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# BOILER CALCULATION

Steam Rate
SR = 3600/Wnet
SR = 3600/(Wt Wp)
SR = 3600/(889.62)
SR = 4.05 kg/kWh

Heat Rate
HR = 3600/
HR = 3600/0.3452
HR = 10428.74 KJ/kWhr

Rated Capacity
Typical Large Generators Efficiency Ranges form 75 85%
Use 85% efficiency:

## Rated Capacity = 175 MW/0.85

Rated Capacity = 205.88 MW

Steam Flow, ms
Assumptions: (Typical Efficiencies of Equipments)
t = 80%
g = 85%
m = 95%
Note: Turbine Rated Capacity = T.R.C
T.R.C = Total Capacity / *t x g x m]
T.R.C = 175 / [0.8 x 0.85 x 0.95]
T.R.C = 270.90 MW
T.R.C = Wt x ms
ms = T.R.C / Wt

## ms = 270.9 MW ( 1000 kJ/s / MW) / 889.62 kJ/kg

ms = 304.51 kg/s x 3600 s/hr
ms = 1096243.34 kg/hr

Boiler Capacity
BC = ms (h1-h18) = 304.51 kg/s (3381 1070)KJ/kg
BC = 703722.61 KJ/s

## Coal flow rate

Fuel to be Used Bituminous
Table 5-4 Analysis of Typical American Fuels by Morse (p.127)
Proximate Analysis
Moisture
Ill.
Bituminous

Volatile

Fixed

Matter

Carbon

33.62

41.34

13.31

Ash

Sulfur

Hydrogen

Carbon

Nitrogen

Oxygen

11.73

3.75

5.19

59.07

0.95

19.31

## High Heating Value of Illinois Bituminous Coal

Re: Dulongs Formula (S.I.)
HHV = 33820 C + 144212 (H O/8) + 9304 S
HHV = 33820 (0.5907) + 144212 (0.0519 0.1931/8) + 9304 (0.0375)
HHV = 24330.06 kJ/kg

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## A/F = 11.53 (0.5907) + 34.36 (0.0519 0.1931/8) + 4.33 (0.0375)

A/F = 7. 927 kg air / kg fuel

Qa = mf Qf;

## mf = 32.26 kgfuel/s (3600/hr)

mf = 116118.73 kgfuel/hr

## Mass Flow Rate of Air

mf = 32.26 kgfuel/s;

## A/F = 7. 927 kg air/kg fuel

ma = mf (A/F)
ma = (32.26 kgfuel/s)( 7. 927 kg air/kg fuel)
ma = 255.73 kg/s

Factor of Evaporation
FE = (hs hf)/2257 = (3381 1070) / 2257
FE = 1.02

## Developed Boiler Horsepower

Developed Bo. HP = ms(hs hf)/35322 = 304.51 (3381 1070) / 35322
Developed Bo. HP = 19.92 HP

Equivalent Evaporation
EE = ms x FE = 304.51 (1.02)
EE = 310.60 kg/s

## Equivalent Specific Evaporation

ESE = Bo. Economy x FE = (ms/mf) x FE = (304.51/32.26) x 1.02
ESE = 9.63

ECONOMIZER CALCULATION
Values from CATT3
At 18MPa
Vf = 0.00184 m3/kg
Hf = 1732kj/kg
Tsat = 357.1 C

At 3.53 MPa
V1 = 0.001236m3/kg
H1 = 1052 kj/kg
T1 = 243.1 C
S1 = 2.73 kJ/kg-K

## REF: Power Plant Engineering by P. K. Nag,

It is assumed that the temperature of flue gas exhausting the economizer is relatively high to
raise the air temperature on the air pre-heater. The mass flow rate of flue gas must also be relatively
high so that the air would be dispersed at the top of the stack.
In these criteria, assumed temperature and flue gas flow rate are the ff:
mfg = 500 kg/s
Tg2 = 600 C

