

other, eTnevai,

the other side hold the rela-

If they accept the assaidt,

we

say

'Ttto,

vTToSixovTac

if

49

Under ; Accessory Notions.


tbej

flee

from under

it,

v7rocf)euyov-

(TLV.

The study

of eVt

is

suspended here to be resumed

in a comparison of it with the preposition irpo^.


T4. The compound i^rjyeladai, (see by anticipation
that the leading has its source in the

Prep,

ck) suggests
the leader
subject of the verb; vc^-qyelaOai presents
as subordinate to some other person, or power, or to

ulterior object of his own ; he leads as the


colonel under instructions leads his regiment into

some

battle

he leads as the hare leads the hounds

fugitive leads his pursuer

as the pioneers,

as the

marking

out and clearing the road, lead the army.

Thuc. 1 78, If you are determined to have war,


we will do our best to avenge ourselves on you, in
the way in which you set us an example, v^rj<yr]cr6e
:

the threat of retaliation places the leading of the


enemy under a law, or condition namely, that as

it would be done to them.


Their leading
no longer free it is not e^jyelcrOab, but is under
the shadow of this threat, which would tend to temper and restrain it it is v(j>'r]yetadai.
To draw them ujp in order for battle, v^ydaQai

they did so

is

(Anab. 6 5, 25) viro recognizes a subordination it


was an act preparatory to the inevitable battle before
:

them

like the leading out,

virojyeiv,

of the dogs pre-

paratory to a hunt.

Compare with

common

this

Hdt. 1

151,

They

resolved in

assembly to follow the lonians,

whatever

The Greek Prepositions.

50

way

they should lead, e^rjyecovTai here the lonians


their own arbitrary choice ; the other
party
;

from

act

accept their action and conform their own to it,


Anab. 2 1, 18, 6 Be KXeap;^09 ravra vcf)7]yeiTo,
now in this Clearchus was covertly trying to lead,
:

Phalinos evading, dexaway from under.


Xen. Equest., The colt is trained to go before his
To go before is r]<yela-6ai,
trainer, keeping the road.
^aXivo'i he vTroaTpeyJra^, hut

terously shunning

vivo,

but here the colt's action is under control of his


trainer hence the verb is iKprjjeicrdai.
;

t5. It

is

not implied that he

who

leads, vcf^rjyecrai,

necessarily the inferior of the two.


Soph. El. 1502,
lead
the
this
is
said by Aegisway, go first
v^riyov,
thus to Orestes, in whose power he was, and at whose

is

hands he was soon to meet

his death.
It simply prothat
Orestes
lead
in
the
poses
way
retiring from the
scene
an
act
present
preparatory, and hence subordinate to the act which was soon to follow his

death.

swift

coming
So the gods lead men, vcpTjyovvraL, by suggestions
drawn from objects and creatures around them (Xen.
man's reason and will are here pictured
Cyri., Bk. 3)
the
actors
as
no one is convinced against his
great
;

reason, or

made good

76. Crito
Crito,

us then rest our discussion,

and proceed to act in

way God is
The

against his will.

16, Let

leading us,

divine leading was

this

way, since in this

Tavrrj 6 0eo<i vcfjrjyelrai.


through suggestions to the

iTretSr)

Il/jo?,

Toiuards,

To,

Near

To, Face to Face.

51

must at last,
life and death.
sovereign, decide the question of

reason,

and the free

wliicli

will,

as
It

in this stress made the


just because that Socrates
he is a monument for
that
die
to
choice
sovereign

is

remembrance and
tried and tempted

cheer, through the ages, for all


souls.

CHAPTEK
TOWAEDS, NEAIt

7rp09, TO,

VIII.
TO,

FACE TO FACE.

77. Few things are more wearisome than to read


about Trpo? in the Lexicon. There are endless examno interpretation no clew to guide the inples, but
is said to mean motion to or motion from,
It
quirer.
a
in
or rest
flace, and many things besides. The only
in
is
resource
guessing, and trying, till one's common

sense

tells

78.

regard
lations.

him he

We
tt/jo?

has guessed right.

prosper best in this study, if we


at once into human reas
introducing us

shall

The

prepositions

ava.,

Kara,

and errl, in
wide range

viro,

their primary meanings, may have


Not
of use without any reference to human beings.
It presents, primarily,
so 7r/309, if our view is right.
a pretty

It is the

the picture of one person facing another.


servitor of communion between man and

man

usher that introduces one soul to another

whence

the
is

The Greek

52

Prepositions.

rendered possible the family, society,

meaning

tliis fii'st

this

to,

comes

naturally to

of
being the relation in space

meet face
79.

7rpo9

From
mean near
persons who

tlie state.^

to face.

When man

meets his fellow

man

it

is

prima-

and implies a reciprocal action on


rily for converse,
the part of the person met ; tt/jo? is the preposition
that connects the action with its personal object in
'Evrl presents its
this form of human intercourse.

never and

were
;
tt/do?,
living object as if it
often it makes alive to the imagination what is, in itnever does. To say Trpo? Tpwa?
self, lifeless ; this eVl
lifeless

that the Trojans fight back; to


shoot 7r/?o9 relxo^ implies that the wall has something
to donamely, to repulse the shafts thrown against
the wall is in fact the defensive armor of the city
it

fidxea-dai implies

it

was

built to

do the work of defense.

^dXkeiv, to shoot against the


or may make,
hreast, implies that the o-Ti]Oo<; makes,
some sort of response to the stroke of the dart. Both
80. 11/309

o-T/'}^o9

and breastplate are there to aid in giving that


But, you may ask, might not one say in
response.
this case eVt <TTr}do<i /3d\\eLv ?
Certainly he could, if
shield

As

the relations of persons very greatly surpass in interest the


it has seemed truer, as well as easier, to think of

relations of things,

different
from the start as subserving these higher relations.
fact in the study and
supposition would not affect any important
For the derived meanings, betherefore invites no discussion here.

irphs

sides,

in addition

to,

see Sec. 103.

Near

npo9, To, Towards,

to,

Face

to Face.

53

he were pretty dull just as a painter, if dull, may


and not harmonize
put two objects into a picture
the picture, it is a note beIIpo? harmonizes
act is to have its issue in
that
the
forehand, showing

them.

some quality residing in the object of the preposition or, to put it briefly, eVl ctt^^o? ^dWetv would
;

be quite proper,
at him.

To

81.

if

you

the

kill

eV

attain to virtue,

man

before you shoot

aperrjv, if

you

are think-

it costs
but if
ing especially of the manly endeavor
you are thinking chiefly of the happiness it brings, tt/jo?
;

soldiers
dper^v (Xen. Conviv., ch. 4). The discouraged
(Anab. 3 1) had no spirit to go to their arms, eVt to,
:

spirit to go on guard, irpo'i Td<i ^v\aKd<i.


In going to their arms they went to do something,
namely, to take their arms in going on guard they
did not go primarily to do anything; they were to

oifXa',

no

wait and watch

and

call

till

others should act,

i.

e.,

the enemy,

forth the watcher's action in response

hence

To expose one to the cold, irpo'i 'y^vxo'i it is


the cold that acts on the man.
82. Not only is something of reciprocity uniformly
7rp6<f.

'>

suggested by

tt/jo?,

but in

many

cases the chief action

in a phrase is suggested to the imagination not in the


of the verb, but in the object of this preposi-

subject
tion.
Trpo"?

It is

hard for thee

K6vrpa 'KaKrl^etv.

to

Here

hick against the pricks,


it is not the one who

kicks, but the thing kicked that, for the imagination,


does the chief work. In the realm of mechanics ac-

The Greek Prepositions.

54:

tion and reaction are equal, but in the realm of feeling


tliey

may be

83.

very different,

In the story of Ulysses in the cave (Od. IX),

the Cyclops, grasping two of the visitors, swung them


high and dashed them on the ground^ ttotI (tt/oo?) yaiij

Here the action, to the imagination, passes


quite over from the subject of the verb to the object
of 'Kpo'^from what the two visitors did to the floor
KOTTTe.

to

what the

floor of the cave

did to them

Ik

S'

ijK6(f)a\o<; ')(aixaZL<i pee.

84.

Hector

(II,

454) bewails the coming fate of

Andromache, that in her captivity she


at the co?nma7id of another
7r/jo9 aWrj<i,

would weave,

woman ;

that

is, standing before her face and receiving commands


it was not the weaving, but the domineering com-

mand
7, 1,

was in the husband's thought, Anab, 5


" I hear that some one is acXenophon says
that

me

of deceiving you: therefore hear me l)y


"
Oods, irpo'i rcov Oecov
7rpo9, an appeal to the
face before them, who
face
to
as
if
Gods
standing

cusing

the

will respond to his words with vengeance if he does


not speak the truth, II. 6 524, 5, I hear bitter re:

proaches /irow the Trojans, 7rpo<i Tpcowv, they reproach


me to my face. If the reproaches came to his ears
through a third party the Preposition would not be
85.

In the narrative from Od.

Keptune
rocks,

IX we

shattered the ship, dashing

7r/)09

ireTpycn ^a\cov.

The

read that

against the
ship met the rocks
it

to

its

Towards, Near To, Face

To,

11/309,

own

hurt, therefore Trpo?.

to Face.

They leaned

ivwina leaned

their

them

chariots against the walls, Trpb^


the walls reacted
that they might be supported

55

and

held what was leaned against them.


86. They fight against each other,
for

irrl

irpo'i aXktjXovi ;
forbids the reciprocation which dW7]\ov'i al-

is one phrase, however,


were
heaped on one anaW7]\oL(rL Kej(yvro, they
in its sugwhere
oKkyfKoLai,
always
reciprocal
other,
is the object of iirl, which never lends itself
gestion,

ways

carries

with

There

it.

eV

to the idea of reciprocation.


This, namely that the Greek

What

shall

we

say?

and the English translation each describes a common fact by a short phi-ase,
at the botimpossible to be taken literally (for those
tom were not heaped upon others), but so suggestive
:

roughly of the fact that


its

its

inaccuracy

is

pardoned for

brevity's sake.

The nymph Calypso (Od. V. 149) went to


she went to do a work to disUlysses, eV 'Ohvaria
eirl
had she gone for converse,
therefore
him
miss
87.

the preposition would have been tt/jo?.


88. Near the above passage (v. 157)
Ulysses gazed fixedly on the unplanted

we read

that

sea, ttovtov iir

drpuyerov BepKeaKCTO. He was hopeless, for he did


not even wipe his tears away did not even look
around in hope of seeing some ship that might take

him on

board.

Had he

that, the preposition

the

word

been hopeful enough for

would have been

to the mental state.

7rpo9, suiting

The Greek Prepositions.

66
89. But,

may be

it

asked, did the Greeks think

all this ?
Probably they thought nothing about it,
but spoke from habit just as a well educated person
uses, in English, the words shall and will^ correctly

of

from

habit, while a foreigner learning English must


Just as little did Xenophon need to bethink

reflect.

him

of the distinction between eVt and tt/jo?, when


he used them both, each in its place (Anab. 3 4).
Think, soldiers, you are on your way nov^for Greece,
to your children and your wives, iirX rr^v 'FXXdSa,
:

Kal ra? yvvalKWi.

7r/)09 Toij^ TralSa';


TTjOo?

here

is

return to his

The

preposition

alive with the picture of the soldier's

home

meeting those who meet him

at

his door.
90. Achilles bewailed his friend, the slain Patroklus, placing his hands upon his breast, eVl crr^Oea-aiv ;
if he had laid his hands upon the breast to find if the

heart was

been

still

Trpo? (II.

91.

beating, the preposition

18

The way

would have

317).

to

happiness,

rj

6So<i etr

evSaifioviav,

also TT/jo? evhaLjjLovlav ; but the former, where happiness is found at the end of a course of labor, or search ;

the

latter,

where

it

comes of

itself,

to one

who

to take pains about it (Mem. II. 1).


92. Xenophon directs the horse-buyer to

refuses

examine
and
then to
buy
the
rest
the
to
dWo
He had
to
acofxa.
hody, irpo'i
of
go
do
rather
to
to
the
but
horse,
something to
nothing
receive namely, an impression good, or bad, as he
first

the feet of the horse he would

To,

11/309,

Towards, Near To, Face

looked and examined.

to Face.

57

Xenoplion had been

in-

groom in his duties, and had told him,


finished one part to go to the rest of the

structing the

when he had

Obiody, he would have said eVt to aXko aoifia.


serve, in every case, eVl denotes some form of power

only the power involved in a steadfast gaze


passing from the agent to the object tt/jo? suggests
if

some form of reciprocal action, or a susceptibility


it, passing from the object to the agent.

for

93. To go against the enemy, eirl tov<; TrdXefiiovi ;


also 7r/309 TOL/? TroXefitovi
but, the former, when the
enemy are at a distance, are at rest, or are retreating
that is, are pictured as passive to the attack ; the

latter,

when

enemy

the assailants have

as to stimulate

back (Cyr. Inst. 1


94.

When

(II.

them

come

so near to the

to face about

and

fight

4).

YI) Hector met Andromache

at

the Scean gate, the nurse held the child on her hreast^
etrX KoXtrm ; a burden, a charge
resting on the nurse ;

but when afterward the father^

" Stretched his fond arms to


clasp the lovely boy,
The babe clung crying to his nurse's 'breast,'''' irp6s

for shelter, safety, solace,

fvm

koKttov,

the nurse.

thou dash thy foot against a stone (Matt.


4 6). The thoughtful student will now be able to
determine whether it is eVl \idov, or Trpo? \l6ov, by
95. Lest

asking himself, which was specially affected by the


blow the foot, or the stone ? Which did the prin-

cipal act

The Greek Prepositions.

68

Great stones

wliicli

were

rolled off the precipice,

upon the rocks, and were dashed in fragments.


Upon the rochs, is it eiri ra^ 7rirpa<;, or Trpo? ra?

fell

Trerpa? ? (Anab. 4 2, 3).


If thou shall not watch I will
:

the object
3)

come

eVt

07i thee,

ere

is to iuHict punishment, hence


same chapter we read I stand at
the door, and knock if any man hear my voice, and
open the door, / will come in to him, iXevaofMat irpo^
The object is communion the visitor and the
avrov.

(Kev. 3

But

eVt.

in the

common joy (Rev.


" I am
say
going to

receiver are sharers in a

How

96.

shall I

You may

eVt ro Trvp, or

to stir the

fire, it

be eVl to

will

When

elfit

3, 20).

fire

"

7rpo9 to irOp, ac-

say
cording to what your object is in going
to warm yourself, it will be tt/oo? to Trvp
e2//.fc

the

if

if

you go
you go

irvp.

a fire breaks out in a city, great numbers come together in two classes firemen and spectators ; the one class come eVt to Trvp, the other tt/jo?
97.

TO TTvp

though

themselves or to
act

upon the

from

neither class
stir

fire,

the

fire

come

warm

either to

but one

class

come

to

the other to receive an impression

it.

you break your egg by striking


your knife on the egg, the Greek preposition for on
if you break it by
is iirl
striking the egg on the
edge of your glass, the Greek preposition is tt/oo?.
You tread on a flower, eVt you tread on a nail, tt/oo?.
These examj)les are not arbitrary dictations they
98. If at breakfast

Towards, Near To, Face

To^

11/309,

are direct deductions,

to Face.

and are confirmed by

59
the

all

usage.

