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Charging for Access: How California Charter Schools Exclude Vulnerable Students

By Imposing Illegal Family Work Quotas

Hilary Hammell Public Advocates 2014


Maria was thrilled when her son Max was chosen by lottery to attend sixth grade at an Oakland
charter school. But when Maria learned that the school required her to work at least 30 hours per year at
the school as a condition of Maxs enrollment, she became frustrated. She could not easily get time off
from her factory job to work those hours. And, as she explains, Because I dont speak English it was
hard for me to read the board where they posted the jobs they needed parents to do. Her conclusion was
simple: I decided just not to do the hours. But this decision had a consequence: when she brought Max
to school on the first day of seventh grade, his name did not appear on the class list. Max had been unenrolled because Maria had not worked her quota of hours. Maria was told she could either pay the school
$300 on the spot a $10 per hour price to fulfill the work quota or she could buy three large boxes of
a specific brand of printer paper from Costco, which cost $80. Maria quickly jumped in her car and drove
to Costco to buy the printer paper. When she brought it back to the office, the school allowed Max to
enroll in seventh grade.
At another charter school near Sacramento, Kristen was looking forward to her fifth grade classs
end-of-year field trip to a water park. But on the Friday before the field trip, her teacher told Kristen that
she could not go because her mother had not worked at school for the required 40 annual service hours.
Kristen went home in tears. Her mother, Raquel, became furious. She drove to the school immediately
and asked the teacher to give her work to do. Ill volunteer right now, Raquel said. What can I do so
that Kristen can go on the trip? She made me clean her room. I had to take posters down from the
walls. I had to climb up on a small childrens desk to pull the nails off the wall by hand. I felt like I was a
mother one minute and a cleaning lady the next. At the teachers instruction, Raquel went to a paint store
to buy paint in a specific shade of blue, and then painted the classroom shelves. Finally, the teacher
decided that Raquel had worked for enough hours to fulfill her quota, and Kristen was allowed to go on
the field trip.1
These parents stories are not unique. Throughout California, public charter schools regularly
force parents to work at the school for a set quota of hours per year in exchange for educating their child.
At many schools, if parents do not perform the required work, they must pay the school in money or
goods or else face the risk that their child will be un-enrolled or unable to participate in school activities.
We investigated 555 charter schools in California nearly half of all charters and found at least 168
(30% of the sample) clearly require a parent work quota. The number of required work hours varies. The
most extreme policy we found required parents to work at the school one day per week.2 The most lenient
policy on our list requires work at one event during the school year.3 But the majority of schools require
40 hours of parent work per year, and many schools require more hours of work for every additional child
a family has in that school.

Names in both stories have been changed.

Bridges Charter School Handbook at 34 (Appendix B at 2), also available at http://www.publicadvocates.org/forced-parentwork-policies
Rise Kohyang Charter School policy available at http://www.publicadvocates.org/forced-parent-work-policies

Charging for Access Public Advocates 2014

While schools can and should encourage that parents play an active role in their childrens
education, not all children are fortunate enough to have parents who can afford to take time off from
work, or who have access to childcare or transportation that would allow them to do so. Some children
may not be lucky enough to live with a stable adult guardian at all. Thus, while schools should encourage
parental participation, public schools, including charters, must not force parents to do work at the school
as a condition of their childs enrollment or participation in educational activities. Such policies
discriminate against poor families, single-parent families, non-traditional households and working
parents, and thereby exclude children who may stand to benefit significantly from attending nurturing
public schools. Most importantly, as we will discuss in this report, requiring parents to perform work at a
public school violates California law.
In this report, we first outline the results of our investigation into the extent of forced work
policies in Californias public charter schools. We then explain why the practice violates both
Constitutional and statutory law prohibiting public schools from charging fees.4 We end with
recommendations for charter schools, charter school authorizers and policymakers to ensure that no child
is discriminated against by any public school on the basis of whether or not his or her parent or guardian
can do work for the school.

Rampant Instances of Forced Labor: Public Charter Schools in California Routinely

Require Parents to Perform Unpaid Work at School.

Policies requiring charter school parents to perform unpaid work are widespread throughout the
state. We reviewed nearly half of all 1,130 charter schools in California.6 We found that 168, or almost
one-third of the 555 charter schools we surveyed, explicitly require unpaid parent or family service
hours.7 But this does not mean that schools in the rest of our sample do not require parent work quotas.
Of almost all the remaining charter schools we researched, there was simply not enough information
available publicly to conclude whether or not the school required work hours.8 Only six schools in our
sample had policies clearly stating that working at the school was not required.9

This report does not discuss whether requiring parents to do unpaid work violates federal or state labor laws, but that remains a
possibility depending on the nature and beneficiaries of the tasks performed. See Alamo Found. v. Secy of Labor, 471 U.S. 290
(1985); Solis v. Laurelbrook Sanitarium & Sch., 642 F.3d 518 (6th Cir. 2011).
We focused only on policies requiring parent work hours, not policies requiring the student to do work.
According to the California Charter Schools Association, as of fall 2013 there were 1,130 charter schools in California.
California Charter Schools by the Numbers, http://www.calcharters.org/understanding/numbers/ (last visited Oct. 13, 2014).
A note about nomenclature: charter schools often call these policies volunteer hours. Because we believe that work ceases to
be voluntary when it is required, we refer to the practice as forced service hours, forced work, unpaid work or work
quotas throughout this report. Professor Kevin Welner has referred to the practice as sweat equity contracts. Kevin G. Welner,
The Dirty Dozen: How Charter Schools Influence Student Enrollment, Teachers College Record (2013).
More information regarding methodology is available in Appendix A.
Schools in this category made clear statements to the effect of [f]ailure to agree to or to abide by [the volunteer hours] will not
affect a students admission or enrollment status. Valley Arts & Science Academy Application (authorized by Fresno Unified),
available at http://vasaelementary.com/documents/VASA%20Student%20Application.pdf (last visited Oct. 13, 2014).

Charging for Access Public Advocates 2014

Results of survey of 555

charter schools in California

168: Clearly

381: Not
information to

6: Clearly did
not require

We found work quota policies at charter schools across the state. Prevalent approaches include:
(1) requiring parents to sign a contract promising to volunteer for the required number of hours at the
school as a condition of enrollment; (2) requiring parents to log or track their volunteer hours; and (3)
allowing parents to buy the hours for some amount (ranging from $6 to $25 per hour), or with
donations of goods to the school, if the parent cannot fulfill the work quota.10
Such policies are evidence of schools that truly require, rather than simply encourage, parents to
do unpaid work. If parents do not complete the hours or buy them, charter schools threaten
consequences for the child such as los[ing]enrollment status for the following year, or being unable
to graduate.11 A copy of every policy statement we found in our investigation is available on our website
at http://www.publicadvocates.org/forced-parent-work-policies
The Types of Work That Charter Schools Require
In our investigation we found that charter schools force parents to do diverse types of work,
ranging from those tasks traditionally thought of as suitable for parent volunteers such as chaperoning
field trips or helping in the classroom to work seemingly more suited for paid staff. Some of the work
parents are asked to do may rely on their skills, such as IT or translation work, while other work may be
menial, such as yard work, janitorial work, and, as in Raquels case, being made to serve as a cleaning
Here are just a few examples of charter school policies throughout the state.


See Encore Charter School (located in San Bernardino County), Parent and Student Mandatory Volunteer Program letter: $20
worth of Donations equals 1 Hour of Time and Families not available to volunteer hours can donate specific goods for
volunteer credit. (Appendix B at 4 - 6) also available at http://www.publicadvocates.org/forced-parent-work-policies
For each of the 17 Green Dot charter schools that use the same handbook, 35 parent service hours are required each year, and a
total of 140 hours (for four years), appears on the Graduation Requirements list. (Appendix B at 7 - 12); Encore Charter School
makes clear that [i]f a family does not participate in the volunteer program, they can lose their enrollment status for the
following year. (Appendix B at 4). Both policies are also viewable at http://www.publicadvocates.org/forced-parent-workpolicies

Charging for Access Public Advocates 2014

Bay Area

Manzanita Charter Middle School, authorized by West Contra Costa Unified School
District, states in its parent handbook that parents must volunteer for at least 96 hours per school
year and participate in two mandatory school cleanings. A family must do the required
volunteer work to remain in good standing. A family not in good standingwill not receive
priority admission for a sibling the following school year.12

Vallejo Charter School, chartered by Vallejo City Unified School District, requires parents to
volunteer for 20 hours per year doing such tasks as assist with classroom maintenanceclean
upprovide child care for meetings13 If the family cannot do the required hours, they must
submit an appeal letter. If they do not prevail on their appeal, the child loses her place and
will be required to re-apply to the school.14

Greater Sacramento

Creative Connections Arts Academy, authorized by Twin Rivers Unified School District,
requires 30 hours of parent work per year or allows parents to purchase 10 of the hours for $10

Buckingham Charter Magnet High School, authorized by Vacaville Unified School District,
requires 10 hours of service per family per year, and allows parents to pay $20 per hour instead.15
Parents can request an exemption, which is reserved for illness, childbirth, and unforeseen
circumstances that would reasonably prevent you and/or your family from maintaining your hours
commitment.16 The schools charter provides that failure to complete the service hour
requirement may result in revocation of the Enrollment Master Agreement and student

Los Angeles

Academia Moderna, authorized by the Los Angeles Unified School District, provides in its
Parent-Student Handbook that Academia Moderna parents must comply with 20 annual


Manzanita Charter Middle School Student Family Handbook at 21 (Appendix B at 14); also available at
Vallejo Charter School Volunteer Policy Manual. (Appendix B at 22), also available at http://www.publicadvocates.org/forcedparent-work-policies
Vallejo Charter School Volunteer Policy Manual. (Appendix B at 18), also available at http://www.publicadvocates.org/forcedparent-work-policies
Buckingham Charter Magnet High School (Appendix B at 30) (All or part of your 10 hours may be contributed through
donations. Donations are calculated at a rate of $20 per hour.) Also available at http://www.publicadvocates.org/forced-parentwork-policies
Buckingham Charter Magnet High School Request for Hours Exemption (Appendix B at 26), also available at
Buckingham Charter School Renewal Petition at 23 (Appendix B at 28), also available at

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volunteer hours per family, and parents who fail to comply with parent school obligations will
place their child/childrens placement for the following school year at risk.18

The Academy of Science and Engineering charter school, also authorized by LAUSD, states in
its handbook that parents are required to complete 20 hours of parent volunteer hours per year.
Here is a partial list of activities for which parents may receive volunteer hour credit: Back-ToSchool Night Translate Documents Help Clean the School Main Office/School Support
Campus Maintenance/Facilities Support 19

Orange County

Santiago Charter School, authorized by Orange Unified School District, requires 12 service
hours and that parents fill out a form indicating whether they would like to volunteer for those
hours or donate money: for every $10 donated you will receive 1 service hour credit.20

Inland Empire

Encore High School, authorized by Hesperia Unified School District, tells parents as a
condition of enrollment every family is required to volunteer 8 hours per semester this
helps keep campus costs down . If a family does not participate in the volunteer program, they
can lose their enrollment status for the following year.21 The volunteer hours can be purchased:
$20 worth of donations equals 1 Hour of Time.22

Central Valley

Sanger Academy Charter School, authorized by Sanger Unified School District, requires
parents to sign a compact agreeing to volunteer at least 10 hours of time during the school year
to assist in school functions field trips, carnivals, fundraisers, school supervision, classroom
assistance, and provides that students/parents who consistently fail to meet the compact
requirements will be considered for transfer back to their home school at the end of the school

Abernathy Collegiate, authorized by Tehachapi Unified School District, says that each family
is asked to make a commitment to provide 30 service hours annually to support the activities of
the Charter School . Failure to participate in volunteer hours may result in loss of priority
enrollment rights for the following year.24


Academia Moderna Parent-Student Handbook at 16 (Appendix B at 32), also available at

Academy of Science and Engineering Handbook at 14. (Appendix B at 34), also available at
Santiago Charter Middle School Parent Volunteer Information Form, (Appendix B at 35), also available at
Encore Charter School, Parent and Student Mandatory Volunteer Program letter (Appendix B at 4, 6).
Id. (emphasis added).
Sanger Academy School Compact (Appendix B at 36), also available at http://www.publicadvocates.org/forced-parent-workpolicies
Abernathy Collegiate Charter School Parent Student Handbook at 39 (Appendix B at 38).

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San Diego area


EJE Academies, authorized by Cajon Valley Union School District, require parents to do 30
hours of work a year. The requirement is waived if your child has perfect attendance the entire
school year.25

Charter schools with

required parent work
hours in California out
of survey of 555 total
charter schools

Google 2014

Chula Vista Learning Community Charter School, authorized by Chula Vista Elementary
School District, provides that all parents must volunteer 30 hours per year. The school is quite
specific about how the hours must be worked. Fifteen hours are mandatory hours, which means
they must be spent on the following: 3 hrs: Traffic. 2 hrs: Curriculum Nights. 2 hrs: Town Hall
Meeting 2 hrs: Volunteer in festivals .26 Parents that have not met volunteer hours
receive a probation and a warning letter indicating possibility of leaving CVLCC. 27 After
two probations, a parent who fails to do the required work will have to meet with board [sic]


EJE Academies 2013-2014 Handbook at 14. (Appendix B at 41).

Chula Vista Learning Community Charter School Parent Handbook 2013-2014 at 21. (Appendix B at 45 - 46).

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to decide future enrollment of the student at CVLCC . Failure to complete parent volunteer
expectations results in returning to your home school.28

The Legal Framework: Requiring Parents to Work in Public Schools Is Illegal under
the California Constitution and Education Code.

Requiring parents or family members of a student to work at a public charter school violates both
the California Constitution and the California Education Code.
a. Forcing parents to volunteer at a public school violates the California Constitutions free
schools clause.
Forcing parents to do unpaid work at a public school violates the California Constitutions free
schools clause. The California Constitution makes education a fundamental right guaranteed to all
California children29 and requires the state to establish a system of free public schools.30 Courts in
California have interpreted the word free strictly to mean that public schools cannot impose any
financial burden on any activity that is an integral component of public education.31 According to the
California Supreme Court, the free schools clause reflects the peoples judgment that a childs public
education is too important to be left to the budgetary circumstances and decisions of individual
families.32 Whether a family lacks the money to pay a fee or simply decides not to pay a fee does not
matter. In either case, a public school may not deny the children of these families their right to a free
public education by requiring payment of a fee.
Requiring a parent to do volunteer work at a public school violates the Constitutions free
schools guarantee because the requirement to do unpaid labor is simply a non-monetary fee.33 A parent
who is forced to work is compelled to give up her labor instead of dollars in exchange for her childs
enrollment or participation in educational activities.
Moreover, laboring for a charter school as opposed to spending that time on other activities of the
parents choosing carries with it obvious opportunity costs. A parent who does unpaid yard work or acts
as an unpaid teachers aide for an hour at her childs school must forego an hour of paid work somewhere
else; must pay for childcare for that hour; or must otherwise incur costs and forego economic opportunity
for that hour. Charter schools expressly acknowledge this opportunity cost. For example, one school
policy states that to comply with the service-hours requirement, parents who work outside their homes


Serrano v. Priest, 5 Cal. 3d 584, 607-09 (1971).
Hartzell v. Connell, 35 Cal. 3d 899, 905-08 (1984); Cal. Const. Art. IX, 5.
Hartzell, 35 Cal. 3d at 909.
Id. at 911 (emphasis added).
Charter schools explicitly acknowledge that parent volunteering is analogous to giving something of value to the school. For
example, Valley Charter Elementary School requires 50 hours per year, or 75 per year if the parents have more than one child.
This school states in its handbook that parent volunteers keep our operational costs down .Volunteer hours must be tracked
in the school office (please complete the volunteer log each time you finish volunteering). Valley Charter Elementary School
Handbook at 10-12. (Appendix B at 49); also available at http://www.publicadvocates.org/forced-parent-work-policies

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are asked to look into any arrangements that can be made with employers, such as flex-time schedule,
working through lunch time to make up for classroom time, and/or using accumulated vacation time.34
Just as [a] school which conditions a students participation in educational activities upon the
payment of a fee clearly is not a free school,35 a school which conditions a students participation upon
a parents donation of time and service clearly is not a free school. Nor can a waiver from required
volunteer hours, which some charter schools offer, cure a practice that constitutes an unconstitutional
pupil fee, because the California Supreme Court has held that public schools may not charge fees even if
they can be waived based on financial hardship or otherwise.36
b. Forced parental service policies impermissibly discriminate against children whose
parents cannot or choose not to do unpaid work.
Allowing children to enroll in a public school only if their parents agree to do unpaid work
offends the egalitarian principles behind the free schools clause. Work quotas create a filter that selects
for: (1) families that can afford to spend time doing unpaid work and/or pay for the hours in lieu of
expending the time; (2) children who have committed, stable adult guardians in their lives; and/or (3)
parents who are especially motivated to do the work even in the face of financial or other obstacles. Many
charter schools characterize their work quotas as having precisely this discriminatory purpose they
want to enroll only those families who are willing and able do the required amount of volunteer work.37
One charter schools enrollment information web page says: [p]lease read the following
information about us, consider our parent involvement policies, and review the commitments we expect
from students and families. If this seems like a good fit for your family, then [move forward with the
application process].38 Unfortunately, this work filter punishes children for something that is not their
fault: who their parents are and whether their parents possess the resources, time or motivation to
volunteer at the school. As the U.S. Supreme Court has long recognized, however, no child is
responsible for his birth, and depriving a child of public education because of his parents behavior
does not comport with fundamental conceptions of justice.39


Bridges Charter School Parent Handbook at 34 (Appendix B at 2).