## Solving for Tg1:

QE = ms(ha h18) = mfg(Cpfg)(Tg)
QE = 304.51 kg/s (1732 kJ/kg 1070 kJ/kg)
QE = 201585.62 kJ/s

## where: Cpfg = 1.214 kJ/kg-oC

QE = mfg (Cpfg) (Tg)
201585.62 kJ/s = 500 kg/s (1.214 kJ/kg-C) (Tg)
Tg = 332.10 C

Tg1 = 932.10 C

T1 = 243.1 C
Tsat = 357.1 C
Tg1 = 932.10 C
Tg2 = 600 C

T1 = 356.9 C

T2 = 575 C

## LMTD = (T2 - T1) / ln (T2 / T1)

LMTD = (575- 356.9) / ln(575/356.9)
LMTD = 457.31 C

Note: For Flue gas and water heat exchanging, U ranges from 30 to 100 W/m2C
Therefore, Use Average U = 65 W/m2C.

## Solving for the Total Area of Heat Transfer:

A = Q / (LMTD x U)
A = 201585.62 kJ/s / [(457.31 C)(65 W / m2-C)(1/1000)]
A = 6781.65 m2

## Note: Typical Outside Diameter of Economizer tubes ranges from 45 70 mm

Let Inside Diameter be the minimum range, ID = 45 mm

Thickness of Tubes
Material: Titanium
Tensile Strength = 63000 psi
Pressure = 18 MPa = 2611.40 psi
ID = R = 45mm/2 = 22.5mm = 0.8858 in
E = 1.0 (weld joints efficiency)

## t = 2611.40 (0.8858) / [63000 (1.0) 0.6 (2611.40)]

t = 0.0377 in = 0.956mm
t = 1 mm

Outside Diameter
OD = ID + 2t
OD = 45 mm + 2(1 mm)
OD = 47 mm

Number of Tubes
REF: Power Plant Engineering by Nag,
Velocity of water, vw, must not exceed 1.2 m/s.

Therefore,
Use vw = 1 m/s
ms = n ID2/4 (vf/vw)
304.51 = n (0.045)2/[4(0.00184/1)]
n = 352.29 tubes
Use 353 tubes

Length of Tubes
A = n OD L = 7580.57 m2
6781.65 m2 = 353 (0.047m)L
L = 130.11 m

Number of Turns
Assumption:
W=5m
Clearance = 20 mm
nt = L / (W-2C)
nt = 130.11 m / (5 m 2 (0.02))
nt = 26.23
use 27 turns

Height of Economizer
Use 60 mm pitch.
H = nt x Pitch
H = 27 x 0.06 m
H = 1.62 m

Length of Economizer
L = n x Pitch
L = 353 x 0.06 m
L = 21.18 m

Length of header is the same as length of economizer
L = 21.18 m

Note: Since water flows to the header constantly, it can be assumed that the mass of water inside the
header is equal to the Steam flow rate.

ms = 304.51 kg
at 7.97 MPa, 294.8 oC
v = 0.001383 m3/kg

V = v (mass)
V = 0.001383 m3/kg (304.51 kg)
V = 0.421 m3 = (D2/4) (21.18 m)
D = 0.159 m = 159 mm

At 18 MPa, Saturated Liquid
vf = 0.00184 m3/kg
V = 0.00184 m3/kg (304.51 kg)
V = 0.56 m3 = (D2/4) (21.18 m)
D = 0.183 m = 183 mm

SUPERHEATER CALCULATIONS
Tg1= 932.10 oC (temperature inlet of economizer)
T3 = 357.1 oC
T4 = 538 oC
H1 = 3381 kJ/kg
Hb = 2509 kJ/kg
v at 538 oC = 0.01824 m3/kg

