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January 2008 • V o l . 14 N o .

New York Society of Cosmetic Chemists • www.nyscc.org


CHAIR
Suellen Bennett
(732) 417-0800 x2153
s.bennett@crodausa.com
“Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography:
CHAIR-ELECT
An Underutilized and Underappreciated
Joe Albanese
(609) 443-2320
joseph.albanese@elementis.com
Analytical Technique”
…Edward G. Malawer
TREASURER

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If you were to ask a small child if an elephant certainly used in polymer analysis, but are very limited
Bill Woods could fit through the eye of a needle the answer in sensitivity and specificity. A specialty detector like
(201) 655-4155 would undoubtedly be a resounding, “No!” If you an evaporative light scattering detector can be useful
wbwoods@optonline.net
were to ask a polymer chemist or a chromatographer for polymer analysis using liquid chromatography,
SECRETARY if a very large molecule such as a polymer could pass but it also has a sensitivity issue and a limited linear
Sonia Dawson through a gas chromatograph, the answer would dynamic range. A mass spectrometer (MS) detector is
(732) 417-0800 x2160 likely be either, “No” or, “Not in one piece.” Either very sensitive and specific (and therefore quite useful),
s.dawson@crodausa.com
response would be correct. Most chemists who have however, the LC/MS interface chosen may limit the
ADVISOR had some exposure to modern analytical instrumental type of polymer which can be analyzed. In addition,
Anthony Ansaldi techniques know something about gas the LC/MS tandem technique is quite
(973) 347-1664
chromatography (GC). They are aware expensive. Many polymers have
tony.ansaldi@dksh.com
that GC works well to separate and minimal solubility in any solvent;
HOUSE then analyze individual volatile solubility of the analyte is a
Alison Griffin compounds in a mixture of some prerequisite for HPLC analysis.
(215) 320-1581
sort. The key word here is volatile. So, how can one take advantage
agriffin@inolex.com
What if the analyte of interest were of a number of useful detectors unique
MEMBERSHIP not volatile? If the compound to gas chromatography such as flame-
Amy Marshall could be heated to a temperature ionization (FID), nitrogen-phosphorus
(908) 806-4664
above its boiling point in the (NPD), photoionization (PID), and Hall
amy.marshall@altana.com
injection port of the GC and it detectors, which are both sensitive and
COSMETISCOPE EDITOR did not decompose under the (other than FID) specific to certain kinds
Roger McMullen conditions of heating, then it of organic compounds in order to
(973) 872-4391
roger.mcmullen@gmail.com
could possibly be analyzed perform polymer analysis? The answer is
by GC provided the stationary pyrolysis! Placing a pyrolysis unit on the
COSMETISCOPE phase (GC column) and GC detector were appropriate front end (injector) of a gas chromatograph
ASSISTANT EDITOR/
EMPLOYMENT
for that compound and its matrix. So, if the analyte of provides a means by which to introduce an inherently
Tim Gillece
interest in the sample were a polymer, and polymers nonvolatile compound into the instrument in a form
(973) 628-3209 do not have boiling points (rather they have thermal which can successfully negotiate the column and be
tgillece@yahoo.com decomposition temperatures), would the analyst be sensed and quantitated by the detector. In the case
COSMETISCOPE ADVERTISING
relegated to using a non-thermal separation technique of a polymer molecule, this means passing it though
Ni’Kita Wilson such as liquid chromatography? Not necessarily! the GC system in fragments which are individually
(973) 882-5151 x206 The most common detector used in liquid volatile. While this technique is, therefore, inherently
niki@cosmetech.com chromatography is a UV-visible detector followed destructive, it is extremely useful for polymer analysis.
SPECIAL EVENTS
by a refractive index detector. Polymers which have In the remainder of this space, let us consider
Phil Klepak no UV-visible chromophore cannot be sensed, let some of the many potential applications of
(908) 219-5264 alone quantitated by such a detector. Refractive pyrolysis GC, although a comprehensive
pklepak@reheis.com index detectors are more universal in nature, and are (Continued on Page 6)

NYSCC MONTHLY MEETING • JANUARY 9


SUPPLIERS’ DAY
Diane Nordstrom

HYATT REGENCY • NEW BRUNSW ICK, NEW JERSEY


dianenordstrom@embarqmail.com
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“Notes from Underground” …Chapter Chairperson Suellen Bennett

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h, the delights of January – drab weather, our two new officers – Joe Albanese, the Chair-Elect, and
no more paid holidays until February Sonia Dawson, the Secretary. I look forward to working
(if you’re lucky, and your company with both of you. I’d also like to take this chance to
gives you President’s Day off), a distinct short- thank all of the people who have agreed to volunteer
age of guiltless opportunities to eat and drink their time as Board members. We have some new
too much. It’s enough to send a person into a faces this year – Kristen Potts and Jason O’Neill are
depression. But wait, on the horizon looms a handling Arrangements and Rey Ordiales will be
bright spot of fun. What is it, you ask? It’s the covering Public Relations. I’m looking forward to a
January meeting of the NYSCC! An afternoon smashing year! Please do not hesitate to offer up any
and evening of fellowship and fun, all coupled comment, whether it be positive or negative, about our
with ample opportunity to eat and drink too Chapter. Improvements cannot be made unless we know
much. Why, it’s just like the Holidays, minus the about them, so I urge you all to let me know how you feel.
annoying family members! At the last few meetings, it seemed like attendance was
Come one, come all to our first meeting of 2008 at lower. Are we not advertising the meetings enough? Are the
the Hyatt Regency in New Brunswick on Wednesday, meetings not on acceptable dates? Are the speakers and topics
January 9th. Our speaker, Professor Bonnie Bassler not of interest? Do you not like the venues? I’m sure it is a com-
from Princeton University, will be speaking on bination of many things, and in that vein, the Board has decided
quorum sensing. What is quorum sensing, you ask? to try and change things up. The first thing that you’ll notice is
Believe it or not, it is a process by which bacteria that the January meeting is on the SECOND Wednesday of the
communicate. It involves signaling molecules, month, not the first. We realize that people are often crunched
much like pheromones in humans, which control right after holidays, so we thought that the date change might be
the replication of bacteria. In this era of MRSA, a good thing. We will also be changing the date for the September
and all types of antibiotic resistance, it seems to meeting to the second, instead of the first, Wednesday of the
be a very timely topic. Pathogenic bacteria will use month because of the Labor Day holiday. Our e-mail blast system
quorum sensing to evade the immune response is up and running, so we will keep you informed well in advance
of the host, and increase their virulence. It is of any and all meetings. Be sure that we have your current, correct
scary stuff. There is also quorum quenching – the contact information so the blasts go to the right place. In terms
enzymatic degradation of signaling molecules – of venues, we have a few alternatives planned, so get ready to try
which disrupts the whole process. Perhaps some new food. As for the speakers and topics, we have been
quorum quenching is the new frontier of tossing around some novel ideas for meetings that I think will
disease eradication? generate plenty of excitement. Hold onto your hats, it’s going to
Thanks to all of you who sent in your ballots be a wild ride!
back in October. I would like to congratulate Happy New Year!

