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Question 1
a. What is meant by labour economics? Explain the factors that can influence labour
(10 marks)

Labour economics refer of understanding the functioning and dynamics of the market for labour.
Labour markets work throughout the interface of workers and employers. Labour economics
seem at the suppliers of labour services (workers), the demanders of labour services (employers),
and attempts to comprehend the resulting pattern of wages, employment, and income.Labour
economics defined as the study of efficiency as it imbedded into the market for labour.

Courses in labour economics have long been an element of usual programs of study in industrial
relations and human resources management. Same as traditional product market economics there
are micro and macro components to labour economics. The micro components handle with
decisions made by firms and individuals that based on given labour market. Macro components
are linked to studying overall trends and effects on labour markets as a whole. Factors that can
influence labour economics are supply, demand, PEST, external environment. Stable politic of a
country can increase the value of labour economics.

Political factors comprise government regulations and legal issues and identify both formal and
informal rules under which the firm must function. Economic factors influence the purchasing
power of potential customers and the firm's cost of capital. The social and cultural has impact on
business differ from country to country. Technology is essential for competitive advantage, and
is a main driver of globalization. Level of education has an impact on wage of suppliers of labour
services. For instance, demand is high than supply for professional jobs such as doctors, lawyers,
engineers, etc.

The income leisure model is the tool applied to look at the hours of work decisions of individuals,
given a set wage. This is a labour supply dimension. The assumption is that individuals will

contain conflicting preferences and monetary values that they place on their leisure time. There
is an exchange between leisure (defined as all non-labour market activity) and earned income
(defined as income resulting from labour market activity). Therefore in turn to gain income
individuals must discontinue some of their leisure time.

This trade off sound clear, but the key to this model, as it applies to human resources, is
thoughtful the individuality of the values placed on leisure time. The concept of a reservation
wage states that individuals will decide not to take part in labour market activity if the given
wage rate is under their reservation wage. The reservation wage then turns into the individuals
minimum wage.

A business does not work in a vacuum. It has to perform and respond to what occurs outside the
factory and office walls. These factors that happen outside the business are known as external
factors or influences. These will affect the main internal functions of the business and possibly
the objectives of the business and its strategies. The capabilities of firms employees decide to a
large extent how well the organization can carry out its mission. Since new employees are hired
from outside the firm, the labor force is considered an external environment factor. The labor
force is always changing.

When demand for commodities increases, firms wants to sell more, for which they have to raise
production. In such cases, they require labour as a factor of production. Largely capital and
labour are balancing factors of production. If more capital is available, private firms want to
spend more. When they increase investment and build new production units, they require more
labour and so demand for labour increases because of increase in supply of capital.
b. What is meant by the labour market? Explain the factors that can influence labour markets.
(10 marks)

Labour markets are based on workers and employers. Labour supply is the paid employment that
workers need to find and labour demand is the vacancies that employers need to fill. Competition
are derived from employers compete for workers and workers compete for jobs. In this theory

this could make market wages adapted to changes in demand and supply. The market wages
increase when labour markets are abundant and market wages decrease when labour markets are
limited. This applied to basic theory of economics and this is plain view.

In practice, there is a limitation to inter-firms and inter-workers competition and a diversity of

employment systems are being applied by firms to have impact on market forces that based on
terms and conditions of employment. Employment systems are based on three types of labour
market such as open and unstructured external labour markets, occupational labour market and
internal labour market. Labour supply and demand is the vital consideration for firms to be
participating in the labour markets.
Firms are doing open external labour markets to get the manpower from external pool and dont
intend to maintain long-term employment. Workers in this labour market dont have training and
qualification and are offered a slight protection of job security from legislation or trade unions.
Wages and length of relationship with employers are relying on the short-term market forces. A
good instance is this labour market that used in construction field whereby firms are using this
manpower that based on contract. Workers are employed and fired when required.

Firms are doing occupational labour markets that depend on workers with transferable skills such
as professionally qualified doctor, teachers, accountants, etc. These workers will shift from one
organization to another organization due to promotions, pay rise or better long-term
opportunities. Workers in open external labour market feel the pressures of open labour market
competition while occupational workers are required in open external labour market.
Professionals are protected from outside competition in labour market. Professionals
associations or unions can maintain the controlling of entry into occupational market and can
have impact on wages and conditions of employment.