## Solving for Tg1

QSH = ms(h1 hb) = mfgCpfgTg
= 304.51 kg/s (3381 kJ/kg 2509 kJ/kg)
QSH = 265532.72 kJ/s
where:
Cpfg = 1.196 kJ/kg-oC at 538C
265532.72 kJ/s = 500 kg/s (1.196 kJ/kg-C) Tg
Tg = 444.03 oC
Tg1 = 444.03 oC + 932.10 oC
Tg1 = 1376.13 oC

## Solving for LMTD

T1 = 1376.13 oC 538oC
T1 = 838.13 oC
T2 = 932.1 oC 357.1 oC
T2 = 575 oC

## LMTD = (T2 - T1) / ln (T2 / T1)

LMTD = (575- 838.13) / ln(575/838.13)
LMTD = 698.32 oC

Note:
For Flue gas and water heat exchanging, U ranges from 30 to 100 W/m2 C
Therefore,
Use Average U = 65 W/m2C.

## Solving for the Total Area of Heat Transfer:

A = Q / (LMTD x U)
A = 265532.72 kJ/s / (698.32 oC x 65 W / m2- oC)(1/1000)
A = 5849.91 m2

## Material: Carbon Steel

Tensile Strength = 78300 psi
Pressure = 18 MPa = 2611.40 psi
ID = R = 75mm/2 = 37.5mm = 1.4764 in
E = 1.0 (weld joints efficiency)

t = PR / (SE 0.6P)

## t = 2611.40 (1.4764) / [78300 (1.0) 0.6 (2611.40)]

t = 0.05 in = 1.28 mm
t = 2 mm

OD = 79 mm

## Solving for No. of Tubes:

ms = nID2/4(v/vs)

## From Power Plant Engineering by P.K. Nag,

Velocity for very high pressure steam is approximately 10 m/s.
Therefore,
Use vs = 10 m/s
304.51 kg/s = n(0.075 m)2/4(0.01824 m3/kg / 10 m/s)
n = 125.72 tubes
n = 126 Tubes

## Solving for the Length of Tubes:

A = nODL
5849.91 m2 = 126(0.079m)L
L = 187.07 m

## Solving for No. of Turns:

Assumption:
W = 5m
Clearance = 10 mm
nt = L / (W-2C)
nt = 187.07 m / (5m-2(0.01))
nt = 37.56 turns
nt = 38 Turns

OD = 79 mm
Use 60 mm pitch.

L = nt x Pitch
L = 38 x 0.06 m
L = 2.28 m

W = n x Pitch
W = 126 x 0.06 m
W = 7.56 m

## Length of header is the same as the width of superheater

L = 2.28 m

Note: Since water flows to the header constantly, it can be assumed that the mass of water inside the
header is equal to the steam flow rate.

ms = 304.51 kg
at 18 MPa, saturated gas
v = 0.00749 m3/kg

V = v x mass
V = 0.00749 m3/kg (304.51 kg)
V = 2.28 m3 = D2/4 (2.28 m)
D = 1.128 m
D = 1128 mm

L = 2.28 m
Mass = 304.51 kg
At 18 MPa, 538 oC
v = 0.01824m3/kg
V = 0.01824 m3/kg (304.51 kg)
V = 5.55 m3 = D2/4 (2.28 m)
D = 1.761 m
D = 1761 mm

## AIR PREHEATER CALCULATIONS

Tg1 = 600 oC (inlet temperature of flue gas)
Tair-inlet = 26 30 oC (Mean temperature of air of in Bataan)
Use average temperature of 28 oC.