SCC Midwest Chapter


TEAMWORKS 2008
The premier industrial trade show for the
personal care industry in mid-America
March 26, 2008 • 12–7 PM
Donald E. Stephens Convention Center
Rosemont, IL (Chicago)
Social Night March 25, 2008
CONTACT
Teamworks 2008 RESERVE YOUR EXHIBIT SPACE NOW!
IAMI c/o SCC Midwest Chapter Reach more than 1,000 chemists in the cosmetic, personal
care, pharmceutical and allied industries!
207 W. Ash St., Lombard, IL 60148
Tel: 1-888-411-IAMI (4264) or 1-630-268-0656 DON’T DELAY.
Fax: 1-630-889-0845 Booth space is assigned on a first come, first served basis.
E-mail: teamworks@midwestscc.org For current information visit: www.midwestscc.org

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Cosmetiscope
Make Note of It!…
Contact pe
isco
Cosmet r...
E-MAILING ADDRESS
edito
Send news of interest, guest editorials and comments to:

-4391
973-872
Roger McMullen, Editor
Phone (973) 872-4391
E-mail: roger.mcmullen@gmail.com

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NYSCC Educational Hour…4:30 to 5:30 pm


Speaker… Holly Young
Topic…The Impact of Global Regulations on Health & Beauty
Packaging: Possibilities, Regulations, Roadblocks, and Solutions
January 9, 2008 • Hyatt Regency, New Brunswick, NJ
Abstract:

I
n this session we will explore all aspects of actual health design studio in New York City. From filing
& beauty product packaging and package labeling. We and answering the phones to learning design,
will also address how various regulations and restrictions typesetting, and production mechanicals on the job, Holly has
impact making the package “global.” witnessed the evolution of the graphics industry.
The importance of the visual aspects of the package Trading in her mechanical pencils, ruling pens, t-squares,
itself is discussed as well as trends in the industry. The thrust and rubber cement for computers, scanners, and state-of-the-art
of the presentation outlines what is required on the package printers, Holly has also evolved from Gal Friday to production
with solutions for various markets and product types as artist & typesetter to studio manager and finally to company
well as a view of the newest sunscreen regulations in owner of an industry leader in global packaging graphics for
the United States. the cosmetics, health & beauty, and fragrance industries.
Ms. Young’s company, Hirschhorn + Young Graphics, provides
Biography: a comprehensive suite of production art and packaging design

M
s. Young started her career in the cosmetics solutions to help bring health & beauty products to market
packaging industry over 35 years ago, around the globe, for companies such as Clinique, Chanel,
beginning as a “Gal Friday” at a small Avon, BeautyBank, Prada Beauty, and Del Labs.

Monthly Meeting Registration…3 Ways to Register!


1 Students and Emeritus Members are FREE…and now CREDIT CARD registration is here!
. REGISTER WITH A CREDIT CARD
The New York Society of Cosmetic Chemists will now accept monthly meeting registration by credit card.
Credit cards will be accepted during pre-registration and registration at the door. To pre-register and for more

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information, go to www.nyscc.org.
. PAY AT THE DOOR
Pre-registration with the option to pay at the door will remain. As in the past, go to our website
www.nyscc.org to register at the door and bring your check to the meeting. If you have any questions regarding
registration, please contact Sonia Dawson (s.dawson@crodausa.com, 732-417-0800 x2160).

3 . REGISTER BY MAIL**
If you must register by mail, please mail a completed copy of this page together with a check payable to “NYSCC.”
Please Note: Reservations will not be honored without payment and must be received no later than Noon the
Friday before the meeting. There will be a surcharge at the door for those without reservations.
** If paying by check, you’re payment and pre-registration information must be RECEIVED by the arrangements chair,
Sonia Dawson, BEFORE the day of the meeting. If it is not, your original check will be returned to you and you will
be required to pay the door fee upon arrival at the meeting.
Please mail a completed copy of this page together with check to:
Sonia Dawson, 26 Lee Street, Apt. 1A, Edison, NJ 08817
Tel: 732-417-0800 x2160 • Email: s.dawson@crodausa.com
YES, I will be attending the January Meeting. I have enclosed a check for (please indicate applicable status)
 $25 (each SCC member) or  $35 (each non-member) made payable to “NYSCC.”
Name(s) _________________________________________ Company ___________________________________________

Address_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
City __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ State ____________________________________________ Zip ______________________________________

Phone _________________________________________________________________________ Fax ____________________________________________________________________ Number attending _____________________

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NYSCC January Chapter Meeting…


