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Edexcel AS Chemistry - Mass Spectrometry

MASS SPECTROMETRY

MASS SPECTROMETER:

- Mass Spectrometry MASS SPECTROMETRY MASS SPECTROMETER: First the sample must be vapourised and injected into

First the sample must be vapourised and injected into the first chamber, as a mass spectrometer only works with gaseous samples

IONISATION: The heated metal coil gives of electrons which are attracted to the positively charged plate above. The beam of electrons bombards the sample with electrons. These electrons knock off electrons from the sample turning the sample into a positive ion

ACCELERATION: Positive ions are repelled from the ion chamber. The sample passes through 3 plates (with decreasing voltages between them) this creates a finely focused beam which then accelerates the ions

Here the velocity selector ensures that the ions travel at equal velocity

focused beam which then accelerates the ions Here the velocity selector ensures that the ions travel

DEFLECTION: A magnetic field is placed in order to deflect the ions. Deflection depends on mass (more mass = less deflection) and charge (larger charge = more deflection). These 2 factors create the mass/charge ratio (m/z or m/e)

{m/z = mass / charge}

DETECTION: Here the detector records the ion stream which reaches the end. The rest of the streams will hit the walls of the machine and gain electrons, this makes them neutral- these ions are later removed using a pump. When the ion stream hits the metal box it gains electrons, making it neutral.This creates a gap among the electrons causing others to replace it- this creates a flow of electrons. This is then recorded

{More ions = Greater current}

Results

is then recorded { More ions = Greater current } Results The results from a mass

The results from a mass spectrometer are called mass spectrums. They show the different isotopes of the sample using different peaks along the x-axis. The y-axis shows the % abundance of the isotope in the sample (this is the number recorded by the detector)

USES

Radioactive/ Carbon dating- used to date ancient remains and fossils by comparing Carbon-12 : Carbon-14 ratios that are left behind when the organism dies. C-14 is taken in by plants during photosynthesis as C-12 and C-14 are chemically identical. The same applies to animals as they ultimately get energy

during photosynthesis as C-12 and C-14 are chemically identical. The same applies to animals as they

from plants. When the organism dies it stops taking in C-14 this causes the ration to fall meaning it can be used to estimate the age of the organism

Drug Testing- We can compare the ratio of testosterone:epitestosterone in urine to see if athletes have been taking anabolic steroids. The ratio is rarely every greater than 4:1, taking steroids can raise it to 6:1. But there are some cases when an athlete's T:E ratio is naturally high making them look like they have taken steroids when they haven't.

To find the A r of a sample- first you work out the total isotope mass (% abundance X isotope mass)(repeat for each, sum = total isotope mass). You then divide the total isotope mass by 100% or total of the isotopes % abundance.

E.g. A sample has 3 different isotopes.

Mass: 50, 51, 52

%Abundance: 50%, 30%, 20%

1) 50x50=2500, 51x30=1530, 52x20=1040

2) 2500 + 1530 + 1040 = 5070

3) 5070 / 100 (50+30+20) = 50.7

4) so A r = 50.7

1) 50x50=2500, 51x30=1530, 52x20=1040 2) 2500 + 1530 + 1040 = 5070 3) 5070 / 100