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Institute of Ferrous Metallurgy

RWTH Aachen

9.1 Basics
Process design
Softening behavior
Micro-alloying elements

Topic 9:
Metallurgical effects during hot strip rolling

9.2 Thermomechanical treatment (TMT)

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Wolfgang Bleck

Outline

Bandgieanlage

A = 7.500 m

50

Vg = 30 - 90 m/min

m
= 55 - 100 t/hm
150 m

A = 17.500 m

Thin slab
Vg = 4 - 6 m/min
= 100 - 160 t/hm
m

50

9.1 Basics
Process design
Softening behavior
Micro-alloying elements

350 m

9.2 Thermomechanical treatment (TMT)

A = 105.000 m

Slab

15
0

Vg = 0,8 - 1,2 m/min


m = 80 - 130 t/hm

700 m

Source: Lindenberg, H.-U.: Vorlesung Edelsthle. 16.12.2004, Institut fr Eisenhttenkunde RWTH Aachen

Outline

Processing of hot rolled strip

1. slab warehouse

7. delivery roller table


11. coil store
6. finishing mill 8. strip cooling

material flow

2
3
4

6
7

11

10

12

9. coiler

2. furnace 3. roughing mill 4. coil box

10. coil transporter

5. descaler
12. roll grinding shop

Schematic temperature-time courses


between casting and hot rolling

Set-up of a hot rolling mill

furnace

roughing mill finishing mill

cooling section

coiler

Metallurgical processes in the


hot rolled wide strip train

-4

austenitisation
temperature 1150C

-2

400

300
grain size, m

ASTM grain size

Austenite grain sizes for different


process routes

2
4

1050C

6
8
10

950C
2

6
8 10 12
4
austenitisation time, h

14

100
0
800

12
0

200

16

C-Mn

900

Al

Nb

1100
1000
temperature, C

1200

Ti
1300

Austenite grain growth


of microalloyed steels

Grain growth during austenitisation

9.1 Basics
Process design
Softening behavior
Micro-alloying elements

.
.
.

9.2 Thermomechanical treatment (TMT)


,0
8
1

1
,0
4
6

9
8
,0
2

ild:2.5
B

2
,1
0

l
A
%

0
2
1

0
1

l/N
A
1
=

,0
3
5
4
N
%

0
6
9
8
,7

.
.

Solubility isotherms for AlN

Outline

strain hardening

1,0
dynamic
recovery

dynamic
recrystallisation

dynamic
recrystallisation

0,8
recrystallised
fine grain

rolling gap

strain

coarse
initial grain

0,6

Nb-steel

0,4
Ti-Stahl
Ti-steel

static
recovery

static
recrystallisation

Schematic diagram of softening


behaviour during hot rolling

0,2
deformed
0
900

950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250


deformation temperature, C

Influence of deformation temperature


and strain on dynamic recrystallisation

z
z

Effect of deformation temperature


on flow curves

Static softening of a VAC steel


after deformation in ferrite and austenite

Dynamic softening: effect of strain rate


on softening mechanisms of AK and IF steel

Grain size trend at rolling


of a 12 mm thick hot strip

temperature, C

.
.
.
.
.

.
.

Ferrite grain size of hot strip after finish


rolling in austenite or ferrite range

Isothermal precipitationtemperature-time diagram for AlN

microstructure

character
of formation

transformation
range

temperature, C

700
diffusion in
then transformation

pearlite range

bainite

diffusion in
then shear
then diffusion in und

bainite range

500

300

100

Effect of slab-reheating temperature


on the behaviour of AlN-precipitate

ferrite, carbide
pearlite

martensite

shear
then glide or twinning
(then diffusion in )

martensite range

Microstructure formation
in unalloyed steels

9.1 Basics
Process design
Softening behavior
Micro-alloying elements
9.2 Thermomechanical treatment (TMT)

.
.

Combined CCT and DCCTdiagram for a S460M steel

.
.

Outline

Tendency of metals to form


oxides, sulfides, carbides, and nitrides

Metal

Atomic radius
nm

Difference to Fe atom
%

Ti
V
Cr

0.147
0.136
0.128

+14.8
+ 6.2
+0

Zr
Nb
Mo

0.160
0.148
0.140

+25.0
+15.6
+ 9.4

Hf
Ta
W

0.168
0.148
0.141

+31.3
+15.6
+10.2

Atomic radii and differences


in atomic radii to Fe

Solubility product of nitrides and carbides


in austenite and ferrite

Schematic solubility diagram

Isothermal solubility curves at various


temperatures of NbC, TiC, and VN in steel

Temperature dependent precipitation of Ti and


Nb compounds in a (Ti+Nb)-alloyed steel

Nb content, %
0,001
250

0,01

0,05 0,10
10

200
15

s , MPa

20

150

30

100
40
50

50

0
0,1

100
200

0,2

0,3

0,4

0,5

0,6

1 /3

( %Nb)

