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This is to certify that ...

of XII-A has completed the Chemistry project
partial fulfilment of curriculum of ALL INDIA
was carried out in the school laboratory of
K.V.Pangode during the academic year 2014-15.





I take this opportunity to express my gratitude in few words
and respect to all those who helped me in the completion of
this project. The successful completion of any task would be
incomplete without mentioning the names of those persons
who helped to make it possible.
It is my humble pleasure to acknowledge my deep senses of
gratitude and heartfelt indebtedness to Shri. Meena madam for
her valuable support, constant help and guidance at each and
every stage, without which this project would not have come
I also register my sense of gratitude to our principal,Shri K.B.K
Unnithan sir , for his immense encouragement that has made
this project successful.
I would also like to thank my friends and family for their
endless support without which I could not have completed this
work in time.

Sl no:





Uses of Alloys


Experiment 1Brass


Experiment 2-Bronze



Page no:

An alloy is a mixture or metallic solid
solution composed of two or
more elements. Complete solid solution alloys give
single solid phase microstructure, while partial
solutions give two or more phases that may or may
not be homogeneous in distribution, depending on
thermal (heat treatment) history. Alloys usually
have different properties from those of the
component elements.

The term alloy is used to describe a mixture of atoms

in which the primary constituent is a metal. The
primary metal is called the base, the matrix, or
the solvent. The secondary constituents are often
called solutes. If there is a mixture of only two types
of atoms, not counting impurities, such as a coppernickel alloy, then it is called a binary alloy. If there
are three types of atoms forming the mixture, such
as iron, nickel and chromium, then it is called
a ternary alloy. An alloy with four constituents is
a quaternary alloy, while a five-part alloy is termed
a quinary alloy. Because the percentage of each

constituent can be varied, with any mixture the

entire range of possible variations is called a system.
In this respect, all of the various forms of an alloy
containing only two constituents, like iron and
carbon, is called a binary system, while all of the alloy
combinations possible with a ternary alloy, such as
alloys of iron, carbon and chromium, is called
a ternary system.
The complete analysis of an alloy involves two steps,
qualitative and quantitative analysis. In qualitative
analysis, the components of the alloy are found out
and in quantitative analysis their percentage
composition is determined.
The purpose of this project is to determine
qualitatively, the contents of samples of Brass and

i) To modify chemical reactivity :When sodium is used as reducing agent it is too
reactive to be used but its alloy with mercury, called
sodium amalgam can be safely used as reducing
ii) To increase hardness :Hardness of gold is increased by adding copper to it.
Also zinc is added to copper to make copper hard in
form of brass.
iii) To increase tensile strength :Nickeloy, an alloy of Nickel (1%), Copper (4%) and
aluminium (95%) has high tensile strength.
iv) To lower the melting point :Solder metal which is an alloy of Sn(30%) and
Pb(70%) has very less melting point as compared to
melting points of Sn and Pb.
v) To modify the colour :Aluminium bronze an alloy of Cu and Al has a
beautiful golden colour.

vi) To resist corrosion:Iron gets rusted and corroded. Its corrosion takes
place with time but for stainless steel, an alloy of
iron (98%) and carbon (2%) does not get rusted.

Aim : To analyze a sample of brass qualitatively.
Requirements : China dish, test-tube funnel, filter
paper and common laboratory reagents.
Theory :
Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc. with the
Composition :
Cu = 60-90% and Zn. = 10-40%.
Thus Cu and Zn. form the main constituents of brass.
Both these metals dissolved in 50% of nitric acid due
to formation of nitrates which are soluble.
3Cu + 8HNO3 3Cu(NO3)2 + N2O + 5H2O
4Zn + 10HNO3 4 Zn (NO3)2 + N2O + 5H2O
The solution is boiled to expel the oxides of nitrogen
and the resulting solution is tested for Cu2+ and
Zn2+ ions.
Procedure :