Hartzell, 35 Cal. 3d at 911.
Id. at 912-913.
Inland Leaders Charter School prefaces its parent work contract by stating: ILCS is a school of choice not a school of
entitlement. Inland Leaders Charter School Parent Contract (Appendix B at 51). Abernathy Collegiate Charter School says
students, parents, and staff make a choice to be part of the school community . Parents who choose to enroll their students
at ACCS will commit to supporting their child Abernathy Collegiate Charter School Handbook at 1 (Appendix B at 37). The
handbook from Oxford Preparatory Academy says: Parents of children attending OPA understand the importance of their role
and involvement in their childs education. Therefore, parents and students attending OPA sign the Learning Partnership
Agreement as a prerequisite for their enrollment. This agreement outlines the parent requirements for service hours, involvement
in school functions, and attendance at in-services and workshops. Oxford Prep Handbook at 54, available at
http://oxfordchampions.org/parentresources/chino-handbook-2013-2014.pdf (emphasis added).
Laurel Tree Charter School (Humboldt County), Enrollment Information (emphasis added),
http://www.laureltreelc.org/Enrollment.html (last visited Oct. 14, 2014).
Plyler v. Doe, 457 U.S. 202, 219-220 (1982) (citing in part Weber v. Aetna Cas. & Surety, 406 U.S. 164, 175 (1972). The U.S.
Constitution forbids depriving children of a government-conferred benefit as a means of expressing disapproval for the conduct
of the parents. Levy v. Louisiana, 391 U.S. 68, 72 (1968) (striking down state law denying recovery to illegitimate children for
mothers wrongful death); Plyler, 457 U.S. at 219-220 (holding that withholding state benefits to children as a means of
punishing unauthorized immigrants cannot comport with equal protection because children are not responsible for parents

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Prohibiting schools from using this kind of filter is exactly the point of the free schools clause. As
the California Supreme Court recognized in quoting John Swett, one of the founding fathers of the
California public school system: [if] left to their own unaided efforts, a great majority of the people will
fail through want of means to properly educate their children; another class, with means at command, will
fail through want of interest.40 The free schools guarantee solves this problem. Schools must be truly
free to ensure their availability for all children regardless of who their parents are and what their parents
can do or choose to do with their time. Attempting to select for only those parents who have the interest
or the means to do volunteer work puts those charter schools out of reach for children without wellresourced or motivated parents. But those are often the children who most need high-quality public
schools, including charter options. Such policies violate both the text and purpose of the free schools
clause as well as sections of Californias Education Code, as discussed below.
c. Requiring parents to do work at the school also violates Education Code 49011(b)(4).
Forced parent service policies at a public school violate section 49011(b)(4) of the California
Education Code. In 2011, in response to a lawsuit by the ACLU, the California legislature codified the
Constitutions free schools guarantee by adding sections 49010, 49011, 49012 and 49013 to the
Education Code. Most applicable here, Education Code 49011(b)(4) provides that a public school
shall not offer course credit or privileges related to educational activities in exchange for money or
donations of goods or services from a pupil or a pupils parents or guardians, and a school shall
not remove course credit or privileges related to educational activities, or otherwise discriminate
against a pupil, because the pupil or the pupils parents or guardians did not or will not provide
money or donations of goods or services to the school district or school. (Emphasis added).

The Education Code is clear: Public schools cannot require donations of services from parents. The
statute goes on to emphasize that the free schools clause does not prohibit solicitation of voluntary
donations of funds or property, voluntary participation in fundraising activities, or school districts,
schools, and other entities from providing pupils prizes or other recognition for voluntarily participating
in fundraising activities.41 The law thus distinguishes between required services, which are forbidden,
and voluntary services, which are allowed. The law also distinguishes between methods by which a
school might reward volunteerism: prizes or awards can be given, but privileges related to educational
activities cannot.42 Thus, requiring a parent to donate services to a public school as a condition of
providing her child with a place in that school, or as a condition of her childs receiving any educational
activities or privileges, is illegal under Education Code 49011(b)(4).
Charter schools in California are not exempt from the Constitutional and statutory prohibitions
discussed above. The Constitution applies to charter schools,43 and the Education Code provisions quoted
above say explicitly: This article applies to all public schools, including, but not limited to, charter

conduct); Weber, 406 U.S. at 175 (striking down state law denying workers compensation proceeds to non-marital children,
stating that to condemn a child for conduct of parent is illogical and unjust.).
Hartzell. 35 Cal. 3d at 911-12 (alteration and emphasis in original).
Cal. Educ. Code 49011(c).
[C]harter schools are part of Californias single, statewide public school system the Legislature has explicitly found that
charter schools are part of the article IX Public School System . Wilson v. State Bd. of Educ., 75 Cal. App. 4th 1125,
1137 (1999).

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schools and alternative schools.44 Moreover, charter schools are prohibited by the Charter Schools Act
from charging tuition.45 Charter schools that violate the no-fees law are also illegally charging tuition.
d. Charter schools should promote volunteerism without forcing parents to do unpaid work.
No one doubts that children flourish when parents play an active role in their education. Thus,
public schools can and should encourage parents to help their children with homework, to volunteer at
school, and to participate in school decision-making. These are not just nice ideas both federal and
state laws require schools to facilitate parent involvement.46
Under the federal Title I program, high-poverty schools receiving federal funds are required to
have parent involvement plans.47 And under state laws, including the Local Control Funding Formula and
the Charter School Act, charter schools are required to prioritize and facilitate parent involvement,
especially for parents of high-need students.48 However, nothing in these laws allows schools to achieve
high levels of parent involvement by coercion that is, by threatening to deny the parents child the
ability to participate in educational activities or remain enrolled in the school.49 In contrast, Title I and
California law instruct schools to support voluntary parent engagement by building parents capacities for
school participation and by breaking down barriers that stand in the way of parent involvement.50 Forced
work quotas are completely at odds with the spirit and the purpose of the state and federal laws that
address parent engagement.
Fortunately, there are many ways public schools, including charters, can encourage and facilitate
parent involvement without forcing parents to work, and charter schools can play a leadership role in
developing innovative approaches to doing so.51 For instance, charter school personnel can do home visits


Cal. Educ. Code 49011(d).

Id. at 47605(d)(1) (a charter school . . . shall not charge tuition).
Title I, codified at 20 U.S.C. 6301-6339 and 6571-6578, requires schools to plan and implement parent involvement
programs with meaningful consultation with parents of high-need children. 20 U.S.C. 6318(a)(1) (2002)
20 U.S.C. 6318(b).
Under Californias new Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF), schools must prioritize [p]arental involvement, including
efforts the school [] makes to seek parent input in making decisions for each individual schoolsite, and including how the
school [] will promote parental participation in programs for low-income students, English learners, foster youth, and students
with special education needs. Cal. Educ. Code 52060(d)(3). And under the Charter School Act, charter schools are required to
regularly consult with their parents, legal guardians, and teachers regarding the schools educational programs. Cal. Educ.
Code 47605(c)(2).
See also Julian Vasquez Heilig, Diversity is Hard: Will Charter Schools in Your Locale Choose Equity?, Nov. 11, 2013,
http://cloakinginequity.com/2013/11/11/diversity-is-hard-will-charter-schools-in-your-locale-choose-equity/ (arguing that
charters use policies such as compelling parental labor to choose their students rather than the other way around.)
For instance, Title I requires schools to offer meetings at times that are convenient to parents, and suggests schools use their
Title I funds to provide transportation, childcare, and home visits. 20 U.S.C. 6318(c)(1)-(2). Schools are required to build
parents capacity for involvement, id. at 6318(e), by, for example, making relevant information available in a language
parents understand. Id. at 6318(e)(5). Schools are required to build parents capacity by, e.g., explaining state standards to
parents, providing parents with literacy and technology training if necessary, and educating teachers, principals, and other school
staff, with the assistance of parents, on how to reach out to, communicate with, and work with parents as equal partners
and build ties between parents and the school. Id. at 6318(e)(3).
For example: Vaughn Next Century Learning Center provides an on-site Family Center a one-stop shop of health and
social services. It provides families with basic needs (clothing, food), drop-in counseling, prenatal care information, family
literacy families accessing services from the Center often give back by providing services to the school [such as] classroom
assistance, morning valet service, and volunteering at the Center . Vaughn Next Century Learning Center Charter Renewal
Petition (2013-2018) at 73, available at http://laschoolboard.org/sites/default/files/Final-Renewal-Petition-Vaughn-NextCentury-01-15-13.pdf. Similarly, Pathways Community Charter Schools charter details culturally-sensitive ways it will welcome
and encourage parent participation in its primarily Spanish-speaking, low-income community by staffing a bilingual Welcome


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to understand the linguistic, cultural and socio-economic barriers that may impede family participation in
the communities in which the school is or plans to be situated. The school can then build programs to
accommodate socio-cultural needs and eliminate obstacles to participation (by, e.g., providing childcare,
transportation and meals). Charter schools can ensure that their parental involvement strategies do not
operate as a barrier to any family and do not penalize any family for not participating. Given the freedom
charter schools have in creating their educational programs, and given that the legislature passed the
Charter Schools Act in order to place a special emphasis on expanding learning experiences for pupils
who are academically low achieving,52 charter schools are uniquely poised to develop best practices
for truly inclusive parent involvement.53
In the next section, we make policy recommendations for charter school operators, charter school
authorizers and state-level policymakers who want to involve parents in schools while complying with the
constitutional and statutory free schools guarantee.

Policy Recommendations

Forcing parents to do work at a public charter school violates the free schools clause of the
California constitution and related provisions of the Education Code. Charter schools, authorizers and
state-level agencies must take the following steps to make clear to all families throughout the state that
forced parental labor cannot be a condition of enrollment or of participating in any educational activity in
any public school in California.54
a. Recommendations for Charter Schools
! Stop requiring parents to work at the school or for the school.
! Stop requiring parents to buy unworked hours with money or goods.
! If parent service hours are not required but are only encouraged, make that
clear to parents with language such as no student will be denied
enrollment, nor face penalties or dismissal, for failure of the parent to
perform volunteer service.55

Center at the school, holding celebrations and events on Saturdays to accommodate work schedules, and having faculty
members reach out to family members directly. See Pathways Community School Charter Petition at 44, available at
This language comes from the statement of Legislative Intent in establishing charter schools. Cal, Educ. Code 47601(b).
See Best Practices in Parent Engagementa handout created by a coalition of community and advocacy organizations
working on LCFF implementation, available at http://bit.ly/LCFFparents.
Certain narrow exceptions for activities deemed not integral to the educational program have been established by the
legislature and specifically extended to charter schools. For example, a charter school can charge field trip fees, so long as no
student is precluded from attending for inability to pay. See Cal. Educ. Code 35330(b) (allowing field trip fees subject to
waiver) and 35330(d) (extending this exception to charter schools).
This sample language is loosely paraphrased from the charter of Achieve Charter School of Paradise, available at
https://www.achievecharter.org/docs/pdf/ACS-Charter.pdf. See also Valley Arts and Science Academy (Fresno Unified): Parents
are asked to volunteer 20 hours a year, but a failure to do this will not affect a students admission or enrollment status, Valley
Arts and Science Academy Application, available at http://vasaelementary.com/


Charging for Access Public Advocates 2014

! If a school wants to reward parent volunteerism, do so with awards or prizes

for parents, not with educational activities or privileges for students.
! Develop and scale best practices to facilitate truly voluntary parent
involvement, and to overcome barriers to participation for high-need
families. Ensure that parent service is not perceived as a requirement by any
b. Recommendations for Charter School Authorizers (School Districts, County Offices of
Education and the State Board of Education)
! Do not approve or renew any charter petition with a required parental work
policy. Revoke charter schools charters if a school has a policy or practice
of requiring parents to do work.

If charter authorizers approve, renew, or fail to revoke a charter school

with an unconstitutional policy, the authorizer may be liable for the
constitutional violation.56

" Investigate every charter school under your jurisdiction once a year to
ensure that the charter school is not illegally requiring parents to do work at
the school. If it is, begin the charter-revocation process if it refuses to correct
its policy.
c. Recommendations for the California Department of Education
! Issue guidance telling charter schools and authorizers that forced
volunteerism is illegal, and disseminate this guidance to all charter schools
and charter school authorizers throughout the state.
o Section 49012(a) of the Education Code instructs the California
Department of Education to issue guidance and post it on its website,
beginning in fiscal year 2014-2015, for county superintendents
district superintendents, and charter school administrators regarding the
imposition of pupil fees Cal. Ed. Code 49012(a). To date, the CDE
has not yet issued this guidance. The Department should promptly issue
guidance to:
# State that requiring parents to do work as a condition of
allowing their child to enroll at a charter school is an


See Wilson, 75 Cal. App. 4th at 1140 (Cal. App. 1st Dist. 1999) (explaining that authorizers have constitutional control over
charter schools); see also Cal. Sch. Bds. Assn. v. State Bd. of Educ., 186 Cal. App. 4th 1298, 1326 -1327 (Cal. App. 1st Dist.
2010) (explaining that an authorizer could be compelled to revoke a charter schools charter by writ of mandate). C.f. In re Grant
of Charter Sch. Application of Englewood on the Palisades Charter Sch., 164 N.J. 316, 328-29 (2000) (New Jersey Supreme
Court holds that charter school authorizers must ensure that proposed charter schools do not offend state constitutional


Charging for Access Public Advocates 2014



impermissible school fee under the California Constitution and

Education Code 49011(b)(4).
State that a waiver does not make a required service-hours
policy permissible.
Instruct authorizers not to approve any charter school petition
containing a parent volunteer hours requirement as a condition
of enrollment or of participation in any educational activity, nor
any petition in which the charter school says it will require
service hours but allow for a waiver.
Instruct authorizers not to approve any charter school petition
wherein the charter school proponents state an intention to
require parent service hours, even if that intent is not written in
the petition.
Instruct authorizers to revoke or refuse to renew any charter
school petition for a school that requires parent service hours.
Instruct authorizers to investigate charter schools at least
once a year to ensure that even where a school does not have a
written policy requiring parental service, there is no such policy
in practice or off the books.

