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MCAT Physics Equation Sheet

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The accompanying Table of Information and Equation Tables will be provided to students when

they take the AP Physics Exams. Therefore, students may NOT bring their own copies of these

tables to the exam room, although they may use them throughout the year in their classes in

order to become familiar with their content. Check the Physics course home pages on AP

Central for the latest versions of these tables (apcentral.collegeboard.

).

Table of Information

For both the Physics B and Physics C Exams, the Table of Information is printed near the front

cover of the multiple-choice section and on the green insert provided with the free-response

section. The tables are identical for both exams except for one convention as noted.

Equation Tables

For both the Physics B and Physics C Exams, the equation tables for each exam are printed only

on the green insert provided with the free-response section. The equation tables may be used by

students when taking the free-response sections of both exams but NOT when taking the

multiple-choice sections.

The equations in the tables express the relationships that are encountered most frequently in

AP Physics courses and exams. However, the tables do not include all equations that might

possibly be used. For example, they do not include many equations that can be derived by

combining other equations in the tables. Nor do they include equations that are simply special

cases of any that are in the tables. Students are responsible for understanding the physical

principles that underlie each equation and for knowing the conditions for which each equation is

applicable.

The equation tables are grouped in sections according to the major content category in which

they appear. Within each section, the symbols used for the variables in that section are defined.

However, in some cases the same symbol is used to represent different quantities in different

tables. It should be noted that there is no uniform convention among textbooks for the symbols

used in writing equations. The equation tables follow many common conventions, but in some

cases consistency was sacrificed for the sake of clarity.

Some explanations about notation used in the equation tables:

1. The symbols used for physical constants are the same as those in the Table of

Information and are defined in the Table of Information rather than in the right-hand

columns of the tables.

2. Symbols in bold face represent vector quantities.

3. Subscripts on symbols in the equations are used to represent special cases of the

variables defined in the right-hand columns.

4. The symbol before a variable in an equation specifically indicates a change in the

variable (i.e., final value minus initial value).

5. Several different symbols (e.g., d, r, s, h, ) are used for linear dimensions such as

length. The particular symbol used in an equation is one that is commonly used for

that equation in textbooks.

2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org.

CONSTANTS AND CONVERSION FACTORS

Neutron mass, mn

27

kg

10

27

kg

9.11 10

31

1.67

Electron mass, me

Avogadros number, N 0

1.38

10

23

1u

Plancks constant,

h

hc

Vacuum permittivity,

!0

1 4 !0

Vacuum permeability,

Magnetic constant, k

1 atmosphere pressure,

UNIT

SYMBOLS

PREFIXES

Factor

Prefix

Symbol

m

kg

s

A

K

10

19

1 electron volt, 1 eV

1.60

10

19

3.00

10 m s

6.67

10

11

9.8 m s2

mole,

hertz,

newton,

pascal,

joule,

1 atm

mol

Hz

N

Pa

J

10

27

kg

931 MeV c2

6.63 10

34

Js

4.14

1.99

10

25

Jm

1.24

10

12

1.66

8.85

C Nm

9.0

109 N m 2 C2

10

1 10

1.0

15

eV s

10 eV nm

(T m) A

(T m) A

105 N m 2

watt,

coulomb,

volt,

ohm,

henry,

10

W

C

V

1.0

105 Pa

farad,

tesla,

degree Celsius,

electron-volt,

F

T

C

eV

30

giga

sin

12

37

35

106

mega

cos

3 2

4 5

2 2

35

12

103

kilo

tan

3 3

34

43

10 2

centi

milli

10

10

10 6

micro

10

nano

10

12

pico

m3 kg s2

J K

meter,

kilogram,

second,

ampere,

kelvin,

1.60

Speed of light,

Universal gravitational

constant,

Acceleration due to gravity

at Earths surface,

kg

8.31 J (mol K)

Boltzmanns constant, k B

1023 mol -1

6.02

10

1.67

Proton mass, m p

45

53

60

90

2 2

4 5

3 2

1

0

I. Unless otherwise stated, the frame of reference of any problem is

assumed to be inertial.

II. The direction of any electric current is the direction of flow of positive

charge (conventional current).

