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Mathematical Physics

MSc course
Dr. Ali Abdulateef Kareem

In the early days of modern mathematics, people were puzzled by


equations like this one:
x 2 1 0
Which have no solution in the real number system
For this reason, mathematicians dubbed 1 an imaginary number. We
abbreviate this by writing i in its place, that is:
i 1
Now have solutions in terms of complex numbers, i.e

x i
It is useful to note that
i 1, i i i i , i i
2

2 2

1 i
1
1
2
3
2 i , i 1, i 3
i
i i
i
i

Functions of a complex variable provide us some powerful


and widely useful tools in in theoretical physics.
Some important physical quantities are complex variables
(the wave-function )
Evaluating definite integrals.
Integral transforms

x ,t A e

i kx t

representing a wave travelling in the positive x direction,


recall that: e ix cos x i sin x

The familiar numbers, such as 1, 1/3, 2, and which are


represented by points on a line, will be referred to as real numbers.
A complex number is an expression of the form

z x iy
where x and y are real numbers. The number x is called the real part
of z and is written
x Re z
The number y, despite the fact that it is also a real number, is called
the imaginary part of z and is written
y Im z

If x = 0, then z = iy is a pure imaginary number.


Two complex numbers are equal if and only if their real parts are
equal and their imaginary parts are equal.

A complex number (The sum of real and an imaginary umber) can be


plotted on a plane with two perpendicular coordinate axes
The horizontal x-axis, called the real axis
The vertical y-axis, called the imaginary axis.
Each complex number z = x + iy corresponds to the point P(x, y)
in the xy-plane.
r is the absolute value or modulus of z, then, is just the distance
from the point P(x, y) to the origin.
Im
P(x, y)

z r x 2 y 2 z z ,

z x iy
zz * (x iy )(x iy )
Note that :

z r

Re

x2y2

There is a further interest and significance if we make use the usual


polar coordinates in the xy-plane for representation the complex
numbers which gives
x r cos ,

Im

z x iy z r cos i sin or r cis

P(x, y)

y
z r

y r sin

x r cos

y r sin

Re

r x2y2
y
1 y
tan , if x 0, tan
x
x
y
x
sin
, cos
2
2
x y
x2y2

From the complex number z 2 4 i we have


z r 4 16 20, sin
z 2 4i

4
2
, cos
20
20

The complex conjugate z or z of z 2 4 i


z 2 4i
Then

z 20,

Therefore,

z 20

z = z

In other words in the diagram, the


complex conjugate is the mirror image
of z in the real axis

(a) z 1 z 2 z 1 z 2
(b) z 1 . z 2 z 1 . z 2
z1 z1
(c)
z2 z2
(d) z z
(e)
(f)

z z
z

z z

Example: Find the polar representation z 1 i


Solution:

z r cos i sin

Addition and Subtraction of Complex Numbers


If
then

z 1 x 1 iy 1

and

z 2 x 2 iy 2 are two complex numbers

z 1 z 2 x 1 iy 1 x 2 iy 2
z 1 z 2 x 1 x 2 i y 1 y 2

The complex numbers satisfy the commutative and associative


laws

z1 z 2 z 2 z1

z 1 z 2 z 3 z 1 z 2 z 3
Examples
(4 6i) + (3 + 7i)
= [4 + (3)] + [6 + 7]i
=1+i

(10 4i) (5 2i)


= (10 5) + [4 (2)]i
= 5 2i

Multiplication of Complex Numbers


The product of

and

is defined as

z 1 z 2 (x 1 iy 1 )(x 2 iy 2 )
= ( x 1 x 2 y 1 y 2 ) i (x 1 y 2 x 2 y 1 ).
Division of Complex Numbers

Denominator
conjugate

The division of z 2 and z 1 is defined as

z 2 x 2 iy 2 x 2 iy 2 x 1 iy 1 x 2 x 1 x 2 iy 1 iy 2 x 1 i 2 y 2 y 1

z 1 x 1 iy 1 x 1 iy 1 x 1 iy 1
x 12 i 2 y 12

x 2 x 1 y 2 y 1 y 2 x 1 x 2 y 1 i
x 12 y 12

x 2 x 1 y 2 y 1 y 2x 1 x 2 y 1

i
2
2
2
2
x1 y1
x1 y1

(a)

(b)

4 i 2 3i 5 14i
13
2 3i 2 3i

4i

2 3i

5 14
i
13 13

1 2i 2 i 1 2i 3 4i 2 i 5i

3 4i
5i
3 4i 3 4i 5i 5i

H.W.