1. Place a small piece of brass in a china dish and

heat this with minimum quantity of 50% HNO3 so as
to dissolve the piece completely.
2. Continue heating the solution till a dry solid
residue is obtained.
3. Dissolve the solid residue in dil. HCl and filter. Add
distilled water to the filtrate.
4. Pass H2S gas through the filtrate. A black
precipitate of copper sulphide is obtained. Separate
the black ppt. and keep the filtrate for the test of Zn2+
ions Dissolve black ppt. by heating them with 50%
HNO3. To this solution add ammonium hydroxide
solution. Appearance of deep blue colouration in the
solution shows the presence of copper ions in the
5. To test Zn2+ ions, boil the filtrate to remove H2S
gas, then add solid NH4Cl to this and heat to dissolve
NH4Cl. Add excess of NH4OH so that a solution is
ammoniacal. Now pass H2S gas through this
ammoniacal solution. Dirty white or grey
precipitation indicate zinc.
6.Separate the precipitates and dissolve it in
minimum amount of dil. HCl. Boil to expel H2S gas
and add potassium Ferro cyanide solution, white or
bluish white ppt. confirm Zn2+ ions in the solution.

Result :
The given sample of brass contains copper and zinc
metals as the main constituents.

Aim : To analyze a sample of bronze qualitatively.
Requirements : China dish, test-tube funnel, filter
paper and common laboratory reagents.
Theory :
Bronze is an alloy of copper and tin with the
Composition :
Cu = 88-96% and Sn. = 4-12%.
Thus copper and zinc form the main constituents of
bronze. Both these metals dissolved in nitric acid.
Cu + HNO3 Cu2+ + NO + H2O
Sn + HNO3 H2SnO3 + NO2 + H2O
(Conc. acid) (Metastannic Acid)
Excess of nitric acid is removed by heating the
solution. The resulting solution now would contain
Cu2+ ions and metastannic acid. This solution is
acidified with dil. HCl and H2S gas is passed when
the sulphides of copper and tin are formed.

Cu2+ + S2 CuS (Black ppt.)

H2SnO3 + 2H2S SnS2 (Black ppt.) + 3H2O
The sulphides are separated by boiling the ppt. with
yellow ammonium sulphide when SnS2 goes into
solution as thiostannate where as CuS is not affected.
SnS2 + (NH4)2S (NH4)2 SnS2 (Soluble)
Ammonium thiostannate.
CuS + (NH4)2S CuS (Unaffected)
Black ppt.
The soluble black ppt. is tested for Cu2+ ions and the
solution is tested for Sn2+ ions as in elementary
qualitative analysis.
Procedure :
1. Take about 1g. of small pieces of bronze in a china
dish and add to it 5-10 ml. of dil. HNO3.
2. Heat the contents slowly to dissolve copper and
tin completely and then boil the contents to a paste
to remove excess of HNO3. All this is carried out in
cup board.
3. Dissolve this dry mass in distilled water
containing HCl (1:1) to get a clear solution.

4. Transfer the solution in a test tube and pass H2S in

excess i.e. till the precipitation is complete. Filter and
reject the filtrate.
5. Take the black ppt. in a test tube and add to it 2-3
ml. of yellow ammonium sulphide and heat. Filter
the contents. Black residue is tested for Cu2+ ions
and filtrate is tested for Sn2+ ions.
6. Analysis of black residue :
Transfer a little of the black ppt. into a test tube. Add
to it 2-3 ml. of 50%. HNO3 and boil the contents of
the tube. A light blue or green sol. indicates the
presence of Cu2+. Divide this sol. into two parts.
(a) To one part add excess of NH4OH a deep blue
colouration confirms the presence of Cu2+ ions.
(b) Acidify the second part with acetic acid and add
K4 [Fe (CN)6] i.e. potassium ferrocyanide solution. A
reddish brown ppt. confirms the presence of
Cu2+ ions.
7. Analysis of filtrate :
Boil the filtrate with 1 ml. of dil. HCl. A yellow ppt. is
obtained. Dissolve in 1 ml. conc. HCl. To this solution
add 0.5 g. of zinc dust and boil it for 2-3 minutes.
Filter and to filtrate add 1-2 ml. of mercuric chloride
solution. A white ppt. turning grey on standing
confirms the presence of Sn4+ ions.

Result :
The given sample of bronze contains - Copper and
Tin as the main constituents.

Comprehensive lab manual Lakshmi Publications