Speaker… Bonnie Bassler, Ph.D.
Topic… Small Talk: Cell-to-Cell Communication in Bacteria
January 9, 2008 • Hyatt Regency, New Brunswick, NJ
Educational Hour Starts: 4:30 PM • Cocktail Reception: 5:30 PM
Pre-registered SCC members: $25 • Pre-registered non-SCC members: $35
Register at the Door: $40
Abstract:

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ell-to-cell communication in bacteria involves the production, release, and subsequent detection of
chemical signaling molecules called autoinducers. This process, called quorum sensing, allows
bacteria to regulate gene expression on a population-wide scale. Processes controlled by quorum
sensing are usually ones that are unproductive when undertaken by an individual bacterium, but become
effective when undertaken by the group. For example, quorum sensing controls bioluminescence, secretion
of virulence factors, biofilm formation, sporulation, and the exchange of DNA. Thus, quorum sensing is a
mechanism that allows bacteria to function as multi-cellular organisms. Bacteria make, detect, and integrate
information from multiple autoinducers, some of which are used exclusively for intra-species communication
while others enable communication between species. Research is now focused on the development of therapies
that interfere with quorum sensing to control bacterial virulence.

Biography:

D
r. Bassler, a member of the National Academy of Sciences and American
Academy of Arts and Sciences, is a Howard Hughes Medical Investigator
and the Squibb Professor of Molecular Biology at Princeton University.
She received a B.S. in Biochemistry from the University of California at Davis,
and a Ph.D. in Biochemistry from the Johns Hopkins University. She performed
postdoctoral work in Genetics at the Agouron Institute, and she joined the
Princeton faculty in 1994. The research in her laboratory focuses on the
molecular mechanisms that bacteria use for intercellular communication.
This process is called quorum sensing. Dr. Bassler is the Director of Graduate
Studies in the Molecular Biology Department, and she teaches both undergraduate
and graduate courses. Dr. Bassler was awarded a MacArthur Foundation
Fellowship in 2002. She was elected to the American Academy of Microbiology in
2002 and made a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science
in 2004. She was given the 2003 Theobald Smith Society Waksman Award and she is the 2006 recipient
of the American Society for Microbiology’s Eli Lilly Investigator Award for fundamental contributions to
microbiological research. Bassler is an editor for Molecular Microbiology and Annual Reviews of Genetics,
and she is an associate editor for the Journal of Bacteriology. Among other duties, she serves on grant, fellowship,
and award review panels for the National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, American
Society for Microbiology, American Academy of Microbiology, Keck Foundation, Burroughs Wellcome Trust,
and the Max Planck Society.
Directions to Hyatt Regency, New Brunswick
From NJ Turnpike…Exit Turnpike at Exit 9; bear right onto Route 18 North for about 3
miles; exit Route 18 for Route 27 South (towards Princeton); loop under Route 18 and
make left at 2nd light; hotel is on the left side.
From GSP Southbound…Take Exit 130 to Route 1 South; exit Route 1 for Route 18; exit
Route 18 for Route 27 South (towards Princeton); loop under Route 18 and make left at 2nd
light; hotel is on the left side.
From GSP Northbound…Take Exit 129 and follow NJ Turnpike directions heading south on NJ Turnpike.
From Route 287…Exit Route 287 for Easton Avenue (Exit 10); stay on Easton Avenue until it ends
(7 miles); make left onto Albany Street (Route 27); at 2nd light, make a right; hotel is on the left side.

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Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography (Continued from Page 1)


coverage of this subject is beyond the scope of this article. inductively in a radio-frequency field to its Curie point, the
 FUNDAMENTALS temperature at which the alloy becomes paramagnetic and ceases
The pyrolysis GC system must consist of a pyrolyzer to absorb RF energy. This type of pyrolyzer has the advantage of
affixed to the injection port of the GC, the chromatograph very precise temperature control of the sample’s pyrolysis step but
itself, and any one or more of the aforementioned GC is limited to the discrete and characteristic Curie point temperatures
detectors. An MS detector will allow for the greatest amount of the alloys supplied. The former type has the advantage that any
of information to be gathered from the analytes but is not temperature can be selected for pyrolysis.
necessary for many successful applications. Pyrolysis is the  SELECTED LITERATURE APPLICATIONS
chemical decomposition to lower molecular weight fragments Given the relative scarcity of pyrolysis attachments in most
of organic compounds by heating in the absence of GC laboratories, the number and variety of papers which have
oxygen. The heating temperature employed is typically been published related to pyrolysis GC is truly amazing. A specific
in the range of 500 to 850 °C. The objective of the journal called the Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis
deliberate decomposition process is to cause the formation (Elsevier) is dedicated to the technique. Since it is not possible to
of characteristic fragments of the large molecule which comprehensively review the entire field here, it is necessary to omit
represent the larger molecule in the analysis. If the such interesting applications as bioremediation, environmental
pyrolysis is carried out in such a vigorous manner that analysis, and the analysis of carbonaceous chondrites (meteorites).
only common, low molecular weight compounds such Polymer Characterization
as ethylene, water, and carbon dioxide are formed, the Goetz et al. at L’Oreal published a monograph chapter on the
value of the technique is nullified. (Such byproducts characterization of a variety of copolymers via pyrolysis GC.3 Many
can be formed from the decomposition of almost laboratories have employed this technique for the determination of
any organic compound and cannot provide any monomers incorporated into copolymers. My own laboratory at
ISP did so for styrene-butadiene latices. A series of standard
copolymers of known, different comonomer levels is required to
calibrate the instrument (as verified typically by NMR analysis).
Other workers have covered such subjects as:
• Thermal degradation of aromatic polyester-imide.4
• Quantification of end-groups in polystyrenes.5
• Determination of the nitrogen content of cationic cellulose
fibers.6
• Quantitative analysis of thermosetting acrylic resins used in
automotive enamels.7
• Analysis of chewing gum, natural rubber, and polystyrene
foam packaging material.8
information about the parent compound.) • Quantitation of fumaric and itaconic acids in emulsion
Therefore, what is required for successful polymers.9
pyrolysis GC analysis is a carefully controlled • Trace analysis of silicone polymers in paper.10
pyrolysis step. This is accomplished through • Characterizing fatty acids, lipids, and proteins in developing
precise control of temperature and the time (cellulosic) cotton fibers.11
the sample is at that temperature. Various Personal Care (polymer and surfactant applications)
methylating agents can be added to the and biological systems
sample prior to pyrolysis to increase the In addition to the aforementioned monograph chapter by
volatility of polar fragments (particularly Goetz et al., a variety of workers have focused on specific personal
acids) and enable them to be eluted from care applications:
the GC column.1 • Identification of vinylpyrrolidone-vinylimidazolium chlo
Commercial pyrolysis units are available ride (BASF Luviquat) copolymers in cosmetic hair care
from several instrumentation companies products.12
and can be interfaced to a variety of common • Determination of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate in
manufacturers’ gas chromatographs. Com- ternary mixtures.13
mercial pyrolysis attachments are primarily • Analysis of hair samples; analysis of bathroom cleaners for
of two types: resistively heated electrical surfactants.14
filaments and Curie point units.2 In the case • Human hair comparison.15
of the latter, a ferromagnetic wire is heated • Profiling of fatty acids in traces of lipids obtained from