5 10i 5 10i
2

25
25
5

3i 30 i 19
2i 1

Express each of the following complex numbers in polar form.


(a ) 2 2 3i , (b ) 5 5i , (c ) 6 2 i ,

(d ) 3i

We know that z 1 r1 cos 1 i sin 1 and z 2 r2 cos 2 i sin 2


find z 1 and z 1 z 2
z2

z 1 r1 cos 1 i sin 1 cos 2 i sin 2

z 2 r2 cos 2 i sin 2 cos 2 i sin 2

r1 cos 1 cos 2 sin 1 sin 2 i sin 1 cos 2 cos 1 sin 2


r2
cos 2 2 sin 2 2

z 1 r1
cos 1 2 i sin 1 2
z 2 r2

z 1 z 2 r1 cos 1 i sin 1 r2 cos 2 i sin 2

r1 r2 cos 1 cos 2 sin 1 sin 2 i sin 1 cos 2 cos 1 sin 2

z 1 z 2 r1 r2 cos 1 2 i sin 1 2

Find the product of

4(cos50 i sin50 ) and 2(cos10 i sin10 ).

4(cos50 isin50 ) 2(cos10 isin10 )

4 2 cos(50 10 ) isin(50 10 )
8(cos60 isin 60 )
1
3
8 i
2
2
4 4i 3

Find the division of

16(cos 70 i sin 70 ) 16
= cos(70 40 ) i sin(70 40 )
4(cos 40 i sin 40 )
4
4cos30 i sin 30
3 1
4
i 2 3 2i
2 2

z 1 z 2 r1 r2 cos 1 2 i sin 1 2

We know

If we have a set of n complex numbers, a generalization of the


above equation leads to:
z1 z 2

z n r1 r2

putting r1 r2

rn cos 1 2

n i sin 1 2

1 2

rn 1 and

n gives

z n cos i sin cos n i sin n


n

In general
z r cos 1 i sin 1 r
n

De Moivres
theorem

cos n i sin n .

The results is equivalent to the statement e

e ni

First, find trigonometric notation for (1 i) using


z r cos i sin

Theorem

r 2,

1 i 2 cos 225 i sin 225


2 cos 225 i sin 225
using De Moiver's theorem we get

1 i

2 cos(5 225 ) i sin(5 225 )


5

4 2 cos1125 i sin1125
2
2
4 2
i

2
2

4 4i

5
225
4

2
3
4
x
x
x
e x 1 x
2! 3! 4!

Substitute ix for x.

ix 2 ix 3 ix 4 ix 5 ix 6
e 1 ix


2!
3!
4!
5!
6!
ix

e ix

i 2 x 2 i 3x 3 i 4 x 4 i 5x 5 i 6 x 6
1 ix


2!
3!
4!
5!
6!

e ix

x 2 ix 3 x 4 ix 5 x 6
1 ix

Factor out the i terms.


2! 3! 4! 5! 6!

2
4
6
x
x
x

x3 x5
xi
e 1 i x
2! 4! 6!
3! 5!

e ix

x2 x4 x6

x3 x5
1

i x


2! 4! 6!
3! 5!

This is the series for


cosine.

This is the series


for sine.

e ix cos x i sin x

Eulers Formula

Using EulerMs formula, the polar form of a complex number can


be rewritten as :
z r cos i sin or r cis

z r (cos i sin ) x y
z r e i

Show that
i
i
e

e
(a)
cos
2

e i e i
sin
2i

(b)

Solution
we have e i cos i sin

and

e i cos i sin

(a) Adding (1) and (2)


i

e e

2 cos

or

e i e i
cos
2

(a) subtracting (2) and (1)


i

e e

2i sin

H.W: Prove
3
1
3
sin

sin

sin 3 ,
(a)
4

or

e i e i
sin
2i

(b)

1
1
3
sin 4 cos 4 cos 2 .
8
2
8

If z w n (n 1, 2, ) , then to each value of w there corresponds


one value of z. Conversely, to a given z 0 there correspond
precisely n distinct values of w. Each of these values is called an
nth root of z, and we write
w nz

Hence this symbol is multivalued, namely, n-valued. The n


values of n z can be obtained as follows.
We write z and w in polar form
z r cos i sin

and

w R cos i sin

Then the equation w n z becomes, by De Moivres formula


w R cos i sin R n cos n i sin n z r cos i sin
n

i.e.