Firms are applying internal labour markets that make enterprise-based employment systems.
Wages, terms and conditions of employment are affected by indirect influence from eternal
labour markets. Recruitment only available to junior and trainee positions and their skills will be
developed through internal training programmes. The mobility of employees between firms is

not allowed due to skills are specific and non-transferable. If workers reductions are happened,
the fondness is to decrease the headcount by not substituting the worker who had leave instead
of redundancies. Therefore high degree of employment security happened for worker. But in fact,
the strength of internal labour markets will be different according to firms. Internal labour
markets could be tougher of some categories than others. For example, internal labour markets
could be concentrated on development of technical and administrative workers instead of manual

The most important labor market institution influencing both firms and the labor market itself is
still the labor union. Unions provide a voice to workers and the mechanisms for raising wages.
One additional function of unions is to reallocate resources away from owners of capital to
workers without putting the firm out of business. Nevertheless, firms may oppose unionization,
because it might reduce profits and investment

Strict employee protection legislation can soothe employment and income, reinforce
commitment of workers to their firm and induce more investment of employers and employees in
firm-specific human capital, but restrictive regulation reduces labor market adaptability by
reducing labor market transitions, i.e. job-to-job mobility. Once people are made unneeded this
can effect in longer unemployment spells and leads to higher long-term unemployment.

In particular it can hinder employment of the non-core labor, i.e. older workers, youth and
females, and guide to a severe segmentation of labor markets since employment protection
stabilizes the jobs of labor market insiders, mainly prime-aged men, at the expense of outsiders
and entrants (Lindbeck/Snower 1988). Reducing restrictions on fixed-term contracts and
temporary agency work increases flexibility at the margin and might, therefore, add to stronger
employment growth in flexible jobs which offer entry opportunities for labor market entrants.

Question 2
Discuss why organizations should be concerned with labour turnover and what possible steps can
be taken to address this issue,
(20 marks)

The policies that employers implement are influenced to a great degree by the characteristics
organization search for in their workforce are the needs of a stable workforce and need for
worker cooperation in production. A stable workforce can reduce the labour turnover.
Disturbance of production due to the unexpected reductions in the workforce that consequence
from workers leaving, costs of recruitment and selection, such as the financial costs of
advertising for recruits and the cost in terms of management time used up in recruiting and
selecting replacements, and the cost of training new recruits. These costs may be particularly
lofty where skilled labour is insufficient and replacements are not easy to find, or where
employers have put in considerable amounts in training workers.

The issue is how people can enhance their performance at work. Control can be exercised to
ensure the workers producing the required level of effort. Supervisor is monitoring the progress
of its workers by using electronic surveillance, mystery customers and customer questionnaire
surveys. There are limitation of employers depend on workers. Employers are using motivated
workers to maintain efficiency and quality in the production of goods and the delivery of
services. The nature of product cannot give accurate measure of work that workers put into
production. This is not easy to implement effort levels without workers consent. Heavy focus on
supervision and surveillance may cause workers to be less obedient in following management
orders. It could more cost effective for management to provide positive incentives to maintain
quality in production.

Today high performers can shift from one organization to another organization. Many firms are
identifying the key assets and concentrate the retention on the key asset. The exact components
of retention plan will be based on outcomes of labour turnover analysis and risk analysis and
initiatives are likely to focus on pull factors. Based on findings from CIPD recruitment,
retention and turnover survey (CIPD, 2005) describes the common steps taken by firms to retain
the workforce such as increased employee communication, increased learning and development
opportunities, improved induction process, increased pay, improved selection techniques,
changes to improve work-life balance, improved line management HR skills, revised the way
staff are rewarded so their efforts are better recognized and offered coaching systems.

Steps to address the labour turnover are letter of acceptance, place advertisement, short listing,
and interview, letter of offer, on-boarding program and training. Selection procedure needs to be
revised and improved to reflect changes in human capital management. Organization should
understand the needs of the position and the business. Organization should decide the time
requirement of the position, a job analysis is significant in filling any position, a job specification
is used to get the employee qualifications discovered in the job analysis and set them in terms of
knowledge, abilities, skills, or licenses, and create a job description.