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human skin, vegetable oil, and cosmetic lotions.16 attention to a violation of its “all natural”
• Identification of cosmetic filler substances (such as PMMA claim. The marketing and technical staff of
or siloxane) used for augmentation purposes in human skin.17 ISP argued no avail that residual, soluble
• Identification of chitin in sensory hairs of silkmoth olfactory PVP was not expected to be transferred to
sensilla.18 the beer because it would have already been
• Determination of sulfur in sulfur-containing amino acids: washed out of the PVPP product during the
methionine, cystine, and cysteine.19 manufacturing process. No highly sensitive
• Analysis of thermal decomposition byproducts of betaines.20 and specific method for the determination of
• Differentiation (by a rapid test) of Group A and B streptococci soluble PVP in beer existed at that time.
bacteria using a chemical marker.21 The analytical team at ISP decided to try
Art preservation, forensics and competitive analysis to help break this stalemate by producing a
The National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C. utilizes method capable of proving that trace levels of
pyrolysis GC, among a variety of modern analytical methods, to PVP do not exist in beer treated with PVPP.
characterize paint components such as modern alkyd and acrylic We chose to base this method upon pyrolysis
binders as well as synthetic organic pigments used in paintings in GC. We reasoned that the pyrolyzer would
its collection particularly for restoration purposes.22 Several other decompose the PVP, if present, into characteristic
applications relating to the analysis of paints and fingerprint fragments which could then be separated by the
residues are provided as follows: GC column and quantitated by a suitable GC
• Identification of recent changes in automotive paint detector. These characteristic fragments are
formulations.23 2-pyrrolidone and the monomer, VP. We were
• Forensic discrimination of automotive paint samples.24 counting on the column (a non-polar, DB-1 type) to
• FBI analysis of paint traces in hit-and-run investigations.25 separate these key fragments from those of the many
• Thermal degradation analysis of amino acids in fingerprint proteins present, which we anticipated would be the
residues.26 most troublesome interferents. Our initial attempt
 PERSONAL EXPERIENCES to use FID detection proved to be a failure due to the
In our own laboratory at International Specialty Products overwhelming number of interfering hydrocarbon peaks
(ISP), my team had the opportunity to develop several novel present in the resulting programs. However, this situation
applications of the pyrolysis GC methodology. Two of these was largely resolved by switching to an NPD detector. This
applications related to a key product of the company called resulted in the complete elimination of all non-nitrogen
polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP), a highly crosslinked form of containing compounds in the pyrogram. (Note that hydro-
polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) produced by the proliferous or popcorn carbons were still being eluted from the column but were
polymerization of the monomer vinyl pyrrolidone. PVPP has two no longer sensed by the alternate detector, thereby vastly
principal applications: as a pharmaceutical excipient used for oral simplifying the resulting pyrograms.)
tablet disintegration and as a beverage clarifier used to remove The pyrolysis conditions used to achieve this controlled
polyphenolic compounds from beer, wine, and fruit juices. Higher decomposition were a temperature of 850 °C and a heating time
molecular weight polyphenols have the tendency to form complexes of 20 seconds. An internal standard of polyvinylcaprolactam, a
with specific proteins in such beverages under refrigeration polymer structurally similar to PVP, was employed in order to
conditions leading to a lack of clarity known as chill haze. Most improve the precision of the analysis. It was also necessary to
beer and wine producers wish to produce a product that will not calibrate the system using beer samples with no initial level of
form haze under cold storage conditions since clarity is considered PVP which had been spiked with PVP at levels between 0 and 10
to be an esthetic requirement to consumers, particularly in the ppm. Additionally, tannic acid was used to remove some of the
United States. protein interferents prior to the pyrolysis step. The net result was
Some years ago, ISP had approached a very significant U.S. a sensitive and specific method capable of quantitating PVP in
brewery, which had not been using PVPP to eliminate chill haze beer in the range of 1 to 10 ppm with a detection limit of 200
to convince it to do so. The management of that company ppb. Six commercial beers were tested by this method of which
explained to ISP that it was committed to adhering closely to the three were known to use PVPP in processing whereas the other
German “reinheitsgebot,” or cleanliness law dating back to 1516 three were known to use an alternative beverage clarifier. No
in Bavaria, which limited beer ingredients to water, barley, and PVP was detected in any of these beers.27 Unfortunately, ISP
hops. No artificial ingredients were to be used. The company was was unable to leverage this analytical technique and the
concerned that if PVPP, a synthetic material, was used to filter its resulting information to convince the brewery to switch to
beer, that a small amount of residual, soluble PVP (although the use of PVPP clarification technology.
completely innocuous) could potentially be transferred to the final Our laboratory’s second application of pyrolysis GC
bottled product and be discovered by a competitor. The company to PVPP resulted from ISP’s need to better understand the
feared that such a discovery would enable the competitor to call structure of this crosslinked product vis-à-vis competitive