Anab. 1

8,

They struck with

acnriai
spears.^ rdt^

irpo^;

the shields

ra Bopara

upon

iSovTrrjcrav

the

tliey

did not wish to do anything to the spears, but to

call

forth a sound from them, to frighten the enemies'


little farther on we read, Cyrus saw the
horses.

king (Kadopa) and rushed tipon him, lero eV avrov.


It need not be said that irpo^ could not be used to
describe this action.

upon a bell with a hammer to mark


is eVt; if he
it, the word for %ipon
to call forth its tone, the word for

If one strikes
it,

or to break

strikes

ujyon

upon

is

99.

built

it

Trpo?.

In

New

upon

Testament (Matt. 7 : 21), of the


the rock, eVl Tr]v rrerpav, we read

house

"the

winds blew and beat upon that house,^^ irpoa-eTreo-ov


the point being to mark what resistT7) oUla eKeivj]
therefore tt/jo?,
ance the house made to the assault

not eVt.

Xen. Oecon. 7

God, methinks, has prepared the nature of woman /b^' works and cares within doors, iirl epya koL eVi/ieXT^/zara for he made her
100.

23,

strong against cold and


koI OaXirrj
eVt introduces things to
The object of
things to be endured.

with a body and


heat, 7rpo9 piyr]

be done

7r/jo9,

sj)irit less

the passive recipient of the action


of 7r/3.09 is the door of the action.

eVt

is

101.

They encamped on

the sea-shore,

the object

near the

60

Greek Prepositions,

TJie

iirl

harbor^

rov acyiaXov

Trpo'i

tm

somewhere
indefinitely ujpon

on,

eV^ with gen.


dat. near.

with

7rpo<i

how

each of the prejiositions has its


special meaning, which cannot be expressed by
here

IS'ote

own

'EttI is primarily the servitor of gravita-

the other.
tion

Xtfjuevi

it

downward motion

pictures

Sec-

arrested.

ondarily, therefore, it serves all motions that are


natural in their place, and thus have an analogy to

downward motion.
the sea
stone

is

Now, an army marching toward

stopped at the shore as surely as a falling


stopped by the earth on which it strikes.

is

not carry this suggestion nor could eVt


11/909 could
The thing which moves on,
serve the turn of tt/jo?.
it cannot denote
till it strikes
not
does
eVl,
stop
;

merely near

In the expression

to.

" Behold I stand

at the door, eVt rrjv Ovpav, and knock," the preposition


and noun, along with the verb, does not of itself give
the picture of impact, but it is pregnant with that

notion, and the notion


words KOI Kpo6(o.

is

made

by the added

explicit

102. In the implied converse of two persons, sugby 7rpo9, we observe that there is no impact,

gested
nor contact

the parties introduced by

are only
near to each other ; hence this preposition comes to
express the idea of nearness ; Trpo? r^ y^ vavfia'xelv,
;

tt/jo?

the ships fought near the land (Thuc. 7 34).


:

however, Xenophon says (Hell. 4


Xdrrrj TToXet?, he does not mean
but on

t/ie

sea

why

When,

8, 1),

at

cities

near the

irpo^;

then did he not use eVl ?

6a\sea,

Be-

and

'EttI

61

Trpb^ in Composition.

cause the cities did not act on the sea, but received
the reciprocal action is
sea their supplies

from the

the leading idea.


103.
observe again that, in the implied converse suggested by tt/jo?, the parties are thought of as

We

on equal terms.

They

are in the relation, then, that

prepares them

to be counted, or added ;
not fractions
in
must
all
the
world
be
but
only,
things
brought to

common denominator

or added.
its

own

before they can be counted


preposition 7r/309, therefore, carries in

The

right the

meaning

hesides,

in addition

to /

an idea which no other preposition properly has or


can have, not even eVt, whatever the Lexicons may
That which is on {eirl) something is not in the
say.
same plane witii it in thought, any more than it is in
See note at j)age 130.
space.

CHAPTER
eVt
104.

AND

''^irk')(ei

7r/309

tc tlm, to

IX.

IN COMPOSITION.

hold something upon some-

thing as, the hand on the sword-hilt, rrjv %ei/>a KcoTrr}.


He holds it there to draw the sword, therefore iirl

with the sword drawn, he holds his fingers to


the edge to test its keenness, the preposition for to
would be 7rp6<i. The holding may be in the way of
this will put the second
restraint
object in the Genibut

if,

The Greek

62
tive, iire'^eiv

rov

cease

Bpofjuov, to

hold on, that

erally, to

Prepositions.

is,

from

running^

lit-

on the ground where you

now pass to 7r/3ocre%eti/.


Persians beseiged Barca nine months, mining
wise man
underground, as well as fighting above.
Let us

are.

The

work

discovered their secret

in this

way

He

laid a

hrazen shield on the ground, 'Kpoaka'^e acnrlBa irpof


TO hdirehov (Hdt. 4 200), and applied his ear; wherever
there was digging going on underneath, he would perceive it by the murmur of the shield. Here is no
:

suggestion of power from the man to the ground, but


rather the other way he waited for something to

come from the ground through the


therefore

irpoae.'xeiv,

not

shield to

him

eire'xeiv.

We

can apply the hand to the door to open


can apply the ear to the door to listen ; in the
one case the verb is iTrexeiv, in the other, it is Trpoa105.

it,

we

The physician puts

e')(eiv.

his

hand upon an artery

to stop the circulation, iirexec rrjv %et/3a

pidse,
106. Hdt. 1

or, to feel tJie

TT/Jocre^et rr]v %et|9a.


:

53, Croesus sent gifts to the shrine,

and thei'eupon asked for a response, iTreLpayra eVt


points to the ground on which he asked namely, the
gifts he had sent.

107. Socrates being asked, e/jwrw/^ei/o?, said, etc.,


asJced further, Trpoaepco/jievo';, he replied

and ieing

(Mem.

tion, rjv
[i7i

if],

3, 9).

Jf

shall need

any more

instruc-

re nrpoaBeo/jiai, my grandfather will teach me


iirihiha^ei, (Xen. Cyri. 1
3), eVt refers to the
:

'EttI

and

irpo^ in Composition.

more

need, as the basis or ground of having

63
instruc-

tion.

Zeus bethought him, fxptja-aro, of Aegisthus, whom


Orestes slew; and thinking of him, i7rifiv7]a6el<;, he
when the verb is used the second time, it
said
.

takes on

iirl

this

shows what

that Zeus was thinking of

it

was

in

namely, how heAegisthus


had been

When the verb was used the first time, that


had not been mentioned, therefore iirl would
have been unintelligible to omit it in the second instance would render the phrase vapid it would show
that the poet had lost himself, and could not follow
slain.

fact

own thought.
108. 'EttI sometimes looks forward to a phrase
immediately followiug that justifies and requires its

up

his

Xen. Conviv. 4 4, All states inquire of the


what
gods
they must do, lirepdHTOicxi rov^ 6eov<i tl xph
iroLGiv
iirl points forward to tl xpv '^oietv as determining the matter on which they inquire. This will
be made clear if we change the form of the sentence
without altering the sense, thus: we do not know
what we must do let us inquire of the gods, eirepaHere the iirl plainly looks back to
ra)fjLv T0U9 6eov<i.
the ignorance expressed in the words just before, as
use.

the basis of the inquiry ; just as plainly does it look


forward in the phrase in its first form. Again (Xen.
Mem. 1 5), Zet us consider, whether he helped them
:

any towards
y^difieOa, ei

this

hy discoursing as follows,

Trpovfil/Sa^e

Xiycov

ic<i

iyna-Ke-

tuvttjv TocuSe',

64

The Greek Prepositions.


points forward to the matter tliey were to con-

iirl

sider.

109. Again (Xen. Mem. 2 1, 7), Since you know


the proper rank of each of these classes, have you ever
considered this, ^St^ ttot' eVeo-AreT/rw, eU irorepav, etc.,
:

which of these

into
self

'Etti points

classes

you might fitly place yourforward to the thought in the fol-

lowing phrase just as the word this in the translation


looks forward to the phrase w^hich follows, and serves,
therefore, in thought, to connect the two parts of the
;

sentence

eVl does for the Greek

mind

just

what

this

Does any one


neatly for the English mind.
think that this is forced and fanciful a queer sort of
does

less

^to make a preposition just equal to a prothat


sometimes one may be substituted for
so
noun,
the other? If one thinks so, he is more particular

equation

than the Greeks themselves, for they did this very

Head

thing.

TovTo

again

(Mem.

2, 10),

Then,

o-ycei/rw/ie^a, irorepoL.

if

BouXa
you

ovv koI

will, let

us

consider this, whether, etc. Here we have the equation before us, drawn from the same page aKe'y^aaOat
:

TOVTO

= i'TnaKe'^acrOat eh iroTepav.
TTOTcpoc

Heb. 12

.
Tt9 va-Tepwv
,
exact
form
of
the
the

15, iirlaKOTrovvTe'i

/jlij

looking (eVt) to it. This


thought in the Greek, eVt looks forward to what
the next phrase.'
is

It

is

in

"
"
does not follow that looking to it is the best possible transphrase to it has lost cast a little has become too

lation, for the bit of

colloquial for the seriousness

and dignity of

this place.

Not every

and

'EttI

65

Trpo^ in Composition.

So in II. 2 198, ov i^evpoL ^omvtu, eVt looks to


the action expressed by /Socovra as its basis. He did
not go about aimless till by chance he met some one
:

brawling; but he heard a brawling

went for

and then

first,

eVt fixes the perspective of the picture.


;
Cyri. Inst. 1 3, 'E7reA,e\7;cr^e TravrdTraa-c, av re orl
it

aXkot orl av

l3aaL\v<; r]a6a, oire

You had

ap'x^cov.

forgotten yourselves altogether thou^ that thou wast


'EttI in
king, and they, that thou wast their ruler.
the verb looks forward to what

is

stated afterwards

namely, their difference of rank. This they ought


not to have forgotten the fact of self-f orgetfulness
was not general, but limited to one particular thing,
;

and eVt points

to that.

110. Socrates says, in opening his defense I know


not, Athenians, how you were affected by my ac:

cusers
here,

but, for

part, I almost /br^o^


position
points to the fact that Socrates

my

eTreXadofirjv, iirl

was there

to

translation that
literal

my

answer for his


is

the most literal

may have gathered

life.

is

That

fact

was in

therefore the best.

associations by use that unfit

it

all

The most
for the ser-

messenger stained and soiled by hard travel,


We cannot counterweigh a Greeli word
or phrase by an English word or phrase, and call that translation, because it is literal. The Greek must first be dissolved in the alembic
of thought, and that thought then cast into the best form which the
vice required

and so

like a

unfit for presentation.

English allows.

mon

So, in the instance above, of iirt<TKoirovvTfs, the

version, looking diligently,

may be thought

less the revisors' looking carefully

does not properly

mean

com-

the best possible, un-

be thought better, though the Greek

either dilligently or carefully.

The Greek Prepositions.

66

made the forgetfuhiess of it notein


worthy.
translating, almost forgot myself
say
*
is inadequate ;
to say scarcely recognized myself is
"
worse, for it amounts only to saying,
they did not
"
and it misses entirely
draw a true picture of me
minds, and that

To

humor and pathos.


111. Cyri. Inst. 1 4, And Cyrus learned readily
all that had been taught him (about rough ground) ;

the characteristic

but when he saw the deer he rushed forward, lirCkaOo^evo^ Trdvra, forgetting everything about it / eirl
refers to tlie cautions he had received about rough

ground

it

does for the Greek mind just what

is

done

for the English mind by the added words ahout it.


One is the English way, the other the Greek way of

doing the same thing (Od. 19 13). I have laid up


the weapons, lest when heated with wine you quarrel,
and shame the feast, for iron itself draws a man
:

thereto, e^eXtcerai.

112.
fell,

When

struck

by

Kebriones, the charioteer of Hector,


from Patroclus (II. 16 TT5), he

a stone

lay stretched at his length, all his skill forgotten,


it was the
\ekaafi-evo<i iTnrocrvvdwv
forgetfulness of
death his work done, aU ties sundered, all side issues

brought to an end

hence

The English mind raay be

the simple verb.

satisfied to say

But

in

forgot myself (so trained

by habit is it at supplying deficiences) and perhaps this is the best


we can do in English but the Greek does more it supplies by eVl the
;

limitation which the English phrase leaves the reader to supply with-

out saying

it.

'Etti

and

7rpo<i

in

67

Composition.

''
Lucian's Dial.,
Aphrodite and Eros," Helios is comas
i-TnXeXrja-fjievov rf}? l7nraaia<;, forgetting
plained of
as charioteer ; it was a forgetting of somehis

duty

hence eVl pointthing he was bound to remember


he forgot himin
which
ing to the particular thing
self.

assursuggest what is gracious and


and
nodded
ins-.
II. 1 528, The son of Kronos spake,
he nodded in confirmation
his dark brow, iirevevae

113. 'EttI

may

had just been given. Observe, that


this was the famous nod where all Olympus was
shaken token of irreversible decree, whose proper
of his

word

that

word

is

Kuraveueiv.

Why then

not Kuravevecv here ?

Because that went without saying

and

settled that the nod,

when

it

had been

said

given, should be of

If then we may throw off /cara, why not


that sort.
throw off eVi, using the simple evevcre ? Because that
would leave the word afloat, and all it signified. 'Etti

web of the story, showing its


what goes before. An ancient critic
has said that Homer was sometimes drowsy, and
nodded. However that may be, he certainly was not
drowsy here he said just what he meant.
The gay woman who came to Hercules iu his

knits the act into the


relation with

doubts (Mem. 2

1, 22), as

she approached him, xara-

surveyed herself Kara


she
felt when looking at
the
perfect repose
denoting
et
Be
koX
dWo^ aurrjv Oedrai,
Tt9
iiriaKOTrelv
herself ;
(TKOTTelaOai Oa/xa eavrriv, often

and she often looked

also to see if

any other was ob-

The Greek Prepositions.

68
serving her

eVt

looks

forward to the following

phrase, as expressing the thing she was looking for.


114. To asJc, heg, ahelv, to demand, that is, to

ask on the basis of some ground or reason that justithe asking, eTrairelu.
Oed. Tyr. 14 16, a)v eVat-

fies

the
Tet9, eVl refers to the ground of the demand
23
extreme
need.
et
Kev
dWo
II.
593,
fiel^ov
king's
:

If

i7raiT7]aeia<;.

you should even ask another, greater

thing eVt, to satisfy your just claims. UpocratTetv,


to ask in addition (Anab. 1 3, 21).
The soldiers
asked for an increase of jpay.^
:

115. 'ETra/coyeti^, to hear, not

ahout something,

which would be uKovetv irepC Ttvo<;, nor from some


one, which would be aKouecv aTro, e'/c, irapd tcvo<;',
but to hear, on the ground of some fact with which
the hearing has a natural connection.
Hdt. 2 70,
The crocodile hearing the noise (of the squealing pig)
makes for the noise, but coming across the bait he
:

swallows

down, and they haul him

it

In Liddel and Scott's Lexicon there

'

compounds

is

in

hearing

attributed to each of these

(eVaiT^o-etos misprinted airaiT^iireias) a

meaning that be-

longs to the other as if they had crossed traclis, and each was doing
duty in the other's field. The passages referred to in illustration dis;

prove the definition offered. II. 23 593, Xen. Vict. 4 39, In no case
does nphs denote "for a purpose"; in no case does ^ir2 denote simply
:

"

it is a cheap device of translameeting an acknowledged difficulty, but is not an


In II. 23 593, eirl means for your
accurate picture of the thought.
satisfaction ; but this phrase is too heavy to be admitted in transla-

more, besides."