Various sources of recruitment can be classified into internal sources and external sources.
Internal sources comprise present employees, former employees, employee referrals, previous
applicants, etc. External sources comprise employment exchanges, placement agencies, campus
recruitment, deputation, word-of-mouth, etc. Suitability for a job is typically decided by
searching for skills, e.g. communication, typing, and computer skills. Qualifications may be
revealed through rsums, job applications, interviews, educational or professional experience,
the testimony of references, or in-house testing, such as for software knowledge, typing skills,
numeracy, and literacy, through psychological tests or employment testing.

"Onboarding" is a term which gives meaning of the introduction or "induction" process. A wellplanned introduction assists new employees become fully operational quickly and is often
familiar with a new company and environment. Onboarding is taking into account of recruitment
process for retention purposes. Many companies have onboarding campaigns in hopes to
maintain top talent that is new to the company, campaigns may last anywhere from 1 week to 6

Steps to taken to tackle the labour turnover issue are employ the right people with right skill,
give training to enhance the productivity and knowledge, telecommuting, flexi hours,
compensation & benefit package, re-design of job description, etc. Telecommuting not only
allows an employee the convenience of working at home, it also permits the employer to save
money on certain overhead expenses such as utilities. Therefore, since telecommuters are betteroff, they're often more putting effort in work; they may use more time working than their office

working counterparts who tend to use more time on lunch breaks or chit-chatting around the
coffee maker. Absenteeism is less among telecommuters because sick workers still do the work
at home and they use longer hours because they never leave their office.

Flexi time arrangements are accessible for the mutual benefit of staff and the organisation and
are designed to make the workplace more open to the needs of individuals. Flexi time make use
of needs to take into consideration the requirements of the particular work place and service
responsibilities. Flexi time allows to workers to select the working hours that suitable for them.
By working according to their time, absenteeism can be reduced. Parents of young and disabled
children have the right to ask for more flexible working arrangements, including; flexi-time,
home working, term-time working, and job sharing

Question 3
a. Many companies today are turning to the internet for their recruitment exercise. What are the
key advantages and disadvantages of using the Internet for recruitment?
(10 marks)

E-recruitment becomes more popular in recent years. Online recruitment, e-recruitment, or web
based recruitment is the employ of online technology or the internet to draw candidates and
assist the recruitment process. For most recruiters this usually through using one's own company
website, a third-party job site or job board, a CV database or search engine marketing as part of
the recruitment process.

By using e-recruitment, recruiters can get better reach and exposure in labour market. Internet is
the one of popular online activities. Online recruitment is easy for firms to acquire the candidates
around the world and a variety of skills and experience can acquire from candidates. Use of
internet can faster the hiring process and also reduce the time required in posting jobs. It also
decreases the time to submit applications to recruiter. The cost of recruitment can be reduced by

advertising on organizations website instead on newspaper or television. The money that saved
can be used on brochures and mailing costs.

Integration of internet into recruitment can lessen the work for human resource department.
Good candidates may dislike of using the internet as recruitment media. Presently there is not
many people is applying internet as job research tool. There are many small firms that are not
recruitment through internet.

The Internet also provides right to use to applicants from all locations. No geographical
boundaries are set with electronic applications; it is open to everyone, everywhere. This permits
Recruiters to draw skilled candidates from all over the world, and does not limit candidates from
viewing job postings in other areas. The perfect candidate is out there waiting to assess webpostings for employment opportunities.
From a candidates perspective, the Internet has also provided an instrument for a competitive
edge in ensuring gainful employment. Employers often have web sites to uphold their product or
organization. Candidates are able to find out about the Recruiting Companys opportunities,
mission statements, values and corporate culture through their site. This give benefits to the
Recruiter as well as the candidate by making potentially knowledgeable and educated applicants.

The Internet also provides a way of immediate communication between applicants and clients.
By email and electronic application programs, the need for traditional mail applications has
virtually been abolished. Key words and other screening tools have made for well-organized
screening of applications. Replies for interview requests or a decline of the candidates
application can be obtained within the same day, abolishing the painful wait for job seekers.

While you may wonder how too many candidates applying for your job could ever count as a
disadvantage, it is a fact that dealing with unsuitable, irrelevant and bad candidates is the worry
of many a HR manager. Candidate waiting list can need a lot of time. However, with a bit of
thought about what job site you employ, how you write your job description and using candidate

screening and filtering tools on job boards, it is possible to lessen the number irrelevant

Online recruitment won't always work. Not every job vacancy you post can or will be filled
online. There will always be hard jobs that can only be filled by recruitment consultants,
headhunters or in other ways. However, most companies tend to employ for pretty standard job
roles so this is seldom an issue. And with more and more job seekers selecting the internet to
look for jobs, and more and more job sites and job boards specializing in ever more diverse areas,
those difficult-to-fill jobs are becoming fewer and fewer.