! Make clear that the CDE has rescinded and revoked the memorandum of
February 9, 2006, sent by Michael Hersher (Deputy General Counsel) to Marta
Reyes (Charter School Division), in which Mr. Hersher stated that it is my
opinion that a charter petition may lawfully include a requirement that parents
agree to do work for the charter school. This memorandum is no longer
available on the CDEs website to our knowledge, but we believe it is being
relied on by charter schools.57 The memo fails to mention or discuss the free
schools clause of the Constitution, and was written prior to the enactment of
Education Code 49011. It should thus no longer be considered an accurate
statement of law, and the CDE should explicitly revoke it.
! Stop giving grant money to charter schools with illegal forced-labor


The memorandum is included as an appendix to this report. It is also available at the website of Young, Minney, and Corr, a
law firm that represents charter schools; thus, we assume it is relied upon by charter school attorneys when giving their client
schools legal advice. See
The CDE gives grant money to charter schools through the federal Charter Schools Program. See CDE, Public Charter Schools
Grant Program, http://www.cde.ca.gov/sp/cs/re/pcsgp.asp. The CDE has given grants to several charter schools that have forced
service policies, including: Rowland Heights Charter Academy, which requires three hours per month of parent service (see
Appendix B at 53) and received $375,000 from the CDE in 2013-2014 (see CDE, Funding Results: Public Charter Schools Grant
Program Planning and Implementation Grant (Round 2), http://www.cde.ca.gov/fg/fo/r1/pcsgp13rd2results.asp) and Wildflower
Open Classroom, which requires 75 hours per year (see Appendix B at 54), and received $544,869.94 from the CDE in 2010-11
(see CDE, Funding Results: Public Charter Schools Grant Program, awardees for fiscal year 2010-11,


Charging for Access Public Advocates 2014

! Take immediate steps to ensure that the 168 charter schools listed in
Appendix C stop requiring parents to perform work.
! Investigate the remaining charter schools in California to determine if any
are illegally forcing parents to do work. If any are, take immediate steps to
stop the practice.
! Revisit this issue annually to assess whether charter schools are complying
with the free schools clause in practice as well as on paper. If charter schools
are still requiring parent service, take further steps with greater penalties at
that time to abolish the practice.
d. Recommendations for the State Board of Education
! As a charter school authorizer, stop authorizing charter schools with work
! Amend the regulations governing charter school renewals, petitions, and
appeals to make clear that a charter school with an unconstitutional policy
such as work quotas cannot be renewed.
e. Recommendations for the Legislature
! Amend the law governing charter approval to make clear that authorizers
must not authorize a charter school that intends to implement a facially
unconstitutional policy such as illegal fees or forced work quotas.
! Amend the law on charter renewal to make clear that charter authorizers
must not renew a charter school with an unconstitutional policy such as
illegal fees or forced work quotas.
! Amend the law on charter revocation to make clear that charter schools
with unlawful policies and practices, such as illegal fees or forced work
quotas, must be revoked.
! Amend the law on charter school authorizers oversight and monitoring
duties to make clear that authorizers must annually monitor charter
schools compliance with state constitutional requirements, and must revoke
the charter of any charter school with an unconstitutional practice.


Requiring parents to work at a public school as a condition of their childs participation in

educational activities is illegal under the California Constitution and Education Code. Yet the practice is

Charging for Access Public Advocates 2014

rampant in charter schools throughout the state. Charter schools must immediately stop forcing parents to
do work at the school as a condition of their childs enrollment or as a condition of their childs receiving
educational benefits. State-level agencies such as the CDE, the SBE and the legislature must also take
immediate and affirmative steps to ensure that the practice does not persist. Failure to eliminate this
practice could expose charter schools and the state to liability.
Schools seeking to achieve a high level of parent involvement should develop and implement
programs that do not force parents to do work, but instead eliminate barriers to parent participation and
increase parental capacity to meaningfully participate in their childs education. No public school should
ever penalize or exclude a student because his or her parent or guardian cannot or chooses not to donate
time or labor to the school.

This report was written by Hilary Hammell, Skadden Fellow and Attorney at Public Advocates. Special
thanks are owed to Susan Butler Plum and the Skadden Foundation, and to the staff of Public Advocates,
especially Legal Administrative Coordinator Princess Masilungan, Communications and Development
Coordinator Jesse White, law clerks Tom Watts, Nicole Gelsomini and Ashley Williams, Senior Staff
Attorney Angelica Jongco, Staff Attorney Rigel Massaro, Managing Attorney John Affeldt, and CEO and
President Guillermo Mayer.
Copyright Public Advocates, Inc. 2014
Public Advocates Inc. is a non-profit law firm and advocacy organization that challenges the systemic
causes of poverty and racial discrimination by strengthening community voices in public policy and
achieving tangible legal victories advancing education, housing and transit equity. For more information,
see www.publicadvocates.org.

APPENDIX A. Methodology & Results
APPENDIX B. Policy statements from selected charter schools referenced in this report
APPENDIX C. Table: Charter Schools with Forced Labor Policies by County

Policy statements from each of these schools can be viewed

through our online searchable appendix at


Charging for Access Public Advocates 2014

APPENDIX D. 2006 Hersher Memorandum


Charging for Access: How California Charter Schools Exclude Vulnerable Students by Imposing Illegal
Family Work Quotas Public Advocates 2014
A. Methodology
We selected various California counties to include southern, northern, and central California, and to
include rural, urban, and suburban areas.1 We then used the CDEs county-based charter school locator to
identify the site-based charter schools in the counties we had in selected.2 In each county we reviewed the
materials available online for a sample of site-based charter schools in that county for a total of 555
charter schools.
For each of the charter schools in our sample, we reviewed the schools website and other
materials available online, such as a parent-student handbook, policy manual, parent participation
contract, charter document, or family newsletters to determine whether parent, guardian, or family
member work at the school was required, and whether there was a quota of required volunteer hours
(sometimes called service hours or parent participation hours) for parents or family members other
than the student. In some cases, where online materials were not available, we obtained evidence of
forced work policies directly from parents.
We then categorized each charter school as yes (requires parent work hours), no (does not
require parent work hours) or unclear.
Schools categorized as yes: We categorized as yes only charter schools that made clear that
parent volunteer hours were required. Schools in this category state that the service hours are required,
mandatory, use some other mandatory language (such as all families must) and/or state that an
adverse consequence will occur if the hours are not worked. Such schools frequently also require parents
to log or track their hours. Some, but not all, of these schools allow for hours to be purchased rather
than served, via a payment (of, e.g. $5, $10, or $20) per required hour, or via in-kind donations of goods.
Schools categorized as unclear: The large majority of the charter schools in our sample fell
into the unclear category, which meant that there was not enough information available for us to
determine whether the school required parent work hours or not. Some of the schools in this category
simply had no website at all, or no policy materials available online. Other schools in this category did
have materials online, but we could not discern from those materials whether parent work hours were
required. Many schools in this category had policy statements strongly encouraging or recommending that
parents perform work at the school, and providing a recommended quota of service hours, recommending
that parents log their hours, and encouraging parents to donate money in lieu of hours. Such schemes
seemed to strongly suggest that the work hours were a de facto requirement, and we have heard
anecdotally that some schools with such policies in fact do require the work hours or donations. But in an
abundance of caution we still categorized these schools as unclear rather than yes, if the language
was always hortatory every time the service hours were referenced. However, if a school referred to
We surveyed the following counties. Parentheticals refer to the percentage of the countys site-based charters included in our
sample. Alameda (57%), Butte (100%), Contra Costa (92%), El Dorado (100%), Fresno (83%), Glenn (100%), Humboldt
(100%), Kern (22%), Los Angeles (65%), Marin (100%), Mariposa (100%), Mendocino (78%), Merced (100%), Orange (83%),
Riverside (8%), Sacramento (97%), San Bernardino (86%), San Diego (54%), San Joaquin (75%), San Luis Obispo (100%), San
Mateo (100%), Santa Clara (79%), Solano (88%), Ventura (88%).
California Department of Education, Charter Schools in California Counties,
http://www.cde.ca.gov/ds/si/cs/ap1/ImageMap.aspx (last visited Oct. 30, 2014).

Charging for Access Public Advocates 2014

parental work as merely encouraged but also stated that an adverse consequence would occur if the
parental service was not done, we categorized that school as a yes.3
Schools categorized as no: We categorized as no only those schools whose materials
include statements such as no student will be denied admission nor face disciplinary penalties or
dismissal for a failure of the parent/guardian to sign or comply with the [parent participation] contract.4
B. Results: Scope of Parent Work Requirements
Out of our sample of 555 charter schools, 168 (or 30%) fell into the yes category. Only six
schools (1% of our sample) clearly did not require parental volunteer hours. 381 schools (69%) fell into
the unclear category.
We believe that it is underinclusive to say that 30% of the charter schools in our sample require
parents to do work, given that 69% of the sample did not have enough information available.

Charter schools that clearly required parent

work hours




Charter schools that clearly did not require

parent work hours



Charter schools without enough information to






Total charter schools surveyed

For example, Abernathy Collegiate Charter Schools Parent Handbook refers to recommended parent participation hours. But
the same page of the handbook states that failure to participate in volunteer hours may result in loss of priority enrollment rights
for the following year. Appendix B at 38. Thus, we categorized this school as requiring, not simply recommending, parent
work hours.
See Charter Petition, Achieve Charter School of Paradise, available at https://www.achievecharter.org/docs/pdf/ACSCharter.pdf. Though we do not include these schools on our list, we are unsure whether their practice would comply with the law
if it constituted a fee-plus-waiver scheme, in which parents are presumed to have to do the required hours but must ask to opt-out
if they cannot fulfill them. On the FAQs page of Synergy Quantum Academy, chartered by LAUSD, it says: Q: Do you require
parent volunteer hours? A: NO. Parents are welcome to volunteer but they are not required to do so. (emphasis in original) at
http://www.wearesynergy.org/apps/pages/index.jsp?uREC_ID=136410&type=d&pREC_ID=264550 (last visited Oct. 13, 2014)



Whole child. Whole family.

Whole community.
Information Handbook for Parents and Students

1335 Calle Bouganvilla, Thousand Oaks, CA 91360

Phone: 805-492-3569

Parent Volunteer Commitment

Parent participation is an integral part of the BRIDGES Charter School experience. It is
our hope that ALL families in the school have chosen BRIDGES for their children
because they want to actively participate in a way that is valuable for their child(ren),
the classroom, and the school at large. We also hope that ALL parents see volunteering as
an opportunity to be an empowered member of our community, as opposed to it being a
chore. The more responsible and proactive parents are in meeting their commitments, the
less the school will have to manage this component, and the more time our staff will have
to focus on the important task of educating our students.
Weekly Time Commitment
Each family is responsible for committing a minimum of 2.5 hours per week, per child,
for grades 1-8. The Kindergarten requires one full day, 4 hours, per week. For families
with more than two children enrolled, the maximum requirement is 6-hours. An extended
family member or other trusted adult (18 and over) might be designated as the person to
fulfill this time commitment, which amounts to about 10 hours per month, per child. Our
volunteers best serve our children when actively involved in the classrooms.
All classrooms have a room parent in charge of volunteer coordination. Each classroom
has volunteer procedures including a log for volunteer hours. You will be contacted by
the room parent in charge of volunteerism to schedule your volunteer times and ensure
that the hours you have worked are being logged properly.
Parents who work outside of their homes are asked to look into any arrangements that can
be made with employers, such as a flex-time schedule, working through lunch time to
make up for classroom time, and/or using accumulated vacation time. Many employers
today support and acknowledge an employees volunteer hours to their childs school. If
you cannot help out in class at the school, please talk to your room parent for volunteers
to make arrangements to help in a valuable and consistent way at home, or as an active
member of a Parent Managed Cohort (PMC). Please remember that volunteering in the
classroom supersedes volunteerism in PMCs.

Classroom Volunteering Requests

In all K-3 classrooms, and possibly in grades 4-8, parents will be facilitating center
activities with groups of children, working one on one or in small groups with children,
and assisting with supervision and safety. Additionally, in all classrooms, parents may be
leading activities in an area of their expertise, helping in the morning with snack,
assisting with copying, filing and organizing, driving and chaperoning on field trips, or
helping the teacher in a mutually agreed upon way. Parents are encouraged to bring their
knowledge, passions, and expertise when volunteering in the classroom.


If children are in the older grades, in-class help is still valued and needed, but not in the
same way or to the same extent as in the younger grades. While the upper grades might
not have as many center-based activities as grades K-3, these students will still need
assistance in reading, writing, social studies, math, science, art, cultural studies, and
enrichment. The upper grade teachers will arrange preferred time slots where parent help
is most needed.
Besides arriving on time and consistently, it is important that you be fully present when
volunteering in your childs classroom. Cell phone(s) must be off and we ask that you
avoid having social conversations with other parents while leading groups or supervising
Bringing other children (younger or older siblings) onto campus while you are
volunteering is not advisable. If you are volunteering in the classroom, we ask that you
do not have younger children in the classrooms with you. Siblings often present a
distraction to the classroom and the parent who is volunteering; there are also liability
issues the school may face. Extensions is available for childcare for younger siblings on
Mondays and Fridays in the mornings.
If you must miss your volunteer time/day: When you sign up for a volunteer time in
ANY grade, your childs teacher will rely on you to be there consistently. If for any
reason you cannot come, please find another parent to cover your time, or let the teacher
know by phone or email in advance of the affected day to make other arrangements.
Please do not just send a note with your child, as these are sometimes forgotten or
delivered at the last minute, and the teacher is then stuck with an unsupervised group or
an incomplete activity she/he was not anticipating.
Parent Managed Cohort (PMC) Commitment
Each family is encouraged to participate in at least one PMC, even if already
volunteering in the class. BRIDGES would not be where it is today without the active
involvement of parents who were organized into efficient and competent committees,
such as Fund Raising, Technology, Food, Gardening, Outreach, Performing Arts, Music,
Grant writing, and more. There are many PMCs to choose from, and more will develop as
needs and interests arise. Parents are encouraged to join a PMC of their passion and assist
as much as possible. PMC Chairpersons will plan for and direct meetings, organize task
lists, and generally lead the group to facilitate the development of an area of our
BRIDGES Charter School vision. We are grateful for the tremendous commitment of
those who have stepped up thus far as PMC Chairpersons.


Student Policy Manual
Rights and Responsibilities
Health and Safety
School Advisory Council

Student Policy Manual

About this Student Policy Manual
The policies set forth in the Green Dot Public Schools Student Policy Manual (the Manual) were created to guide
employees and families of students enrolled at school campuses managed by Green Dot Public Schools.
We hope this policy manual serves as a common sense tool that provides you with help in making Green Dot a
successful workplace. The guidelines in this policy manual are intended to be as user-friendly as possible to
provided insight into Green Dots culture, policies, and philosophies. Every situation is different, however, and
individual circumstances often require individual solutions. Accordingly, this policy manual is not a contract.
Green Dot may vary from any written guideline in the manual as necessary.
The policies designated with an asterisk* in the Table of Contents are recommended practices. All other policies
are mandatory for all Green Dot Public Schools.