If ever so rendered,

tion, as a resource in

tion

we must

think

it

without saying

it.

'EttI

I'jraKovaa'i

and

why eVt

'7rpo<;

69

in Composition.

Because the hearing was in a

natural relation with another fact stated just before ;


namely, that they belabored the pig, and made him

Xen. Hist. Graec. 3:4,

squeal.

and hearing

TovTo,

1,

irpoaaKovaa'i he koX
in addition to

this also hesides

other things mentioned before.


116. And, even as he spake, /br^A flew, eTrkirraTO,
on the right a bird of mighty wing, and the host of

the Achaians shouted thereat, hriayov (II. 13 821822).


"Why not hTTaro% Because the flying forth
of the eagle was thought of as in response to
based
:

upon ^what had gone before.

Why

not laxov

Be-

cause the shout was called forth by the omen, as

based upon

it.

117. 'ETTtSety, to bind


fixed object, which

ample,

to

hind

\6(pov<i iiriBecv

if

upon not, however, to a


would require KaTa but, for ex-

crests

(Hdt. 1

on the helmets,
:

eirl

to,

Kpdvea

171).

Upo^Beiv, to hind loosely, leaving distance between


the objects connected, as the bait to the fishing-pole
by the intervening line ; the flail to its staff, by the
slack, flexible

all

The

thong (Hdt.).

made his prayer to the king then


the Achaians shouted approval, eTrev^rjixr^a-av (II.
the preposition points to what it was that
22)
118.

priest

called forth the shout

a shout, and at the same time

a seconding of the prayer ; it knits the phrases, otherwise disjointed, into an organic unity of thought.
119.

To

say, Xiyetv

iTriXeyeiv, to say

on the

basis

The Greek Prepositions.

70

some fact that invites tlie saying. Cyrus would


send a gift to a friend, instructing the bearer to say
in explanation, eirCker^eiv (Anab. 1 9). Also (Cyri.
Instit. 1
iinXiyav to, iKao-ra), saijing to each one

of

3),

eVt, in explanation.

120. Socrates

"

says

to

Glaucon (Mem. 3:6,

5)

liave doubtless examined, eatce'^ai, the public


Indeed, said Glaucon,
resources, in order that," etc.
in
that
them
have not examined
light, ovk iiriaKefi-

You

the particular limitation Socrates


"
had set to the examination by the phrase in order

fjuaiiirl refers to

that," etc.

121. ''n?

(}>aTO

HdrpoKko^

Se

(ptka

eireireiOeO''

Thus he spoke ; and FatroGlus obeyed his


dear friend's word ; more fully, obeyed his dear
friend in it in the matter eVt referring to what
eralpcp.

had been
of you,

said.

whom,

^N'ew Testament,
if his

stone, \iQov iinScoa-eL avrcp

his asking.
122. II. 1

What man

is

there

son ask bread, will he give


;

ivill

give him,

him

iirl,

for

569, Zeus uttered his threat, and Hera


feared, hending her heart to his will, eiri'yvdfji-y^raa-a
(fjiXov KYjp.

Compare

dvaryvd/xTrrebv (Sec. 28).

" would
Anab. Y 4, 9, And Seuthes asked, '^pero
"
Then,
you even be willing to die for this one ?
after an answer had been given, we read iTVTjpero 6
asked thereupon. This would usually
"tevd-qq, Seuthes
:

be translated, Seuthes asked further, as if eVl here


denoted simply the addition of a second question

and

'EttI

7r/)09

this is not tlie tliouglit

ond question
the

made

is

the

which are co-ordinate


not

is

is

that the sec-

on the basis of the answer to

that

may be excusable to translate


but that

thought

never suggests the addition of things

'E-TTt

first.

71

ni Composition.

strict

of a smoother phrase.
123. Menelaus in

him

springing iipon

it is

fight

is

the office of

It

mr]p&To by asked further,


a concession for the sake

with Paris

(eVal'fa?),

(II.

369),

caught him by his

and turning around

horse-hair crest,

tt/jo?.

{iTrio-Tpiylra^;),

be-

among the well-greaved Achaians.


gan
In the first participle eVt looks to the object of the
action (Eng. upon) in the second it means more disit turning round ;
tantly the same ; we translate
to drag

him

in

literally it

means tmming

so as to face those to

e.,

turning toward,

he was about to drag his

Farther on in the same story,

victim.

met

i.

ujjon,

whom

when

the hel-

the helmet was free in his


strap had broken and

hand, Menelaus,

a throw, slung

eirLhivrjaa^;,

it

sivingmg

away among

it

around for

the Achaians.

Let us

in another
drop the eVl, and find the simple Zuvelv
Od. 9 384, when Odysseus and his party had
place.
:

do with the Cyclops Polyphemus, he says (Odys.


9 382) My companions, taking up the burning stake
thrust it into his eye, and I, standing above, turned

to

it

here the verb denotes the main acBut look forward in the same
simple.

about, eUveov

tion,

and

is

swinging

when

the Cyclops took


around, iirihivi'iaa^ eVt

story (v. 538),


it

up a huge stone,
for the throw.

The Greek Prepositions.

T2

We

124.

read in Herodotus that a smith, in dig-

many feet below tlie ground, came upon,


a coffin, iirervxe aopu). Had he found water, that
would have called for the verb Karervx^v, for elsewhere Herodotus tells us of a physician, who, after

ging a well

trying many medicines on his patient, at last hit on


1
the right thing, and effected a cure, Karervxev.

came upon hy chance,


to

iirervxpu

something happened

me, Trpoaervx^v.
125. AeiKvvvat, to show, 2^oint out an object ; eVti.
e., having the object already in

hetKvvvai, to exhibit,

view, to proceed and point out

explain a machine, an invention.


It shows what there
eVtSei^t?.

an

as to
qualities
Such a showing is

its

is

in or belonging

to a thing.

126. 'E<pLevai, to send upon, or against, or on the


some fact that justifies the sending. The

basis of

simple verb levat takes two objects an accusative


II. 18
a dative.
182, rt? f^dp ere Oewv ifxot ayye-

and
Xoz/

mef

rj/cev,

Who of

Therefore

you as messenger to
compounded with levai, has

the gods sent


eVl,

do than govern the dative case of


Let us see (II. 24 117), 70) Upidficp iiprjo-oo,
a person.
I will sent Iris to Priam, eVt, on this matter the
something

else to

matter being the condition of the slain Hector's body,


and the restoration of it to his friends. The matter

which eVt refers is found in what precedes it and


connects the actor in his precedent state with the

to

action which follows.

'EttI

and

allow

to

IIpoo-Levac,

73

irpb^ in Composition.
to co?ne, to

admit (Anab. 4

They did not admit

to the fire., ov irpoalea-av 7rpo<i


came late. They came as to a

55),

TO TTvp, those who


do something, but to receive hence
privilege, not to
To let or send dogs
iirl to irvp.
not
TO
irvp,
-^-1009

upon the game,

i(f)C6vai,,

for their instinct determines

their action, as gravity determines the motion of a


stone; to send one forth to battle, dviivac, for free
will acts,

and chance has scope, as in the throwing up

of a stone.

the honor to introduce,


to
the
king," to receive some7rpo<;d<yeiv, petitioners
do
not
to
the
from
anything to him.
king,
thing
Cyri. Inst.

1:3," Having

'ETrdjeiv, to bring upon,

implying force

Yesp.

yvddov, lay your jaios to it, that is, to the


But to bring one jaw to the other
it.
to
crush
food,
the
in shutting
mouth, Trpoadyetv, because the action
3Y0,

is

eira/ye

reciprocal

each jaw as

the same time acted on by


dile

moves

the %i]pper

it.

acts

on the other

Ildt. 2

68,

The

to the loiver, Tr)v dvoo

is

at

croco-

yvdOov

/caret).

irpoadryet Trj

Anab. 3

jaw

it

Xenophon riding up to Chirisophus,


the
two were equals, and met for disTTpoaekda-m
cussion
but see Sec. 71, where virekdaa^ suggests
subordination.
:

4,

127.

The

'E7rtTacrG'6iz^, TTpoaTdacrecv.
definitions of these words in the

Lexicon seem

very near alike indeed, they are both used to exThe proper
press the idea of injunction, command.

74

TJie

Greek Prepositions.

discrimination will be best

made

original suggestions of the

two prepositions

in the liglit of the

respectpresents its object as passive, making


no response to the action (Sec. 45) ; if the action,
therefore, be that of giving a command, eTtnaaauv
ively.

'Etti

imply that the person receiving the command


does not pause to consider whether he shall obey or
not he obeys, of course Tvpoaraaaew^ on the conwill

trary, implies that the person receiving the

command

responds by a free choice whether to obey or disobey. If a command is disobeyed, the word to express the giving of it is naturally Trpoardaaeiv, in
order to harmonize by anticipation the word with the

completed thought.
in Hdt. 1

See this distinction illustrated

114, 115, where both compounds are used

in describing how the boys played at choosing a king


where in the little mimic kingdom to give a com-

mand
the

be readily accepted
if one is recusant
but
Trpoo-Tdao-eiv;
takes towards him a sharper tone it is

in the faith that it will

and obeyed

is

command

iTTiTaaaeLv.

See also Xen. Occ, 7

7,

When God

has

enjoined, eirera^ev, the harder, out-door life on men,


and has allotted, Trpoaera^ev, the easier, in-door life

women

former the hard service would


be avoided, if it might be while the latter, from its
milder conditions, invites and obtains the response of
to

as if the

a willing acceptance.

75

Ilapd.

CHAPTER

X.

Trapd.

128.

Uapd,

ly, heside, is

used with

tlie

Gen., the

With the Genitive, meaning from


Dat., or the Ace.
his side,
beside, drawing his sword, Trapd jxT^pov^from
from beside his thigh ; with the Dat., denotliterally,

were playing, irapd prjyfMivc


ing situation beside they
with the Ace, desea-shore
the
beside
6a\daa7]'i,
;

they seated themselves heside


MeviXaov.
Menelaus, irapd
shall best grasp the meaning of this prep129.
osition if we think of its use in the sphere of living

noting to the side of

We

is forward, and who


beings, wdiose natural movement
have a right side, and a left. Two persons walking
Reside each other make the situation that invites the

use of this preposition ; Gorgias 473, C, Let us compare our views together, Trap dWrjXovi, and see whether.

The
side

picture

by

is

that of

two persons moving forward

side, to reach, if possible,

common

conclusion.

He
him,
irapd

went, Trapd ^aaiXea, to the king, so as to be by


subject to his orders : he came from the Tcing,
^aatXeca, bearing his orders, responsible to him ;

It
Trapd XaxppovLaKro, with Sophrotiiscus.
that
does not admit the idea of hostility like eVt nor

he

lives,

The
of mutual converse between equals, like tt/jo?.
the preposition
parties are unequal, and the object of
is naturally the superior of the two, as it should be.

7Q

TJie

for

is fitting

it

and the

place,

Greek Prepositions.

that the superior should abide in his


inferior should

go and come; even

Sophroniscus, the householder, has in that fact a mark


of superiority over him who transiently is found at his
house.

suggestion of superiority does not come


prejDOsition, but resides in the nature of the

The

from the

Sometimes the object


two things introduced.
Men compared with other creatures, irapa aXKa ^wa,
The primitive way
are as gods compared with men.
each
other
is by placing
of comjDaring things with
them side by side. This mode of comparison is sug-

tilings or persons introduced.


of irapa is the inferior of the

'^o one surpassed Zopyrus


gested in Hdt. 3 160.
in the estimation of Darius, Trapa Aape/w Kptrfj, i. e.,
standing beside Darius as judge. This does not mean,
:

Lexicon implies, that the judge is acting offibut only as every man is a judge of his fellow
cially
man when he forms and holds an opinion about him.
as the

This essential relation of the parties or things underlies all the uses
and shows with what modifications
;

the so-called English equivalents must be taken.


130. The word against, admitted in the Lexicon
as a translation of irapa, should be strictly

guarded

Trapa does not mean against in the sense of hostility,


but as aside from the normal rule of action the opaccording to the truce, Kara Ta<;
posite of Kara

(Tirovha'^

where the
is

Trapa

Ta<;

o-7r6vBa<i,

contrary

to the

truce,

actor, forsaking the proper line of conduct,


like a car off the track.

Uapa

CHAPTER
irapa

77

in Composition.

est

XI.

composition.

131. There was beside the Euphrates a narrow


passage {irapo^oi) between the river and the ditch.
This passage Cjrus and his army passed through^
iraprikOe (Anab. 1 7, 16, 17).
Hdt. 8 15, The Greeks at Thermopylae exhorted
one another not to let the harharians pass hy them
:

into Greece, irapeKoXevovro

'EkXdSa

Traptjcrovai e? rrjv

0Ka)<; /xr]

roi)^ ^ap/3dpov<i.

132. Socrates says to his judges (ApoL 1), If,


Athenians, you shall hear me, in my defence, using
the very same manner of address I have been wont
to use

and

with the multitude, I pray you

let it jpass,

irapUaOai.

the

command

resign
2

let

Anab.

me

to

indulge me,

7, 10, irapi'qixi, 1
Hdt.
to another.
:

go hy
dragged along tip the stream
ravra ra 7r\oia ava tov iroraixov

96, These rafts are

iy those on shore,

the shore.
irapeKKerai iic yfj<i irapa, along beside
133. l>Kv^ denotes the equipments needed in cara
rying on a business, whether in a shop, a kitchen,
such
make
or
furnish
or a camp aKevd^eiv is to
ship,

equipment; KaraaKevd^etv is to furnish what is esAn


to organize completely.
sential and permanent
are
which
of
army KaTaa-Kva(TT6<i is one, all the parts

armed, equipped, officered, and trained, ready for


This forms the KaraaKevrj. But, if an army
service.

The Greek

78
is

to take tbe field,

Prepositions.

more

is

necessary

stores of pro-

visions, wagons, and beasts of burden, guides, scouts,


These are to go along^ irapd, as the
foragers, etc.
and an
all forms the irapaa-Kevrj
This
moves.
army
;

ai-my thus furnished


(JKevrj is

is

essential to the complete

OP shop, and

is

The Kara-

'wapaaKevaaTo^.

permanent

army, ship, house,


is change-

the irapaaKevr)

able and temporary.

the work of the bridges had leen


its
completed, Karea-KevacTro, the army equipped for
The
work
on
the
set forth.
march,

when

]^ow,

all

irapea-Kevaa/xivo'?,

the equipment was


hence KareaK
irapeaK.
134. These words lend themselves to moral uses ;

bridge was for permanent use

only for

its

present march

and there is a beautiful illustration of the distinction


noted above in Mem. 1 3. Xenophon tells us that
Socrates, when tempted to this vice, and that, was
:

prepared, irapeaKevaap.evo'i, to resist the loving dishe groups all the vices
ciple then wishes to say more
his
and
that
master
was KaTeaKeuaafietogether,
says
;

vo<i

them

against

all.