III. For any isolated electric charge, the electric potential is defined as zero at

an infinite distance from the charge.

*IV. For mechanics and thermodynamics equations, W represents the work

done on a system.

*Not on the Table of Information for Physics C, since Thermodynamics is not a

Physics C topic.

2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org.

MECHANICS

0

0

2

1

2

0

2

F sin

p

J

v

F

1

2

a

F

f

h

J

K

k

m

N

P

p

r

T

t

U

W

cos

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

x =

=

=

=

acceleration

force

frequency

height

impulse

kinetic energy

spring constant

length

mass

normal force

power

momentum

radius or distance

period

time

potential energy

velocity or speed

work done on

a system

position

coefficient of friction

angle

torque

2

F

1 2

F

I

1

2

1

2

1

2

...

P

Q

q

R

r

t

U

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

!0

cos

F

A

B

C

d

E

1 2

...

2

1

sin

2

sin

...

2

cos

1 2

2

avg

1 2

2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org.

...

...

area

magnetic field

capacitance

distance

electric field

emf

force

current

length

power

charge

point charge

resistance

distance

time

potential (stored)

energy

electric potential or

potential difference

velocity or speed

resistivity

angle

magnetic flux

FLUID MECHANICS AND THERMAL PHYSICS

1 1

= area

= efficiency

= force

= depth

= rate of heat transfer

= thermal conductivity

= average molecular

kinetic energy

= length

L = thickness

m = mass

M = molar mass

n = number of moles

N = number of molecules

P = pressure

Q = heat transferred to a

system

T = temperature

U = internal energy

= volume

= velocity or speed

= root-mean-square

velocity

W = work done on a system

y = height

= coefficient of linear

expansion

= mass of molecule

= density

A

e

F

h

H

k

mV

2 2

1

2

const.

3

2

3

sin

sin

d = separation

f = frequency or

focal length

h = height

L = distance

M = magnification

m = an integer

n = index of

refraction

R = radius of

curvature

s = distance

= speed

x = position

= wavelength

= angle

sin

sin

Rectangle

A=

C=

V=

S =

b =

h =

=

w=

r =

Triangle

1

2

Circle

2

2

Rectangular Solid

area

circumference

volume

surface area

base

height

length

width

radius

Cylinder

2

Sphere

4

3

max

E=

f =

K=

=

p =

=

=

energy

frequency

kinetic energy

mass

momentum

wavelength

work function

3

2

Right Triangle

2

sin

cos

c

q

tan

2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org.

a

90

MECHANICS

0

1

2

F

J

1

2

F v

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

L =

m=

N =

P =

p =

r =

r =

T =

t =

U=

=

W=

x =

=

=

=

=

=

=

a

F

f

h

I

J

K

k

acceleration

force

frequency

height

rotational inertia

impulse

kinetic energy

spring constant

length

angular momentum

mass

normal force

power

momentum

radius or distance

position vector

period

time

potential energy

velocity or speed

work done on a system

position

coefficient of friction

angle

torque

angular speed

angular acceleration

phase angle

1 2

4 !0

F

I

J

L

1

4 !0

1 2

4 !0

N =

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

P

Q

q

R

r

t

U

!0

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

A

B

C

d

E

!0

1

2

1

2

B

E

xmax cos( t

1

F

1

2

2

area

magnetic field

capacitance

distance

electric field

emf

force

current

current density

inductance

length

number of loops of wire

per unit length

number of charge carriers

per unit volume

power

charge

point charge

resistance

distance

time

potential or stored energy

electric potentia

velocity or speed

resistivity

magnetic flux

dielectric constant

! r

1

0

1

2

1

2

1 2

2

1 2

1

2

2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org.

GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY

Rectangle

A=

C=

V=

S =

b =

h =

=

w=

r =

Triangle

1

2

Circle

2

2

Rectangular Solid

CALCULUS

area

circumference

volume

surface area

base

height

length

width

radius

ln

sin

cos

cos

Cylinder

sin

Sphere

4

3

ln

cos

sin

Right Triangle

2

cos

sin

sin

a

90

cos

tan

2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org.

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