Updated April 2012

Policy Manual
Non Discrimination
Lottery Procedures
Student Transfers
Wait List Management
Homeless Student
Over Age Students
Returning Student Policy
Student Records
High School Graduation Requirements
Distinguished High School Graduation Requirement
Commencement: High School*
Middle School Promotion Requirements
Grading Scale and Failed Courses*
Grade Changes and Withdrawal Grades*
Academic Honors*
Academic Conferences, Progress Reports, and Report Cards *
Academic Integrity
Special Needs
Textbooks and Instructional Materials
Required Testing
English Language Development (ELD) Program: Reclassification
English Language Development (ELD) Program: High School Placement Criteria
Rights and Responsibilities
School Jurisdiction
Attendance, Absenteeism, Truancy and SART
Accommodations for Student Religious Practices
Due Process
Personal Property *
Agency and Police Interrogation
Search and Seizure
Conflict Resolution *
Solicitation by Outside Organizations
Harassment and Bullying
Photo Release and Consent
Fees *
Acceptable Use of Technology
Athletic Eligibility
Social Organizations
Student Expression and Media
Field Trips and Student Travel
Work Permits *
Lunch Application

A. 1.0
A. 2.0
A. 3.0
A. 4.0
A. 5.0
A. 6.0
A. 7.0
A. 8.0
A. 9.0
A. 10.0
B. 1.0
B. 2.0
B. 3.0
B. 4.0
B. 5.0
B. 6.0
B. 7.0
B. 8.0
B. 9.0
B 10.0
B. 11.0
B. 12.0
B. 13.0
B. 14.0
B. 15.0
C. 1.0
C. 2.0
C. 3.0
C. 4.0
C. 5.0
C. 6.0
C. 7.0
C. 8.0
C. 9.0
C. 10.0
C. 11.0
C. 12.0
C. 13.0
C. 14.0
C. 15.0
C. 16.0
C. 17.0
C. 18.0
C. 19.0
C. 20.0
C. 21.0

Health and Safety

Administration of Medication during School Hours
Illness at School
Injury and Medical Emergencies
Communicable and Infectious Disease
Blood Borne Pathogens
Emergency Preparedness
Home and Hospital Schooling
Emergency Contact Information *
Administrative Supervision
Closed Campus
Visitor Policy
Barring Disruptive Persons
Protective Eye Devices
Health Insurance and Medical Services
Psychological and Counseling Services
Child Abuse Reporting
Comprehensive Sexual Education and HIV/AIDS Prevention Education*
Condom Distribution*
Pregnant and Parent Students
Banned Substances
Employees Transporting Students
Classroom Pet Policy
Wellness Policy

D. 1.0
D. 2.0
D. 3.0
D. 4.0
D. 5.0
D. 6.0
D. 7.0
D. 8.0
D. 9.0
D. 10.0
D. 11.0
D. 12.0
D. 13.0
D. 14.0
D. 15.0
D. 16.0
D. 17.0
D. 18.0
D. 19.0
D. 20.0
D. 21.0
D. 22.0
D. 23.0
D. 24.0
D. 25.0

Service Hour Requirement
Student Privacy and Volunteer Confidentiality
Volunteer Sign in and Verification
Power School*
Conflict Resolution: Parent/Guardian
SAC Bylaws

E. 1.0
E. 2.0
E. 3.0
E. 4.0
E. 5.0
E. 6.0

F. 1.0
F. 2.0

Physical Education
College Prep Elective
UC/CSU Requirement G

20 semester credits
2 years

10 Semester Credits
See description in UC
and CSU Admission
Requirement column.

Green Dot Electives

Community Service
Parent Volunteer
Apply to at least 3 4year colleges

Senior Project/Portfolio

90 Semester Credits

80 Semester Credits

May include:

May include:

Additional College
Prep Electives
Physical Education
College Prep/Readiness
Other Electives

Additional College
Prep Electives
Physical Education
Other Electives

40 Hours
140 Hours

40 Hours
140 Hours

School and State

Apply for post high
School options such as
community college or
Trade School
School requirement

School and State

School requirement

School requirement

Not required for UC or CSU

10 Semester Credits
(equivalent to one year-long
course, or two semester long
courses) This requirement
may be satisfied in one of two
ways: a) completion of one
additional UC-approved "a-f"
subject course; or b)
completion of a course that
has been specifically
approved for the "g" elective
Not required for UC or CSU

Not required for UC or CSU

Not required for UC or CSU
Not required for UC or CSU

Not required for UC or CSU


Total credits for CA Minimum Requirements: 130 core + 90 electives= 220 credits
Total Credits for Green Dot Graduation requirements: 160 core + 80 electives=240 credits


Parent Policy

E. 1.0

Policy: Parent Service Hours

Parents of nimo students are responsible to contribute 35 hours of service to the school each year. Students may
serve these hours. Hours may be set up with the office or completed in one of the many volunteering
opportunities listed below.
Families with multiple students enrolled in a Green Dot school are only required to complete a total of 35 hour per
year. For parents of students on multiple campuses, we recommend that the hours be split between the sites.
Parents and students will be expected to complete 140 hours by graduation.
A record of parent service hours will be kept in the Power School system and an update on completed hours will be
sent home each semester.
There are a number of ways parents can volunteer and demonstrate their commitment to the school. Parent
volunteer service hours are earned by directly supporting the school and by supporting your child academically.
Possible volunteer activities to support the school include:
Office support
School Events (Back to School Night and Open House)
Fundraising activities
Breakfast and lunch distribution
Field trip assistance and supervision
Special events assistance
Arrival and dismissal supervision
Yard supervision
Donating school supplies
Educational hours outside the classroom
Outstanding student participation and behavior
Completion of stakeholder feedback surveys
Civic Engagement
Leadership activities such as serving as the parent representative for the School Advisory Council, PTSA, or
participating in other school committees
Possible volunteer activities to support your child academically include:
Classroom visits
Classroom support
Tutoring support
Serving as a parent mentor
Green Dot Public Schools appreciates your participation as a parent volunteer and will make every attempt to
match your interests and skills with projects or tasks that you are comfortable with.


Manzanita Charter
Middle School
2925 Technology Court
Richmond, CA 94806
510-222-3500 office
510-222-3555 fax



Electronic mail address

Degrees, honors, and awards received
Date and place of birth
Dates of attendance
Grade level
The most recent educational agency or institution attended

Good Standing

All families who have a child enrolled at Manzanita Charter Middle School have signed the Family
Agreement Form. As this form emphasizes, enrollment at Manzanita is optional, and the
structure of Manzanita relies upon the active contributions of our membership through
participation (volunteering). In order to remain in good standing, all families must meet the
requirements they accepted when signing the Family Agreement and enrolling a student at
Manzanita Charter Middle School.

a. Good Standing Requirements

1) Parents/Guardians will attend 10 monthly membership meetings. In the event of an
emergency or calendar conflict each family is permitted one excused meeting. A written
note must be submitted to the School Registrar. Students should not attend membership
2) Parents/Guardians will complete 2 mandatory school cleanings. One of the required two
cleanings must be completed by January 31st. The other must be completed by the last
day of school.
3) Families will complete 96 hours of volunteer service throughout the year. A minimum of
48 hours must be completed by January 31st. 96 hours must be complete by the last day
of school.
4) Students will attend school on a regular basis and miss no more than 5 non-medical days
throughout the academic year. Documentation of medical absences should be turned in to
the school office. A family may also submit a request for an Independent Study Contract and

fully complete that contract to offset a long-term absence. Refer to Independent Study Policy.

5) 6th and 7th grade families who are not in good standing by January 31st will not be
guaranteed admission for the following school year.
6) Any family not in good standing by January 31st will not receive priority admission for a
sibling the following school year.

b. Additional Good Standing Requirements for 8th Grade Families

1) One cleaning must be completed by January 31st; both cleanings must be completed by
May 1st.
2) 90 hours must be completed by May 1st.
3) 96 hours by the end of the school year to leave the school in good standing.
8th grade families who are not in good standing by May 1st jeopardize participation in 8th grade
graduation activities (overnight, dinner, rehearsals and or ceremony).
No family is exempt from the above obligations. Meeting these obligations places a family in
good standing. A family in good standing will receive priority admission for any returning student
and for any sibling in the following academic year. Additionally, a family in good standing at the
time their student graduates from Manzanita will be offered priority admission to any sibling
applying in future academic years.
Any family that does not meet their participation obligations over the course of the academic year
will lose their priority status for re-enrollment of a returning student, or priority enrollment of a

13-14 Manzanita Student Family Handbook

- 21 -

Printed 1/27/14

sibling. Applications from families who are not in good standing will be considered only if spaces
remain available after returning families in good standing and new applicants in the various
priority categories related to volunteering have been accepted.
If a family falls out of good standing after the late winter enrollment period and fails to remedy
their status by the close of the academic year, a place may not be held for a new or returning
student from that family in the following year. At the close of the academic year, the admissions
chair and/or registrar will review the status of all families returning for the following year. If a
family is not in good standing and there is a waiting list for the class in which a student from that
family is enrolled, that space may be made available to a new applicant.
Due to the level of interest in our school, we anticipate that we will fill the majority of open
spaces with individuals in the various priority categories. All families are advised to make every
effort to remain in good standing to preserve their priority status.

c. Waiver Requests
A Waiver or Reduction Request may be obtained in the event a family faces extreme
circumstances and or has limitations that prevent them from fulfilling its Good Standing
obligation. Instructions for applying for a waiver are available in the school office. A waiver
request will also be considered by the waiver committee for the attendance requirement.

d. Additional Participation Information

All parents and legal guardians are required to submit a list of the family members, friends and
helpers who will assist the family in meeting its participation requirements for the year. This
includes people who will be completing hours, cleanings or attending meetings. This requirement
will allow the school to keep track of non-students on campus and assure that all adults have
completed the required TB screening.
Volunteers must be 18 years or older to be on campus during the school day. Elementary age (or
younger) children are welcome to visit, provided their parents/guardians can safely complete any
volunteer tasks they take on during that time. Children must be middle-school age and up to
earn hours after school and on weekends.
Parents/guardians are asked to make arrangements for the care of their student during
membership meetings as meeting space is limited and the school does not provide supervision.

6. Comments, Praise and Concerns

Whatever your experiences at Manzanita, we really do welcome you letting us know what you
think. If we're doing well then please let us know, if you think there is something we could
improve upon then tell us so we can make a start. If you wish to make a comment, please
complete a comment form and leave it in the Drop Box, which is located in the main hallway.
Forms are available in the main office.
There are two ways in which issues that have caused you concern can be investigated, informally
by completing the Praise & Improvement form and leaving it in the drop box located in the main
hallway or through the formal Williams Complaint (procedures and rights are outlined below).

7. Williams Complaints Rights

Pursuant to California Education Code Section 35186, you are hereby notified that:
1. There should be sufficient textbooks and instructional materials. That means each pupil,
including English learners, must have a textbook or instructional materials, or both, to use in
class and to take home.

13-14 Manzanita Student Family Handbook

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VCS Parent/Caregiver/Family Involvement Plan

DRAFT revisions for 2012-2013

Vallejo Charter School Parent/Caregiver/Family Involvement

The interest and energy of parents/caregivers that helped create the Vallejo Charter
School (VCS) will help it thrive. Research shows that family involvement is a crucial
factor in successful learning. VCS is a cooperative enterprise: our families, teachers,
principal, and staff share the responsibilities and the rewards of operating our school.
Parents play essential roles in and out of the classrooms. Our families experience
firsthand the school environment, become advocates for their children, and enrich the
school community with their ideas, interests, talents, and resources. Family involvement
is a key foundation of VCS as families are essential partners in the education of our
The VCS Parent/Caregiver/Family Involvement Plan has two separate components
which are described in detail on the following pages. The first component, StudentFocused Requirements, lists the essential requirements for supporting your student(s)
at home and at school. The second component, the VCS Volunteer Policy, states the
volunteer commitment required of families of each student.
VCS is committed to setting up and supporting plentiful, diverse, and broadly-defined
opportunities for parents/caregivers to participate in the education of their children. We
thank you for being a part of our community and we look forward to the success of all of
our students.

Parent/Caregiver/Family Involvement Plan

Rev. July 2010 REVISIONS in progress.May2012

VCS Parent/Caregiver/Family Involvement Plan

DRAFT revisions for 2012-2013


Student-Focused Requirements


The student-focused requirements are absolutely essential from every family to

ensure that students are getting the support that teachers and families believe is vital for
each student s success.
Required Home Support

Read Thursday Folders promptly every week; check backpacks daily for
communication from school; complete permission forms by the date requested

Create a literate environment at home by reading to child each night or ensuring

that student reads each night

Oversee homework - assist with homework or be aware of homework and its


Ensure student is prepared for school. Make sure that student has necessary
clothing, supplies, etc.

Make sure student gets at least 9-10 hours of sleep each night

Ensure student attends school regularly

Support the school-wide Student Achievement Plan (strike this--to read: PBIS
Plan) the SAP has not yet been approved by staff; VCS has been implementing
RC, Origins and our work with Dr. Jeffrey Sprague

Send only healthy snacks to school

Required School Support

Attend all parent-teacher conferences and student-led conferences, including

goal-setting conferences (if indicated by student s teacher)

Attend Family Night Orientations, Back-to-School Night and Learning


Participate and attend Charter Council Meetings, School Site Council and
English Language Advisory Council and monthly Coffee Mornings with the

Plan for student to participate in all field work activities

Parent/Caregiver/Family Involvement Plan

Rev. July 2010 REVISIONS in progress.May2012

VCS Parent/Caregiver/Family Involvement Plan

DRAFT revisions for 2012-2013


VCS Volunteer Policy

The school requires that all families support their students in learning at home and
school, while also being involved in supporting the school itself. All VCS families are
required to volunteer.
The volunteer requirements are as follows:
All VCS Families shall volunteer a minimum of 20 hours per school year. Any
person in the student s family may perform volunteer hours at VCS. If a person
outside of the family will perform volunteer hours, that person or persons must be
identified by October of each school year.
Families with Siblings: Families who have more than one child attending Vallejo
Charter School shall volunteer an additional 10 hours for the second child, and
an additional 5 hours for each additional child.
Families must sign a new Volunteer Commitment form each school year. The form
will contain this policy and, once signed, be kept in the student files.
The timeline for volunteering is defined as starting the second Tuesday in April and
ending the second Monday in April of the following year. The Charter Council
recommends that families complete at least 50% of their required hours by
January 15 of each school year. (this description is not clear to me--let's re-write
this section. Thank you).
At the beginning of each school year, a list of family involvement opportunities will
be provided to each VCS family. The opportunities will include a variety of
activities including some which can be done at home and some which can be
done at VCS during the evenings and weekends. Refer to Appendix A in this
policy for a list of ongoing opportunities.
Families must make every effort to complete their hours by April. Families who have
not completed their hours will be required to re-apply for the following school year
if they wish to have their child/children continue to attend Vallejo Charter School.
Applications to re-enroll will be considered along with all other applications with
no priority for enrollment.

Parent/Caregiver/Family Involvement Plan

Rev. July 2010 REVISIONS in progress.May2012

VCS Parent/Caregiver/Family Involvement Plan

DRAFT revisions for 2012-2013

Volunteer Hours for Siblings

Family Makeup

Minimum # of Required
Hours per year

Total # of Hours per

school year

Families with two students

attending VCS

1st student:
2nd student:

20 hours
10 hours

30 hours

Families with three students

attending VCS

1st student:
2nd student
3rd student:

20 hours
10 hours
5 hours

35 hours

Families with four students

attending VCS

1st student:
2nd student:
3rd student:
4 student:

20 hours
10 hours
5 hours
5 hours

40 hours


Donation of volunteer hours

If a family wishes to donate an excess of volunteer hours to another VCS family, it must
be approved by the VCS Principal before April 1 of the current school year. No more
that five (5) hours can be donated for this purpose.

