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Section 3

Reinforced Concrete
3.1 Basics of Reinforced Concrete

PCA Video, VC114 88 Mod 07: Fundamentals


of Reinforcing and Prestressed Concrete

Structural Engineering Concepts

Reinforcement Inspection

12

CRSI Video, Mod 08: Field Inspection of


Reinforcing Bars

13

WCI Video: Jobsite Handling of Epoxy Coated


Rebar

24

CRSI: MSP Chp. 8, Placing Reinforcing Bars

25

Bar Supports

28

Bar Ties

30

Clearances

32

Splices

40

Reinforced Concrete

Section 3.1

Reinforced Concrete
Section 3.1

So whats wrong with using unreinforced concrete?

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Reinforced Concrete

Section 3.1

Concrete Cracks

Basics of Reinforced Concrete


Concrete is strong in compression and
weak in tension.

Compression

Tension

Tensile capacity is approximately 10% of


the compressive strength of concrete.

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Reinforced Concrete

Section 3.1

Beam Exercise

Basics of Reinforced Concrete


Contd:
Steel reinforcement is strong in tension.
Reinforcement is added to carry tensile
loads in concrete members.
Temperature reinforcement is added to
carry tensile loads due to thermal
expansion of concrete members.

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Reinforced Concrete

Section 3.1

Why Use Rebar?


Simply supported beam example
Applied
Load

View PCA Video


Fundamentals Of Reinforcing
And Prestressed Concrete
(PCA VC114 88 Mod 07)

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Reinforced Concrete

Section 3.1

Structural Engineering
Concepts

Shear & Moment Diagram


Uniformly Loaded Simple Beam

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Reinforced Concrete

Section 3.1

Uniformly Loaded Simple Span


Shear is Maximum at End Bents
Shear is Zero at Midspan
Moment is Maximum at Midspan
Moment is Zero at End Bents

Maximum Shear Load


at Bridge Ends and Piers
Larger Stirrup Spacing
@ Midspan

Tighter Stirrup Spacing


Near Abutments

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Reinforced Concrete

Section 3.1

Tighter Stirrup Spacing


at Beam Ends

Shear & Moment Diagram


Uniformly Loaded Continuous 3 Span

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Reinforced Concrete

Section 3.1

Uniformly Loaded
Continuous Beam 3 Spans
Shear is Zero near Midspans.
Shear is Maximum at Interior Bents.
Positive Moment is Maximum near
Midspans.
Negative Moment is Maximum near
Interior Bents.
Moment is Zero at End Bents.

Uniformly Loaded
Continuous Beam 3 Spans
Maximum negative
moment over interior
bents.
Additional longitudinal
reinforcement added in
top mat.

January, 2014

Reinforced Concrete

Section 3.1

Beam Capacity

Strength of the Beam

Beam Cross-section

Beam Side View

M = Astfy(d-1/2a) = 0.85fc ab(d-1/2a)

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Reinforced Concrete

Section 3.1

Case Study
I-25: Walnut Street
Denver, CO

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Reinforced Concrete

Section 3.1

Thoughts?

Deck To Be
Placed Later

Construction Joint

I-25: Walnut Street


Pier Collapse

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Reinforced Concrete

Section 3.1

Pier Collapse
I-25: Walnut Street, Denver, CO
Oct. 4, 1985
Fatalities: 1
Injuries: 4

Reinforcement Inspection

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Reinforced Concrete

Section 3.1

View CRSI Video


CRSI Field Insp Reinf Bars Mod 08

Type of Reinforcement
Source
Certifications
Grade
Epoxy Coated or Uncoated
or Stainless

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Reinforced Concrete

Section 3.1

Documentation

Bills of material
what was delivered

Certifications

Rebar (steel)
mill certificate

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Reinforced Concrete

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Section 3.1

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Reinforced Concrete

Section 3.1

QPL Appendix A
http://www.oregon.gov/ODOT/HWY/CONSTRUCTION/QPL/Docs/QPL.pdf

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Oregon DOT QPL (July 2010)