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Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography (Continued from Page 7)


materials. In particular, the technology team at ISP wished  REFERENCES
to be able to relate the degree of crosslinking to a variety of 1) J. Peuravuori and K. Pihlaja, Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 389, 475-491 (2007).
physico-chemical properties of the material. Crosslinked 2) C. Wolf, M. Grayson, and D. Fanter, Anal. Chem., 52(3), 348A-358A (1980).
polymers are inherently difficult to perform chemical 3) N. Goetz, P. Lasserre, and G. Kaba, in Cosmet. Sci. Technol. Ser., 4, 81-103
measurements upon. For such intractable materials, it may (1985), “Cosmetic Analysis: Selected Methods and Techniques”, ed. P. Boré
be possible to obtain some structural information from such (Marcel Dekker).
techniques as IR spectroscopy and solid-state NMR 4) W. Guo, T. Chuang, S. Huang, W. Leu, and S. Hsiao, J. Polym. Res., 14, 401-
spectrometry. Both are rather limited in sensitivity. Classical 409 (2007).
swelling methods applied to crosslinked polymers depend 5) Y. Ito, H. Ohtani, S. Ueda, Y. Nakashima, and S. Tsuge, J. Polym. Sci., Pt. A
upon knowledge of dimensional changes of a symmetrically Polym. Chem., 32(2), 383-388 (2003).
cut, single piece of material. Such methods cannot be 6) C. Schwarzinger, A. Pfeifer, and H. Schmidt, Monatshefte für Chemie, 133,
applied to irregularly shaped PVPP particles. 1-7 (2002).
For this application, the pyrolysis temperature 7) N. MacLeod, Chromatographia, 5, 516-519 (1972).
was set at 685 °C for 20 seconds. The GC column used 8) T. Wampler, C. Zawodny, and K. Jansson, Amer. Lab., 39(6), 16-19 (2007).
9) F. Wang, J. Green, and B. Gerhart, Anal. Chem., 68(15), 2477-2481 (1996).
was a DB-1301 type (siloxane with cyanosiloxane). In
10) M. Ezrin and G. Lavigne, ANTEC, 2046-2050 (2002).
this study we chose to use both a FID and MS detector;
11) M. Hartzell-Lawson and Y. Hsieh, Textile. Res. J., 70(9), 810-819 (2000).
this enabled the identification of many of the fragment
12) E. Gmahl and W. Ruess, Int. J. Cosmet. Sci., 15, 77-81 (1993).
peaks appearing in the sample pyrograms. The technique
13) M. Hida, S. Okuyama, T. Mitsui, Y. Minami, and Y. Fujimura, Chromatographia,
led to the identification of three crosslinking
38(7/8), 436-440 (1994).
compounds used in various commercial processes
14) CDS Analytical, Inc., Oxford, PA; application briefs.
and allowed their quantitation in the crosslinked
15) T. Munson and J. Vick, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, 8, 493-501 (1985).
matrices (at levels typically between 1.7 and 2.5%
16) J. Challinor, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, 37, 185-197 (1996).
w/w).28 On the distaff side, the technique could
17) N. Bertram, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, 75, 194-199 (2006).
not distinguish crosslinker molecules which
18) R. Steinbrecht and B. Stankiewicz, J. Insect Physiol., 45, 785-790 (1999).
functioned as true crosslinks due to two covalent 19) S. Choi, M. Kim, and H. Inoue, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, 32, 127-136 (1995).
attachments versus those attached on one side 20) J. Suuronen, I. Pitkänen, H. Halttunen, and R. Moilanen, J. Therm. Anal.
only. Therefore, it can measure crosslinker Calorim., 69, 359-369 (2002).
content but not, strictly speaking, the number 21) C. Smith, S. Morgan, C. Parks, A. Fox, and D. Pritchard, Anal. Chem., 59,
of chemical crosslinks.
 FINAL REMARKS
1410 (1987).
22) L. Ember, C & E News, 51-59 (2001-July 30th); http://www.nga.gov/
You may wish to consider requesting resources/scienceresearch/glossary.shtm.
that your company’s analytical organization 23) T. Wampler, G. Bishea, and W. Simonsick, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, 40,
have at least one pyrolysis unit in its GC 79-89 (1997).
laboratory available to characterize intractable 24) B. Kochanowski and S. Morgan, J. Chromatogr. Sci., 38, 100-108 (2000).
large molecules such as crosslinked polymers. 25) (Author unknown), JCT Coatings Tech., 3(6), 38-39 (2006).
You will be amazed at what you will be able 26) A. Richmond-Aylor, S. Bell, P. Callery, and K. Morris, J. Forensic Sci., 52(2),
to learn about these systems. 380-382 (2007).
 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 27) T.M.H. Cheng and E.G. Malawer, “Confirmation by Pyrolysis-Gas
This article is dedicated to Dr. Tom M. Chromatography of the Absence of Polyvinylpyrrolidone in Beer Treated with
H. Cheng, formerly of ISP, whose knowl- Cross-linked Polyvinylpyrrolidone,” J. Am. Soc. Brew. Chem., 54(2), 85-90 (1996).
edge, persistence, and effort allowed several 28) T.M.H. Cheng and E.G. Malawer, “Identification and Determination
of the unique applications of pyrolysis GC of Crosslinkers in Crosslinked Poly(vinylpyrrolidone) by Pyrolysis-Gas
described in this article to be realized. Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry,” Anal. Chem., 71(2), 468-475 (1999).

