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High Schoo! Biology - Core Concept Cheat Sheet 12: Nucleic Acids Key Terms ‘+ Amino acids: basic building units of proteins + Complementary Base Pairing: Natural pairing of nucleic ‘acids. Adenine:Thymine, Guanine:Cytosine in ONA. Uracil ‘replaces Thymine in RNA. “DNA bases: Adnenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine. ‘RNA bases: Adenine, Uracil, Guanine, Cytosine. DNA replication: The process of copying a cell's ONA in order to pass it an to a daughter cell. + DNA: Deoxyribonuclelc acid, the genetic material of cells. {Double Helix: The double winding strand shape of ONA. ‘Exons: A portion of DNA which codes for protein. ‘Introns: A portion of DNA which does not code for a product. “mRNA: Messenger RNA which carries DNA code. ‘ncRNA: non-coding RNA, rromoter: The DNA region where RNA polymerase binds. + Proteins: a key organic macromolecule, which function as lenxymes, tranporters and hormones. “+ RNA polymerase: An enzyme molecule which makes RNA by copying ONA. | + FRNA: Ribosomal RNA is part of ribosomes. + Start Codon: Signal transcription start site. 1 Stop Codon: A codon that signals transcription stop. +The Central Dogma: States that ONA-rmakes RNA-omakes protein, Transcrption through translation. ‘ Translation:” The process of producing protein from the RNA message. ‘RNA: Transfer RNA brings amino acids to the ribosome |__ during translation. DNA Structure _ . Is the cellular genetic materi + Made up from deoxyribose-phosphate and 4 bases. . + Contains two strands based on base pairing Between A and T,CandG. . «The two strands are anticparalel and form double helix structure : + Highly organized in ces (final form: chromosome) ‘One gene is defined as one functional section of DNA ‘DNA: structure [aise ae Translation + Ribosome binds to mRNA. “ Ribosome reads mRNA one codon at a time, beginning with the start codon AUG. + For every codon, a tRNA brings the proper amino acid + Ribosome holds onto the amino acid chain as it grows. + When the stop codon is encountered, the mRNA and sbosome disassemble, How to Use This Cheat Sheet! These are the keys related this topic. blank sheet of paper. Review it again before the exams. _ Transcription & Translation DNA helicase unwinds the DNA double helix DNA polymerase binds to the promoter on both strands, usually TATA, DNA polymerase copies new ONA using both of the original strands. [DNA polymerase copies from the 3° 5" direction on both the leading and tagging strand, (On the leading strand DNA polymerase moves continuously to copy. (On the lagging strand, DNA polymerase copies many backward strips called Okazaki fragments. Mutations Mutations: changes in DNA sequence, i.e. insertion/deletion, “Tey 06 Fae through it carefully twice then recite tout on a RapidtearningCenter com Rapid Learning Ine. All Rights Reserved High School Biology - Core Concept Cheat Sheet. _02: Chemical Basis of Life ‘Atoms: ‘© Electrons: both energy and substance particles © Neutrons. Protons. Motecul ‘© Formed by atoms © Joined by chemical bonds © Molecular formula and structure formula Organic Molecules/macromolecules: ‘Amino acids => proteins ‘9 Monosacehrides --> polysaccharides © Fatty acids --> lipids © Nucleotides --> nucleic acids Isotope: Atoms have same proton numbers but may differ in neutron numbers Energy shell: Electrons occupy orbital around nucleus, these are called energy shells. The most inner shell (K) contains 2 electron maximun, the Land M shell contain 8 maximum each, Organle chemicals: Chemicals are made from living organisms and contain carbon backbones. Tsomers: Chemicals that have same molecular formula but different structure formula, Buffers: Solutions which resist change in pH upon adiition| of small amounts of acid ar base. Electrolytes: Chemicals that can release lons into solutions DpH: pH represents the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) In solution. | pit= -tog (H+) | Enaymes: Proteins that serve as catalysts for biochemical | Enthropy: A measure for a system's degree of disorder. It | increases with increasing disorder, | Law of thermodynamics: +The first Law: The total energy of the unwerse is always conserved. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. ‘+The second Law: The universe tends towards maximum disorder, or in other words: the direction of all spontaneous processes is such as to increase the | __ entropy of a system plus its surroundings AG: Change of free energy of a system. + SG negative reaction: spontaneous. 1 XG positive reaction: non-spontaneous Chemic: Bonds Chemical bonds store energy. For covalent bonds, the more | electrons a bond share, the more energy it stores. | Tonic bond: ionic bond forms when atoms lose or gain electrons Covalent bond: Covalent bonds form when atoms share electrons, very strong bonds. The major one ia organic chemicals. Hydrogen bond: weak electrical attraction between the positive end of one molecule and the negative end of another “Organic Chemicals ‘iassified by the function groups: 18 Alcohols, R-OH Aldehydes, R-CHO, R-C=0 i ° 4 tl Ketones, R-C-R, R-CO-R ° ul Carboxylic Acids, R-COOH, R-C-OH ‘Amines, R-NHa, R-N-H 1 4 o- ' © Organic Phosphates, R-OPO", R-0-P=0 i 0. = Thiols, RSH "Important Biochemical Molecules Organic Molecules/macromolecules: '= Polysaccharides © Monomer unit: monosaccharide © Store eneray, provide building unit Lids 2 Monomer unt: fatty acids, glycerol © Store energy, membrane construction, hormones Proteins: ‘9 Monomer unit: amino acids (© Structure protein, enzymes Nucleic Acids: i ‘2 Monomer unit: nucleotides | © Genetic mater Chemical Reactions Coupled reactions: Many biosynthesis reactions are coupled to ATP hydrolysis which can provide energy and therefore the | ‘overall reaction can be delta G negative. + AG negative reaction: spontaneous + 4G postive reaction: non-spontaneous Enzyme catalyzed reactions: Lower the activation free | ‘energy but do not change the sG. | Biochemical Reaction Types and Enzymes '= Oxidation-reduction reactions: oxidoreductase | 1» Intramolecular or intermolecular functional group-transfer reactions: transfease 12 Hydrolysis of esters, ethers, and amides: hydrolase ‘= Elimination or addition reactions: tyase. Isomerization reactions: isomerase '= Formation of ester, thiol ester, and amide linkages: ligase How to Use This Cheat Sheet: These are the keys related this topic. Try to read through it carefully twice then recite t out on & blank sheet of paper. Review it again before the exams. ‘Rapid earningCenter.com.com Rapid Learning Ine. A Rights Reserved