Attachment A, Page 1 of 4
Approved Rebar Producers Metric Units

Page A - 1

ODOT ID# 1111

Oregon DOT QPL (July 2010)


Attachment A, Page 2 of 4
Approved Rebar Producers Metric Units

ODOT ID# 1621 was CF & I

ODOT ID# 1112

Page A - 2

ODOT ID# 1623

ODOT ID# 1622

Oregon DOT QPL (July 2010)


Attachment A, Page 3 of 4
Approved Rebar Producers Metric Units

ODOT ID# 1842

ODOT ID# 1841

Page A 3

ODOT ID# 2935

Oregon DOT QPL (July 2010)


Attachment A, Page 4 of 4
Approved Rebar Producers Metric Units

ODOT ID# 4118

CMC Steel Mesa Arizona

Page A - 4

Reinforced Concrete

Section 3.1

Rebar Example
Mill:
Size:
Dia:
Type:
Grade:

Rebar Exercise
Mill:
Size:
Dia:
Type:
Grade:

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Reinforced Concrete

Section 3.1

Rebar Exercise
Mill:
Size:
Dia:
Type:
Grade:

Rebar Exercise
Mill:
Size:
Dia:
Type:
Grade:

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Reinforced Concrete

Section 3.1

Size & Shape


Bar size
Bar length
Bar shape (correct radius)
Agrees with shop drawings

REBAR MATERIAL TAG


A

January, 2014

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Quantity
Size
Bend diagram
Project
Bar ID or
mark

Verify

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Reinforced Concrete

Section 3.1

Doubled Up
Horizontal Bars in Abutment?

Hooked Bar in
Middle of Deck by Itself?

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Reinforced Concrete

Section 3.1

Rebar Condition

Condition
Look for any loose scale or rust, grease, oil,
paint, or other foreign material that could
harm the bond with the concrete.
Properly stored off the ground to avoid water
and mud which can cause corrosion.
Do not use cracked or split bars (look at
bends).
Look for epoxy damage.

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Reinforced Concrete

Section 3.1

Field Bent Bars?

Epoxy Damage

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Reinforced Concrete

Section 3.1

Rebar Jobsite Storage


Total exposure time of epoxy-coated bar
in storage or in place is not to exceed
2 months without covering. (530.40)

Epoxy breaks
down under
prolonged UV
exposure it
gets Chalky

Faded Epoxy & Bare Ties?

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Reinforced Concrete

Section 3.1

View WCI Video


Jobsite Handling Epoxy Coated
Rebar

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Reinforced Concrete

Section 3.1

Layout
Number
Spacing
Alignment

Placement
Tolerances
according to
Manual of
Standard
Practice
530.41

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Reinforced Concrete

Section 3.1

Effective Depth d

Distance from the compression face of the


beam to the centroid of the reinforcement

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Reinforced Concrete

Section 3.1

Transverse Bar Alignment Shift?

Longitudinal Bar
Alignment Shift?

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Reinforced Concrete

Section 3.1

Bar Supports

Rail Stirrup Height Uneven?

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Reinforced Concrete

Section 3.1

Transverse Deck Bars


Drop at Corner?

Bar Supports
530.41(b) & (c)
2 Centers (plans)
Concrete blocks
(Dobies) or other
approved devices
No rocks, broken
brick, or wood

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Reinforced Concrete

Section 3.1

Large Support Spacing Caused


Epoxy Ties to Unzip

Ties

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Reinforced Concrete

Section 3.1

Top mat of
footings &
decks:
Tie 100%

Ties
530.41(b)
Epoxy coated ties for epoxy rebar

If spacing < 6
Tie 50%

Other locations:
Tie 100%
If spacing < 1
Tie 50%

No Ties for Up to 10 Feet?

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Reinforced Concrete

Section 3.1

Missing Ties

Clearances

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Reinforced Concrete

Section 3.1

Concrete Cover
Affects Rebar Corrosion

Concrete
cover

Clearances
Within tolerances recommended in CRSIs
Manual of Standard Practice, Chapter 8
unless otherwise specified.
(00530.41)
As specified on the plans.
Tolerance on top mat of reinforcement
to the top of deck surface is (+/-) 1/4.
(00540.48(g))

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Reinforced Concrete

Section 3.1

Hooked Bar Laying on Form?