The

TrapaaKevrj

had become a

the good resolutions which a less stable


Karaa-Kevrj
soul might summon, as to an exigency, to meet each
temptation as it came, had become habit and a second
;

nature

so serenely settled that temptations could not

impress

it

the temporary equipment had become a

part of the man himself.


135. Xen. Oecon. 7

aKevaaev)

the nature of

7,

God has prepared {irapewoman for works within

Hapa
doors

for

lie

79

in Composition.

has constituted her {KareaKevaaev) less


That woman should

able to endure cold and heat.

work within doors


that she

is

not a necessity, but a convenstrong to bear hard labor, and

ience

cold,

and heat, belongs to her nature, and cannot be

is

less

changed.
wall eoitends along either hank of the river,
Trapa '^(eTX.o'i eKarepov rov irorap.ov ai/jLacnr) irapaTeivei

Here the preposition is repeated.


180).
western
near
the
shore of this sea the Caucasus
Along
1

(Hdt.

runs /

TO,

7rpo9

rr]v

t^? Odkdaarj'i

eaTreprjv (pipovra

TavTr]<; 6 Kay/cacro? TrapareiveL (Ildt. 1

In

203).

this

example irapa governs the Ace. ra (Jiepovra, denoting


the country along which the mountain chain runs.
136. Sometimes the writer omits this obiect, leavit

ing

The

to

be supplied by the thought.

Anab.

7,

15,

had

been extended (TrapeTeraro, stretched


the
Here
plain for twelve parasangs.
along) through
the preposition is retained, although the writer has
canal

no occasion for naming the objects alongside of which,


or by which, the canal ran.
137. Mem. 1 17, 1, l^o wonder that they misjudged, iraparfvoivai judged aside from the truth,
:

men who

like

138.

lost their

The verb

way.

alveiv

means

to

praise j irraiveiv,
]^ow, the same feeling
that prompts to the praise of an action after it is done
would lead to the encouragement of it while it is doto praise for

ing

something done.

Trapaiveov, therefore,

means

to

encourage, to ap-

80

The Greek Prepositions.

prove a proposed course of action (Xen. Anab. 6 T)


'Kapa places the one who approves by the side of
:

the actor.

Thus the discrimination

of these two verbs has

in the

meaning

root in the prepositions


respectively, as designations of space.
its

CHAPTEE
AND

airo

XII.
e'/c.

''

hnro, off from


Ik., out from.
These words alike denote separation
therefore followed by one case invariably

139.

are

they
the
Geni-

Where

tive.

aivo is used, the things separated are in

their nature independent of each other ; the contiguity


or nearness before the separation is merely temporary,

or accidental, and, consequently, the thing separated


nothing by the separation; it remains whole,

loses

'Atto takes good care that its


as before.
detriment
no
receive
they are still kept in
subjects
mind. The book, the apple, the flower, taken off

and

as

from

good

{aTTo)

the table,

is

the same as before

not so

with ix ; water poured from a bowl, e/c ^LoXrjf;, cannot be gathered up coins dropped from a bowl, airb
be gathered up again.
<}iid\7]^, may
;

140. These examples

connection implied by

e/c

suggest that the previous


is more intimate than that

'Atto

implied by anro

and

81

'E/c.

as we might well

suppose from the

hints of space, since that which is in is more intimately connected than that which is merely near
or hy.
The relation suggested by e/c with Hviug
is

things

hand, eK

often dynamic, or
x^^P^'^

tlie

To

lead hy the
proceding con-

guiding power
II. 16
365, As

from the hand.

tinually

vital.

when

a cloud

comes from out the sacred air, didepo^i iic S/779 it


comes into being where nothing was before.
lil. My manner of life from my youth, i/c veorr]T09, which from the tirst, air /:>%>}9, know all the
Jews (Acts 26 4). Why eV in tlie first phrase, and
:

which he was now defending was a continuous growth


in the second

ttTTo

'E/c,

because Paul's character

out of his youth, as a tree from

its

root

while airb

serves simply to fix a date


and this is done
recollection of concurrent outward events.
112. Thuc. 2

among

15,

the Athenians

irdvv dpxp-Lov.

The

great change.

From

they have ever

this

in

commemoration

by the

This had been the way of living


from very early times, airo rov
reign of Theseus introduced a
this i^ eKelvov
growing out of

since observed a yearly festival


of their completed union.
Note

here, as in the case above, the difference in the prepositions


diro belongs to the mere skeleton of history

makes us

e'l

113.

Mem.

feel its pulse.

out of the earth,


that

7, 2,

e/c

We

ri}? 7759,

neither obtain anything


for our enemies control

nor from our houses, utto rwv oIklwv, for there

The Greek Prepositions.

82

a lack of people to rent

is

forth of herself, therefore

tlie earth brings


the houses do not.'

them;

e/c,

arm, e'/c tov ^pa-)^lovo<i eVeXKovaa the connection was not broken.
IM. Descent yVom fathers and near progenitors is
expressed bj eV, as if the descendants so near had
their life in their progenitors
but if the time be
long, the tie grows weaker to the imagination, in
tracing it upward, till at last it seems to break, and
we iind utto as if the far distant descendants had
become quite sundered, and no longer were originated
the

Leading from
;

in their ancestors

rom

rS>v Oecbv 76701/6x69,

immediately from,

e'^.

CHAPTER
aTTO

i^ avroiv
far descent, dirb, others

fiev airo Oecov, Tov<i 8'

some by

AND

CK

XIII.

COMPOSITION.

Trees fall, and so perish, iKirlTrrovaiv so


kings falling from their power from all that made
145.

'

In Liddell and Scott's Lexicon, lih ed., there


it may not be improper to note here.

'EK, which

is

a mistake in Art.

Page 428,

line 16:

"With

a part, to mark the point of time, <rwTaTT6To e/c twi/ ert


irpo<ri6vTa)v, the army arranged itself at, i. e., from the beginning of
their approach

Xen. An.

to the material of

army formed

which the

its line

8,

14."

line

out of those

halted, the rest, as they

'E/c

does not refer to time, but


The meaning is, the

was formed.

still marching up
i.
e., the front
marched up, formed in line with them.

'Atto

them kings
rights

for

and

'E/c in

citizens banished,

and so losing their

but an apple, ripe, and so falling,

its life

no more for

in the tree
it

nature

is

83

Composition.

completed

airoirLirrei,

the tree can do

testifies to this in

the weaken-

ing of the tree's hold on the apple, till gravitation is


the stronger, and the apple falls. But if a blossom
falls from its stalk and perishes, or if green fruit is
off, thus losing the life it was at the time havin
the tree, the verb is eWtTTTety ; the flower
ing
thereoi yalleth, i^eireae (Epis. Ja. 1 11).

shaken

'

146.
to

pay

what was unjustly held,


an existing claim, and leaves

ATroBtSovaL, to restore

the

act settles

the parties free iKScBovac, to give out without a previous consideration, as a housewife might put out
;

from her loom to be dressed it is still hers, and


must be returned. In the following sentence both

cloth

compounds occur. Whoever agrees with me


will certainly put out {eKScoaei) his colt to be trained
first having come to an agreement how much he
will have to pay {aTroBovvai,) when the work is done
these

(Xen, Equest,, ch.


147.

To

2).

reach, 'iKvelaOaL

i^LKvecaOat, to reach im-

mediately, as with the hand, with a pole, a spear, an


arrow from a bow; by the power of sight, by the

power

of thought

culture, or training.

also to reach

by natural growth,
The emphasis throughout is on

the origin, as if the force at the start were sufficient


to achieve the end without stops for rest or reinforce-

ment.

The examples

are

frequent enough,

from

84

TJie

Homer down

Greek Prepositions.

but they

all lie in tlie line

A single one

here drawn.

is

of thought
as it
;

introduced here

is homely, and is
against
a fashion.
tells
us (De Equest., ch. 5),
Xenophon
" The colt's tail should
be let grow, that it may Teach

bespeaks kindness to animals,

as

far

brush

as possible,

oira><i

eVt irXela-rov

what annoys him."

off

i^LKvovfjbevo<;,

The word

also

to

means

reach with speed, as in flight, or in a race the


urgency allowing no time for rest, or thought for the
But on a journey or a march time
places passed by.
to

and distance

measured

the

intervene,
by
halting-places
the emphasis
on the starting-point fades to the imthe end of the
agination the
passes over
action
comdropped, and cmo lends
to

interest

itself to

is

e'/c

plete the verbal picture.

Of

hard-worked verb,
the
student
will not fail
of
the
Anabasis
dcpiKvetaOaL,
to find examples more than enough.

7:1,/

Cyri. Inst.

this

will lead the %oar song, Traiava

and do you

follow, vfxei<; 8e iipeTreaOe eVt,


the
thereupon
leading was at the leader's discretion
under no law but his own mind therefore e^.
i^dp^co,

148. JleipaaOaL, to try, dTroTreipaaOai, to try with


a desire that the person or thing tried may stand the
trial

so

(Hdt. 1

be placed in a

as to
:

46)

made

TOiv fjbavTrjtojv,

a sea fight

by

itself.

Croesus

of the oracles, dTreTrecpdro


to find one worthy of trust.

hoping

67) asked each one, trying him {clttoif he was in favor of


find
to
engaging in

Xerxes (Hdt. 8
rrreLpoofxevo'i),

class

trial

he did

this

hoping that each one would

'Atto

favor

and

Pausanias

it.

'E/ic

85

in Composition,

made

trial

of

the Greeks, aire-

if any would volunteer (Hdt. 9


TreLpuTO, to see
His hope was to find volunteers.

21).

149. 'EKTreipdcrdai, to tempt, to try with, the desire


that the thing or person tried may fail (Hdt. 2 135).
Are you tempting me to speak, iKTretpa Xejeiv (Oed.
own harm are you trying
Tyr. 360) to speak to
The aim and
self-control.
me
to push
beyond my
:

my

natural result with aTroTretpdadai is to approve what


is tried, and place it in a class by itself ; the aim and
to defeat or destroy what
diroTreipda-dai the rule and measure of

result with eKTretpdaOai

With

is tried.

the

trial are

prescribed

settled beforehand

it

is

with iKTreipdaOai nothing is


continue till every resource

may

was in the trier has been put forth in the trial.


you are challenged to break a stick, and answer the
challenge by trying your strength upon it, the verb is
if you try from a bundle of sticks to find
iicireLpdv

that
If

those that will bear a cross strain of a certain

number

of ]30unds, the verb is airoireipdv.


lawyer, before bringing his case before the

court, examines his witnesses, to find what they can


in the cross-examinasay, aTToireipaTai his opponent,
;

break them down, ifCTreLpdrac.


^EKTpiireadaL, to turn out, as one would do to

tion, tries to

avoid something in his path (Hdt. 1 10-1), dirorpeireadat, to turn aside as one would do to observe
:

something not

in his path.
150. LaKvvvai, to sJiow, point out, as one

would

The Greek Prepositions.

86

show a tiling, or point out a person^ to another; but


what is pointed out is known to no one else, the
verb is natiu-allj e'/cS- as to show feelings concealed
if

Oed. Col. 1021, If


before, to reveal hidden treasures.
you have his children here, show them to me, e'/cS-. But
the children were in sight along with others, but not
distinguished from the rest, and the command were
^oint out his children to me, the vei'b would be airoh-.
if

So, if the thing or person pointed out stands apart

something notable, and important, the verb is


They show an ancient temple, airoh-

as

airoheiKvvvaL.

(Hdt. 1

171).
Pointing out the sepulchres, aTroSas
LKvvvre<i,
proofs of their rights in the land (Thuc.
1 26).
This compound also means to appoint, thus
:

setting a

man

forth to public view under this


newly-

acqnired name.
151. vrj(7KeLv, to die j airoOvrjaKeiv, to die

away

from one's fellows, and his work eKOrjaKeiv., to expire,


to die by breathing out.
These characteristics may
be found where other prepositions than aTro or e'/c are
used with words expressive of death but some other
point, different from any of these, may be prominent
in the speaker's mind, and require to be accented in
the language so we have KaraOvrjaKeuv, eTnOvqaKeiv,
and others, compounds; in cases where these words
are used, the person dying breathes out his last ; and
is separated from his fellows / but some other point
is emphatic in the
thought, and controls the form of
;

the word.

and 'E

'Atto
^

152.

in

87

Composition.

KiroKTelveLvoi which

often

airodvi'ia-KeLv is

used as the passive may mean the separation of foes,


the bereavement of survivors in

tlie

loss of friends,

or the solution of the conflict between the guilty and


In the words of
the law which condemns them.

Andromache
mother,"

(II.

rjrot <yap

414),

irarep

"I have no

father,

aireKrave

d/juov

no dear

Slo<i A;j^tA,\ei;9,

mighty Achilles slew / the picture


is that of her bereavement
but, two lines after, the
same external act is mentioned again but it is not
now aTreKTuvev., but KareKravev and with good reason,
for the point of view has changed she is now think-

my father

Jhr

the

ing not of
moment

her bereavement, but of the scene at the


of the killing.
Achilles had conquered her

and might have spared him, if he would but,


with the choice before him, he relentlessly killed him.
No one can read these lines intelligently, and not see
father,

that to exchange the prejDOsitions here

the picture.
153. ^AvoTeXetv, eKreXecv.

would

spoil

The noun reXo? means

the peryection, completion of a thing


the highest
result
it
can
attain
action
the
;
permanent
through

which a thing
pressed

by

is

brought to

the verb reXeiv.

purpose when he carries

this perfection is exman completes his

it out in action
and every
thus
carried
out
invites the use of the verb
purpose
TeKhv but not till he has completed a work that
;

stands

him

off,

aloof

from other things, can he apply to


This word may be applied

the verb aTroreXecv.

The Greek Prepositions.

88

or

its

hand

bad

good to tlie ruin of a citj,


deliverance, where the end was proposed before-

to tilings

as well as

to small acts as well as great, if ending in some-

thing that may stand bj itself as the payment of


vows, the building of a house, the plowing of a field.

Hdt. 5 92, 7, Whatever Cypselus had left incomplete,


Periander com/pleted^ airerekee.
Hdt. 2 65, When
:

they liave made vows, they fulfill them^ (VKorekkovcn.


The distinction of a thing suggested by airh as if
it

were

set

apart from other things may spring from

its greatness may define it, as the


of
a
city wall, the liberation of a people.
building
The discovery of America is, for the imagination,
taken quite out from the series that make up the

its

very nature;

biography of Columbus, and set by itself, defined by


an epoch in the world's history
its own greatness
and we predicate diroreXeiv of the man who achieved

it.
Kind handling tnakes colts gentle, airorekeiv ;
puts them in a class (Xen. Equest.). Wise administration makes a city prosperous, diroreXeiv (Plato).^

'

In Liddell and Scott's Lexicon the phrase

(hZaifxova is translated

"

to

make

the state quite

tV

"fi^^i"

airoreXeiy

Tliis is

happyP

mere

The preposition a-nh here simply recognizes that happy states


groping.
are set off in thought in a class by themselves,
substantive, limited

by an adjective,

is,

to thought, just as valid a designation of class as

the substantive alone

only

the class

is

a narrower one.

To regard

giving intensive force to eh^aiixova in this phrase, is to miss a


plain and important point, and to confuse the student it disregards
the obvious meaning of the preposition, and attributes to it a meaning
atrh as

not found elsewhere.

'Atto

154.

and

Kow, what

'E: in

is

89

Composition.