Internet may not include older people and minorities such as disabled people. Older people is not
good at internet because they are not young, not willing to learn, hard to learn new thing and tend
to forget. Older people may not see any potential benefit for them in using the Internet and do
not know of any Internet services that may be of interest or use to them Disabled people may not
access to internet without hassle as normal people do. It is not easy for them to use internet as
recruitment media. It is therefore hard to reach nontechnical people.

b. Yet, there are other companies which outsource recruitment to a third party. What are the
advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing this recruitment activity to a third party?
(10 marks)
The term outsourcing refers to contracting internal work to a third party or external party. This
definition withstanding, nowadays outsourcing has become identical with work being sourced
from employees who work from another country or offshore outsourcing. Though outsourcing
has obtained mainstream recognition recently, the process has been dynamic since the early
industrial revolution days.

The primary reason for the work to be outsourced is the savings it gives to the company based on
terms of overall costs. This includes savings based on terms of salaries and taxes. The third party
service providers, also known as vendors, are expert in handling the types of jobs outsourced to
them; therefore guarantee higher quality of output.

Mostly relevant in voice-based services, such as technical support or customer care, linguistic
and cultural differences have an effect on the quality of product heavily. Even in other products,
the offshore workers understanding of customer may be not be as precise as it is for internal
employees. Whenever a company outsources work, it obstructs its social standing in the
population, which loses earnings and jobs. In some cases, companies have been punished by
local government and some even not grab major chunks of their consumer base.

By using a recruiter, candidates are already short-listed, interviewed and sorted according to your
needs. Both their skill set and corporate fit have been recognized and references are obtained
before an offer of employment being given. By doing so, the risks of hiring the wrong candidate
are greatly lessened, thus abolishing extraordinary costs to your Company. Candidates that are
employed through a recruitment agency have been selected from hundreds of applicants and their
skills have been tailored to meet the desired needs of the Employer.

Some might say that who better to know the needs of a company than the owner or someone
working for it. This saying is right to a certain degree but when it comes to employing new
personnel for a specific job or project this can be very challenging. So better leave it to the
professionals. Specialized recruitment agencies have an extensive database of resumes and the
networking required to source the right type of candidate.

Organizations can meet numerous difficulties with their outsourcing provider, and this can
severely hinder their outsourcing initiative. A error that organizations often make is failing to
devise clear and specific contracts to protect themselves from potential difficulties that might
arise. Those difficulties might comprise low service standards from the outsourcing provider, a
lack of attention to regulatory and business requirements, or unmet objectives and timeframes by
the outsourcing provider.

PART B - Case Study

1. Give your comments on each of the alternative approaches suggested for solving the problem
of selecting patient escorts.
(15 marks)

Personality of an employee should be included on the application form. The likes and dislikes of
an employee should be filled on the application form. This is to make sure the personality of an
employee is friendly and polite. Each applicant need to submit three letters of recommendation
that emphasize on the prospective employees personality. Letter of recommendation evaluate
the qualities, characteristics, and capabilities of the person being recommended based on of that
individuals ability to do a particular task or function. Letter of recommendation can describe the
applicants characteristic and living pattern.

Three letters of recommendation will provide strong proof that applicant is good at behavior and
how to treat the people kindly. Based on evaluation given from other people regarding
personality, this would give advantage to applicant in getting patient escort position. The higher
evaluation is, the bigger chance applicant will be getting the job. Many of the employers favor
written recommendations with full contact details of the person who gave the reference.

During the interview, little attempt should be made to ensure how candidate reacts under
pressure. Applicants should be asked four or five stress producing questions to give hospital a
better judgment in their ability of handling irritating patient. There should more than one escort
patient supervisor interview the applicant to get more data. Precise data can be obtained by
giving scale to the questions. Based on the scale of questions, total scores can be accessed to give

better picture of applicant in dealing irritating patient. Based on stress producing questions,
answer would be subjective by different applicant.