Transverse Bar
on Chamfer Strip?

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Reinforced Concrete

Section 3.1

Transverse Deck Bar


Under Drip Strip?

Transverse Bar
Touching Fillet Form?

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Reinforced Concrete

Section 3.1

Clearance Under Deck Rebar


Over Slabs?

Bottom Transverse Bars in


Pilecap Touching Forms?

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Reinforced Concrete

Section 3.1

Bar Touching Form


in Crossbeam?

High Stirrup in Crossbeam?

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Reinforced Concrete

Section 3.1

Watch Clearances
on Rail Windows

Clearance on Vertical Rail


Bars to Window Form

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Reinforced Concrete

Section 3.1

How far are rail stirrups from the


deck side form?

Clearance Exercise
Calculate the distance from the rail
stirrups to the deck side form.

___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________

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Reinforced Concrete

Section 3.1

Splices

No Splice?

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Reinforced Concrete

Section 3.1

Splices
As permitted per plans
Splice bars No. 11 & smaller by Lapping or
Approved Mechanical Splice.
Splice bars No. 14 and larger with an
Approved Mechanical Splice Only.
Welded only with prior approval and with a
certified welder.

Lap Splice
530.42(b)
Place bars in contact.
Fasten with 3 ties/Splice Minimum.
Length as shown (General Notes).
Epoxy coated reinforcement requires
longer splice length.

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Reinforced Concrete

Section 3.1

1 Tie on Splice?

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Reinforced Concrete

Section 3.1

1 Tie on Splice?

Mechanical Splice
530.42(c)
Construct per Specifications and
Manufacturers Recommendations.
Construct test splices in the presence of
The Engineer.
Install splices in the presence of The
Engineer. Splices made without The
Engineer present will be rejected.

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Reinforced Concrete

Section 3.1

Mechanical Splice Installers


530.30
Provide qualified mechanical splice
installers.
Construct test splices in the presence of
The Engineer.
Construct 3 splice samples per type and
size for each installer.
Do not begin splice installation until
installers have been approved.

Spliced Bars Project Up?

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Reinforced Concrete

Section 3.1

Spliced Vertical Column Bars

Reinforcement Inspection
Inspection of the forms and reinforcement takes
time.
Check early & often to help assure they are
doing things correctly and to avoid minimal
rework. Do not wait until just before the
concrete placement.
Do a final check just prior to the concrete
placement to assure everything still looks good.

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Deck Rebar Checklist


Project Information
Project Name (Section)

Contract No.

Highway

Federal Aid No.

Contractor or Subcontractor

Deck Placement Date:


Inspected
Item

Yes

No

N/A

Date

Remarks

(mm/dd/yyyy)

1 Bottom Mat Bar Size & Spacing


2 Bottom Mat Ties @ 50%
3 Bottom Mat Clearance
4 Epoxy Ties (if epoxy bars)
5 Supports @ 2' Centers
6 Clearance @ Drip Strip
7 Lap Splices have three (3) ties
8 Top Mat Bar Size & Spacing
Top Mat Ties @ 100%
if spacing is greater than or equal to 6"
Top Mat Ties @ 50%
9b
if spacing is less than 6"
Top Mat Bars directly over
10
Bottom Mat Bars
Top & Bottom Mat Bars installed parallel
11
to skewed joint at both ends of deck
9a

12 Side & End Form Clearances


13 Rail Stirrup Size & Spacing
14 Additional Rail Stirrups @ Joints
15

Rail longitudinal bars cut at joint


except bottom two

16 Rail 1-1/4" inside Edge of Deck


17 Rebar Support @ Corners
18 Dry Run Clearance Check
Remarks

Inspected by
734-2837 (11-2010)

Date
http://www.oregon.gov/ODOT/HWY/CONSTRUCTION/hwyConstForms1.shtml

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