It is to achieve a

iKrekelvl

of the actor's
thing out of the spontaneous promptings
own spirit or life ; not by command, nor by promise*
or outward obligation. II. 9 493, The Gods were
:

e'/c
suggests that
granting {i^ereXetov) to me no son,
their will was sovereign., Od. 3 275, Aegisthus, see:

ing that he had accom])lished, iKT\e(Ta<;, a great deed,


that is, his great crime, from his own wicked mind.
not say aTroreXeaa^ ? Because the act was in

Why

fulfillment of

end.

had

It

no law, or obligation, or acknowledged


form and measure solely in the spirit

its

of the doer.
II.

286,

The Achaians

ai^e 7iot

fulfilling, ovic

made.
The
eKreXiovatv, the promise which they
not
for
them
words are a taunt^'^against
making good
their boastful promise.
They were under no obliga-

make

to
tion, except to themselves,

it

good.

Had

there been such obligation, their failure would have


been
by ov/c airoreKiovaLv. See Hdt. 2 05,
:

expressed

The people

of the various cities

airorekeovaLV.

The vow,

evxv,

pay their vows,


made a public

on them, which they could not evade.

ment put

their act into a

known

discharged their obligation,


from their bond.

and

The

et-^a?

claim
fulfill-

class of actions

set

them

it

free (aTro)

155. In iK(f)6vyLv, e'/c emphasizes the initial point ;


while avro in airo^ev^eLv points to the end, when the
Anab. 1 49, aTroT7e^ev^6Te<i,
gets safe away.
:

fugitive

having fled for

safety.

Hdt. 1

25, Croesus

made

The Greek

90

Prepositions.

thank-offering for his recovery from sickness, i/c(f)vya)v


e'/c
TTjv vovaov
temporary, of course ; there is no
;

d7ro(f)vyr)

from

disease.

The guard
iK^uyrj

has an interest for his prisoner, firj


the prisoner has an interest for himself some-

what wider,
156.

To

cw? aTro^vyr].

lead rjyeladai.

We may say of a military

company which marches at the head of a procession,


But the leader may do more than march in

rjyetTai.

he may control and direct may determine


whether or not there shall be a procession or in what
Just so far as he
direction and how far it shall go.
front

does this his action


leading

mind

is
it

is

The
expressed by i^rjyelaOac
has no law or limit but in the

arbitrary,
of the leader ; hence this

to express military

command

word

(II.

is

806

naturally used
Hdt. 1 151).
;
:

But suppose we change a little the picture of the procession, and say, as if reading from a newspaper report It was determined to close the celebration by
and
services at the monument, one mile distant
Company C led the procession. Here the simple
it would express
verb riyeiadat will not be used
A new feature
truth, but not the truth wanted here.
has been added to the picture, and this demands
:

recognition.

Nor

will e^rjyelaOai

answer our turn

much, and at the same time not


It
would
imply that Company C controlled
enough.
the movement, which it never would do in such a
it

expresses too

case

and, further,

it

does not recognize the fact that

'Atto

the

and

movement has

'Eac in

91

Composition.

a limit and measure quite mdenamely, the monument. To

pendent of the actor

the preposition airo


recognize this objective point,
is
word
and
the
needed,
d(l>7}'yelcr6at.

is

15Y. These words also mean to narrate^ set forth.


Hdt. 2 115, Alexander gave a true account of his
he was asked
voyage^ to ifkoov aTriy^i'idaro but when
about Helen he was confused, and did not speak the
truth
whereupon those who had sailed with him
:

confuted his statements, telling out the whole story.,


the conceale'^ refers to
e^7]<yev^evoL irdvra 'Ko'yov

ment what was hidden becomes revealed.


same discrimination in these two

[Note the

compounds

in

Hdt.

2 121, 1, in the story of the cunningly-built treasurefather calling up his two sons set
The
house.
:

dying
he had always
forth to them., tovtokji dirrj'yrjaaTO, how
in
live
should
taken good care that they
plenty, then
all
about the
revealing to them, rovroiai i^'r]yTj(Td/j,evot,

movable stone in the wall

men

knew therefore

movable stone was a

his

dcprjy-

good care of them

all

the contrivance of a

known to him alone


Mem. 4 7, 6, Anaxagoras

secret

See also
took pride in the thought that he could explain,
the heavens as things
i^Tjiyeladai, the mechanism of
therefore i^vy--

known

to himself alone.

158. 'A7ro(f)aiviv, to show, declare something that


already exists, as one's settled opinion, yvoiixrjv (Hdt.
1

40),

one's property, oucriav


eKJ>aiveLv, to reveal
as truth concealed before (Hdt. 1 :

what was hidden,

The Greek Prepositions.

92
117)
5

also

^/voiix'qv,

if it

means a tidden purpose (Hdt.

36).

The judge

declares the

law to the jury,

airot^ai-

Tov vofiov; the jury maJce known their verdict,


eK<paLvei
kept secret till by the order of the court
vet

they reveal

it.

The judge

is

responsible to a higher

court, the jury are responsible only to their own sense


of right.
See Cyri. Inst. 1 2, ot he yepaLrepot clkov:

eKKplvovaiv and the elders, having heard the


case, give their decision / the elders formed the highest court
there was no review, nor appeal.
(TavTe<i

159. 'ETTt, on, and airo, off, seem far enough apart
alone ; but in composition the compound

when used

words are drawn together sometimes so near

as to in-

'

vite comparison.
A7roBi,S6vat, iTrthihovai ; airoreKelv,
and
others.
AiroBLSovai, to jpay, it diseTTLTeXeiv,
^

charges an indebtedness, and leaves the parties free,


airo, of each other.
160.
sides."

" To
iinhihovai the Lex. says
give beis wrong ; it is aside from the natural

On

This

suggestion of the preposition, and demonstrably wrong


judged by the examples referred to. II. 23 559, h
reXicrfxe KeKvei<; otKodev clXko ^v/jbr]\a) iinhovvai
:

aw.

If thou

reqidre&t

me

to give to

Eumeliis some

other thing out of my house, that will


do.
Here,
from the story, there is no place for the idea of lye-

besides what? Not the mare, for that was


reserved to be quarreled over afterward by Antilochus and Menelaus. It was a case of compromise.

sides ',

'Atto

He

and

'E/c

in

93

Composition.

to give to Eumelus not something hesides the


He did give someinstead of the mare.
but
mare,

was

Eumelus accepted the substitute, and was


mare was left, without a word more
The
satisfied.
Antilochus and Menesaid, to be disposed of between
translation
laus.
The admirable
by Lang, Leaf, and
thing else

missed
Myers, has followed the Lexicon, and therein
if
eVt
does
iirchovvai,
a point. What then does
mean,
not suggest the idea hesides, in addition to

It

means

for your satisfaction, on the hasis of your


Eumelus had claims. This is not said in
the text, but it is in every reader's mind eVt refers

to give

claims.

to those claims,

and thus keeps the pulse of thought

alive.

The same

161.

force of eVt

again seen in

is

eirat-

593, same book; if for your claims you


This word, and its
should demand, el eiranriaeia'i.
mistranslation in the Lexicon, has already been rer^aeia<;, v.

marked upon

in a note in Sec. 96.

It is respectfully

submitted that eVt never means

strictly hesides, in
so is always a concession to English phraseology (see Sec. 91).
162. 'ATToreXetf, to complete a thing, so that it is

addition

to ;

that to translate

it

itself (see Sec. 136)


thus, in the matone
a
of
ter
indispensable step is to
religious vow,
it
it
this
is incomplete
at
make the vow ;
hangs
stage

thought of by

on him who made


80 that

by

he

is

aTTOTeXelv.

free

it.

When

from

the

it {airo),

man

fulfills his

his act

'EircTeXeiu, to fulfill

is

vow,

expressed
an order or com-

The Greek

94

mand

Prepositiojis.

to complete not a whole thing, but a command


superior. The result is not a completed thing,

from a

but the satisfaction of the person commanding.


Hdt. 1 115, All the other boys did according
:

to

Thuc. 1 YO,
ray orders^ ra eirtraffao^ieva iTrereXeov.
The Athenians are quick to put in execution, eVtre:

Xiarat epyo),

whatever they j)urpose.

163. 'ATratrelv, to demand back what has been


taken from one, to demand pay (Anab. 1 2, 11). The
:

demanded
answer to this demand

their pay, anzryrovv rov fxiaOov.

soldiers

^^iraLTelv (Lex.),

seen.

It

means

is

to

by
wrong,

expressed

" to ask besides "

The

airohLhovau.

as

we have

ask on (eVl) the ground or basis of

something that justifies the asking also (Lex. again),


"
" to
beg as a mendicant (Soph. O. C. 1364). Here
the ingenuous student, meditating on this word of
three syllables, may be tempted to ask Where does
the "mendicant" come in; and what does eVt hon;

'EttI refers to something not spoken,


estly mean?
but sure to be in the hearer's mind, if he is awake,
and thus keeps the thought alive. In the line from
Soph. eVt means (to thought) on the hasis of his rags.

To make

us think of the asker's beggarly guise is the


It is
exact office of eVt here, and the whole of it.
had
that
the
because
beggar's guise in
speaker
just
in
eVt
that
he
his imagination
hoping that with
put

that help we should get it into our imaginations.


Is it quite necessary to
164. It may be asked
dwell so long and minutely on small words? Per:

'Atto

haps

we

and

'E/c in

miglit reply

It

95

Composition.

is

not quite necessary to


is but
it, it

we do study

study Greek at all, but


fair that we take pains and patience enough to understand it. If we cannot translate well into English
if

Greek contains, let us admire what we


cannot imitate and rejoice that we have in our hands
that the

all

many respects so superior


many respects, not at all superior.*
Mem. 2 1, K you wish to be beloved

a recorded language in

own

our

165.

friends^

to

in

any

city, vtto rtvo<;

rich

from

jiocks,

which any thing

hij

you wish to be honored hy


and if you aim to get
iroXeco^;
That under
amo ^ocrK'qixcuTwv.

vtto (^tkwv,

if

is acts

on that thing by gravitation

friends, in loving, act as naturally as stones fall ; so a


in bestowing honor ; but flocks, in making their
city,

owner
(aTTo),

'

rich,

do not act

not by them

As a

he

is

made

rich

from them

(utto).

single instance, the discriminations marlied

by

shall

and

with their tenses, have disciplined and served the thought of


English-speaking people, in regions where the Greek mind never

will,

entered.

The Greek

96

Prepositions.

CHAPTER
et9

166. 'Et9,

AND

XIV.
Iv.

9, into^ iv, in.

These two prepositions (originally one eV?) carryto a wide extent the same suggestion as in in the
Latin, in its two meanings of motion info, and posi'Et9 always governs the Accusative, iv al-

tion in.

ways the Dative. The opposite notion is expressed


by i/c. These contrasted notions in and out, into
and out of are linked together, each to its opposite,

We

may as well try


by a necessity of our thought.
to think of IS'orth without a South, of action without
reaction, as try to think one of these notions without
Each is significant only in the light of
the other each is valid to thought because the other

the other.

In these dythere ready to verify it if need be.


namics contrast is not less fruitful of suggestion than
is

One thought is ever


analogy, and is nearer at hand.
line
that
divides
the
two border lands ;
busy along
and written language is the note-book of the survey.
Every line we draw that includes something, does at
the same exclude everything else. Every assertion
made, in thought or words,

The Preposition
the names of all things
167.

is

et9,

a denial of

into,

by

opposite.

before

bounded in space.
boundary from with-

that are

It suggests the crossing of this

out, can-ying,

its

may be used

necessity, the idea of

motion before

*Et9

and

97

'Ez/,

room for motion after


The boundary may not he actual, but at
We look
the moment it must be real in our thought.
the crossiu*^, and, generally, of
crossing.

into space; space has no boundaries; but we think


a boundary, and so justify ourselves in using the

phrase.

All things have their boundaries time is bounded,


bounded so are our powers, and opportunities,

life is

our hopes and fears

everything, in short,

may be

thought of under this limitation ; and, wherever this


is done, the name of the thing, with eV? before it,

forms a rational phrase in the language and the


student will usually have the satisfaction of seeing it.
Let us not make
168. But let us not go too far.
our analysis and deduction our taskmasters rather
than our helpers and, when we cannot see our way,
let us accept the limitation of our ability, and make
;

the

toil

old coin,

of

memory supply

by heating,

when

the lack of insight.

worn smooth by ages of

it is

to give back

its

use,

An

may be made,

original figures, invisible

But we cannot always restore an old


and make it give back its exact impress

cold.

Greek phrase,
it was first struck in the mind's mint.

when

We

know, indeed, or may know, if we will think,


means one by one / and that ava, with ev
why
after
it, means nothing at all.
They are not
standing
in the dictionary because they serve no possible huKaff" v

man
end

In trying to think it, we find that the


provided for, and declared at the start which

thought.
is

The Greek Prepositions,

98

shows that ava is impertinent and out of place. But


through what different lines of thought the military
phrases et? reaaapa<;^ and eiri reaaapwi, come to mean
the same thing, J^our deej), is not so clear and the
result will not perhaps reward the labor of inquiring,
169. The notion most naturally accompanying that
;

of

entrance

made

is

room

that of

is

669 (into),

(this is

to

but the thought


ance of the motion of entrance)
is

true,

move

in after the

not declared, nor

is it

always

natural, partly as a continu;

but with

eV,

on the

no suggestion of motion, and the


naturally accompanying notion is that of confinement
and fixedness. These accompanying notions will have
their part to play in helping to the meanings of the
word. 'Etti rivt eivat, and ev tlvl eivat, each denotes
dependence but the latter a dependence more entire
contrary, there

is

as

the connection in space denoted by


and more fixed than that suggested by
eVt.
Cyrus the younger ivas dejpendent on his elder
this was a
hrother, rjv eVt toj dBeXcfxM Trpea^vrepw
human relation, temporal and external; but for what

and absolute
iv is closer

intimate, the divine with the


in them,
Testament, John 17 23),

is

more

that they
Kol av ev
170.

may
ifiol,

he

made

human (see New


and thotv in me,

perfect in one, ijoi iv

avTdi<;,

iva wcrt rereXecr/jiivoi et? ev.

inroad into a country by an army is exthe noun ka^oXr) ev with the same verbal

The

pressed by

a plug or stopper.
These examples show with what tenacity the primary

root gives

the noun

ifj,/3o\v<;,

and

'Et9

99

'Ey.

in space clings to the


suggestion of the prepositions
derivatives the first of the
their
and
compounds

above examples suggesting room for motion after


The second denotes a position fixed and
entering.

immovable.

With this

discrimination in mind,

for differences in the

we

find a reason

Greek which we cannot well

We

translation.
find, in deexpress in an English
tw
eV
for
evcovvfiw,
battle,
scribing an army arrayed
on the left, and tTrl rov evcovufiov, on the left; and

We must

perhaps we cannot improve


not on that account suppose the two forms are interLet us take a narrative where both
changeable.
the translation.

1 8), Iv Se t&J evwvvixw Apuilo^


phrases occur (Anab.
re KoX TO dWo ^ap/SapcKov, and on the left were
:

Ariaeus and the other harharian forces. Again, and


there were horsemen on the left of the enemy, kuI
tjaav wTTret? eVt rov evcovufiov roiv TroXefiloyv.

