62 views

Uploaded by Nadia F Mohammad Al-Roshdee

MSc Math Complex Variables

- complex variables
- Fourier Transform
- C3 June 05
- AGI Data Sheets
- Just the Maths - A.J.hobson (Complex Numbers)
- 10 4 Demoivre Theorem
- Teacher's Yearly Planner Addmath F5 2012
- MA1505 Tutorial Solution 1
- Math 14 1st 2011-2012
- 2011 Sincos 90637 Task
- CLEP Pre-Calculus Practice Test 2.pdf
- C3 June 05
- matenmat osnove fizike
- Bowen 2009 Prelim Am p1
- maths iia paper 1
- JS1K Demo - The Making of — Acko
- Solutions Chap15
- Trig Functions multiple Choice
- Solutions to Jan 27-31 Homework Assignment
- Ch2

You are on page 1of 30

MSc course

Dr. Ali Abdulateef Kareem

equations like this one:

x 2 1 0

Which have no solution in the real number system

For this reason, mathematicians dubbed 1 an imaginary number. We

abbreviate this by writing i in its place, that is:

i 1

Now have solutions in terms of complex numbers, i.e

x i

It is useful to note that

i 1, i i i i , i i

2

2 2

1 i

1

1

2

3

2 i , i 1, i 3

i

i i

i

i

and widely useful tools in in theoretical physics.

Some important physical quantities are complex variables

(the wave-function )

Evaluating definite integrals.

Integral transforms

x ,t A e

i kx t

recall that: e ix cos x i sin x

represented by points on a line, will be referred to as real numbers.

A complex number is an expression of the form

z x iy

where x and y are real numbers. The number x is called the real part

of z and is written

x Re z

The number y, despite the fact that it is also a real number, is called

the imaginary part of z and is written

y Im z

Two complex numbers are equal if and only if their real parts are

equal and their imaginary parts are equal.

plotted on a plane with two perpendicular coordinate axes

The horizontal x-axis, called the real axis

The vertical y-axis, called the imaginary axis.

Each complex number z = x + iy corresponds to the point P(x, y)

in the xy-plane.

r is the absolute value or modulus of z, then, is just the distance

from the point P(x, y) to the origin.

Im

P(x, y)

z r x 2 y 2 z z ,

z x iy

zz * (x iy )(x iy )

Note that :

z r

Re

x2y2

polar coordinates in the xy-plane for representation the complex

numbers which gives

x r cos ,

Im

P(x, y)

y

z r

y r sin

x r cos

y r sin

Re

r x2y2

y

1 y

tan , if x 0, tan

x

x

y

x

sin

, cos

2

2

x y

x2y2

z r 4 16 20, sin

z 2 4i

4

2

, cos

20

20

z 2 4i

Then

z 20,

Therefore,

z 20

z = z

complex conjugate is the mirror image

of z in the real axis

(a) z 1 z 2 z 1 z 2

(b) z 1 . z 2 z 1 . z 2

z1 z1

(c)

z2 z2

(d) z z

(e)

(f)

z z

z

z z

Solution:

z r cos i sin

If

then

z 1 x 1 iy 1

and

z 1 z 2 x 1 iy 1 x 2 iy 2

z 1 z 2 x 1 x 2 i y 1 y 2

laws

z1 z 2 z 2 z1

z 1 z 2 z 3 z 1 z 2 z 3

Examples

(4 6i) + (3 + 7i)

= [4 + (3)] + [6 + 7]i

=1+i

= (10 5) + [4 (2)]i

= 5 2i

The product of

and

is defined as

z 1 z 2 (x 1 iy 1 )(x 2 iy 2 )

= ( x 1 x 2 y 1 y 2 ) i (x 1 y 2 x 2 y 1 ).

Division of Complex Numbers

Denominator

conjugate

z 2 x 2 iy 2 x 2 iy 2 x 1 iy 1 x 2 x 1 x 2 iy 1 iy 2 x 1 i 2 y 2 y 1

z 1 x 1 iy 1 x 1 iy 1 x 1 iy 1

x 12 i 2 y 12

x 2 x 1 y 2 y 1 y 2 x 1 x 2 y 1 i

x 12 y 12

x 2 x 1 y 2 y 1 y 2x 1 x 2 y 1

i

2

2

2

2

x1 y1

x1 y1

(a)

(b)

4 i 2 3i 5 14i

13

2 3i 2 3i

4i

2 3i

5 14

i

13 13

1 2i 2 i 1 2i 3 4i 2 i 5i

3 4i

5i

3 4i 3 4i 5i 5i

H.W.