R n cos n i sin n r cos i sin

Form the Equating of these equations, The modulus Im


R r
n

R r
n

and the arguments


n 2k ,

thus

2k
n

Re

where k is an integer. For k 0, 1, 2, ..., n 1 we get n distinct values


of w. Further integers of k would give values already obtained. For
instance, k n gives 2k / n 2

hence the w corresponding to k = 0, etc. Consequently,


for z 0, has the n distinct values
n

2k
2k

z r cos
i sin

n
n

where k 0, 1, 2, ..., n 1 . These n values lie on a circle of radius


n r
with center at the origin and constitute the vertices of
polygon of n sides.

Find the square roots of 1 i 3


Trigonometric notation: 1 i 3 2 cos 60 i sin 60
n

2k
2k

z n r cos
i sin

n
n

60
360
360
60
2 cos 60 i sin 60 2 cos k

i
sin

2
2
2
2

1
2

1
2

2 cos 30 k 180 i sin 30 k 180

For k = 0, root is
For k = 1, root is

2 cos 210 isin 210


2 cos30 isin30

Find all fourth roots of 8 8i 3. Write the roots in


rectangular form.
Write in trigonometric form. 8 8i 3 16 cis 120
Here r = 16 and = 120. The fourth roots of this number have
absolute value
4
16 2.
120 360 k

30 90 k
4
4
There are four fourth roots, let k = 0, 1, 2 and 3.

k 0

30 90 0 30

k 1

30 90 1 120

k 2

30 90 2 210

k 3

30 90 3 300

Using these angles, the fourth roots are:


2 cis 30 ,

2 cis 120 ,

2 cis 210 , 2 cis 300

written in rectangular form


3i
1 i 3
3 i
1
3

1 i 3

The graphs of the roots are


all on a circle that has center
at the origin and radius 2.

Find each of the indicated roots and locate them


graphically.
14
13
a 1 i , (b ) 2 3 2i
Find the square roots of

15 i 8

When dealing with integrals that have complex numbers we


treat the imaginary number i as a constant
1 i x
e
dx
Example: The integral

Let
then

u 1 i x
du 1 i dx

Making the substitution yields


1
u
e
. du

1 i

dx

du
1 i

eu

1 i

e
1 i
1 i x

Removing the complex denominator by multiplying it by the conjugate


1 i x
gives
e 1 i
1 i 1i x

e
2
1 i 1 i
the constant will be a complex number as well thus c c1 ic 2
1 i 1i x
1 i x
e dx 2 e c1 ic 2

Some real-valued integrals can be solved using complex-valued


integrals.
x
x
e
cos
x
dx
e

Integration such as
and sin x dx can
be solved using integration by parts.
Using the integral e 1i x dx we can solve integration easily

rearrangement of the integral e 1i x dx and its value 1 i e 1i x c1 ic 2


2

Firstly, rearranging

1i x

dx

and applying Euler's Formula gives

x
ix
e
e
dx

x
e
cos x i sin x dx
x
x
e
cos
x
dx

i
e

sin x dx

Rearranging the value of the integral

1 i 1i x
e
c1 ic 2 yields
2

1 i 1i x
c1 ic 2
e
2 2
1 i x
e cos x i sin x c1 ic 2
2 2
1 x
i x
e cos x i sin x e cos x i sin x c1 ic 2
2
2
1 x
1
e cos x i sin x e x i cos x sin x c1 ic 2
2
2
1 x
1
1
1
e cos x i e x sin x i e x cos x e x sin x c1 ic 2
2
2
2
2
1 x
1 x
e cos x sin x c1 i e sin x cos x ic 2
2
2
1 x
1

e cos x sin x c1 i e x sin x cos x c 2


2
2

Since the integral e x cos x dx i e x sin x dx and its value


rearranged, are equivalent, it means that the real parts are
equal to each other, as well as the imaginary parts
x
x
e
cos
x
dx

i
e

sin x dx
1 x
1 x

e cos x sin x c1 i e sin x cos x c 2


2
2

Therefore
1 x
e cos x dx 2 e cos x sin x c
1 x
x
e sin x dx 2 e sin x cos x c
x