Observe,

these horsemen on the extreme left were a movable

body

they might

be sent here or there as the turns

of the battle should require ; but Ariaeus and his barbarian force were an integral part of the line of battle
fixed there, for his removal would have changed

the whole plan of the battle.


see 169.
171.

We

have seen,

in

On

eVt see 55, on iv

comparing

et<?

and

iv,

that

of motion, is suggestive, sece'i?, suggestive directly


freedom
to move without restraint
of
ondarily of room,

or obstacle

iv,

on the contrary, denoting position

100

TJie

Greek Prepositions.

merely, makes us think of something as confined, held


fast
possibly in contact or in conflict with that which

confines

it.

1Y2. In studying the following compounds of e'i?


and eV, we shall find distinctions of meaning which

they owe to these primary suggestions.


Ildt. 1 17, He sent in
"^fjb^aXkeLv, ela^dWeiv.
an invading aivny, ea-ejSaXe arparup. After entering they had room to march round and ravage

which they

did.

The

other Greeks iegan to hack water, aveKpovovro


in
passing the force of ava) ; but an Athenian
(note
captain starting forth attacked a s?dj), vrji i/x^dWet

(Hdt. 8

Here was impact,

81).

arrest of motion,

conflict,

The

173.

situation.
is

^peara,

and

object of elaj3a>Ckeiv

is
something that
and eh helps fit the word to the
To throw poison into the wells, eV ra

can act after

it is in,

elcr^uXKeLV, for the poison diffuses


it is in (Thuc. 2 48) ; but to

acts after

grain into the manger, eh rrjv ^(itvtjv,


the grain does not act after it is in.

ifi^dWeiv are

itself

throw

is i/j,/3aX\etv

The

objects of

lifeless things, or creatures in a passive

ifi/SdWeiv nva ttovtw, to throw one into the


to
sea,
^Efj,/3o\r}, as a nautical term, is the
perish.
the
beak
of a ship against the side of the
driving
relation

enemy's ship, where she can make no resistance but


an attack, prow to prow, is Trpoa/SoXt], for the ship
attacked can respond to the attack.
;

'Et9

and

101

'Ev.

1Y4. 'Efi^t^d^eiv, ela^i^d^eiv, to put


but e/i/3-, where the object of the verb

on board;
is

inert, or

to be carried
passive placed on board simply
of the verb

where the object


as seamen, to

to

is

etV/3-j

sent on board to act

man

the ship ; soldiers, to fight ; officers,


those on board ; iv suggesting confine-

command

ment, and ek a sphere for action. Anab. 5 3, 1,


They put on hoard, ive^i^aaav, the sick, and those
over forty years of age, and children and women, and
:

the baggage ; and sending on board, ela^c^daavrei;,


Philesius and Sophaenetus directed them to take charge

of

these, tovtcov

175.

mekevov

eiriixeketaOat.

Some compounds with

iv

and

e/c

are appar-

are
ently so nearly alike in meaning while yet they
is
them
of
a
that
different
comparison
distinctly

called for at this place.


latter, e/cSi/Xo?,

means

"E^St^Xo? and

The
known

6/^817X09.

clearly perceived, but not

from what
known
means
is around
through
evBrjko^
clearly
is more than clearly perceived, it is
perception; it
known by name. A dark speck is clearly seen in the
it is eKBrjXo^.
is
sky it is not known at once what it
After a little study the observer becomes sure what
then it is ev^7]\o<i. It
it is, and can give it a name
its home iii a class,
has, to the observer's mind, found
this it was only
before
its name
taken
has
and
iv,

by name

distinct in foiTO, color, or action,


it

something coming out


without a name.
116,

II.

of, iK,

the blank air to sight,

5:2, To Diomedes Athene gave might

The Greek

102

Prepositions.

and courage, that he might be conspicuous^ eKBrjXo'i,


among all the Argives. It was designed that he
should draw all eyes from others to himself, bj his
This is a
manifest superiority to them in action.
situation
what
situation that calls for c/cSt^Xo?.
ISTow,

Diomedes himself may serve


let him come forth
pre]3aration
on the plain amid the other Argives, and the Trojans
far off see him coming he draws all eyes to himself,
such might and courage does he show they do not
would

call for evSrjXo^

our turn, with a

little

know who he

is

he

is

but after a

eKSr]\,o<;;

little,

his horses, his armor, or something seen more


then he
clearly as he comes near, they see who he is

from

is evSrjXo^.

my window

I look out of
brilliant

and so peculiar that

and see a poppy so


draws my eye away
KBr)\o<;, and to me it

it

from every other poppy it is


is
only that, for I do not know
;

when
it

I shall learn

its

its

name through

specific

its specific

name;
marks,

will be evSrjXo';.

Soph. Antis. 405, ap" evhrfka koI aa^y) Xeyw

it

speak
only hear

and plain /

clear

my

Do

you not
other sounds

evBrjXa, so that

among
but you
I
what
mean.
know

voice distinct

which would be e/cSTyXa


177. Thuc. 4 132, To give some clear token of
steadfastness on the Athenian side, evSrjXov ri iroieLv
:

ToU 'AdrjvaioL<; ^6^at6Tr]To<; nrept. Observe, the first


word makes a call at the start for something definite
in the conclusion

the last words answer this call

'E49

and

103

'Ey,

scatter the thouglit, and leave the last


words without any business in the phrase.
in the eastern
178.
light appears in the evening
it
horizon ; it may be a rising star,
may be an artifieKBr]\o'i

would

cial light

it

is

eKcpavi]';,

and no more,

as

long as that

something which the


observer sees makes it certain which of the two posthen it becomes ifi^avq<i, for it has
sible things it is
a name. 'Ey and e'/c serve our thought just as clearly
here as they serve our senses when, on seeing someAfter a

doubt remains.

httle,

take it out of
thing shining in a colorless heap, we
the heap, and finding it to be a jewel, put it in a
box.
179.

Ta

in alto-rilkvo (Plato
eK^avr), figures

Con-

seen because standing


is, figures clearly
the stone. Could the
of
surface
the
from
out, e'/c,
these
on
used
be
word ificpavrj
Yery propfigures ?
viv.), that

not before ;
as soon as they are interpreted
to
the
forward
the iv looking
meaning ; e/c looking
erly,

back to the plane surface out

from which

the figures

sprung.

bearing these figures have


ruins, and so corroded by time
cannot be told at once what the

180. Let the stone

been found among


and chance that it
creatures they represent.
They
figures mean, or what
are still eK^avrj, as on the day they were cut
i/ccpavi)
and no more. Now, let some gifted genius discover
what the figures are, and what the whole means, and

they are

ifx(f>avr].

The Greek

104
4

II.

4:G8,

buckler as

lie

Prepositions.

" "Wliere his side was uncovered of Lis


"
him

down

bowed

181, Plat. Theact. 206,


ifxcpavrj iroLet hia

<f>(ovf}<i

uncovered^ i^e-

'O X6709

d.,

hcdvotav

ti]v

fxera prjiJbdrwv re koL ovofidrcov,

means of vocal
sounds with words and phrases. Sounds of an unknown language can be no more than eK^aveh to him
discourse snakes j>lain our thought iy

who

hears.

For a comparison of
Sec. 150).
182. ^^KheLKvvvat^ to
is

eKBetKPvvai with aTroS (see

show

to the senses, so that

the

perceived that was not perceived before;

object
the act communicates no knowledge,
the senses. Show his children to me,

it

only serves

e'/cS-

(Oed. Col,

The

sole object of the showing is that the


1021).
speaker may see them ; evheiKvvvai, to show to the
mind something more than is seen, as the name, character, or action.

II.

19

83, TirjXelhr) iycov ivSel^o/xat

/ will

show myself to Pelides ; will show my better


he may know me, hitherto he has misunthat
mind,
derstood me. " Do you see the man whom I point
" I see him.
" / will show
out f
you his name and
title."

The

first

verb

is

e'/cS-,

the second

evZ-] iv

is

puts the object in a category to the person addressed,


in which it was not before.
Cyri. Inst. 1 6, You
will be able to use more persuasive words in just the
:

degree that you can shoiv yourself, evheUvvaOai, able


to do

them good,

or do

them harm

the preposition

and

'Et9

105

'Ey.

h) places the object in the class of able ones


do good or to do harm.

The meanings

183.

of these two

able

to

compounds seem

nearly the same to undertake^ take in hand ; but


there is a difference not to be overlooked.
This

To take
suggested by the prepositions.
iiyxeLpelv, implies that the thing so
taken can be grasped and handled is under control.'
difference

is

a thing in hand,

The hand

is

the superioi\ the thing the inferim\ that


in its grasp.

may be moved by it, and may be held


With intxei'petv the picture is different
;

here

it is

the

hand that is pictured as movable, and the thing on


which it is put is thought of as stationary whether
it is
really movable or not is just the question to be
;

determined in the act expressed by eirvxeipsiv. It is


for just this kind of human experience, where
living
force comes against obstacles whose
ance, or character in other respects,

mined, that

calls for

power of
is

resist-

not yet deter-

such a verb as einx^tpelv to come

and play its part.


184. "We will now examine some
examples, and
see if they confirm the deductions from the
original
in

meanings of the prepositions.


'

The Lexicon strangely says

iyx^ip^lv., to

put one's hand in a thing.

This mistakes the figure. The thing is taken in hand into the hand
in order to manage and control it, and not the hand put into the thing.

whether

it

one puts his hand,

is

This

hand

last,

itself.

be

fire,

not the

or earth, or water, or a trap, into which


to affect the thing, but to affect the

way

The Greek Prepositions.

106

make a worthy
must he undertaken^
The proposed work was in the writer's
e'y')(eip'qTeov.
no one was more competent, therefore he could
line
do it the work was in his hand. Plato Apol. Soc,
Xen. Ages. 1

1, It is

not easy to

record of his praise, but yet

it

Tnust attemjpt^ Athenians, in the

little

time I have,

remove the bad opinion you have had of me so


long raust endeavor^ i'jri'X^eLpTjTeov his hand was upon

to

something that it might be beyond his strength to remove. Mem. 2 3, To win over my friend to care
for my affairs when I should be away from home, I
would endeavor to take an interest in his affairs when
he should be absent would endeavor to take an inthis he could certainly
terest., e'7%et/3ow/y iircfjieXelaOaL
:

the right preposition it makes the


suit the fact.
Thuc. 2 3, They resolved that

do, hence iv

word

is

should he made, iTn^eiprjrea it might not


In general we may say iy^etpsucceed, therefore iiri
elv is concerned in individual matters
eVt^eipety with
the attempt

wider and more important interests. This is in conformity with the primary suggestions of iv and evrl
respectively and the instances found in reading con;

Plat. Prol. 310, C, 'Ey6;^6t)c>7;cr<z


I
ae
tried
to
come to thee a thing naturally
levat,
Tvapd
within the actor's power ; any defeat or hindrance

firm the distinction.

would come not from the nature of the case, but from
some accidental cause hence iyX'Hdt. 2 158, Necos was the first who tried, eVefor a canal leading into the Red sea which
'Xelprjae,
;

'Et9

and

107

'Ei^.

Darius the Persian afterwards dug through, Stcopv^ev.


This was a large undertaking, carrying in its nature
the possibility of failure hence ein^-.
185. Tvyx^vetv, to hit, but as hitting is in a
degree
a matter of chance, the words come to mean to
hajypen
;

as

by chance

to fall ujpon,

hnTv^^Aveiv,

the relation suggested by eVt


sarily

making

is

meet with

transient, not neces-

change in either of the things brought

together; with ivrirfx^veiv the relation is closer; to


strike into a thing is more than to strike
upon it.

The

crocodile

swallows

it

coming upon,
down. Hdt. 2
:

ivTvxoyv, the bated hook


70. Cyrus used often to

send to his friends half emptied jars of wine, when


best, saying that had not now for
a long time come across, lirvrv^oi, sweeter wine than

he had some of the

this.
Anab. 1 9, 25, The crocodile must needs swallow the bated hook
with Cyrus drinking up the
or
ev^en
wine,
taking possession of it, was a matter for
:

his discretion

When

therefore eVruy^ai/ety

digging

/ came

kimv'^')(av.iv.

upon, iTrirvxov, a cofBn

seven cubits long (Hdt. 1 68). The act led to no


change in the coffin or the finder. The chariots had
:

scythes underneath, pointing toward the ground, so


as to cut in two whatever they
might came across, or(p
ivTir/)(^dvotev.

The Greek Prepositions.

108

CHAPTEE XY.
AND

Trept

VTT^p.

186. ITepi, around^ about, concerning; virep, over,


above, for, in behalf of.

These prepositions alike express some form of


superiority the first in overcoming distance, the second in overcoming gravitation.

them an object in the Genia causal relation in the


of
tive, suggestive usually
as
of
the
iTrei/yo/xevoL irepl vikt)';,
preposition
object

They

alike take after

23 437) ; the desire for


effort
the
iKKv/Siardv virep rwv
victory called forth
the
to leap over the swords
danger of the feat
^L(f)o)v,
stimulated to the endeavor (Xen. Conviv. 2 11).
pressing on for victory

(II.

187. These
in the

two prepositions

Accusative

citij, irepl

dcTTv

(II.

alike take an object


Achilles pursued him around the

22

173).

To go round

the city

not the pursuer's aim. II. 5 16, The spear-point


passed over the shoulder, virep &/xov it was not the
aim to have the spear pass over the shoulder.
vp-as

We

may say then, that to go around a lake to survey if,


would require that the object of Trepl be in the Genitive ; to go around it as the necessary way of getting
forward in one's journey would put the object in the
Accusative to throw a stone over a tree by successful
effort would put the object of virep in the Genitive ;
;

He/Ji

and

109

'Tirep.

a bird flj^ng over a tree would put the object in the


Accusative.

We

here come to a distinction


irepl mayan
take
object in the Dative case, virep never; and
188.

this difference arises

from the

original difference in

these prepositions as designations of space.

which
to

is

around another

have a fixed position,

the Dative
a bracelet

may
and

The thing

be so attached to

it

as

this invites the use of

as a ring around the finger^ irepl SaKrvXa,


the wrist, nrepl %et/34 the coat of

around

mail ahout the iody, irept a-rijOecrcnv. In these cases


the whole of the thing sm-rounded furnishes a surface,
of attachment.
189. "With

vTTep,

however, the case

is different.

The
no

situation over, above, presents to the imagination


the mopoint of attachment ; it is thought of as

from one side to the other


no halting, therefore no fixedness, therefore
no opportunity for the Dative. If that which is over
is
thought of as resting on, and so as fixed, virep is

mentary
there

result of passing

discharged, yielding
therefore, that virep
case

is

is

its

place to iiri

The

reason,

not followed by the Dative


that ordinary human experience does not preis

sent the situation that calls for that collocation.


190. The study of examples containing these prereveals also another distinction, traceable to
positions

the original meanings of these prepositions as desigTo be around a thing is a situation


nations of space.
which many may hold at the same time, as soldiers

The Greek Prepositions.

110

drawn up around a

city ; to deliberate about fublic


such
expressions invite the use of izepi but
affairs /
to fight for one's hearth and home, as if one were
standing over them to defend them, invites the use
of vTrep so too, w'hen one acts in behalf of another,
;

making that other's case his own. Demos, adv. Phil.


