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Boilers are pressure vessels designed to heat water to produce

steam, which can then be used to provide space heating, service
water heating to a building, mechanical energy through turbine and
producing electricity. Usually Boilers used Natural Gas, Petroleum Oil
or Coal as its fuel source where these fuels are burnt to produce heat
which is transferred to water by conduction, convection or radiation
and the water turns into vapour producing high pressure steam.
Except for a small number of specialty models, boilers generally fit
into one of the two common categories: fire-tube boilers and watertube boilers. Fire-tube boilers pass hot combustion gases through
tubes submerged in water. Water-tube boilers, on the other hand,
circulate water inside the tubes in a closed vessel filled with hot
combustions gases. There are also different types of boilers which
found their specific use in various platform such as Locomotive
boiler, Thornycroft boiler, Babcock & Wilcox boiler which have been
designed specifically upon their application although the basic
operating principle are same.
Boiler accessories are usually classified into four classes eg. Major
constructional parts, Auxiliary Construction parts, Mountings and
Instruments. These accessories varies with different types of boilers.
Major constructional parts are mandatory but others accessories are
required for save and efficient operation. As example, without

economizer or pressure scale, a boiler can be operated but this

would not be economical and safe.
Complete combustion of fuel in boiler furnace is very necessary for
efficient operation. Incomplete combustion causes loss in fuel and
creates environmental hazards. For this purpose, proper ratio of dry
air and fuel need to be maintained.
Efficiency of boiler depends on various factor such as internal design,
charecteristics of feed water, properties of supplied fuel, condition of
combustible air etc. All these factors need to be maintained at
optimum condition to obtain efficiency upto 90%.
Maiantainace and Inspection of boiler is very important otherwise
explosion may occoure. Every year, a huge amount of destruction
caused from boiler explosion. Regular inspection such as monitoring
Feed water level, Steam pressure, Steam temperature, Combustion
air flow rate, Fuel flow rate etc. must be done properly. Instruments
for safe operation such as Low water condition alarm, High
temperature alarm, Fuel cut stopper, Safety valve, Blow down facility
etc. have to be installed with the boiler system. Regular
maintenances such as furnace purging, Blow down, removing of
sludge etc. should be accomplished in daily basis.

Now a days, the modern civilization is completely dependent on
electricity and more than 50% of electric power produced from high
pressure steam by rotating turbines blade. This steam comes from
boiler where chemical energy from fuel source converted to thermal
energy and pass to steam. This indicates the necessity of steam
boiler in civilization.
Besides steam are mandatory in textile washing, sugar mills,
domestic heating etc. Chemical industries can not run without steam
thus use of boiler is spreader in every sphere of our life.
In ancient days, locomotive and ships were used boiler for their
steam engines where coals were used as fuel source.
However, efficient and safe operation of boiler is required because
severe accidents have been noted every year due to boiler accidents.
Careful maintenance and awareness of operatoes can eliminate
these type of destruction and can ensure a safe and efficient
application of boiler.
Its my great oppuortunity to work on such kind of important subject
which helped me to be acquainted with many new aspects which
may remain unknown to me without this project work.