About the Author…


D
r. Edward Malawer received his Ph.D. in physical chemistry from New York University. He has over
thirty years of industrial analytical chemistry experience and recently served as Vice President in
charge of analytical R&D, quality assurance, product stewardship and technical information services
at International Specialty Products. Ed currently operates a consulting firm, Malawer & Associates Consulting, LLC,
specializing in laboratory and process analytical measurement solutions as well as cGMP pharmaceutical
auditing and quality system improvements. He can be contacted at emalawer@optonline.net.

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Letter from the Editor …Cosmetiscope Editor Roger McMullen


TRIVIA QUESTION: The cytokines are an

I
n the November issue of the Cosmetiscope, we asked
the following trivia question: important class of compounds that serve
as intercellular messengers allowing cells
TRIVIA QUESTION: Urea was the subject of an article to communicate with each other. They are
written by Paul Thau that was published in the January proteins and peptides, which can be excreted
edition of the Cosmetiscope. It is one example of a by one cell and bind to a surface receptor
chemical that can act as a “cage” to entrap another (located at the cell membrane) on another cell,
chemical. Compounds that are able to form such structures thus producing a chemical signal to upregulate
are also referred to as ______________. (synthesize) or downregulate a molecule that
may be needed for a given biological process.
ANSWER: Clathrates
These processes form the basis of immunological
On November 30th all correct submissions were function and skin cells, such as fibroblasts and
placed into a hat and two winners were drawn. There keratinocytes, are capable of excreting and receiving
were eleven correct responses received by the Cosmeticope such signals. For this month’s question please name three
editorial office. The two winners are Peter Foltis of L’Oréal common cytokine compounds found in skin.
and Eduardo Heidelberg of Pfizer. Peter and Eduardo each Send your response to: roger.mcmullen@gmail.com
received a $75 gift certificate to attend a performance and Please, only send your answer in the message. On
dinner at the Stress Factory Comedy Club on Church January 20th all correct submissions will be placed into a
Street in New Brunswick, NJ. Congratulations to both of hat and two winners will be drawn. This month’s prize will
you and many thanks to everyone that participated. This be a $50 gift for each winner.
month we have another trivia question.
Happy New Year!

Obituaries
Phoebe R. Wolff (Wife of Stephen Wolff, Emirutus Member-New York Chapter)

P
hoebe R. Wolff (“Hughie”), age 78 of the Packanack Lake area of Wayne, slipped away to join the angels on
Wednesday evening, November 14, 2007, at home. Her passing was peaceful and with the loving affection
of her husband Stephen who was constantly at her side. Phoebe married Ensign Stephen J. Wolff Jr. in
December of 1952 and they had fifty-five years of “fulfilling and loving” marriage together. Stephen Wolff (AKA The
Captain) has been a member and good friend to numerous SCC members for many years.

Louis B. Frischling (Emirutus Member-Long Island Chapter)

O
n December 9, 2007. Beloved husband of Marilyn. Cherished father of Melissa, Elisa, and Craig. Father-in-law of Janet.
Father-in-law to be to Marvin. Loving grandfather of Dani, Robbie, Ariel, Julia, and Elana. Brother of Reggie and Saul.
Brother-in-law of Joan and Christine. Adored uncle, nephew, cousin, and friend. Leader, visionary, and co-founder of Lipo
Chemicals, Inc. and affiliated companies worldwide. Lou was an innovator and respected entrepreneur who touched the lives of
many with his creativity and passion. In Lou's memory contributions may be made to the Multiple Myeloma Research Foundation
(www.multiplemyeloma.org).

Personal Care Products Council


T
he Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association is now the Personal Care Products
Council. Our name has changed, but our mission remains stronger than ever: To enable
our members to continue to develop and sell the safe, quality, and innovative cosmetic
and personal care products that help consumers live better, healthier lives. We will continue
to offer quality services, products, and information on scientific, regulatory, and legislative
developments in our industry.
The Personal Care Products Council (Formerly CTFA)
1101 17th Street, NW, Suite 300, Washington D.C. 20036-4702
Telephone: (202) 331-1770 • Fax: (202) 331-1969
More info: www.personalcarecouncil.org.

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Employment Opportunities
Employment ads should be sent to…
Tim Gillece • Tel: (973) 628-3209 • E-Mail: tgillece@yahoo.com
You may contact National SCC at (212) 668-1500 for a list of employment opportunities.
Employment listings published in the Cosmetiscope are abridged due to space limitations.

Received 12-01-07 sales is required.


 RESEARCH CHEMISTS Please forward your résumé and salary requirements to:
LUBRIZOL ADVANCED MATERIALS, INC. (formerly Noveon), Rita Simonian, Human Resources Manager
a subsidiary of The Lubrizol Corporation, has an immediate need TRI-K Industries, Inc. / Kemira
for several Research Chemists in its Noveon Consumer Specialties 151 Veterans Drive, Northvale, NJ 07647-0128
business. Fax: (201) 750-9785
• Research Chemist, Hair & Skin Applications E-mail: rita@tri-k.com
Requirements include: Bachelor's degree in chemistry, chemical __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