1, The war was begun with the jpurjpose to chastise
Philip,

irepX

vTrep rov

work
last

rov Tifioopi^aaaOai ^lXlttttov the end of


to save ourselves from his hands,
The first was a
iraOelv avrov^ KaKa)<;.
;

an endeavor

it is

jxr)

which any who pleased might engage

in

was

fitting for

To speak

VTrep.

the Athenians alone hence

ahout our

the

Trepl,

affairs., Trepl toov Trpay/u,d-

a thing which any citizen might do, each one


bringing his contribution to the discussion.

ro3v

To

offer sacrifice

(Mem. 2
to those
form

yor

the city, vTrep

Tr}<i

Tr6\ea)<;

an act in behalf of others, restricted


were first aj^proved as worthy to per-

2, 13),

who

it.

This

the truth concerning the affair, Trepl rov


(Hdt. 1 117), this is the one thing that is

is

7rpd'y/j,aTo<;

true of the

that

many
They are

191.

may

be

said.

not making war for glory,

Trepl

nor for a pa?'t of their own territory, vTrep


fighting for glory
/j,epov<; %wpa9 (Demos. Olyn. 1)
in
defense of their
was an open question fighting
was
own land was not it
standing over their own
B6^r]<;,

hearth
Instit.

no discussion here could be


:

3,

They

in place.

Cyri.
will not cease talking about us,

Uepl and
BLaXeyofjbevoL irepl

Ill

"Tirep.

Since you are silent I will

r)fia)u.

speak far you and for ourselves^ virep crov koI virep
to protect or
vfiwv; in behalf of, as standing over
defend.

Anab. 7

4, 10,

Would you even be willing to die


You must fight with me
tovtov.

for this one, virep


for him, Trepl rovBi
give him up. In the
sity

one

one

first

in the second,

the object of
;

I will not
BiafxdxecrOai, for

fiot,

phrase the actor


it is

necessarily

is

of neces-

more than

the preposition is not thought as


therefore virep could
;

belonging to either of the actors


not be used.
192.

Sow

is it that

hear this of thee f ri rovro

The accusations were


aKovco irepl aov (Luke 16 2).
the
master
to
respecting his steward ; but
brought
hear shameful rethat
on
6
your account
524)
(II.
:

proaches

from

the

Trojans,

69'

virep

aeOev aia^i

Hector was the head of the


iTpo<i Tpoycov.
house therefore the shameful things, al(y')(ea, were
uttered against Hector himself for not controlling his
It is an appeal not to
cowardly younger brother.
cLKovw

Paris's bravery and patriotism, but to his family pride,


and regard to his brother tt/jo? Tpcocov, not by hear;

say from the Trojans, but face to face, as they stood


before him, and uttered their reproaches.'
"
'
That
The translation by Lang, Leaf, and Myers, is as follows
hear shameful words concerning thee in the Trojans' mouths, who
The one offered above is quite differfor thy sake endure much toil."
:

ent in the picture

it

presents,

and seems commended by several con-

The Greek Prepositions.

112

CHAPTER
7re/>l

193. In

AND

XYI.

vTrlp in composition.

some compounds with

and in many

Ttepi^

with

virep^ the preposition simply intensifies the meanof


the simple word ; KcCKb<^^ 'beautiful ; irepLKaXkri'i,
ing

'very beautiful

noun

may

fjii<ya<;,

g?'eat

vTrepfieya^;, irainensely

These are called Adverbial uses

great.

object of

because the

the prepositions is not named. It


however be restored Trept/caWr;?, beautiful be;

yond

(Trept)

others

great

vTrepixe'ya<;,

above

{virep)

others.

In most compounds of
ing

is

irepl

and

vTrep,

the mean-

too plain to invite or justify the citation of

examples.

An

194.

apparent contradiction

meanings of Trepiopav and TreplotSa

is

found

words

in the

usually

it preserves the natural and strict use of inrhp, while


" is
the translation of tt? pi, not of mrip it is in
concerning thee
consonance with the kindly temper of Hector toward his younger
brother it harmonizes with the patriarchal feeling, making Hector

siderations

"

the head of the family responsible for all its members ; it spares the
self-love of Paris, since it does not present Hector as telling him the
bad things the Trojans were saying about him (Hector takes all this
it is more winning, making the appeal not to Paris's
love of country, but to his love of family it presents a picture all
pulsating with life the chieftain weighted with public cares, yet warm

upon himself)

in his family affections,

people.

and mediating between

For the meaning of

irphs

his family and his


with the Gen., see Sec. 84.

Ilepl

and

together as having the same signification.


is sometimes used with the
meaning to

classed

The word

look around and not see


of as

avoid

113

'TTrep in Composition.

the sight went round the object so as to


in other cases the preposition is used inten-

if
it

to disregard, take no note

saw more than another would see


Hdt. 1 89, If, therefore, thou shalt

sively, as if the seer

in a like case.

permit,

he
17

7rpuSr]<i, this

plundering.

II.

10

247, Since

excels in taking note, eVet irepioiSe vorjaai.


Od.
:
317, 2^or on the track he was keen heyond others,

Hdt. 3 65, I charge you not to


the
TrepuSelv,
sovereignty to come round
to
the
Medes.
Od.
3
244, Since he is knoioing
again

yap
permit, fir)
t'xyeac

wepiyhr].

heyond
195.

others, irepioiZe

aWcov.

Our English words

look

and

see

with the

preposition over play the same double game with us.


should think certainly, from Etymology, that the

We

was to make oversight the


he
to do.
not
very things
So, too, a man, in
ought
an
over
account
not
to
overlook a single
looldng
ought

business of an overseer

item in

it.

In either language such verbal contradictions may


remind us how meager the resources of language are
compared with the ever-varying shapes and turns of
thought which

it

has to serve.

196. Upt/Meviv (Hdt. 7

58),

They had been

dered to wait for his coming, nrepuLkveiv


his

or-

the time of

coming was uncertain, and what they were to do


compare avayukvuv and Kara-

afterward was uncertain

The Greek Prepositions.

114

Hdt. 4

fxevetv.

89,

trepifjueveiv,

to

wait for some-

thing "uncertain, as to the time of the arrival, or the


result of it not as stated in the Lexicon, like simple
;

fMevca.

197. It

well to bring Trepiixkveiv and avaby examining a pass-

may be

fieveiv into a stricter comparison

age in which they both occm* (Anab. 5 1, 4 and 5).


The Greeks, having made their way through the
mountains to Trapezus, and rested there, are deHberat:

ing

how to complete

go by

their return

sea, if possible.

home.

They wish

Chirisophus speaks

to

" Anaxi-

If you
a friend of mine, and is now admiral.
and
transI
shall
obtain
I
think
will send me,
ships

bius

is

Now

do you, if
ports sufficient to carry you home.
you wish to return by sea, remain hei^e (TrepLfMeveTe)
Heartill I shall return, and that will not be long."
ing this the soldiers rejoiced, and voted that he
as quick as possible.

addresses

Xenophon

After so

them

"
:

much had been


Chirisophus

is

sail

settled

sent to

obtain ships, and we a?'e going to tcait for his return


I will now tell you what I think we
(avafievovfiev).

ought to
situation

we wait."
when
Xenophon
changed

be'
is

doing while

Observe, the
speaks.

They

have resolved to go by sea, and instructed Chirisophus


In every mind the thought is that
to make all haste.
their course home is settled, and that they shall soon
be on their way.

The

situation calls for dva/xeveLv,

was fitted for the waiting


just as irepiiJiiveiv
was in doubt.
everything

when

Are

115

Prepositions Interchangeable ?

CHAPTER

X7II.

AEE PEEPOSITIONS INTERCHANGEABLE?

Can prepositions be interchanged without a


of
respectable author answers
meaning ?
change
Let us examine the
this question in the afirmative.
198.

'

The

examples adduced in proof.

prepositions given

as interchangeable are ava^ iv, irepl, also eVt and ii<i.


Hdt. 6 86, 'Ava Traaav rip 'EWxiSa, iv Se koI irepl
:

'l(ovlr}v rrjs cr>}9 StKaio(JvvT}<; rjv

X6709 ttoXXo?.

Through,

of Greece, and jxvrticularly in and ahout


there was much talk of thy honesty.
Observe,

all the rest

Ionia,
the speaker was an Ionian

he was therefore well

ac-

quainted with matters in arid ahout that small counhe


try but when he speaks of all the rest of Greece,
travel
either
he
knew
far
as
as
means
of course
by

This mental qualior through the reports of others.


He could not
the
case.
nature
of
in
the
fication lies

know

all

the rest of Greece as he

knew

his

own

little

We

have just the situation that incountry Ionia.


The picture is complete ; the
vites the use of ava.

other prepositions
each to his place.

iv, irepl

trip like nimble servitors

Nothing can be interchanged, or

even changed.
199. Again, from Demos.
ohov Kol

T)}? etV

Tf;? eVi rr/y 'ArrcKi)v

UeXoTTovvrjcrov Kvpio<i ytyovev,


'

Jelf., vol.

ii,

p.

317, Oxf.

He

has

The Greek Prepositions.

116

hecome master of the road

to

Attica,

We

and of

that into

'Atmight, indeed, say


the
had
and
TiKt)v,
boundaries,
country
space
within those boundaries ; but this was not the picture

Peloponnesus.

etV rr)v

for

in the speaker's mind.


It was a little tract, with one
to
invite
the aggressor, and Philip was its
great prize
implacable foe. Now, what preposition is called for,

when the speaker would say that Philip is master of


the road to Attica f Demosthenes was not such a
lazy public functionary as to shape his phrase with
the preposition et9.
His mind kindled with the pict-

ure of Philip's hostility to Athens, and so he employs


eirl.
Peloponnesus, on the other hand, had a territory

more than ten times

as large as Attica, contained seven


of
diverse
states,
policies and aims, and was entered
narrow
isthmus a kind of neck to a capaa
by
long,

Here everything invites the use of ek


iirX there was no combination among the seven
forming such a political unit as would admit

cious bottle.
as for
states

its use.

on
Greek

fall

may seem

that in the English phrase to


the knees, which is sometimes expressed in
by eVt and sometimes by et?, these preposi-

200. It

But this is not quite clear.


tions are interchangeable.
When one falls on his knees in submission or supplication, the preposition is eVt
and falls on his Imees, it is eh.
calls for instant action

we have

seen that

when he
This

stumbles

last situation

for relief, or recovery; and


and eVt does

et? suits this situation,

On Both

'A/i^t,

Sides

Arotmd, About.

of,

117

not, for the stiimbler does not fall on his knees to do


something there his instant call is to get out of the
;

The

position.

petitioner

on

is

thing while remaining there

his knees to

do some-

situation that calls

for eVt.

To

say that Prepositions cannot ever be interchanged would be a very rash statement ; but before
adducing examples in proof of a possible interchange
201.

critic should see well that he understands the


Greek, not through an English translation of it, but
by imagining the situation that called for the ex-

the

and in that way feels its force. There is


no other path every sentence has a breathing life of
its own
and not until one feels its pulse can he
pression,

criticise

it.

CHAPTER
a/A<^t,

ON BOTH SIDES

XYIII.
AEOUND, AEOUT.

OF,

202. This preposition has a claim to stand beside


both for its general resemblance, and for its

Trepi,

specific difference.

Originally

it

means on hoth

sides

of ; and is called for in speech about living creatures,


which have right and left sides, right and left feet,
This original meaning is so near
eyes, and so forth.
to Trept that in
ol Trepl rov

many

cases

it

HeiaavSpop (Thuc. 8

seems to stand for


:

65)

ol dfx<pl

it

a^p^ea

The Greek Prepositions.

118
(Hdt. 8 25)
:

of numbers, oi

(Cyri. Inst. 1

afji,<f>l

ra<i

StoBeKa fivpi,dSa<;

2, 15)
irepl e^Bofi^Kovra (Thuc. 1 54),
In other instances the distinction between d/j,<f)l and
:

o2Ko<i dp.<^l6vpo<i, a house with a door


on both sides, that is, in front and rear (Soph. Ph. 159)
such a word as irepiOvpo'^ has no use, and tlierefore no

Trepl is plain

place in the language d/ii(f)L0a\^^, of children, happy


having hoth parents alive (II. 22 496), It is plain
that, if a definite number is thought of as a point
;

in

reached by counting, a number somewhere near that,


more or less, would invite the use of d/i<^t, and not
to express it, for the act of counting is naturally
thought of as proceding in a line, as when one counts
irepl,

on a rod, or beads on a string. Any variation


from a number so thought of must be either less or
more along that line. This is the picture presented
balls

in ol
Trepl

d/x(f>l

is

Td<;

BcoSeKa fxvpidBa<;, quoted above.

also used in expressions of

number,

as

But
with

and possibly irepl is pree^Bop^^Kovra, just above


fered to d/j,(f)l here as suiting better the picture in the
writer's imagination for Thucydides was thinking of
;

the seventy ships, more or less, sunken in the sea-fight ;


the wide waste of water, and the scattered and sink-

ing ships presented a picture where "rrepl was not out


of place, as it would be in thinking of number in a
line,

or on a string.

suits the

However

mental picture, as

irepl

this

would

may

be, d/xcfn
not, in noting

the time {dfKpl dyopav TfKrjOovaav) when the messenger


arrived at full speed to announce the approach of the

Upo, Before, In Front

Time

enemy.

thought of

is

119

of.

as a line.

So, too, a/^^t

mental picture in II. 3 YO, Set


strictly suits the
and Menelaus to fight /or Helen., dfM(f)l 'EXivr}.
:

ye

me

There

were but two claimants, and one way or the opposite,


as if along the same line, the prize must go.
In

cases our search does not disclose a dis-

many

But the
dficfn and TrepL
the
less
distinct
are
not
in
;
space
original designations
is the servitor of the dimensions, length, and
Trepl

tinction in use between

breadth,

dfi(}>l

of only one, the line.

CHAPTER

XIX.

BEFOEE, IN FRONT OF.

TT/JO,

203. Upo, lefore, as walls, forts, and defenders are


to go forth, irpo, is to go as champion,
lefore the city ;
or defender the point of view is the place from which
;

usually, that of acting in


behalf of another, taking his part, meeting danger

he goes

for him.

and the
II.

10

relation

286,

is,

otg. Trpo

'Axacwv ajyeXo'i

yei,

when he went as messenger in hehalfofthe Achaians.


Of Hector we read (II. 24 215), He stood /or^A
men and fair women, nor
lefore {'rrpo) the Trojan
:

thought of fear nor flight Trpo, forth as champion.


204. II. IT 665, Then from Patroclus went Menehe exceedingly feared lest the
laus, sore loth, for
;

120

The Greek Prepositions.

Achaians in disheartening fear., ap'^aXeov irpo (jio^oio,


should leave him a prey to his foes irpo, as if driven
;

forth

by

205.

fear.^

The

prepositions

broad mark in common.

They

speech to the fact that


rationally

man

can

and freely
toil

for

to

him

Trpo

man

and

vTrep

him the power

has in

deny himself for


to his

endure, and die for him.

have one

are alike witnesses in

own

loss,

Cyri. Inst. 8

his fellow-

can

suffer,

8, 4, Siukiv-

Bvvevetv irpo ^aai\e(i)<;, to incur danger in behalf of


the king.
Hdt. 7 134, Would any one be -willing to
die for Sparta, irpo Trj<i %7rdpTT]<i airoOvrjaKeiv ; also
:

7 172, to perish for your defense, Trpo vfiwv airokea6ai.