5 10i 5 10i

2

25

25

5

3i 30 i 19

2i 1

(a ) 2 2 3i , (b ) 5 5i , (c ) 6 2 i ,

(d ) 3i

find z 1 and z 1 z 2

z2

r2

cos 2 2 sin 2 2

z 1 r1

cos 1 2 i sin 1 2

z 2 r2

z 1 z 2 r1 r2 cos 1 2 i sin 1 2

4 2 cos(50 10 ) isin(50 10 )

8(cos60 isin 60 )

1

3

8 i

2

2

4 4i 3

16(cos 70 i sin 70 ) 16

= cos(70 40 ) i sin(70 40 )

4(cos 40 i sin 40 )

4

4cos30 i sin 30

3 1

4

i 2 3 2i

2 2

z 1 z 2 r1 r2 cos 1 2 i sin 1 2

We know

above equation leads to:

z1 z 2

z n r1 r2

putting r1 r2

rn cos 1 2

n i sin 1 2

1 2

rn 1 and

n gives

n

In general

z r cos 1 i sin 1 r

n

De Moivres

theorem

cos n i sin n .

e ni

z r cos i sin

Theorem

r 2,

2 cos 225 i sin 225

using De Moiver's theorem we get

1 i

5

4 2 cos1125 i sin1125

2

2

4 2

i

2

2

4 4i

5

225

4

2

3

4

x

x

x

e x 1 x

2! 3! 4!

Substitute ix for x.

ix 2 ix 3 ix 4 ix 5 ix 6

e 1 ix

2!

3!

4!

5!

6!

ix

e ix

i 2 x 2 i 3x 3 i 4 x 4 i 5x 5 i 6 x 6

1 ix

2!

3!

4!

5!

6!

e ix

x 2 ix 3 x 4 ix 5 x 6

1 ix

2! 3! 4! 5! 6!

2

4

6

x

x

x

x3 x5

xi

e 1 i x

2! 4! 6!

3! 5!

e ix

x2 x4 x6

x3 x5

1

i x

2! 4! 6!

3! 5!

cosine.

for sine.

e ix cos x i sin x

Eulers Formula

be rewritten as :

z r cos i sin or r cis

z r (cos i sin ) x y

z r e i

Show that

i

i

e

e

(a)

cos

2

e i e i

sin

2i

(b)

Solution

we have e i cos i sin

and

e i cos i sin

i

e e

2 cos

or

e i e i

cos

2

i

e e

2i sin

H.W: Prove

3

1

3

sin

sin

sin 3 ,

(a)

4

or

e i e i

sin

2i

(b)

1

1

3

sin 4 cos 4 cos 2 .

8

2

8

one value of z. Conversely, to a given z 0 there correspond

precisely n distinct values of w. Each of these values is called an

nth root of z, and we write

w nz

values of n z can be obtained as follows.

We write z and w in polar form

z r cos i sin

and

w R cos i sin

w R cos i sin R n cos n i sin n z r cos i sin

n

i.e.

R r

n

R r

n

n 2k ,

thus

2k

n

Re

of w. Further integers of k would give values already obtained. For

instance, k n gives 2k / n 2

for z 0, has the n distinct values

n

2k

2k

z r cos

i sin

n

n

n r

with center at the origin and constitute the vertices of

polygon of n sides.

Trigonometric notation: 1 i 3 2 cos 60 i sin 60

n

2k

2k

z n r cos

i sin

n

n

60

360

360

60

2 cos 60 i sin 60 2 cos k

i

sin

2

2

2

2

1

2

1

2

For k = 0, root is

For k = 1, root is

2 cos30 isin30

rectangular form.

Write in trigonometric form. 8 8i 3 16 cis 120

Here r = 16 and = 120. The fourth roots of this number have

absolute value

4

16 2.

120 360 k

30 90 k

4

4

There are four fourth roots, let k = 0, 1, 2 and 3.

k 0

30 90 0 30

k 1

30 90 1 120

k 2

30 90 2 210

k 3

30 90 3 300

2 cis 30 ,

2 cis 120 ,

3i

1 i 3

3 i

1

3

1 i 3

all on a circle that has center

at the origin and radius 2.

graphically.