Influence of Nb-content and


precipitation size on yield strength

Precipitation diagram of Nb(C,N) in nondeformed austenite or during deformation

200

average particle size, m

AlN
Nb(C,N)

very coarse
precipitates
approx. 100 nm

acceleration of
transformation

coarse
precipitates
approx. 50 nm

grain refinement

100
80
60
40

average strength
good toughness

9.2 Thermomechanical treatment (TMT)

20
fine
precipitates
approx. 10 nm

precipitation hardening
high strength
average toughness

800
1000
1200
precipitation temperature, C

Influence of precipitation
temperature on particle size

Outline

A process is considered a ThermoMechanical


Treatment (TMT) when the temperature and
deformation conditions are consciously manipulated to
give the final product material properties that are not
attainable through conventional manufacturing.
During the thermomechanical treatment austenite
recrystallization is retarded; thus the transformation
starts from a strained austenite which results in a
very fine microstructure.
Microalloying elements are used for recrystallization
and transformation control, grain refinement and
precipitation strengthening.

1200

TMT
1000
StE 890
yield strength, MPa

9.1 Basics
Process design
Softening behavior
Micro-alloying elements

StE 690 tempered (water)

800

StE 530
tempered (air)
StE 460

600

St 52, StE 355

400
200
0
1900

StE 960

St 37

normalised

hot rolled

1925

1950

1975

Structural steel evolution in Germany

2000

Thermomechanical treatment

normalising
rolling

conventional
rolling

yield strength, MPa

600
500
400

Strain
Ti
Strainhardening
hardeningthrough
throughTMT+Nb,
TMT + MAE
Precipitation
Ti
Precipitationhardening
hardeningthrough
throughTMT+Nb,
TMT + MAE
Grain
Ti
Grain refinement
refinementthrough
throughTMT+Nb,
TMT + MAE

300
200
100

Solid solution strenghtening

temperature

700

thermomechanical
rolling

micro-alloys
+

-not
recrystallised

Mn

coiling

accelerated
cooling

TNR
Ar3
Ar1

Basic strength

0
time

Strengthening mechanisms

Different types of rolling

Titanium, Niobium, Vanadium (contents <0,1%)


Useful in solid solution and as precipitates:
carbides
nitrides
carbonitrides
Influences on hot strip rolling:
retardation of austenite grain growth
retardation of recrystallisation during deformation
retardation of transformation behaviour
Improvement of mechanical properties:
precipitation hardening
grain refinement

Microalloying for
thermomechanical rolling

Metallurgical phenomena during hot rolling of


wide strips (thermomechanical treatment)

Influence of dissolved and precipitated Nb at two deformation


temperatures on the delay of recrystallization in austenite.
Graphed is the decrease in strength between the first and second
deformation pass as a function of pause duration

Mechanisms of dissolved and precipitated


niobium, vanadium, and titanium in steel

Influence of dissolved and precipitated Nb


on the delay of recrystallization in austenite

Minimum temperature
for complete recrystallisation in C

1100

Nb

1050
Steel composition:
0.07% C, 1.4% Mn
deformation per pass
10-15%

1000
950

Ti

900
Al

850
800
750
0

0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25


Dissolved content in %

Influence of Nb on transformation behavior


at various austenizing temperatures

Increase in yield strength through Nb

increase of
yield strength in MPa

Delay in recrystallization in austenite


through micro-alloying elements

400

impact transition
temperature T27 C

Interactions between
recrystallization and precipitation

40

GR = grain refinement
P = precipitates

300
200

GR

GR

100

P
GR

0
60

20

P
P+GR

P+GR

-20

GR
P+GR

GR

GR

-40
-60
0

0.04 0.08 0
% Nb

Increase in yield strength


through precipitation hardening

0.04 0.08 0.12 0.16


% Ti

0.04 0.08 0.12


%V

Influence of precipitates and grain


refinement on mechanical properties

1.0

Degree of deformation

End

Ti-steel
Nb-steel

0.8
Start
0.6

0.4

Ti-Stahl
0.2

900

950

1000

1050

1100

1150

1200

1250

Deformation temperature in C

Influence of transformation temperature and


degree of deformation on dynamic recrystallization

Influence of microalloying elements


on static recrystallisation

(Ti-microalloyed steel with 0.08% C and 0.8% Mn)

Influence of cooling rate


on ferrite grain size

Cooling time for a 50% transformation in pearlite


after different austenitization conditions

austenisation temperature
deformation temperature in the last step
total strain
deformation distribution on several deformation steps
final strain rate
interpass time between the deformation steps
cooling rate
coiling temperature

Influence of coiling temperature


on yield strength

Parameters influencing the TMT

Influence of parameters on
strength and toughness

10