engineering, or related field; minimum of 5 years experience Received 11-19-07


working in hair and skin applications (gels, emulsions, surfactant  CHEMIST
systems); strong knowledge of personal care formulations KOLMAR LABORATORIES, INC. in Port Jervis, NY is seeking
through product development experience on the bench and a chemist to strengthen our R&D department to meet the future
contact with product manufacturers or key raw material projected growth of our Cosmetic and Pharmaceutical markets. The
suppliers. Previous supervisory experience is a plus. This ideal candidate will be responsible for developing formulations of
position is located in Brecksville, Ohio. new products to meet customer and/or marketing specifications.
• Research Chemist, Hair Conditioning The ideal candidate must possess a 4 year science degree,
Requirements include a Bachelor’s degree in chemistry, chemistry or biology, and 2-4 years experience in a cosmetic and/or
chemical engineering, or related field with a minimum of pharmaceutical environment.
5 years experience in industrial formulating and hair care Please send résumé and salary history to bmatos@kolmar.com;
applications (specifically hair conditioning). This position or mail to:
is located in Piscataway, New Jersey. William Matos, Jr., PHR
• Research Chemist, Hair Conditioning Director of Human Resources
Requirements include: Bachelor's degree in chemistry, Kolmar Laboratories, Inc.
chemical engineering, or related field; minimum of 5 20 West King Street, Port Jervis, NY 12771
years experience in industrial formulating; experience __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

working in hair care applications (specifically hair Received 11-18-07


conditioning). This position is located in Piscataway,  PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT CHEMIST II
New Jersey. ANDORA, INC. is seeking a highly motivated individual with
• Research Chemist, Hair Fixatives the ability to formulate topical skin care and/or hair care products.
Requirements include: Bachelor's degree in chemistry, The ideal candidate will have a B.S. / M.S. in chemistry, pharmacy,
chemical engineering, or related field; minimum chemical engineering, or related life/health field and at least 4 years
of 5 years experience working in personal care of relevant industry experience. Formulation experience in multiple
applications, specifically hair care—hair styling and product forms, such as creams, lotions, waxes, non-aerosol, and
hair fixatives (gels, mousses, sprays). Previous aerosol sprays is desired, but not required. Overall strong technical
supervisory experience a plus. This position is located understanding of the Personal Care/OTC Industry with a demonstrated
in Piscataway, New Jersey. understanding of requirements to bring products from concept
For prompt, confidential consideration, apply to launch, along with technical knowledge of process scale-up
now at www.lubrizol.jobs. challenges and QC specification development, is also a plus.
______________________________________________________________________________________________ Please submit résumé and salary history to:
Received 11-21-07 Eric Spengler by e-mail at espengler@andora-inc.com.
 NORTHEAST SALES ACCOUNT MANAGER __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

TRI-K INDUSTRIES, INC. / KEMIRA has an Received 11-15-07


opening for a full-time Account Manager based  TECHNICAL POSITION-COSMETIC/FOOD COLOR
out of the NJ area to call on cosmetic accounts, IFC SOLUTIONS / INTERNATIONAL FOODCRAFT CORPORATION
predominantly in the Mid-Atlantic / New England in Union County, NJ is seeking an experienced, hands-on technical
states with occasional travel to accounts in Eastern individual to support the color products we manufacture for the
Canada. Responsibilities will include servicing cosmetic and food industries.
existing accounts in addition to seeking out Requirements include color formulating and/or color matching,
prospective new accounts. This is a salaried position and a degree in either chemistry, cosmetic science, or food science.
with an added incentive program and an excellent QC/QA experience is a plus.
benefits package. Please e-mail your salary requirements, résumé, and a detailed
A B.S. in Chemistry or related field and two to cover letter to:
three years experience in personal care ingredients colorjob@mindspring.com.

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Received 11-04-07 experience with audits. Minimum education


 APPLICATIONS SCIENTIST and TECHNICAL DIRECTOR requirements are a B.A. or B.S. in Chemistry
PRESPERSE, LLC is looking to fill two positions at their Somerset, NJ or related field.
facility. • Manager, Research and Development
• Applications Scientist Responsibilities include managing the
The ideal candidate would have 10-15 years of experience in the cosmetic daily operations of the R&D group, guiding
field, hands on experience in skin care, hair care, and color cosmetics formulators on development projects, meeting
formulating; a bachelor's degree in a related science; and a desire to learn with clients in a technical support role,
and teach others about our range of raw materials. researching and introducing new ingredient
• Technical Director technologies, and working with operations to
Duties include helping lead the company in fulfilling its goal of bringing insure the efficient transfer of formulations to
exciting new technologies and raw materials to the cosmetic market. production. Candidate should have a minimum
The ideal candidate should have 20 years of experience in the cosmetic of 5-7 years formulation experience and 3-5
or personal care field, management experience, a thorough understanding years in a managerial role. Minimum education
of cosmetic chemistry, and a desire to present our technologies directly to requirements are a B.A. or B.S. in Chemistry or
customers through visits and trade shows. related field.
Please e-mail résumé, including salary requirements, to: • Director, Technical Services
dlaba@presperse.com; Duties include managing the daily operations
or mail to: of both the Quality Unit and Research & Development
Dennis Laba, Director of Technical Marketing Group. The candidate should have a minimum of
Presperse, Inc. 10 years experience with at least 3-5 years in an
635 Pierce Street, Somerset, NJ 08852 executive role, including experience in a contract
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ manufacturing environment with strong knowledge
Received 11-02-07 in both Quality Operations (including Compliance-
 SALES PROFESSIONAL cGMP-audits) and Development. The minimum
DKSH North America is expanding its presence in North America and education requirements are a B.A. or B.S. in Chemistry
is looking for a sales professional to join our team. or related field. Please direct e-mail responses to:
The qualified candidate will be responsible for developing customer ldelaura@junejacobslabs.com.
relationships at selected key accounts on the East Coast, and giving product All responses should include résumé and salary requirements.
presentations and interacting with our suppliers. Additionally, the person _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