14

13

a 1 i , (b ) 2 3 2i

Find the square roots of

15 i 8

treat the imaginary number i as a constant

1 i x

e

dx

Example: The integral

Let

then

u 1 i x

du 1 i dx

1

u

e

. du

1 i

dx

du

1 i

eu

1 i

e

1 i

1 i x

1 i x

gives

e 1 i

1 i 1i x

e

2

1 i 1 i

the constant will be a complex number as well thus c c1 ic 2

1 i 1i x

1 i x

e dx 2 e c1 ic 2

integrals.

x

x

e

cos

x

dx

e

Integration such as

and sin x dx can

be solved using integration by parts.

Using the integral e 1i x dx we can solve integration easily

2

Firstly, rearranging

1i x

dx

x

ix

e

e

dx

x

e

cos x i sin x dx

x

x

e

cos

x

dx

i

e

sin x dx

1 i 1i x

e

c1 ic 2 yields

2

1 i 1i x

c1 ic 2

e

2 2

1 i x

e cos x i sin x c1 ic 2

2 2

1 x

i x

e cos x i sin x e cos x i sin x c1 ic 2

2

2

1 x

1

e cos x i sin x e x i cos x sin x c1 ic 2

2

2

1 x

1

1

1

e cos x i e x sin x i e x cos x e x sin x c1 ic 2

2

2

2

2

1 x

1 x

e cos x sin x c1 i e sin x cos x ic 2

2

2

1 x

1

2

2

rearranged, are equivalent, it means that the real parts are

equal to each other, as well as the imaginary parts

x

x

e

cos

x

dx

i

e

sin x dx

1 x

1 x

2

2

Therefore

1 x

e cos x dx 2 e cos x sin x c

1 x

x

e sin x dx 2 e sin x cos x c

x

- complex variablesUploaded byvikas kumar singh
- Fourier TransformUploaded byresmi_ng
- C3 June 05Uploaded byshah143
- AGI Data SheetsUploaded byAnton Medina
- Just the Maths - A.J.hobson (Complex Numbers)Uploaded byKriss_Ps
- 10 4 Demoivre TheoremUploaded byEbookcraze
- Teacher's Yearly Planner Addmath F5 2012Uploaded bybridhuan
- MA1505 Tutorial Solution 1Uploaded byBilguun Batbold
- Math 14 1st 2011-2012Uploaded byMariel Josef Sabigan
- 2011 Sincos 90637 TaskUploaded byBob Parsons
- CLEP Pre-Calculus Practice Test 2.pdfUploaded bydomini809
- C3 June 05Uploaded byImashi Fernando
- matenmat osnove fizikeUploaded byAgrif.bg-fovka
- Bowen 2009 Prelim Am p1Uploaded byJASON_INGHAM
- maths iia paper 1Uploaded byapi-312385754
- JS1K Demo - The Making of — AckoUploaded byAnkit
- Solutions Chap15Uploaded byapi-3730129
- Trig Functions multiple ChoiceUploaded byLouie George McQuiles
- Solutions to Jan 27-31 Homework AssignmentUploaded byjanroxa
- Ch2Uploaded byAnonymous rhUNqC1s0
- 756_4332_2_LEUploaded bySuraj Thapa
- 2004p1u1pmathsUploaded byTariq Robinson
- C3 Practice PaperUploaded byAhmed Nurul
- Problem 2Uploaded byAndres Mauricio Moreno Luna
- other essential skills argand diagrams and polar form.pdfUploaded byMuhammad Tahir
- Trigonometric Functions (Kelompok 5)Uploaded byRyan
- complex.pdfUploaded byGurprit singh
- TrigUploaded byCaro Thanakorn
- Trig Plan 3bUploaded byErenia Yeager
- 1979_Bookmatter_MuchAdoAboutCalculusUploaded byHazelMaeJoseRico