Soph. O. T. 10, to speak in behalf of these, Trpo
:

CHAPTER XX.
(Tvv

206.

mon

Sw,

AND

fierd.

with, along with

nerd, among, in com-

with.

These two prepositions, when considered together,


'

"

to accept as authority the Scholiast, who says


the only sense of (p6$os in Homer " ; but II. 9 2 dis-

The Lexicon seems

flight, Lat. fu(/a,

proves this dictum

<pi(a <p6^ov Kpv6fVTos kraipi],

panion of chilling fear

in this passage fear, <p6fioi, is the expression


of this feeling flight, <pv^a, its outward sign,
the attendant, going with it, as the effect goes with its cause.

for the inward feeling


is

headlong rout, com-

'Zijv

and Mera.

121

throw Uglit on each other, both from their likeness


and their difference. Od. 9 286, I loith these., avv
:

TOicrSe,

escaped

destruction.

The

here

association

is transient and purely incidental to the act of making their escape. Od. 10 320, Now go to the stj,
:

there ivith the rest of thy comimny., ^ler dXkcov


Here the association is the emphatic thing.
iralpcov.

lie

9, 2, For first when yet a boy, and receiving his training vnth his hrother and luith the other
hoys, avv tw aSe\cf>o) koX cruv roi<i aX\,oi<i irauai, he was

Anab. 1

reckoned far superior to them all. Here the association expressed by avv is incidental, subservient to the
comparison, which

Od. 16
ants, fxTa

is

He

140,

SfjLoocov,

the

main

point.

used to eat and drink with serv-

in the house.

Here the

association

the essential point.


207. In every case, indeed, where there is associathose
tion, there must be participation in something

is

not incidental

it is

who sit together at table must participate in the common fare those who travel together must participate
The use of /j,ra or of
in the hardships of the way.
;

avv usually determines whether this participation is


the leading idea conveyed.
208. Men not only act ivith, avv, their fellows,
but with their own endowments and qualities (Od.
24 193) a wife with great virtue, avv fxeyaXr] aperfj
with their equipment, avv vrjt Oofj (II. 1 389) with
:

the instrument, avv aK^Trrpu) (II. 2 42) with their


commission that empowers them to act, and with the
:

The Greek

122

results of their action,

Prepositio7is.

There

good or bad.

is

nothing

necessarily co-ordinate or like, as in the things brought


Here there may be the widest distogether bj ixera.

parity ; men may act <jvv tw


his guidance, with his help.

^eco,

with God, under


[juera, however,

With

the things or persons brought together are so far of a


sort that they are capable of participation in some-

We

thing.

IL 24

400,

TraWofievo'i,

have instanced sleep, food, and drink.


With the others I cast lots, tmp fiera
that is, participating in the chances and

danger, glory of the service (Soph. Phil.), when


Achilles was, fiera ^covrcov, with livitig men shared
their lot (II. 13 TOO), fieTu Boicotmv eixd-xpvTo, they

were fighting with the Boeotians among them, on


Fitheir side, sharing their chances of the battle.
nally

man

we

read in Plat. Phaed. of the soul of the good


as forever after truly
puritied from passions so

with God, fjuera 6eo)v Bidyouaa, in the language


of the ]S"ew Testament, to become partaker of the
see how widely this differs from
divine nature.

to live

We

the idea expressed by

we have come

steps
209. After

aiiv

roL<;

and by what

6eoi<i,

to the discrimination.

verbs of motion

yttera

means

to

go

among, to go for, or after, so as to secure one's presgo after without any added implicaII. 3 370, "E\k fi6T 'A%a/ou9, he was dragging
tion.
him in among the Achaians. Anab. 1 1, ILvpov /jueraence

finally, to
:

Tre/xerat,

he sends for Gyrus.

210. In composition fiera often denotes change

Ciia,

123

Through, Across.

as fiera/SdWeiv, to ihroiv into a different state, fieraThis is not unnatural.


voelv, to change one's mind.

With

the idea

in the

mind, action suggests

The men
as its necessary condition.
all
as
it
is
a chess-board travel much ; but,
among

relative

on

among

change

themselves,

it

is

brought about only by a change of

relative position.

The compounds with aup do not

invite special

consideration.

CHAPTER XXL
Sia,

THROUGH, ACROSS.

211. The object of this preposition is thought of


as an obstacle, to be crossed, passed through, or surmounted, as a gate-way, a river, a forest, a mountain

even a level plain, for distance is of itself


an obstacle. Ata means primarily through from side
" from one end to the
to side, not
other," as stated in
most
The
the Lexicon.
interesting thing in crossing
is
the getting through it, and
this obstructive space
chain, or

beyond

it.

The

spear inflicted a

wound

hia OoopaKO'^,

through the hr east-plate, hia Kvver]<i, through the helmet it did not begin to fulfill the warrior's aim till
;

had past clean through. The passing quite through


was a prerequisite, or previous condition for doing its

it

124

The Greek

proper work.

Here opens

Prepositions.

a wide field for the Geni-

tive case.

212. Cjri. Inst. 1 4, The others


The
tongues., hia droixaro'^.
:

had Cyrus on
Greek is more

all

their

than this English

picturesque

much

amount

to

through

{8ia) the

till

it

is

spoken

door of the

lips.

it

name does not


must come out

This

last

phrase

Old English fully equals the Greek, which literally


means through and out o/*, the Genitive denoting the
of

point of departure the point frorri' which. Again,


when they see each other, hia yjpovov., after a time.,
that

is,

after a

temporary separation, the time of the

separation being passed through I will come after a


the time being passed through.
time., Bca XP^^^^

Anab. 1 8, 16, He heard a noise passing through the


ranks, Bia tmv rd^ewv. It passed quite through the
The
ranks, otherwise he would not have heard it.
:

Gen. with hia denotes the agent. Hdt. 1 69, Croesus


announced this through messengers, Bi dyjekcov. By
:

analogy with the above, it denotes means, definite


measure, singly or in succession, of space, number,
quantity,

all

flowing by analogy from the primary

as ov Bid fiaKpov, in no long


a
short
time / BC eviavrov, after
oKuyov, after
a year, yearly to do an act Bi 6p<yr]^, through anger.,
anger the inciting cause preceding the act if it be
objected that the anger was not all passed when the
external act took place, it can be said in reply, that
enough had passed to lead to the outward act, and

meaning

of Blu, through

^'

tirne, Bt

Ata,
that

all

is

125

Through^ Across.

that concerns the speaker, or the hearer

hoping that Sicily

would be conquered,

St'

avrov,

through him as the instrument, or agent (Thuc. 6:15).


Aes. Pro. 281, 0)9 fxdOrjTe hia rekovi ro irav, that
you may learn the whole to the very end ; the Greek
picturesque beyond the power of the English ha
TeXovi, through the end, to the end and beyond.
213. Ildt. 9 13, Mardonius refrained from ravaging Attica, iX,7ri^o}v Sia iravro'i rou ')(p6vou OfioXoyT^aeiv

is

p-(pea<;,

come

hojping all the while that the Athenians would


an agreement', the phrase hia ivavTO'i, etC/,

to

means through

all the time, that is, through all the


of this time of doubt about the
successively
periods
Athenians, and the endeavor to win and hold them

Mardonius did not begin to


all that time was expired.
The first act of destroying was after the last moment
of waiting and expectation hence the Genitive case
is a necessity, it gives a true copy of what is in the

to the Persian side.

plunder and destroy

till

mind.

Of

214.

the two limits of the thing crossed, the


farther limit, we have treated the

hither and the

farther one as the

more emphatic because the exmore important experi;

perience at that point is the


ence.

Any

through

it

one

may
may begin

enter a forest wishing to go


to cross a mountain
may go

so far, at least, in crossing a river as to get into it.


But things that require no effort to do, and which
amount to nothing when done, do not furnish much

126

The Greek Prepositions.

material for speech.


Without dwelling, then, on the
nearer limit, it remains to consider the space inter-

vening between the two limits of the thing crossed


or passed over.
And, first, we observe that this intervening space offers to the imagination no fixed
Therefore, as the Dative is
point or place of rest.
the proper case to mark fixed position in space, there

seems to be no chance for the Dative case to come in


and play its part after the preposition hia and so, in
the fact agrees with our anticfact, we never find it
;

and both conform to the nature of the case.


Grammarians did not decide this question, but nature

ipations,

and spontaneous thought


were born.

settled

it

before gramma-

rians

the

The

single point left, then, for consideration,


passage through the intervening space ', what

215.
is

characterized that passage, in itself considered ; what


happened in and along that passage that appeals to
the imagination, and so is worthy of mention ? If

there was anything of this sort in the speaker's mind,


he would show that fact by putting the object of hia
in the Accusative case

for that

is

expressive of distance passed over.


hicL with the Accusative.

are

the case naturally


This brings us to

216. In examining Sta with the Accusative, we


met at the outset with the statement in the Lex. :

" Ato of
Place, only in Poets, the same sense as hta w.
Gen." Before accepting so discouraging a statement,
let

us examine the passages adduced in proof.

II.

127

Ata, Through, Across.

247, e^ Se Sia

And through six

'irrv-)(a<i

rjkde Sat^cov -x^aXKO^ areiprj<i.

folds went cleaving its


What did it do then ?

way

the un-

It

stopped ;
yielding spear.
hut in the seventh fold of hide it stuck, iv rfj S' efiSoall
fidrr} pivot ax^To ; it did not get clean through at

did not accomplish anything after getting


it must have done in order to justify
which
through,
the use of the genitive (see the foregoing examples.)
of course

it

But, though the spear did not go through, it did a


great work it drove its way through the bronze

and through six folds of hide. The mighty


force of the throw was expended in the space between the front and the back of the shield and the

plate,

poet suits the word to the fact by putting the object


of Bta in the Accusative case.
217. Second example (II. 11 112-119), describing
the hind fleeing before the lion who has devoured her
fawns, she speeds away in terror, Sia Spv/xa irvKva koX
:

The
through the thick co2)pice and woods.
within
the
limits
us
what
took
shows
place
picture
vXrjp,

of the forest, not of an escape through and beyond


The accusative fits the
it, for there was no escape.

the genitive would have dein II. 23 122, in felling the


the
So
picture.
stroyed
trees for Patroclus's funeral pyre, and dragging them,
Bia pcoTTTjia irvKva, through the thick underwood ; the

word

to the thought

on what is going on
Od. 9 400, The Cyclops dwelt

interest of the action centers

within the woods.

about him in the caves, hC

aicpia<i r}veixoeaaa<i,

along

The Greek Prepositions.

128
the

no

windy

The

heights.

picture.
218. Cyri. Inst. 1

6,

genitive liere would give us

By

reason of those pious

observances of yours, Sid je eKeiva'^

Ta<;

eVtycieXeta?,

will approacli tlie gods more hopefully when you


are going to pray; that is, the consciousness of his

you

is like an atmosphere of hope about


he goes to offer his prayers. Od. 8 520, He
conquered hy grace of Athene the great-hearted., Bia
The goddess is thought of as a
fieyddvfMov 'AOrjvrjv.

pious conduct

him

as

"

covering
surrounding, or accomj)anying presence,
his head in the day of battle." Cyi-i. Inst. 1 5, Those
:

fond of praise are won by commendation, and for this


reason, Bid rovro, they readily undergo all toil and all
Their fondness of praise is a permanent
danger.
or
atmosphere, if you please, in which they
quality,
always move, whereas Btd rovrov would mean hy

means of this giving the picture of something transient, as means to an end.


219. The idea of two suggested by Bid is not always the hither and farther side of a thing struck

when a spear pierces through


a breast-plate it may be the right and left portions
of something struck through with a cleaving blow
through or pierced, as

as

when one with an axe

cuts in two, BtaKoirrei, the


One or the
1, 17).

bar of a door, or gate (Anab. 7


other of these forms of thought

may be looked

for in

words compounded with Bid BLayyeXXeiv, to annoimce,


as from man to man
distinguished from aTrayjiWetv,
;

Ata,

Through, Across,

129

wMcli announces something of known and felt imfrom irapayyeWeiv, to announce by auportance
thority, while i^ayjiXkeiv is to annoimce a secret;
TrpoaayyeXkeLv, to announce in expectation of a re;

sponse.

Lucian Di. De. 9

PosEmoN. Could I have a short interview with

Hermes ?
Heemes. Quite impossible
PosEiDoisr. J^ut at least announce me to him, ofxco^
Trpoadyyetkov avTO); in modern phrase, take up my
name, or card, to him. This act of announcement
looks for a response, and tt/oo? attaches itself to the
verb to mark that fact.
Zeus,

220. Alpecv, to take, seize, gain for one's self ;


hiaipeiv, to strike assunder, to separate into two parts.
'Kekeveiv, to urge, incite,

encourage each other, to

command BiaKeXeveaOat, to
incite, man by man.
^ex^cr;

6ai, to receive, take, accept

ScaSexecrdai, to receive

and pass on to another, as men standing in a line may


receive and pass along buckets of water to extinguish
a

fire

suit of

as hunters

with fresh horses keep up the pur-

an animal

;
dvaSix'^adac, Karahe^eaOaL (see
Sec. 30).
221. AiaKplveiv, to discriminate between two. Luc.

Di. De. 26, iyco ovk av

Bca/cpivaLfiL avrou<;,

discriminate hetween them


Pollux.

same

AiajivooaKeiv,

Dial.,

aj^art f

to

i.

e.,

tell

IIft)9 StaYti'cocr/cet?,

T could not

between Castor and

one from, the other j

how do you Jcnow them

Aia^evyeiv, to escape

by fleeing through

130

TJbe

Greek Prepositions.

dangers ; the thonglit often is of a succession of dangers on the right and left, through which the fugitive

makes

his escape.
222. Aiaxeipeiv, to do, or take in hand, one's part
where two are acting, as to take an oar to match one

who rows on the other


1, when a boy, would

side of the boat.

Cyrus, Inst.

do a mail's work, BiaTO,


i.
on
e.,
yeipoh}
dvBp6<i,
seeing what a man did, he
would be emulous to match him, and do the same.
'ETrtx^tpetv means something like this, but the
To try to walk fifty miles in a
difference is clear.
in
which
one may fail is einx^Lpelv
an
attempt
day
try to

to try to

keep up with another, walking by his

side,

is hLa'xeipetv.

KoTE, Sec. 103.

collection of individual things

beside each other horizontally

near

to,

may be formed by

bringing them

relation in space suggested

beside ; Gr. irpbs, Lat. ad, in its

by

to,

primary suggestion of hori-

zontal motion.
If, however, the collection is thought of as if made by
heaping the things on each other, the preposition in Gr. would be ewl
each thing resting on what was there before as its basis. If now
we translate this spatial relation into English by any of the terms to,

near

to, beside,

mental picture

in addition
;

we use a

to,

the words do not conform strictly to the


drawn from a different form of

locution

It may be the most convenient, and the best we can find,


thought.
but it is not exact. With vpbs each particular of the collection is

merely brought into nearness to others the particulars come into no


new relation but this, in the process and they lose nothing of their
;

Ata,
severalty by it.
the accumulated

With
mass

e'lri

131

Through, Across.
the case

is

different.

The

particulars of

the imagination, something of their


severalty by the fact that they are made contributary to the formation
of a new whole. They are also in a new relation, for each particular
lose, to

of the pile is now either a supporter of others, or is supported by


Hence the statement that eVl does not properly carry the
them.
meaning besides, in addition to.

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