must understand market trends and customers needs with the ultimate goal Received 10-26-07
of generating new business.  BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT MANAGER and PRODUCT
The ideal candidate will have 1-3 years of sales experience in the DEVELOPMENT SCIENTIST – MICRO-ENCAPSULATION
cosmetic industry and a technical degree. APPLETON, headquartered in Appleton, WI, has two open
Please e-mail résumé and salary requirements to: positions:
tony.ansaldi@dksh.com. • Business Development Manager
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ The Business Development Manager will be responsible for
Received 10-30-07 market analysis and identification of new business opportunities
 KEY ACCOUNT TECHNICAL SALES to optimize revenues from encapsulation technology as well as
BIOSIL TECHNOLOGIES, INC. is seeking a Technical Sales Repre- the development of effective relationships with new and existing
sentative. The successful candidate will have a degree in Chemistry or partners to expand sales and mine new opportunities.
Biology plus 1-3 years sales experience in an advanced technical environment. To qualify you will need an M.B.A., or degree in related
Please send résumé and salary history to: discipline, with 7+ years experience in market development, sales,
Biosil Technologies, Inc. and project management. For more information and to apply for
510 East 31st Street, Paterson, New Jersey 07504 this opportunity, please visit our website (www.appletonideas.com)
(973) 684-2000 and follow the career opportunity link to position posting #6321.
info@biosiltech.com • Product Development Scientist – Micro-Encapsulation
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ The successful candidate will be responsible for rapid development
Received 10-30-07 of micro-encapsulated products to meet customer requirements
 DIRECTOR, QUALITY CONTROL – MANAGER, RESEARCH AND and independently apply scientific principles and practices in the
DEVELOPMENT – DIRECTOR, TECHNICAL SERVICES area of encapsulation in support of business objectives, while
JUNE JACOBS LABS, a contract manufacturer and skincare company, meeting customer needs and creating sustainable advantage in
is seeking up to three highly-qualified individuals at our Moonachie, NJ the marketplace.
facility. To qualify you will need an advanced degree in chemistry
• Director, Quality Control or related field with focus on micro-encapsulation research and
Responsibilities will include overseeing QC technicians in bulk and additional work experience in micro-encapsulation research,
finished goods area, assisting with specification updates, auditing daily demonstrating solid understanding of polymer chemistry and
records, providing outside clients/vendors with appropriate documentation methodology. For more information and to apply for this
and certificates, and supporting OTC stability program. Experience with opportunity, please visit our website (www.appletonideas.com)
packaging is a plus. Candidate should have a minimum of 3-5 years and follow the career opportunity link to position posting
experience in managing a QC laboratory, a strong background in cGMP, and #6501.

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2008 SCC Events Calendar


• For updated NYSCC information, visit us on the web at: www.nyscc.org
• For National SCC information: www.scconline.org
January 9 NYSCC Monthly Meeting, Hyatt Regency, New Brunswick, NJ.
Jan. 29 - Feb. 2 The Soap and Detergent Association Annual Meeting, Boca Raton Hotel & Club,
Boca Raton, FL. More info: www.cleaning101.com.
February 6 NYSCC Monthly Meeting, Seasons Westwood in Washington Twp, NJ.
February (TBD) NYSCC & LISCC Ski Trip, Windham Mountain, NY.
February 10-15 Principles and Practice of Cosmetic Science, Wessex Hotel, West Cliff Road,
Bournemouth, UK. More info: www.scs.org.uk.
February 11-12 Cosmeceuticals Summit 2008, San Diego, CA.
More info: www.intertechpira.com/regulations.
February 26-29 Personal Care Products Council 2008 Annual Meeting, Boca Raton Resort & Club,
Boca Raton, FL.
February 20-21 Skin Summit, Philadelphia, PA. More info: www.pharmedassociates.com.
March 4-5 HBA Spring Conference, Jacob K. Javits Convention Center, New York, NY.
March 5 NYSCC Monthly Meeting, Valley Regency, Clifton, NJ.
March 11-12 Expert Meeting on Aerosol Innovation, Paris, France.
More info: www.aerosol-forum.com.
April (TBD) NYSCC Spring Seminar.
April 15-18 In-Cosmetics 2008, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
May 7-10 1st Joint International Meeting of the International Society for Biophysics and Imaging
of the Skin (ISBS) and the International Society for Digital Imaging of Skin (ISDS),
Seoul, Korea. More info: www.non-invasive2008.org.
May 13-14 NYSCC Suppliers’ Day, Raritan Center, Edison, NJ.
May 14-17 International Investigative Dermatology, Kyoto, Japan. The Fifth Joint Meeting of the
European Society for Dermatological Research (ESDR), the Japanese Society for
Investigative Dermatology (JSID), and the Society for Investigative Dermatology (SID).
More info: iid2008.org.
June 5-6 SCC Annual Scientific Seminar, Lake Buena Vista, FL.
June 10-11 The Anti-Aging Skin Care Conference, The Royal College of Physicians, London.
More info: www.antiageingconference.com.
June 22-25 7th World Surfactants Congress, Palais des Congrés, Paris.
June 24-26 Household & Cosmèticos, São Paulo, Brazil. More info: www.freedom.inf.br.
July (TBD) NYSCC Golf Outing.
September (TBD) NYSCC Annual Fishing Trip.
Septermber 9-11 HBA Global Exposition & Education Conference, Jacob K. Javits Convention Center,
New York, NY.
September 15-16 TRI Princeton, Conference on Applied Hair Science, Princeton, NJ.
October 5-8 Beyond Beauty 2008, Paris Nord Villepinte, Paris, France.
More info: www.beyondbeautyparis.com.
October 6-9 25th IFSCC Congress, Barcelona, Spain.
October (TBD) NYSCC Fall Seminar, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Teaneck, NJ.
November 4-6 In-Cosmetics Asia, Bangkok, Thailand. More info: www.in-cosmeticsasia.com.
November 12-14 Cosmoprof Asia, Hong Kong. More info: www.cosmoprof-asia.com.
December 11-12 SCC 2008 Annual Scientific Meeting and Technology Showcase, New York Hilton,
New York, NY.

January 2008