The main drawbacks of interview are the geographically limitations it may enforce on the
surveys and the vast resources needed if such surveys need to be completed nationally or
internationally. The costs of training interviewers to reduce interviewer's biases for instance
differences in questioning methods, interpretation of response are also far above the ground.
Another drawback is that applicant might feel anxious about the concealment of their responses
when applicant is facing escort patient supervisor and personnel department.

Aptitude tests measure verbal reasoning and numerical aptitude to assume that high levels of
aptitude could turn into high job performance. Intelligence tests are based on mental capacity.
Personality tests are based on personality characteristics that contribute to successful job
performance. Attitude test is based on how to measure the applicants of being sensitive and
friendly. People will behave differently in the same condition. This will not give same
consistency that result is expected from same condition.

Attitude test should be created to measure the tendency of candidate being friendly toward
patient. Job analysis should be made on patient escorts position to make sure attitudes that vital
to a successful patient escort. Job analysis is the systematic study of jobs to recognize the
observable work activities, tasks, and responsibilities associated with a particular job or group of
jobs. When job analysis was finished, questions can be created to gauge the critical attributes.
The test questions can be given to present patient escort to determine the best from the worst

Questions of attitude tests should be focused on emotional intelligence quotient (EQ). Emotional
intelligence quotient (EQ) explains the ability, capacity, skill or, in the case of the trait EQ model,
a self-perceived ability to recognize, assesses, and controls the emotions of one's self, of others,
and of groups. Some assessments utilize self-given responses while others are peer-given
responses. An EQ test may give imminent into a persons personality and psychological makeup,

but finding out the true meaning of EQ and its relationship to and impact on a persons life and
social performance may be years and many studies away from anything definitive.

Attitude tests help employers find out what kind of behavior patterns applicant may show and
recognize strengths and weaknesses. Attitude tests arent necessarily the finest indicators of an
employees potential because they simply werent catered for that function. Simply being able to
recognize a personality type is no guarantee that youre going to be able to consistently replicate
that sort of behavior in a job situation. By applying these tests it can build more effective teams,
or adapt approach knowing that a particular employee is likely to react in a certain manner.

2. Recommend a procedure for recruiting and hiring patient escorts.

(10 marks)

A procedure for recruiting and hiring patient escorts is job analysis, put up the advertisement,
short listing, interview, and finish the employment application form. Job analysis is consists of
job description. Job description describes that title of job applicant need to know, its tasks,
training, basic salary, etc. Job descriptions are based on objective information acquired through
job analysis, an accepting of the competencies and skills required to achieve needed tasks, and
the needs of the organization to generate work. Sources of recruitment can be classified into
internal sources and external sources.

Various sources of recruitment can be classified into internal sources and external sources.
Internal sources comprise present employees, former employees, employee referrals, previous
applicants, etc. External sources comprise employment exchanges, placement agencies, campus
recruitment, deputation, word-of-mouth, etc.

Job descriptions clearly recognize and explain the responsibilities of a specific job. Job
descriptions also comprise information about working conditions, tools, equipment used,
knowledge and skills needed, and relationships with other positions. Recruitment based on
process of searching for potential employees and inspiring them to apply for the job in the
organization. The selection procedure is the method of functions and devices adopted in a

company to determine whether the candidate s specifications are coordinated with the job
specifications and requirements or not.

Selection tests are widely used after interviews. Selection tests are applied to reduce subjectivity
and increase objectivity that based on decisions. Examples of selections are ability tests, aptitude
tests, intelligence tests and personality tests. This is scientific methods that concentrate on
reliability and validity. Reliability refers to consistency achieved over repeated tests. Reliable
test that generates consistent score based on same test or more different occasions taken by
candidates. Validity is the ability that foresees the future behavior. A selection test of high
validity is considered when the person will do in the way test expected.
One way of handling with this type of question is to use the CAR approach. CAR is defined as
Context, Action, and Result. It helps you to structure your answer like a mini essay. "Context" is
your introduction, where you describing the scenario you faced, date and place. The "Action"
forms the main body and should be the longest part of your answer. The "Result" is the
conclusion and like the introduction, should be quite short.
Each procedure of searching and selecting human resources begins with a thorough analysis of
work requirements plus determination of a competent worker profile in co-operation with the
employer. The selection procedure is focused on finding out knowledge, experience, skills,
abilities and personal characteristics of the candidates. Throughout the selection procedures the
candidates are interviewed, tested and submitted to standard psychological instruments.

