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Laboratory # 4 Report

Lab Group: 5c

Date: November 1 2014

Group Members:

a. Tayan Patel

b. Jonathan Patterson

c. Nik Mouwen

Question 4:

To complete section 2.1 we need to use our recorded data

fn1

fn2

7.56 Hz

43.14Hz

m1

m2

60 gr.

40 gr.

a)

Find excitation frequency:

(

Armature

Mid-span mass (m2)

End mass (m1)

A (mV)

3.36

6.96

19.6

A (m/s2)

0.342

0.709

2.00

)|

(rad/s)

45.13

45.13

45.13

|Y| (mm)

0.1679

0.348

0.982

b)

Armature Mass 2 (mid-span):

NOTE: the values on the oscilloscope were not exactly zero, but they were so small in magnitude

that we can take them to be zero (as per TA instructions).

c)

Armature Mass 2 (mid-span):

( )

( )

( )

( )

Question 2:

0.9n1 = 40.617

rad/s

2

1.5

Acceleration (m/s2)

1

0.5

0

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

-0.5

-1

-1.5

-2

Time (s)

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Question 3:

From lecture slides:

( )

{

) [ ]

) [ ]

x = Distance from origin of beam to shaker [m]

x1 = Distance from the shaker to the middle mass [m]

L = Length of beam [m]

E = Youngs modulus of beam = 200 x 109 Pa

I = Moment of inertia of beam = bh3/12 m4

b = Width of beam [m]

h = Height of beam [m]

We recorded the following values:

* +

+[ ]

(

(

Substituting values:

[

Find stiffness matrix to find natural frequencies

Solve matrix:

EOM:

[

Substitute values:

(*

+) [

* +

(

Solving:

Convert to Hertz:

[

][

+[

]* +

+[

]*

) [(

) [(

Question 4, 5, 6:

Question 7:

It can be seen that the experimental natural frequencies found were:

Analytically however, we can see that the obtained natural frequencies were:

From these values, we can see that for the first natural frequency, we obtain an error of

approximately 17.6%, while for the second natural frequency we see a smaller 14.0% error. Both of

these errors are higher than we would ideally like to see, but are not extreme.

As our errors were both in the mid teens, we can see that our level of error is consistent throughout

both experiments. This leads us to believe that systematic errors such as human error when

reading the oscilloscope or calibration of our machines are where the blame should be placed. It is

worth noting that the masses may have came loose, but we made sure to never touch the masses so

hopefully that has no effect on our data. Since our experimental data is consistently lower than our

analytical, it leads us to believe that a simplification or assumption could be to blame when solving

for a theoretical natural frequency.

External noises and vibrations are always a factor when conducting experiments similar to this one

and as such they would have been factors in the error. When collecting data, only 15 points were

used for each mass distribution and as such, the precision would be diminished. More data points,

specifically focused around the natural frequency would generate a much smoother and accurate

curve, in turn leading to better results.

Finally, in the analytical solution, the mass of the beam was assumed negligible which in real life

would not be the case. The mass would have to be factored in to the data, and could substantially

change the final results. A damping ratio of approximately 1% was used, however as seen in

laboratory #3, we know that this is not the case. It is worth noting that our experimental data was

consistently lower than our analytical solution, so it could be surmised that the beam is acting as a

damper and lowering the natural frequency to the damped natural frequency.

Overall, this lab has a valuable teaching method, and our results obtained can be considered

dependable. Doing our post-lab analysis we would be sure to include a reasonable value for a

damping ratio in order to bring our error in to the low single digits. From this lab our knowledge

and understanding of the subject or vibrating systems was greatly improved.