- NUMERIC MODEL OF A CO 2 LASER AMPLIFIERUploaded byNadia F Mohammad Al-Roshdee
- VideoUploaded byNadia F Mohammad Al-Roshdee
- What is the Conductivity of Sodium Chloride_ - QuoraUploaded byNadia F Mohammad Al-Roshdee
- Cooper 1946Uploaded byNadia F Mohammad Al-Roshdee
- Kr 3419301933Uploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- 4.pdfUploaded byNadia F Mohammad Al-Roshdee
- 2.pdfUploaded byNadia F Mohammad Al-Roshdee
- Fiber optic sensor technology: an overviewUploaded byNadia F Mohammad Al-Roshdee
- INTRO_CVUploaded bypavan
- lect7Uploaded byNadia F Mohammad Al-Roshdee
- analytic functionUploaded byNadia F Mohammad Al-Roshdee
- Development of an automated diode-laser-based multicomponent gas sensorUploaded byNadia F Mohammad Al-Roshdee
- Automation of CO2 laser output power measurement as a function of the absorber gas pressureinacell located inside or outside the laser cavityUploaded byNadia F Mohammad Al-Roshdee
- PC control and data processing in relation with a standalone laser beam analyzerUploaded byNadia F Mohammad Al-Roshdee
- Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) for C-Band Optical Communication SystemUploaded byNadia F Mohammad Al-Roshdee
- What is LifeUploaded byNadia F Mohammad Al-Roshdee
- analytical mechanicsUploaded byNadia F Mohammad Al-Roshdee
- RELATIVE HERMITIAN MATRICESUploaded byNadia F Mohammad Al-Roshdee
- fin01Uploaded byNadia F Mohammad Al-Roshdee
- 05357384Temperature Insensitive All-Fiber Compact Polarization-Maintaining Photonic Crystal Fiber Based Interferometer and Its Applications in Fiber SensorsUploaded byNadia F Mohammad Al-Roshdee
- Student Laboratory Experiments on Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers and LasersUploaded byNadia F Mohammad Al-Roshdee
- Applications of Distributed Fiber Strain Sensing for Smart StructuresUploaded byNadia F Mohammad Al-Roshdee
- Historical Review of Microbend Fiber-optic SensorsUploaded byNadia F Mohammad Al-Roshdee
- 00135293Microbending Losses for Noncircular Weakly Guiding Single-Mode FibersUploaded byNadia F Mohammad Al-Roshdee
- The relation between mediation and use in the research field of information and communication in FranceUploaded byNadia F Mohammad Al-Roshdee
- A MODEL OF TEMPERATURE EFFECTS IN PULSED AND CONTINUOUS WAVE CO2 LASERS AND OPTIMIZATION USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGYUploaded byNadia F Mohammad Al-Roshdee
- Effect of pulse-shape uncertainty on the accuracy of deconvolved lidar profilesUploaded byNadia F Mohammad Al-Roshdee
- 10.1.1.24Uploaded byAbhilash
- Curso de LabVIEW Seis HorasUploaded bymdiazcastellanos

- Adva PI SolUploaded byAshish Ranjan
- Taylor SeriesUploaded bylimegloss
- series.pdfUploaded bytomdavis777
- Cal_Zill_Sol_InvCálculo Trascendentes Tempranas 4ta Edicion Denis G. Zill, Warren Wright Sol.pdfUploaded byDiego Alejandro
- Hermite InterpolationUploaded byKuhu Koyaliya
- Maths Quest Methods Solutions y11Uploaded byWilliam Nguyen
- DetailedSyllabi ME 2006Uploaded byBivin Mathew
- unit 4b graphing rational and radical equationsUploaded byapi-287816312
- QB_M2E04 Trigonometry IUploaded byAllyLau
- First Final Examination Math Grade 9Uploaded byNick Bantolo
- dynami solutionUploaded byAnas Rosdi
- Real AnalysisUploaded byJose Luis Condori
- Método de FrobeniusUploaded byBrayan Pimentel
- TRIG-sohcahtoa-worksheet.pdfUploaded byGwendolynWolverinasaurusBahun
- 109_Topic8Uploaded byvishal_bokaro
- 50g Hyperbolic FunctionsUploaded byMarco Antonio Moncerrate
- 16-17 a2 m1 w topicsUploaded byapi-234130682
- Part 1 - What is a Fourier SeriesUploaded byShashwat Tanay
- Complex Analysis - George Cain (Chapter 7 - Harmonic Functions)Uploaded byRoberto Armenta
- Obj. 12 Logarithmic Functions (Presentation)Uploaded bySandra Miller
- complex_analysis.pdfUploaded byMiguel Zamora
- Algebraic Expressions.docxUploaded byCaitlene Lee Uy
- Ch.1 AlgebraUploaded byNurHudaAshaari
- SeriesUploaded byNamdev
- SCILAB Elementary FunctionsUploaded byMAnohar Kumar
- mmkmkmUploaded byaoffiez
- Review College AlgebraUploaded byY D Amon Ganzon
- Complex NumbersUploaded bySherif Yehia Al Maraghy
- Simplifying Trig ExpressionsUploaded bynishagoyal
- INTEGRAL CALCULUS Handouts.docUploaded byurfriend_jjn05