Parent/Caregiver/Family Involvement Plan

Rev. July 2010 REVISIONS in progress.May2012

VCS Parent/Caregiver/Family Involvement Plan

DRAFT revisions for 2012-2013

Appeals & Plans of Completion

VCS recognizes that there are many different situations and challenges and that
volunteering may be difficult. VCS has a parent volunteer, called a Family Volunteer
Lead, who is available to help families be successful and to coordinate the numerous
volunteer opportunities each year. All families are encouraged to seek out the
Family Volunteer Lead if they have any questions about their volunteer
requirements, or if they are experiencing special circumstances that make it
difficult to complete the required hours. It is the goal of VCS to work with all families
to ensure the best success for them and their children at VCS. Please refer to
Appendix B for the process by which volunteer hours are tracked and the timeline for
each year.
In situations where it has been impossible for a family to complete its required hours
within the established time-frame, the family must submit an appeal letter and plan of
completion to the VCS Principal and a committee appointed by the Charter Council in
order to maintain their enrollment at VCS without re-applying.
The committee shall be comprised of members of the VCS community who are not
parents of students in the school. Appeals shall be considered favorably if the
committee finds that 1) a family hardship existed that year which made it impossible for
the family to complete its responsibilities; or 2) a family had met part of the expectations
on a regular basis until an emergency occurred.
The committee may, once it determines that the family is committed to meeting
the expectations for family involvement in the future, act on the appeal including
but limited to one of the following ways:
1.Waive the requirement for that year for the appealing family;
2.Require that the family make up the missed hours by the date of the lottery
for the current school year
3.Add the incomplete hours to the volunteer commitment for the following
school year
The committee shall deny all appeals that do not provide evidence of the family s
commitment to meeting the expectations for family involvement in the future.
Families that have not completed at least half of the volunteer hours by January 15, and
who do not think they will be able to complete them before the April 1 deadline, must
submit an appeal letter and plan of completion. Appeals and plans of completion may be
written, and submitted for consideration, based on the guidelines below:
All appeals and plans of completion must be written and submitted by March 15.
They will be reviewed and VCS families will be notified 30 days after receipt of
the letter and plan of completion.

Parent/Caregiver/Family Involvement Plan

Rev. July 2010 REVISIONS in progress.May2012

VCS Parent/Caregiver/Family Involvement Plan

DRAFT revisions for 2012-2013

While appeal letters will be taken into consideration, it will not ensure enrollment for
the next school year. VCS Families will be notified of enrollment status within 30
days of submitting an appeal letter.

Those families that fail to submit appeal letters by March 15, or that fail to contact
the school or Volunteer Lead to discuss the issue will be notified via certified mail
two weeks prior to the lottery that they will be required to re-apply to the school.

Thank you in advance for all of your hard work and dedication.

Parent/Caregiver/Family Involvement Plan

Rev. July 2010 REVISIONS in progress.May2012

VCS Parent/Caregiver/Family Involvement Plan

DRAFT revisions for 2012-2013

Appendix A - Examples of Volunteer Opportunities

VCS offers a broad range of opportunities for families to participate - during the school
day and on evenings/weekends. This allows family members to support the school in
ways that are convenient and that capitalize on each person's special talents and
Listed below are many suggestions for fulfilling the volunteer requirement. These lists
are not exhaustive and VCS welcomes community suggestions for additions to
the lists. In addition, families should check with their student s teacher for ideas. The
teachers have many ideas for volunteering - the list below is just the beginning! In
addition, the Family Volunteer Lead announces volunteer opportunities as they arise
during the year.
Options for family involvement in student or classroom-specific activities:
Be a Room Parent - includes organizing snack and coordinating class tasks
Prep work and other tasks depending on teacher needs
Help in the classroom
Plan fieldwork, help with expedition research for fieldwork
Go on fieldwork
Complete book orders
Fill Thursday Folder weekly
Assist with classroom maintenance
Assist with classroom preparation during the summer
Assist with classroom clean up as needed
Assist the teacher with research or computer work
Options for family involvement in school community:
Highly Recommended: Attend meetings (PTO, Arts Council, Charter Council)
Be a Parent/Teacher Organization (PTO) committee chair or active committee
Serve as a VCS Charter Council member
Serve on a sub-committee of the Charter Council
Provide child care for meetings
Help in the VCS library
Help with Celebration of Learning or other events
Plan Extracurricular social events
Lead after-school clubs
Help in the lunchroom
Assist with recess
Lead or Join a VCS Crew
Parent/Caregiver/Family Involvement Plan
Rev. July 2010

Appendix A

VCS Parent/Caregiver/Family Involvement Plan

DRAFT revisions for 2012-2013

Options for family involvement off site:

Plan fieldwork, help with expedition research for fieldwork

Go on fieldwork
Provide snacks for staff meetings
Correct papers for teacher at home
Prep work and other tasks depending on teacher needs at home
Assist the teacher with research or computer work
Provide donations (Maximum 5 hours for time spent, not donation value)
Make phone calls from home for VCS staff or crews
Research grants and fundraising opportunities

Parent/Caregiver/Family Involvement Plan

Rev. July 2010

Appendix A

VCS Parent/Caregiver/Family Involvement Plan

DRAFT revisions for 2012-2013

Appendix B - Notification Process for Incomplete Hours

Grade level binders are kept in the school office for families to log their volunteer hours. The
Family Volunteer Lead is charged with tracking the hours and calculating the progress of
families as they complete their volunteer commitment. Families may contact the Volunteer
Lead to verify hours any time during the school year.
The process for Notification of Incomplete Hours is:

In the Thursday Folders on the first Thursday after Winter Break, a general reminder
notice will be given to all families to take a look at their hours to date and to note that
the volunteer hours must be completed by the second Monday in April. All families will
be encouraged to seek out the Volunteer Lead if there are any questions or concerns
about fulfilling the commitment.

By the third Thursday after Winter Break - after the general reminder to the whole
school - notices to families with 10 or fewer hours along with an accounting of the
actual total will be distributed. These families will be asked to sign and return an
acknowledgment of receipt of this notice. The Volunteer Lead will track the responses
and will follow up with families that do not return the acknowledgement.

If families feel they cannot meet the requirement by April, they have until March 15 to
submit a letter of appeal and plan of completion to the Principal in order to address the
issue and identify any difficulties that may have arisen that prevent them from meeting
the commitment and the family s proposed resolution. The principal will acknowledge
receipt of the letter with a phone call.

The Charter Council will convene a committee to read the letters and determine a
response to the appeals. Families will be notified within 30 days of receipt of the result
of their request. Those families that fail to submit appeal letters by March 15, or that
fail to contact the school or Volunteer Lead to resolve any difficulties will be notified by
certified mail by April 20 that they will be required to re-apply to the school.
Information about the deadline for submitting applications for enrollment for the
following year and the lottery process will be included in this letter. No further
notification or contact will be made.

Annual Timeline - Summary

Second Tuesday in April until Second Monday in April: Time frame for completing
hours for each school year.
January 15: Date by which at least half of the volunteer hours should be completed.
Third Thursday after Winter Break families with fewer than 10 hours will be notified of
the total number of hours completed, with a requirement to sign and return an
acknowledgement of receipt.
o Volunteer Lead follows up with non-responders
March 15 Appeal letters and plans of completion due to VCS Principal.
o Principal shares results of the request within 30 days after receipt.
Two weeks prior to the lottery Certified letters sent to those families who will be
required to re-apply due to failure to complete required volunteer hour commitment.
I week before the lottery - Application deadline for enrollment for next school year with
the specific date to be determined by November 1 each school year.
Parent/Caregiver/Family Involvement Plan

Draft Changes, May 2012

Page 9 of 10

VCS Parent/Caregiver/Family Involvement Plan

DRAFT revisions for 2012-2013

2011-2012 School Year

I/We have read and understand the Vallejo Charter School Parent/Caregiver/Family
Involvement Plan.
I/We agree to abide by the terms of the Plan.

Parent Name (please print)

Parent Name (please print)



Email address: ____________________________________________________________

Student(s) Name(s) (please print):

Parent/Caregiver/Family Involvement Plan

Draft Changes, May 2012

Grade Level:

Page 10 of 10

Request for Hours Exemption

You may request a partial or full exemption from your Parent Service Hours
Commitment. These exemptions are reserved for illness, childbirth and unforeseen
circumstances that would reasonably prevent you and/or your family from
maintaining your hours commitment.
I (name)____________________________ hereby request from the SHIELD Parent
Board and BCMHS Administration an exemption from our Parent Service Hours
commitment due to:

Use reverse side if necessary

I am requesting an exemption for ( NUMBER OF HOURS ) _____________

( Service hour requirement per family is 5 hours/semester or 10 hours/school year )

At the termination of this exemption, I fully understand that it is my obligation to

continue with the Parent Service Hours requirement of Buckingham Charter
Magnet High School as stated in the Buckingham Charter Magnet High School
Student and Parent Handbook.

Parent/Guardian Signature


Exemption.._______approved _______denied
SHIELD Board Presidents Signature


Buckingham Principals Signature


2013-2014 Academic Year

Buckingham Charter Magnet High School



I. The Last Five Years
Vacaville Independent Charter SchoolCalifornias 56th charter schoolwas originally
chartered on May 19, 1994 by the Board of Trustees (Board) of Vacaville Unified School
District (VUSD or District). Following a student presentation to the Board, the school
was renamed Elise P. Buckingham Charter School. Phenomenally successful, BCMHS
was the first charter school to be awarded a Digital High School Grant by the California
Department of Education (1997). Buckingham successfully renewed its charter in 1999 as
an independent study charter serving approximately eleven hundred K-12 students.
Subsequent to a material charter revision, in September 2003 Buckingham Charter
Magnet High School (BCMHS or charter school) welcomed three hundred students as a
9-12 site-based, small high school, focused around a college preparatory curriculum for
all students. The previously developed Visual & Media Arts program was retained to
provide a unique elective curriculum and to help attract a diverse student body. In spring
2005 BCMHS was granted a six-year accreditation from the Western Association of
Schools and Colleges.
In fall 2005, VUSDs Superintendent directed Buckinghams administrator to form a
group representing all core stakeholders to discuss critical issues facing BCMHS and
VUSD, the future of the school within the district, and charter renewal. Comprised of
credentialed and classified staff, parents, students, community members, site and district
administrators, and school board members, the group engaged in both issue-specific
discussions and Board-directed Strategic Planning sessions with the final intent of writing
a charter that more seamlessly integrated the school into Vacaville Unified School
District, yet preserves the unique nature and culture of BCMHS. The resulting charter
was approved by VUSDs Board of Trustees on April 17, 2008.
Deleted: Draft 04.03.2013 cdr

Board Approved 4/18/13

BCMHS shall seek to resolve student and parent disputes in accordance with Board
policies, administrative regulations, intra-agency directives, and charter school
procedures. If requested, the charter school Administrator shall provide a student or
parent with a written statement documenting the findings of fact and determination. All
dispute resolution decisions are subject to review by the Superintendent.
Parent Participation Requirement
Parental involvement is understood to be a significant contributor toward a students
success in school and the state Education Code allows for alternative programs that
require parent volunteer hours (CA Ed. Code 51120-51121(a-e); 58500-58512). With
this in mind each Buckingham family is required to contribute a minimum number of
service hours per school year as specified in the Student and Parent Handbook to
support the students, the school and its programs. The Handbook also specifies how the
hours may be served and what portion of the service hours may be contributed through
donations. Failure to complete the service hour requirement may result in revocation of
the Enrollment Master Agreement and student dismissal.
A family experiencing a hardship which affects its ability to meet the service hour
requirement may request a temporary waiver of the parent volunteer hour requirement. A
Waiver Form is available from the Shield Board President or charter school
administrator. All information is kept confidential between the families requesting the
waiver, the Shield Board and the charter school administrator.
A students failure to maintain attendance per state law, VUSD policy and administrative
regulations and Buckingham attendance policy will result in the following actions:

After five (5) unverified or unexcused absences or truancies per year, the
BCMHS Attendance Office will send the parent/guardian an Attendance
A second Attendance Letter will be sent to a students parent or guardian after
ten (10) unverified or unexcused absences or truancies per year.
A third Attendance Letter will be sent to a students parent or guardian after
fifteen (15) unverified or unexcused absences or truancies per year. A third
Attendance Letter will also result in an Intervention Action Plan (see below).
Deleted: Draft 04.03.2013 cdr

Board Approved 4/18/13


Guidelines for Parent Service Hours

Buckingham Charter Magnet High School








Examples of Approved Activities

Hours will be given for:
1. At home work for teachers
2. Baking
3. Donations of requested class/lab supplies
4. SHIELD committee work
5. Driver for field trip, athletics, etc.
6. Theater help, supervision, tickets
7. Helping with athletics, stats
8. Attend SHIELD meetings,
9. Traffic direction, lunchtime supervision
10. Office help
11. Campus beautification
12. BBQ, dances, fundraisers
13. Building and Field maintenance
14. Window coverings
15. Plants in planters
16. Halas Helpers/Campus monitoring
17. Grants researched/applied for
18. Set-up and take-down for events/sports
19. Assisting clubs
20. Coordinating volunteers
21. Decorating
22. Career/College Fair organization
23. Guest speaker
24. Gift basket preparation
25. Special skills (construction, music, etc.)

-length of time worked

-1 hour per dish or batch/3dozen
-$20/hr; attach receipt
-length of time worked
-driving time
-time worked on campus
-time worked
-1 hour per meeting
-time spent on campus
-time worked
-time worked
-time worked
-time worked/cost of supplies
-time and cost of materials
-time and cost of materials
-time worked on campus
-time worked / grant applied for
-time worked
-time worked on campus
-time worked
-time worked and cost of materials
-time worked
-time worked in classes
-cost of contents/keep receipts
-time and materials

Hours not given for:

-Carpooling to or from
-Driving only your student
to or from an event
- Attending events but not
providing assistance as
-Hours spent preparing food
or shopping for donations
-Attending Back to School
Night, Parent Conferences,
or Enrollment Nights

Academia Moderna Charter School



Educational Code Section 51101 provides that parents/guardiansofpupilsenrolledinpublicschoolshave the right to
work together in a mutually supportive and respectful partnership with schools to help their children succeed.

Be informed of their childs progress in school and of the appropriate school personnel to contact if
Receive information about any psychological testing the school does involving their child and to deny

A critical dimension of effective schooling is parent involvement. Research has shown conclusively that parent
with attendance at mandatory meetings and 20 annual volunteer hours per family, parents who fail to comply with



HANDBOOK 2013-2014
Academy of Science and Engineering
4126 South Arlington Avenue
Los Angeles, CA 90008
Phone: (323)545-1100
Fax: (323)545-1102

Innovation & Excellence

Parents Right to Know: Federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) guidelines mandate that schools inform parents of their right to
ask the qualifications and credentials of teachers who instruct students in core classes. Parents are also entitled to know the
qualifications of paraprofessionals (instructional aides) who are working in the classroom. Schools are required to inform parents
whose classroom teachers do not meet NCLB requirements.
Parent Concerns About Staff or Program: Questions regarding ASEs curriculum, school rules, or the professional conduct of
any ASE employee can be addressed by making an appointment with a Principal. Any concerns you may have regarding the CoPrincipals can be addressed by making an appointment with the ASE School Board Chair. Any concerns you may have
regarding a Central Office Staff Member can be addressed by making an appointment with the ASE School Board Chair.
Procedure for Resolving Parent/Guardian Conflicts: ASE recognizes its responsibility for ensuring compliance with
applicable state and federal laws and regulations governing educational programs. Parents/guardians understand that ASE has its
own Board of Directors that is separate from the Los Angeles Unified School Districts (LAUSD) Board of Education.
Parents/guardians also understand that LAUSD will not intervene or become involved with any internal disputes unless it has
reason to believe that such disputes involve the violation of the schools charter or any applicable laws. In all other cases, LAUSD
will refer such complaints to the charter schools administration or Board of Directors. Therefore, parents/guardians agree to
follow the procedures below to resolve conflicts in a timely manner:
1. The parent/guardian will make an appointment and meet with the Principal.
2. If the conflict is not resolved, the parent/guardian will meet with the Chief Operating Officer.
3. If the previous two steps fail to arrive at a resolution, the parent/guardian may submit their concern in writing to the
Board of Directors (the parent/guardian may receive assistance with writing, if desired). The parent/guardian must also
attend the board meeting during which the Board of Directors will review the parents/guardians written complaint. The
parent/guardian can prepare a 2-minute oral presentation to present to the Board of Directors during this board meeting.
The Board of Directors will discuss the issue and render a decision. All decisions made by the Board of Directors are

Parents and guardians are encouraged welcomed and expected to be involved in the education of their children enrolled in public
schools. Parental involvement helps children to do well academically. When this involvement is combined with a partnership
between home and school, the student, the school, and the community benefit.
Parents are required to complete 20 hours of parent volunteer hours per year. Here is a partial list of activities for which parents
may receive parent volunteer hour credit:
Back-To-School Night
Open House
Parent Conferences
PTSA Meetings
Chaperone a Field Trip
Write a Thank You Letter to a Teacher
Take your child to see a college/university with an official admissions tour
Attend Orientation
Translate Documents
Help Clean the School
Main Office/School Support
Before/After School Supervision
Campus Maintenance/Facilities Support
Supervise/Assist with ASE Seminars
The Parent Teacher Student Association (PTSA) is a vital part of our ASE community. Parents are strongly encouraged to join
and support the PTSA. PTSA meetings are held the 3rd Thursday of each month in September, November, January 2014, March
2014, and May 2014. Elections are held annually at the March meeting. The PTSA Executive Board consists of a President,
Executive Vice President, Vice President of Membership, Recording Secretary, Treasurer, Financial Secretary, Historian, and
Auditor. *A Corresponding Secretary and a Parliamentarian are appointed by the President. PTSA Executive Board meets the 1st
Saturday in September, November, January 2014, March 2014, and May 2014.