Job-relatedness again is a critical issue. Personality tests, because of their unreliability, might
pose legal problems. Concentrating on previous experience working with people who are under
high levels of stress would be vital. Critical incidents in the interview could create particularly
problematic patient situations to understand what the candidate would do. Since 25 percent of the
patient escorts go into different hospital positions, perhaps this position should be seen less as
entry level and more as requiring special traits. For example, the need for physical strength
appears less important than empathy and patience. Perhaps volunteers, retirees, or older job
applicants would be more suitable sources from which to recruit.

Validity could be assessed by predictive validation techniques in finding the value of

demographic information such as previous experience and the interview results of critical
incidents. It would be cooperative (for reasons of quality control) to devise a performance review
system that could follow the performance of patient escorts. A type of concurrent strategy may
be used to look at the characteristics and experience of current, successful job patient escorts and
use these characteristics in recruiting and selecting.

3. Besides improving its selection procedures, what other actions could the hospital potentially
take to improve the behavior of the patient escorts?
(15 marks)

The primary responsibilities linked with human resource management such as job analysis and
staffing, organization and utilization of work force, measurement and appraisal of work force
performance, implementation of reward systems for employees, professional development of
workers, and maintenance of work force.

Workplace motivation can be described as the influence that makes us do things to attain
organizational goals: this is an outcome of our individual needs being satisfied (or met) so that
we are motivated to do organizational tasks effectively. As these needs differ from person to
person, an organization must be able to make use of different motivational tools to persuade their
employees to build in the required effort and enhance productivity for the company.

Observation can be applied to learn how patient escort do the job from another hospital. Patient
escort from City Hospital can do some observation on patient escort from other hospital on how
to perform its duties with caring and attentive behavior. During observation, data can be
collected to evaluate how good patient escort doing the job with courteous attitude. If there are
big differences of how patient escort of City Hospital treating patient and how other patient
escort from other hospital treating patient, then selection and training procedure of City Hospital
should be redesigned to reflect the changes.

Recognition and rewards are great tools of inspiration and performance improvement in
employees. Rewards are classified into two different kinds, monetary and non-monetary.
Monetary awards have caused more motivation in employees than non-monetary awards;
however recent studies beseech to disagree. Rewards and recognition usually have direct cost
linked to them, for instance stock awards, cash bonuses or a variety of paid perks by the
company which may comprise paid parking, gift certificates, car allowances etc.
However other rewards, non-monetary that is, may be less tangible but still quite useful. These
intangible rewards may comprise informal or formal acknowledgement of an employee and his
work, more enjoyable job assignments, different training opportunities etc. The primary goal of
rewards as defined by Jack Zigon is something that increases the frequency of an employee
action [1998]. Allen and Helms say that, rewards systems should be closely aligned to
organizational strategies, to achieve desired goals [2002]. Keller suggests that people are
motivated to higher levels of job performance by positive recognition from their managers and

Apart from recognition, it stimulates employees to perform better; it is assisting in forging a

sense of commitment to the organization and develops a culture of togetherness; it helps to
attract and retain talent, yet it can never be a substitute for monetary rewards. Management
should give official recognition to employee's contribution. It might be a social recognition or
informal recognition. But it would put in to the self-esteem of the employee and his job
increased. A challenging assignment would show an employee of the management's confidence
in his abilities. This would enhance his self-confidence and boost his morale, give motivation of
achieving greater heights of performance. A special treat can be organization for the employee
and / or his family members in the shape of a lunch or dinner, weekend resorts, etc.
The key to understanding Herzbergs Motivation-Hygiene Theory is that the factors that involve
job content (motivation factors) be likely to guide to job satisfaction. Factors that involve job
context (hygiene factors) be likely to guide to job dissatisfaction. Motivational factors such as

growth, work itself, responsibility, achievement, advancement and recognition can be used to
instill good working attitude.

The quality and variety of the employee training hospital provide is the key for motivation. The
reasons for employee training are range from new-hire training about your operation, to
introducing a new concept to a workgroup to bringing in a new computer system. The hospital
should create a new hire training program provides a basic understanding of the position and
how the position fits within the organizational structure.

Julie Beardwell & Tim Claydon, Human Resource Management, A Contemporary Approach,
Fifth Edition (Wawasan Open University (WOU) text book)
Person published

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