% Given

E=200e9; % steel

b=0.02;h=0.001; % m

I=b*h^3/12;

x1=0.093; % m

L=0.2; % m

% modal damping - from experiments

zeta1=.01;

zeta2=zeta1;

% Mass matrix

M=[.05 0;0 .07]; % kg

% Compliance matrix

Lamda=[x1^3/(3*E*I) x1^2/(6*E*I)*(3*L-x1);x1^2/(6*E*I)*(3*L-x1) L^3/(3*E*I)];

K=inv(Lamda);

[V,D] = eig(K,M);

M11=V (:,2)'*M*V(:,2);

M22=V (:,1)'*M*V(:,1);

U(:,1)=1/sqrt(M11)*V(:,2);

U(:,2)=1/sqrt(M22)*V(:,1);

wn1=sqrt(D(2,2)); % rad/s

wn2=sqrt(D(1,1)); % rad/s

Cq=[2*zeta1*wn1 0; 0 2*zeta2*wn2]

C=(U^-1)'*Cq*U^-1;

kc=(K(1,1)+K(1,2));

cc=(C(1,1)+C(1,2));

Y1_YB=tf([cc*U (1,1)^2 (kc)*U (1,1)^2],[1 2*zeta1*wn1 wn1^2])+tf([cc*U (1,2)^2 (kc)*U (1,2)^2],[1

2*zeta2*wn2 wn2^2])

% Experimental For Mass 2 (Outter)

freq = [5 6.075 6.3 6.525 6.75 6.77 6.8 19.3 31.7 44.2 45 45.3 46 53 60];

trans1 = [2.23 5.02 7.16 12.66 48.4 49.23 48.7 0.33 0.28 2.05 3.27 3.62 2.8 0.25 0.08];

phase1 = [-2 -4 -5 -8 -76 -89 -107 -182 -181 -213 -246 -266 -309 -353 -356];

% Experimental For Mass 1 (Inner)

trans2 = [1.38 2.21 2.85 4.49 14.69 14.80 14.43 0.73 1.15 10.46 16.96 19.97 14.97 1.58 0.68];

phase2 = [-1 -2 -4 -7 -74 -87 -105 0 -2 -32 -65 -84 -128 -172 -177];

H=Y1_YB;

% plotting

ff=100; % [hz]

f=linspace(0,ff,10000);

[HH] =freqresp(H,2*pi*f);

HH=squeeze(HH);

figure(1); clf;zoom on;

subplot(2,1,1);

plot(f,abs(HH),freq,trans1 ,'c')

legend('Analytical', 'Experimental')

xlabel('Frequency (Hz)')

ylabel('Transmissibility')

title('Transmissibility for Outer Mass')

grid on;

subplot(2,1,2);

plot(f,unwrap (angle(HH)).*(180/pi),freq,phase1,'r');

legend('Analytical', 'Experimental')

xlabel('Frequency (Hz)')

ylabel('Phase Angle (Degrees)')

title('Phase Angle for Outer Mass')

grid on;

Y2_YB=tf([(C(2,1)+C(2,2))*U (2,1)^2 (K(2,1)+K(2,2))*U (2,1)^2],[1 2*zeta1*wn1

wn1^2])+tf([(C(2,1)+C(2,2))*U (2,2)^2 (K(2,1)+K(2,2))*U (2,2)^2],[1 2*zeta2*wn2 wn2^2])

H2=Y2_YB;

% plotting

% ff=500; % [hz]

f=linspace(0,ff,10000);

[HH] =freqresp(H2,2*pi*f);

HH=squeeze(HH);

figure(2); clf;zoom on;

subplot(2,1,1);

plot(f,abs(HH),freq,trans2 ,'m')

legend('Analytical', 'Experimental')

xlabel('Frequency (Hz)')

ylabel('Transmissibility')

title('Transmissibility for Inner Mass')

grid on;

subplot(2,1,2);

plot(f,unwrap (angle(HH)).*(-180/pi),freq,phase2,'g');

legend('Analytical', 'Experimental')

xlabel('Frequency (Hz)')

ylabel('Phase Angle (Degrees)')

title('Phase Angle for Inner Mass')

grid on;

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