STUDENT (Last) ___________________________ (First) ___________________________

GRADE: __________

STUDENT (Last) ___________________________ (First) ___________________________

GRADE: __________

HOME PHONE: ____________________________

E-MAIL: __________________________________________________

MOTHER / GUARDIAN: _________________________________________________________________________________

FATHER / GUARDIAN: __________________________________________________________________________________
This information is for our database. Please check the areas in which you would like to participate in
order to fulfill your 12 service hours. From this information the PTSA volunteer coordinator will contact
you (mostly by e-mail) when volunteer opportunities arise. Also look for volunteer opportunities in the
Santiago Newsletter available on the website and our facebook page. Like us on Facebook Santiago
Charter School PTSA!

8th Grade Promotion Party Donation (this is the biggest event for 8th grade, the total cost
of the promotion party is about $6,000. For every $10 donated you will receive 1 service
hour credit. Additional information will be coming home soon)

8th Grade Promotion Party Assistance

Business that could provide a service or product (painting, printing, plumbing, etc.)
Service or product: ________________________________________________________________________________

Laundry (P.E. & Health Office)

Chair Position (see welcome letter for details) ____________________________________________

Assistance on committee ______________________________________________________________________

i.e. teacher appreciation week, boxtops, school dances, recycle, ice cream, etc.




Student Name:


Sanger Academy will provide a curriculum

that accesses all of the intelligences that
students possess.
Inform parents of the school and
classroom policies for homework,
discipline and attendance.
Communicate with parents regularly
regarding each child's progress.
Respond in a timely manner to questions
or concerns from parents.
Respect and value the uniqueness of each
Sanger Academy will provide assignments
that will be an extension of what is learned
in the classroom and not merely busy
work or untaught concepts.
Help children to resolve conflicts in
positive, non-violent ways.
Solicit parent and community input,
through meetings, interviews,
questionnaires and surveys.

As Principal, I,
represent all Sanger Academy School staff in
affirming this contract.









Parent(s) Name:


Attend school on time.

To maintain an attendance rate of 97% or
better throughout the school year.
Dress according to the Sanger Academy
Uniform Policy.
Complete and return homework at least
85% of assignments on time.
Have a positive attitude towards self,
others, school, and learning.
Accept responsibility to do my best to
Not interfere with the rights of others to a
safe and positive educational
Help keep my school environment clean
and safe.
Deliver school communications and
corrected work to my
Obey all technology use rules.
To attend Sanger Academy for the entire
school year.

As a Sanger Academy Student, I pledge to:




Student Signature

Sanger Academy Pledge:

Sanger Academy School Compact

The purpose of this Compact is to ensure that all parties are committed
to promoting core values of honesty, integrity, trust and the pursuit of academic excellence.

As a Parent/Caregiver I pledge to:






Support my child by ensuring that he/she

attends school daily and arrives to school
on time.
Have my child dress according to the
Sanger Academy Uniform Policy.
Volunteer at least 10 hours of time during
the school year to assist in school
functions (field trips, carnivals, fundraisers,
school supervision, classroom assistance).
Provide a quiet place for my child to study
at home.
Support and reinforce the school's
conduct, discipline and attendance
Consistently monitor my childs
assignments and academic progress.
Read all school communications and
return request for information promptly.
Have my child attend Sanger Academy for
the entire school year.

Parent/Caregiver Signature


Sanger Academy students who are suspended are subject to Sanger Unified School District disciplinary policy and procedures.
Sanger Academy parents are required to meet volunteer pledge by attending at least one meeting of the following: PTA, Charter Parent Advisory, English
Learner Advisory, Music or Art booster meetings.
Sanger Academy students/parents who consistently fail to meet the compact requirements will be considered for transfer back to their home school at the
end of the school year.

Abernathy Collegiate Charter School

Parent and Student Handbook 2013-2014
This document is intended to help you navigate your path through ACCS. Please use it as a resource, and
always be sure to check the school website (www.abernathycharterschool.com) and consult with your
teachers and/or administrators if something is unclear.


Abernathy Collegiate School is a public charter school whose mission and vision is to provide exemplary,
standards based college preparatory education for public middle and high school students. Our vision is to
offer any student the same quality of education offered by the most academically distinguished schools in
California. Our graduates will be prepared to enter and thrive at the worlds finest colleges and universities.
The founders of ACCS believe in a curriculum that inspires critical thinking with a world view consistent
with United States founding principles. In current curricula used around the state, there is an absence of
teaching students how to use the information they learn for problem-solving and critical thinking. The ACCS
curriculum will teach students how to think and reason critically, as well as provide a substantive base of
knowledge, resulting in a well-rounded, culturally literate individual.
Students at Abernathy Collegiate Charter School will strive for excellence in academics, character, and
extracurricular activities. It is the responsibility of teachers not to expect anything less than excellence. For
instance, students who turn in an essay with easy to find grammar and typographical errors will be required to
redo the assignment. From writing a well-written five-paragraph essay to sportsmanship on the soccer field,
students will strive to do everything with excellence. By consistently striving for excellence, students are
preparing themselves to enter a community in college where excellence will always be demanded. Paying
attention to the details and constantly striving to do something better will separate ACCS graduates from
many other students across the country.
We believe that the single most important factor for students success is the quality of their teachers. Research
shows that teachers who rank in the top 25% of effectiveness make gains that are four times more than those
of teachers who rank in the bottom 25% of effectiveness. Our ambitious goals can only be attained if we
recruit, select, and hire a faculty that will work tirelessly and strategically to ensure that students read and
write with fluency and comprehension, compute with accuracy, and apply those skills to the world around
Social promotion, commonly defined as advancing forward a student who is failing for largely social reasons
(to the student or to the parent) to repeat a year, is widely recognized to be a public policy failure; it does not
serve the student, the other pupils, or society as a whole. Abernathy Collegiate Charter School will maintain
academic accountability for all, and students who fail required classes will repeat them. Every reasonable
effort will be made to identify and assist struggling students before they have to repeat a course. This includes
use of study hall and extended learning tutorial programs.
Students, parents, and staff at Abernathy Collegiate Charter School will make a choice to be part of the school
community. No student will be forced or assigned to attend the Charter School. Students who choose to enroll
at ACCS will commit to meeting the high academic and behavioral expectations of an ACCS student. Parents
who choose to enroll their students at ACCS will commit to supporting their child through their school
experience. Staff members who choose to work at ACCS will commit to doing whatever it takes to ensure
100% of students enter and succeed in the nations finest four-year colleges and universities. By making the
choice and commitment to be part of the school community, students, parents, and staff at Abernathy
Collegiate Charter School will play an integral role in the Charter Schools success.

student shall remain in the education placement determined by ACCS pending the results of the
ACCS shall not be deemed to have knowledge of that the student had a disability if the parent has not
allowed an evaluation, refused services, or if the student has been evaluated and determined to not be


Research indicates that when parents are involved in the education of their child, the childs success in school
dramatically increases. ACCS seeks to create a school environment that invites family participation and
involvement and that works as a community united in a common purpose. In order to create a strong school
community where every child can reach his or her fullest potential, each family must be involved at the
Once a child is admitted to the school, his or her family is encouraged to sign up with one of the schools
parent action committees. It is by working on these committees that most parents will complete their
recommended parent participation hours. Possible committees include Fundraising Committee, Academic
Mentoring Committee, Landscape and Garden Committee, Building Maintenance Committee, Community
Service Committee, Technology Committee, Art and Music Committee, Business Partnerships Committee,
Teacher Support Committee, recreation/sports committee, and Parent Relations Committee. The principal of
the school will oversee the work of these committees. Where appropriate, especially in the higher grades,
students will be invited to participate on these action committees in an effort to involve students in the ongoing operations of the school.
One Board member serves as co-chair of the Parent Volunteer Association (PVA) and reports to the Board the
input, feedback, or concerns of parents and the PVA as is relevant to board discussions or action. The PVA,
of which each parent is a member, supports the Charter School by organizing fundraising and social/cultural
events for students, encouraging parent volunteer service to the Charter School, and serving as a liaison
between parents and the staff of Abernathy Collegiate Charter School. Each family is asked to make a
commitment to provide 30 service hours annually to support the activities of the Charter School and the
educational experience of the students. Failure to participate in volunteer hours may result in loss of

priority enrollment rights for the following year.

Parents will also be involved by actively working with their children on homework and school projects, and
will be invited regularly to campus for events like orientation, Back to School Night, parent-teacher
conferences, and special events.
Volunteers who will volunteer outside of the direct supervision of a credentialed employee shall be
fingerprinted and receive background clearance prior to volunteering without the direct supervision of a
credentialed employee.
An ACCS student is a student that has exhibited a sense of civic responsibility by participating in
volunteerism/community service. All students must meet the community service requirement; 10 hours per
year in grades 7-8, and 20 hours per year in grades 9-12.


There are many ways that you may be involved and participate at ACCS.
Provide Home Academic Support by:
Ensuring your child comes to school ready to learn.
Assisting and monitoring homework assignments.
Reading with my student every night and/or providing a quiet place to work.
Following through with school recommended actions.
Reviewing this agreement with my child.
Provide School Support by:
Sending my child to school on time, in his or her required common dress, and with a nutritious
Supporting and adhering to the School Academic, Discipline and Behavior Policies.
Participate by:
Attending mandatory Parent Meetings each year.
Developing and fulfilling commitments in the ACCS Family Partnership Plan.
Attending school exhibitions of student work.
Attending mandatory all-school meetings.
Actively collaborating and communicating with teachers to meet my childs learning needs.
Believing and reinforcing the ACCS mission
Making positive contributions to the school community.
Being an active member of the school community by working to continuously improve ACCS for all
The Family Partnership Plan is the statement for how you will contribute to the whole school community in
your own individual and unique ways. Families have the option for how they would like to be involved and
the specifics of that involvement. Ways for families to be involved and complete the thirty hours of service
include but are not limited to the following:
Volunteering in your childs classroom.
Providing food at community meetings.
Participating on the Parent Advisory Committee.
Campus supervision
Helping with the cleaning and maintenance of the school building
Guest Lecturer
Translating materials
Attending parent workshops
Work on special interest committees
Field Trip supervision
Community Partnerships
Community Service Program
Attending student performances
Awards Assemblies
This list is not exhaustive and we encourage you to think of other ways we have not mentioned for how you
would like to be involved.


Principal(TK7(3 (Grade(
Dean(of(Students(HS( (
Office(Clerk( (
Attendance( (
Cafeteria(Manager( (
Library(Clerk( (
Health(Clerk( (
Psychologist( (
Speech(Therapist( (
RSP(Teacher( (
School(Nurse( (
Main(Campus(Tel.( (



Chula Vista Learning Community Charter School

Unit!I! July!24!!September!20!












Parent/Student Handbook


Chula Vista Learning Community Charter School


Parent/Student Handbook


Parent Handbook 2013-2014

Valley Charter
Elementary School
Established 2010

Each family commits to fulfilling 50 hours of volunteer work at the school; 75 for those with more
than one child at the school. Fundraising is a key component of the school; we strive for
meaningful participation in our annual pledge drive and volunteering.
Home/School Agreements
We believe that every child is a unique individual and wants to learn. We are committed to
providing a program that promotes educational excellence in a humanistic, nurturing and
challenging environment. To assist each student in achieving his / her highest potential for
intellectual and social growth, we recognize that the home and school must work together,
recognizing and agreeing upon each partys responsibilities in the learning process.
Parents/guardians are responsible for:

Providing a regular time, a quiet, well-lit place, and supervision for homework.
Making sure my child gets to school on time and has had enough to eat and adequate
Attending two parent/guardian/teacher conferences that are scheduled each year, as
well as any other meetings that may be needed.
Volunteering and participating at school, in my childs classroom, or at school events.
Encouraging and supporting my child and demonstrating my interest in their activities.
Reading and responding to all home-school communications promptly.
Monitoring attendance and television viewing, and providing positive use of out-of-school
Communicating the importance of education to my child.
Helping my child meet his/her responsibilities.
Notifying the teachers if there is something happening in my childs life that could affect
his/her progress in school.
Demonstrating respect for all students and adults at school

Students are responsible for:

Demonstrating respect for/cooperating with all adults at school.

Being in class on time and prepared to do my work.
Treating classmates and schoolmates with respect in the classroom and on the yard.
Completing all assignments, both in class and at home, to the best of my ability.
Following all school rules and behavior codes. This includes no fighting, threatening, or
bullying. I will be honest about my actions and accept responsibility for my choices.
Doing my part to be sure our school is a place where people feel safe and supported in
the learning process.
Displaying courteous and safe behavior while riding in a private car or school bus on a
field trip.
Delivering all home-school communications promptly.
Treating our school environment with respect.
Reading at home every night.

Teachers are responsible for:

Communicating frequently to families about what is happening in the classroom and

ways they can help support student learning at home.

VCES Parent Handbook 2013-2014


Parent Participation Philosophy

Parent volunteerism is key to the success of any school, but especially important at VCES,
where our charter specifies that each family commit to volunteer for a minimum of 50 volunteer
hours (75 for families with more than one child at VCES). Parent volunteers:

Develop community involvement and interaction, which is essential to the quality of our
school program;
Keep our operational costs down;
Enable our school to function well in day-to-day routines;
Enable us to successfully plan events that raise money to support our school and build
school and community involvement; and
Enable us to apply for grants, as parent participation is a key element in most grant

All families are expected to contribute the hours described above. If you have difficulty finding
ways to contribute, please do not hesitate to call the office or ask the classroom teacher how
you can help.
Volunteer hours must be tracked in the school office (please complete the volunteer log each
time you finish volunteering.) The school will contact families that are not visibly volunteering in
order to help them find opportunities for volunteering.
Important! Please Note:

Volunteers who regularly work directly with students or who drive students on
field trips must go through the Livescan process (fingerprinting) and have a
current (within four years) negative TB/Mantoux test on file in the office.

Parents who are working in the classroom are expected to keep confidential any
observations and opinions about students and staff in the class. Parents can only
discuss their own childs progress with teachers and administrators. Any parent
who is found to be breaching student confidentiality and disregarding this
expectation, will no longer have the privilege of working in the classroom. Please
follow the classroom teachers directions when working with students.

VII. Home/School Communication

VCES maintains a database of current information such as home address, telephone numbers
and emergency contacts for each student. It is essential that this information be kept up-to-date
so that the school can contact parents when there is a need. Each year, upon re-enrollment,
parents receive a student emergency card for each child with the current information listed in
the database. It is the parents responsibility to update this form and to keep the school informed
of any changes as they occur. Please contact the office with updates or changes of address,
phone number, email, emergency contacts or medical information. We make every effort to
provide communication in English and Spanish.
Purpose: This is the bi-monthly must-read document from the school. It contains:
1. important updates from the school to the parent body
VCES Parent Handbook 2013-2014


First Day Digital Packet*
Contents included in this packet
Letter from the Director
1 day packet introduction
School Calendars
Parking/Traffic Maps
Classroom Maps
Parent Code of Conduct
Parent/Student Contract
Student/Parent Handbook
Megans Law Form for Volunteers
Student Computer use form
Free Lunch Information
Health Schools Act (optional to sign and return)
Disaster preparedness information

Info given to your student in hard copy form on 1st day

Emergency card (sign/return)
Free lunch application (sign/return)
Student computer use form (sign/return)
This packet contains the information for both sites since many families have students at multiple
*Any family unable to access this information will be allowed to pick up the information in the school office.
Revised August 6,2012

School Contract
As an ILCS parent/caring adult, I/We_____________________________________________pledge to:
Parent(s)/Guardian(s) Name(s)
ILCS is a school of choice not a school of entitlement.
Student standards for behavior will be high in order that the environment is free of distraction so that all
may have the freedom to learn in a safe, friendly environment.
Parents are part of the success of any school and need to be involved in their childrens education.
Provide Home Academic Support by:
Ensuring my child comes to school ready to learn.
Assisting and monitoring homework assignments.
Following through with school recommended actions.
Reviewing this agreement with my child.
Provide School Support by:
Sending my child to school on time, in appropriate clothing and with a nutritious snack.
Supporting and adhering to the ILCS Family Student Handbook and interacting with school personnel in
a positive manner.
Completing school surveys and returning required paperwork.
Participate by:
Attending parent conferences
Actively collaborating and communicating with teachers to meet my childs learning needs.
Consistently encourage my child to implement his leadership training to help others.
Be an active member of the school community by working to continuously improve Inland Leaders
Charter School for all students.
Support your students community service projects and leadership progress.
Volunteering a minimum of 20 hours during the school year (in the classroom, at school events,
fundraising, committees, office help, room parent, etc)
My signature below represents my understanding and full commitment to the above pledges for the upcoming school
year. I understand that failure to uphold the above commitments may result in possible actions determined by the ILCS
Executive Board.

____________________________________ ___________________________________ ____________

Parent/Guardian Signature
Parent/Guardian Signature

Revised August 6,2012


1127 Otterbein Avenue
Rowland Heights, CA 91748



You will be notified as soon as a contract signed with this company to provide
services for RHCA. A fee will be charged per student for attending. We are
calculating that cost and will let you know ASAP. .
Parent Donation/Volunteer :
Per the Parent Agreement,
parents should complete three hours per month per child of
volunteer service to our school. This should come in the form of
donations with gift cards from such retail stores as Target, Wal-Mart, Costco,
Office Depot, Home Depot and other retail stores where teachers can buy
materials. For every $15 spent on any item, you will receive one hour of
volunteer credit. Cash donations are not accepted or credited.

WISH LIST: Following are a few items office and teachers are wishing for
at this time.
1. Fax machine
2. Paper Shredder
3. Laminator
4. Die-Cut Machine
5. Post-it Note pads (all sizes and colors)
6. White copy paper (8 x 11 and 8 by 14)
7. Bookshelves


Rowland Heights Charter Academy


"Developing Global Leaders of Tomorrow!"


About Us







Contact Us

Parent Resources
Parents as Business Partners
At the Rowland Heights Charter Academy, students are workers and parents are their business partners.
The Academys staff believes that increased business partner involvement translates into increased student
achievement. Business partners/parents sign partnership contracts with students and the Academy pledging to:
Set up conditions at home for students to study.
Monitor the childs Individualized Success Plan and Student Assessment Binder.
Check homework every night.
Volunteer a minimum of three hours of service per month, or equivalent, to the school. Service
opportunities will include, but not be limited to, assistance in classrooms, tutoring, translating, supervision,
communications, facilitation, and clerical support.


Stay Connected:
1127 Otterbein Ave
Rowland Heights, CA 91748

Search this site

Phone: (626) 810-4911 Fax:(626) 810-4915



Wildflower Open Classroom

Charter Petition

Program Evaluation and Program Improvement Plan

Wildflower Open Classroom evaluates its program every year. Teachers, parents, and students are
asked to reflect on ways WOC could be improved. Instruments used to facilitate this process may
student surveys
parent surveys
staff and teacher surveys
teacher self-study materials
test scores
periodic review by independent evaluators
Every year, information collected by these means are used to develop a plan for program improvement
(also called a strategic plan). The final document will be approved by WOC Board of Directors and
presented to the members of Wildflower Open Classroom community and serves as a guide for on-going
program improvement.

Volunteer/Parent Roles, Responsibilities, Accountability, and Training

Parents at WOC are required to volunteer a minimum of 75 hours per year (a parent volunteer hours
waiver will be available). Parents of WOC students may be involved in the program in four ways:
attendance at monthly Wildflower Community Council (WCC) meetings, periodic classroom/grade level
gatherings, co-oping in the classroom, and participation on a WCC committee.

Attendance at Monthly Wildflower Community Council Meetings

Parents are encouraged to attend monthly WCC meetings. General business will often take place at the
WCC meeting, including information from the Board of Directors, discussions about proposals, reminders
of upcoming events, committee reports and activities, etc. The WCC meetings provide an opportunity for
parents to get to know the teachers and other parents and to develop a deeper understanding of the
WOC program. Another purpose of these meetings is to give parents an opportunity to learn about and
discuss policies, procedures, and curriculum. Part of each monthly WCC meeting will be devoted to
review, seeking feedback from parents about these matters. Concerns and suggestions raised in the
monthly WCC meetings are brought to the WOC Board of Directors for consideration. Each classroom
has a parent representative assigned to attend, provide information, ask questions and act as general
classroom liaison. All parents are expected to attend three mandatory Wildflower Community Council
meetings during the year.

Participation at Periodic Classroom/Grade Level Community Gatherings

Parents have the opportunity to participate in parent centered classroom/grade level community
gatherings. Depending on workload issues these gatherings will occur periodically. They are coordinated
by the classroom/ grade level teacher(s) and a few parents to create an inviting forum for parents to hear
about classroom activities/ events, curriculum, classroom needs and in general get to know each other
and their classroom/ grade level community. These are informal forum with food and music.

Parents in Wildflower Open Classroom can also participate in the classroom. This is referred to as "cooping", and the parents are referred to as "co-opers". In the lower grades at WOC, co-opers have
traditionally worked in the classroom, under the direction of the classroom teacher.

09/13/2012; changes incorporated 02/25/13

Charter Petition Renewal Submission


Public Advocates (c) 2014 EMBARGOED UNTIL 12 PM 11/20/2014 DO NOT COPY


12 El Dorado

California Montessori Project Shingle Springs Campus

13 El Dorado

Camino Science and Natural Resources Charter School

Number of hours
20 hrs/yr
30 hrs/yr
10 hrs/yr
30 hrs/yr
50 hrs/yr
1.5 hrs/week, 1
maintenance day/year, 10
extra hours/yr
Paradise Unified
12 hrs/semester + 1
maintenance day/year
Oroville City Elementary School District
30 hrs/year
Chico Unified
75 hrs/yr
Mt. Diablo Unified
40 hrs/yr
West Contra Costa Unified
96 hrs/yr + mandatory
cleanings + meetings
Buckeye Union Elementary School District 40 hrs/yr or 70 hrs/yr if > 1
Camino Union Elementary School District 30 hrs/yr

14 Fresno
15 Glenn

Sanger Academy Charter SChool

Walden Academy

Sanger Unified
Glenn COE

16 Humboldt
17 Humboldt

Fuente Nueva Charter

Laurel Tree Charter School


Redwood Coast Montessori

Abernathy Collegiate Charter School
Academia Moderna
Academy of Science and Engineering
Alain Leroy Locke College Prep Academy (Green Dot)

Arcata Elementary School District

Northern Humboldt Union High School
Arcata School District
Tehachapi Unified
Los Angeles Unified
Los Angeles Unified
Los Angeles Unified



7 Butte

Contra Costa
Contra Costa

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Los Angeles

23 Los Angeles

Charter School
Conservatory of Vocal/Instrumental Arts
Oakland Military Institute
Urban Montessori Charter
Yu Ming Charter
Blue Oak Charter School
Children's Community Charter School

Paradise Charter Middle School

STREAM Charter School
Wildflower Open Classroom
Eagle Peak Montessori
Manzanita Charter Middle School

Oakland Unified
Oakland Unified
Alameda COE
Alameda COE
Butte COE
Paradise Unified

"About COVA" Web page
Parent Bulletin
Charter petition to OUSD
Handbook at 5
Handbook at 22
Parent Participation Commitment Form

10 hrs/yr
40 hrs/yr + 20 hrs/yr per
additional student
4 hrs/mo
20 hrs/yr

Handbook at 11
Volunteer Handbook at 2

30 hrs/yr
30 hrs/yr
20 hrs/yr
20 hrs/year or $10/hr
35 hrs/yr

Handbook at 17
Handbook at 39
Handbook at 16-17
Handbook at 14
Green Dot Student Policy Manual at 22,
Parent/Student/Staff Compact

Alliance Cindy & Bill Simon Technology Academy High

Alliance College Ready Alice M Baxter
Alliance College-Ready Academy High School #16
Alliance College-Ready Academy High School #5
Alliance Collins Family College-Ready High School
Alliance Dr. Olga Mohan High School
Alliance Gertz-Ressler

Los Angeles Unified

40 hrs/yr

Los Angeles Unified

Los Angeles Unified
Los Angeles Unified
Los Angeles Unified
Los Angeles Unified
Los Angeles Unified

30 Los Angeles

Alliance Health Services Academy

Los Angeles Unified

40 hrs/yr
40 hrs/yr
40 hrs/yr
40 hrs/yr
40 hrs/yr
40 hrs/yr; 60 if 2 students;
70 if 3+ students
40 hrs/yr

31 Los Angeles
32 Los Angeles
33 Los Angeles

Alliance Judy Ivie Burton Technology High School

Los Angeles Unified
Alliance Marc & Eva Stern Math and Science School
Los Angeles Unified
Alliance Media Arts and Entertainment Design High School Los Angeles Unified

40 hrs/yr
40 hrs/yr
40 hrs/yr


Alliance Ouchi-O'Donovan 6-12 Complex

Alliance Renee & Meyer Luskin College-Ready Academy
Alliance Susan and Eric Smidt Technology High School
Alliance Tennenbaum Family Technology High School
Animo Avalon Charter Middle (green dot)

Los Angeles Unified

Los Angeles Unified
Los Angeles Unified
Los Angeles Unified
Los Angeles Unified

40 hrs/yr
40 hrs/yr
40 hrs/yr
40 hrs/yr
35 hrs/yr

39 Los Angeles

Animo College Prep Academy (Green Dot)

Los Angeles Unified

35 hrs/yr

40 Los Angeles

Animo Ellen Ochoa Charter Middle School (Green Dot)

Los Angeles Unified

35 hrs/yr

41 Los Angeles

Animo Inglewood Charter High (Green Dot)

Inglewood Unified

35 hrs/yr

42 Los Angeles

Animo Jackie Robinson Charter High (Green Dot)

Los Angeles Unified

35 hrs/yr

43 Los Angeles

Animo Jefferson Charter Middle (Green Dot)

Los Angeles Unified

35 hrs/yr

44 Los Angeles

Animo Leadership High


35 hrs/yr

45 Los Angeles

Animo Middle School #2 (Green Dot)

Los Angeles Unified

35 hrs/yr

46 Los Angeles
47 Los Angeles

Animo Middle School #3 (Green Dot)

Animo Middle School #4 (Green Dot)

Los Angeles Unified

Los Angeles Unified

35 hrs/yr
35 hrs/yr

48 Los Angeles

Animo Pat Brown

Los Angeles Unified

35 hrs/yr

49 Los Angeles

Animo Ralph Bunche

Los Angeles Unified

35 hrs/yr

50 Los Angeles

Animo South Los Angeles

Los Angeles Unified

35 hrs/yr

51 Los Angeles

Animo Venice Charter High

Los Angeles Unified

35 hrs/yr

52 Los Angeles

Animo Watts College Preparatory Academy

Los Angeles Unified

35 hrs/yr


Animo Westside Charter Middle School

Aveson Global Leadership Academy
Aveson School of Leaders
ICEF Frederick Douglass Academy
ICEF Frederick Douglass Charter Middle
ICEF Inglewood Charter Middle Academy
ICEF Lou Dantzler Preparatory Elementary School
ICEF Lou Dantzler Preparatory Middle School
ICEF View Park High

Los Angeles Unified

Pasadena Unified
Pasadena Unified
Los Angeles Unified
Los Angeles Unified
Inglewood Unified
Los Angeles Unified
Los Angeles Unified
Los Angeles Unified

35 hrs/yr
20 hrs/yr
20 hrs/yr
40 hrs/ yr
40 hrs/yr
40 hrs/yr
40 hrs/yr
40 hrs/yr
40 hrs/yr


Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Los Angeles

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Los Angeles

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Los Angeles

Student Contract at 10
Handbook at 18
Charter petition to Chico Unified at 34
Parent Pledge
Handbook at 21-22
Handbook at 21-22
Home/School Learning Compact

Enrollment Handbook at 11
"Parent Involvement" Web page

"FAQ" Web Page

Handbook at 32-35
"FAQ" Web Page
Parent/Student/Staff Compact
Handbook at 36-40
"Parent Volunteer Information" Web page
"Parent Volunteer Requirements" Web
Parent/Student/Staff Compact
Handbook at 40
Handbook at 30
Handbook at 31
Parent/Student/Staff Compact
Handbook at 44-45
Handbook at 38
Green Dot Student Policy Manual at 22,
Green Dot Student Policy Manual at 22,
Green Dot Student Policy Manual at 22,
Green Dot Student Policy Manual at 22,
Green Dot Student Policy Manual at 22,
Green Dot Student Policy Manual at 22,
Green Dot Student Policy Manual at 22,
Green Dot Student Policy Manual at 22,
Parent-Student Handbook at 43
Green Dot Student Policy Manual at 22,
Green Dot Student Policy Manual at 22,
Green Dot Student Policy Manual at 22,
Green Dot Student Policy Manual at 22,
Green Dot Student Policy Manual at 22,
Green Dot Student Policy Manual at 22,
"Promotion Requirements" Web Page
"Volunteer" Web Page
"Volunteer" Web Page
Handbook at 25
Handbook at 25
Handbook at 28
Handbook at 23
Handbook at 26
Handbook at 25

Public Advocates (c) 2014 EMBARGOED UNTIL 12 PM 11/20/2014 DO NOT COPY


Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Los Angeles

ICEF View Park Prep Accelerated Charter Middle

ICEF Vista Elementary and Middle Charter Academy
Ivy Academia
Keck Early Learning Center

Los Angeles Unified

Los Angeles Unified
Los Angeles Unified
Los Angeles Unified

Handbook at 34-35
Handbook at 28
Handbook at 7
Handbook (the Accelerated Schools) at 37

Los Angeles Unified

Los Angeles Unified
Los Angeles Unified

40 hrs/yr
40 hrs/yr
25 hrs/yr
30 hrs/yr; 40 if 2 students;
50 if 3+ students
20 hrs/yr
20 hrs/yr
20 hrs/yr or $5 per hour

66 Los Angeles
67 Los Angeles
68 Los Angeles

KIPP Philosophers Academy
KIPP Scholar Academy


Life Source Charter School

Los Angeles Big Picture High School
Los Angeles Leadership Academy (LALA)
Los Feliz Charter School for the Arts
Metro Charter SChool
Multicultural Learning Center
New Academy of Science and Art
New Heights Charter School
New West Charter

1 event
3 hrs/mo

Handbook at 16
Parent Newsletter; "Parent Resources"
Web page
Handbook at 12-13
Handbook (the Accelerated Schools) at 37

78 Los Angeles

North Valley Military Academy

79 Los Angeles

Oscar de la Hoya Animo Charter High (Green Dot)

80 Los Angeles
81 Los Angeles
82 Los Angeles

Pacoima Charter School

Palisades Charter Elementary
Palisades Charter High School

83 Los Angeles

Prepa Tec

Commitment to Excellence contract

Commitment to Excellence contract
Commitment to Excellence contract;
Parent Bulletin
Lancaster Elementary
10 hrs/yr; or $10 per hour Interview with parent
Los Angeles Unified
140 hrs total
Handbook at 8-9
Los Angeles Unified
30 hrs/yr
Handbook at 32-34, 47
Los Angeles Unified
60 hrs/yr
"Volunteer Opportunities" Web Page
Los Angeles Unified
40 hrs/ yr
Handbook at 8
Los Angeles Unified
30 hrs/yr
Handbook at 40
Los Angeles Unified
20 hrs/yr
Handbook at 13
Los Angeles Unified
30 hrs/yr
Handbook at 17
California Department of Education Charter 16 hrs/yr
"Get Involved Parent Volunteer Log" Web
Schools Division
Los Angeles Unified
25 hrsyr; 35 if 2+ students; Newsletter
$10/ hr
Los Angeles Unified
35 hrs/yr
Green Dot Student Policy Manual at 22,
Los Angeles Unified
30 hrs/yr
Los Angeles Unified
20 hrs/yr
Parent Volunteer Handbook at 4
Los Angeles Unified
40 hrs/yr
Handbook at 87; "Volunteer
Opportunities" Web page
Los Angeles Unified
20 hrs/yr
Handbook (Academia Moderna) at 16-17

84 Los Angeles
85 Los Angeles

Rise Kohyang Middle School

Rowland Heights Charter Academy

Los Angeles Unified

Rowland Unified

86 Los Angeles
87 Los Angeles

Santa Clarita Valley International (SCVI)

The Accelerated Charter Elementary School

William S. Hart Union High

Los Angeles Unified

88 Los Angeles

The Accelerated School

89 Los Angeles

Today's Fresh Start Charter School

90 Los Angeles

Valley Charter Elementary School

91 Los Angeles

Valley Charter Middle

92 Los Angeles
93 Los Angeles

Vista Charter Middle

Wallis Annenberg High School

94 Marin

Willow Creek

80 hrs/yr
30 hrs/yr; 40 if 2 students;
50 if 3+ students
Los Angeles Unified
30 hrs/yr; 40 if 2 students;
50 if 3+ students
California Department of Education Charter 40 hrs/ yr
Schools Division
Los Angeles Unified
50 hrs/yr; 75 hrs/yr if > 1
Los Angeles Unified
50 hrs/yr; 75 hrs/yr if > 1
Los Angeles Unified
10 hrs/quarter, 40 hrs/yr
Los Angeles Unified
30 hrs/yr; 40 if 2 students;
50 if 3+ students
Sausalito Marin City
50 hrs/yr

95 Mariposa

Sierra Foothill Charter

Mariposa County Unified

2 hrs/mo; $5/hr

96 Mendocino
97 Mendocino

Eel River School

Tree of Life Montessori Charter School

Round Valley Unified

Tree of Life School

2 hrs/wk per student

30 hrs/year

98 Mendocino

Willits Charter

Willits Unified

99 Mendocino

Willits Elementary Charter

Willits Unified

100 Merced
101 Orange

Green Valley Charter

El Rancho

Los Banos Unified

Orange Unified

SARC at 3
Contract in Enrollment Application;
Handbook at 12
40 hrs/yr; 60 if 2+ students; Handbook at 5-6.
40 hrs/yr; 60 if 2+ students; Charter at 8-9; Handbook at 2
5 hrs/mo; 50 hrs/yr
Handbook at 22
10 hrs/yr; $10/hr
Charter at 20; Instructions for Registration


Journey School
Orange County Educational Arts Academy
Santiago Charter Middle School
Temecula Valley Charter School
San Jacinto Valley Academy
Alan Rowe College Prep (Fortune)

Capistrano Unified
Santa Ana Unified
Orange Unified
Temecula Valley Unified
San Jacinto Unified
Sacramento COE

50 hrs/yr
3 hrs/quarter
12 hrs/yr; $10/hr
12 hrs/mo
60 hrs/yr
40 hrs/yr

108 Sacramento

California Montessori Project - Capitol Campus

Sacramento City Unified

40 hrs/yr

109 Sacramento

California Montessori Project - Elk Grove Campus

Elk Grove Unified

40 hrs/yr

110 Sacramento

California Montessori Project - San Juan Campus

San Juan Unified

40 hrs/yr

111 Sacramento
112 Sacramento
113 Sacramento

Community Outreach Academy

Creative Connections Arts Academy
Ephraiem Williams College Prep

Sacramento City Unified

Twin Rivers Unified School District
Sacramento COE

12 hrs/year
30 hrs/yr; $10/hr
40 hrs/yr

114 Sacramento
115 Sacramento
116 Sacramento

Fortune School
Golden Valley Charter School of Sacramento
Higher Learning Academy

Sacramento COE
San Juan Unified
Twin Rivers Unified School District

40 hrs/yr; $5/hr
4 hrs/mo
30 hrs/yr


Oak Park Prep

Smythe Academy of Arts and Sciences
Sol Aureus College Prep
St. HOPE Public School 7

Sacramento City Unified

Twin Rivers Unified School District
Sacramento City Unified
Sacramento City Unified

10 hrs/yr
30 hrs/yr
10 hrs/yr
40 hrs/yr

Westside Preparatory Charter

Twin Rivers Unified School District

30 hrs/yr; $10/hr

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Los Angeles



121 Sacramento

Handbook (the Accelerated Schools) at 37

Handbook at 27
Handbook at 10-12
Handbook at 2
Handbook at 3
Handbook at 31-32
Parent Volunteer Obligations" Web page
Parent Contract and Volunteer Agreement

Handbook at 15
Parent Handbook at 44-45
"Service Hours Info" Web page
Parent Information Guide at 12
Family Service Log web page
Handbook (Fortune Schools) at 4;
Commitment to Excellence Contract
Handbook (California Montessori Project)
at 22
Handbook (California Montessori Project)
at 22
Handbook (California Montessori Project)
at 22
Bylaws at 9-10
Handbook (Fortune Schools) at 4;
Commitment to Excellence Contract
Web site, contract
Handbook at 16, 29; Promotion/Retention
Policy at 22
Handbook at 24
Charter petition at 29
Handbook at 10
"Parent Hours Monthly Tally Sheet" Web
"Parent/Guardian Involvement" Web page

Public Advocates (c) 2014 EMBARGOED UNTIL 12 PM 11/20/2014 DO NOT COPY

122 Sacramento

William Lee College Prep (Fortune)

Sacramento COE

40 hrs/yr


San Bernardino
San Bernardino
San Bernardino
San Bernardino

Encore High School

Grove School
Hardy Brown College Prep
Inland Leaders Charter Academy

8 hrs/sem; $20 in-kind/hr

30 hrs/yr
40 hrs/yr; $5/hr
20 hrs/yr


San Bernardino
San Bernardino
San Bernardino
San Diego
San Diego
San Diego
San Diego
San Diego

Mountain View Montessori

Pathways to College
Public Safety Academy
Chula Vista Learning Community Charter School
EJE Academy Elementary
EJE Academy Middle
Helix Charter School
Oxford Preparatory Academy

Hesperia Unified
Redlands Unified
San Bernardino Unified
Yucaipa-Calimesa Joint Unified School
Victor Elementary
Hesperia Unified
San Bernardino City Unified
Chula Vista Elementary
Cajon Valley Union
Cajon Valley Union
Grossmont Union High School District
Capistrano Unified


San Joaquin
San Joaquin
San Joaquin
San Joaquin
San Joaquin
San Joaquin
San Luis Obispo

Acacia Community Charter School

Acacia Elementary Charter
Acacia Middle Charter
Health Careers Academy
Joe Serna Jr.
River Islands Technology Academy
Almond Acres Charter Academy

New Jerusalem Elementary

New Jerusalem Elementary
New Jerusalem Elementary
Stockton Unified
Lodi Unified
Banta Elementary
San Miguel Joint Union

142 San Luis Obispo

143 San Mateo

Bellevue-Santa Fe Charter
San Carlos Charter Learning Center

San Luis Coastal Unified School District

San Carlos School District

4 hrs/sem
30 hrs/yr
5 hrs/mo; $25/hr
60 hrs/yr; 100 hrs/yr if 2+
6 hrs/mo
80-120 hrs/year; $15/hr

144 San Mateo

Summit Everest


Santa Clara
Santa Clara
Santa Clara
Santa Clara
Santa Clara

ACE Alum Rock MS

ACE Charter Academy MS
ACE Charter High
ACE Franklin McKinley
Discovery Charter School I

California Department of Education Charter

Schools Division
Alum Rock Union Elementary
East Side Union High School District
East Side Union High School District
Franklin-McKinley Elementary
Santa Clara COE

150 Santa Clara

Discovery Charter School II

San Jose Unified


Rocketship Academy Brilliant Minds

Rocketship Alma Academy
Rocketship Discovery Prep
Rocketship Los Suenos Academy
Rocketship Mateo Sheedy Academy
Rocketship Mosaic Academy
Rocketship Si Se Puede Academy
Rocketship Spark Academy
University Preparatory Academy Charter

Santa Clara COE

Santa Clara COE
Santa Clara COE
Santa Clara COE
Santa Clara COE
Santa Clara COE
Santa Clara COE
Franklin-McKinley Elementary
Santa Clara COE

160 Santa Clara

161 Solano
162 Solano

Village School
Alternative Cooperative Education Charter School
Buckingham Charter Magnet High School

Campbell Union Elementary School

Vacaville Unified
Vacaville Unified

163 Solano
164 Solano

Kairos Public School Vacaville Academy

Mare Island Technology Academy

Vacaville Unified
Vallejo City Unified

165 Solano
166 Ventura

Vallejo Charter School

Bridges Charter School

Vallejo City Unified

Ventura COE

167 Ventura
168 Ventura

Camarillo Academy of Progressive Education

Ventura Charter School

Ventura COE
Ventura School District

Santa Clara
Santa Clara
Santa Clara
Santa Clara
Santa Clara
Santa Clara
Santa Clara
Santa Clara
Santa Clara

30 hrs/yr
10 hrs/yr
4 hrs/mo
30 hrs/yr
30 hrs/yr
30 hrs/yr
2 times / year
20 hrs/yr

30 hrs/yr
1 hr/mo
1 hr/mo
1 hr/mo
1 hr/mo
2.5 hrs/wk; 4.5 hrs/wk if 2+
students; add'l reqs
2.5 hrs/wk; 4.5 hrs/wk if 2+
students; add'l reqs
30 hrs/yr
30 hrs/yr
30 hrs/yr
30 hrs/yr
30 hrs/yr
30 hrs/yr
30 hrs/yr
30 hrs/yr
15 hrs/yr; 30 hrs/yr (high
3 hrs/wk; 3 field trips/yr
8 hrs/mo
10 hrs/yr; $20/hr

Handbook (Fortune Schools) at 4;

Commitment to Excellence Contract
Parent Volunteer Form
"The Grove School Forms" Web page
Charter at 55
First Day Digital Packet at 12
Handbook at 4-5
Enrollment Packet at 2
Handbook at 14-15
Handbook at 20-21
Handbook at 13-14
Handbook at 13-14
Handbook at 5
Handbook at 54; Learning Partnership
"ACCS FAQ" Web page
"ACCS FAQ" Web page
"ACCS FAQ" Web page
Enrollment Packet at 7
Handbook at 19
"Donate/Fundraising" Web Page
Handbook at 5
"Get Involved" Web page
Handbook at 34; Volunteer Guidelines
web page
Handbook at 15
Handbook (ACE Charter Schools) at 37
Handbook (ACE Charter Schools) at 37
Handbook (ACE Charter Schools) at 37
Handbook (ACE Charter Schools) at 37
Parent Agreement
Parent Agreement

Handbook (Rocketship Discovery Prep)

Handbook (Rocketship Discovery Prep)
Handbook (Rocketship Discovery Prep)
Handbook (Rocketship Discovery Prep)
Handbook (Rocketship Discovery Prep)
Handbook (Rocketship Discovery Prep)
Handbook (Rocketship Discovery Prep)
Handbook (Rocketship Discovery Prep)
"Community Service" and PTSO web
"Parent Involvement" Web page
Charter Renewal Petition at 12
FAQS "Parent Service Hours" web page;
Charter at 23
30 hrs/yr
Handbook at 4-5
40/hrs first year, declines to Handbook at 16-17; Parent Agreement
15/hrs for 6th year.
20 hrs/yr
Family Invovlement Plan
4 hrs/wk (Kinder); 2.5
Handbook at 34
hrs/wk (1-8)
1 hr/wk
SARC at 2
4 hrs/wk
Charter at 40; Technology Plan at 3

State of California

Department of Education





Marta Reyes
Charter Schools Division

Date :

February 9, 2006

Michael Hersher
Deputy General Counsel
Parent participation as charter school admission requirement

You have requested a legal opinion whether a charter school may require a
parent to sign an agreement to perform certain hours of work for the benefit of
the charter school, as a condition of admitting a student to the school. In my
opinion, such a requirement is within the discretion of a charter school and does
not prevent an authorizing entity from approving the charter.
With regard to who may enroll in a charter school, the Charter School Act has
several provisions that refer to admission requirements and others that refer to
admission preferences. The distinction appears to be that a requirement
applies to an individual students eligibility to apply at all, while a preference
allows certain categories of students to compete with each other when there are
more applicants than spaces in the school. After applying the allowable
preferences, if there are still more applicants than spaces, charter schools are
authorized to conduct lotteries to select students for enrollment.
Education Code section 47605(b)(5)(H) states a charter petition must include a
reasonably comprehensive description of the admission requirements, if any.
This provision implies that a charter school may set reasonable limitations on
which students may apply for admission. Section 47605(d)(2)(A), however, says
a charter school shall admit all pupils who wish to attend the school. That
provision seems to conflict with the previously quoted section in suggesting that
all pupils are eligible to be admitted without limitation. It also conflicts with, or
is limited by, the various preferences that charter schools may allow that limit
the duty to admit all pupils who wish to attend. In order to harmonize these
provisions of the overall statutory scheme, it seems reasonable to interpret
Section 47605(d)(2)(A) as requiring that charter schools admit all students,

regardless of residence, who meet the lawful criteria for admission and/or
preference stated in the petition.
In terms of the criteria that are not lawful, Section 47605(d)(1) states a charter
schools admission policies must be nonsectarian, may not require tuition, may
not discriminate on the basis of ethnicity, national origin, gender, or disability,
and may not be based on the residence of the parents or guardians. However,
specific preferences are allowed for pupils currently attending a converted
charter school, pupils who reside within the attendance area of the former
attendance area of that converted school, and pupils who reside in the school
district of the converted school. In addition, a charter school that is not a
conversion school may also give preference to pupils from the school attendance
area in which the charter school is located, if the public school in that area has
more than 50 percent pupils eligible for free and reduced price lunches based on
family income. (Educ. Code sec. 47605.3.)
In conclusion, the Charter School Act does not expressly address the issue of
parent participation requirements for admission to a charter school. Parent
participation is not one of the expressly prohibited criteria for admission or
preference and is a factor that is relevant, if not integral, to the educational goals
and philosophy of a charter school. Given the flexibility that was intended by
the Charter School Act and the number of statutory limitations on admission that
are already permitted, it is my opinion that a charter petition may lawfully
include reasonable admission criteria, including a requirement that parents agree
to do work for the charter school.