## From Power Plant Engineering by P.K. Nag,

The temperature of heat air ranges from 280 to 400 oC.
Therefore, Use average temperature of 340 oC.
Tleaving-air = 340 oC (Average temperature of leaving air)

## Solving for Tg2:

QAP = maCp(Tleaving-air Tair-inlet)
QAP = 255.73 kg/s (1.005 kJ/kg-C)(340 oC 28 oC)
QAP = 80186.70 kW

## QAP= mfgCpfg(Tg1 - Tg2)

80186.7 kW = 600 kg/s (1.151 kJ/kg-C)Tg
Tg = oC
Tg2 = 600 oC - 161.111 oC
Tg2 = 483.89 oC

## Solving for LMTD:

T1 = 600 oC - 340 oC
T1 = 260 oC
T2 = 483.89 oC 28 oC
T2 = 455.89 oC

## LMTD = (T2 - T1) / ln (T2 / T1)

LMTD = (455.89 - 260) / ln(455.89 /260)
LMTD = 348.83 oC

## Solving for the Area of Heat Transfer:

Note:
For gas to air heat transfer, U ranges from 30 to 60 W/m2 C.

Therefore,
Use Average U = 45 W/m2C.

## Solving for the Total Area of Heat Transfer:

A = Q / (LMTD x U)
A = 80186.7 kJ/s / (348.83 oC x 45 W / m2- oC) (1/1000)
A = 5108.36 m2

## Solving for the No. of tubes:

Assumptions:
Length of tubes = 15 m
OD = 0.05 m (Typical OD of air preheater tubes is about 50 mm.)

A = nODL
5108.36 m2 = n(0.05 m)(15 m)
n = 2168.05
n = 2169 tubes

## FORCED DRAFT FAN CALCULATIONS

Fan Capacity
ma = 255.73 kg/s
f = 0.005 (air against steel)
air duct diameter = 2.5 m
Length = 40 m (length from fan to furnace)
Elevation = 10 m
v = 12 m/s

H1 = f (L/D)(v2/2g)
H1 = 0.005(40m/2.5)(12 m/s)2/2(9.81 m/s2)
H1 = 0.587 m

H2 = 10 m
H3 = v2/2g = (12 m/s)2/2(9.81 m/s2)
H3 = 7.34 m

HT = H1 + H2 + H3
HT = 0.587 m + 10 m + 7.34 m
HT = 17.93 m

## Solving for Forced Draft Fan Capacity:

Re: PV=mRT
V = mRT / P
V = [255.73 kg/s (0.287 kJ/kg-K)(28 + 273)K ] / 101.325 kPa
V = 218.03 m3/s

Note:
At 28 oC, Specific weight () of air is 11.502 N/m3.
P = VHT
P = 218.03 m3/s(11.502 N/m3)(17.93 m)
P = 44964.22 W
P = 44.96 kW

CONDENSER CALCULATIONS

Condenser Capacity
Qc = (h10 h11)(1-m1-m2-m3-m4-m5-m6)(ms)
Qc = (2431 359.8)(0.5222)(304.51)
Qc = 329352.12 KW

## Specification of Titanium Tube to be used:

Determine the Overall thermal coefficient:
Permissible Range: 3000 4500 kCal/m2-K-hr
Multiplier: 3-5, So use 4 as multiplier.
Therefore, Use 3750 kCal/m2-K-hr as the average overall thermal coefficient.
Convert kCal/m2-K-hr to kW/m2-K:
U = 3750 kCal/m2-K-hr (1 BTU / 0.252 kCal) (1 kW-hr / 3413 BTU)
U = 4.36 kW/ m2-K x (4)
U = 17.44 kW/ m2-K

## From Power Plant Theory and Design by Potter, p. 351,

Use Standard Size of D = 1 BWG 15
Note: BWG stands for Birmingham Wire Gauge.

## Permissible Water Velocity = 7 10 ft/s

Use Water Velocity = 8 ft/s = 2.4384 m/s
Determine Steam Inlet Temperature:
At 0.06 MPa, Tsat = 85.94 oC
The average temperature of sea in South China Sea that is beside Bataan is 27 oC.

Assumption:
Outlet Temperature of cooling water = 55 oC
Solving for LMTD:
Tmax = 85.94 oC 27 oC = 58.94 oC
Tmin = 85.94 oC 55 oC = 30.94 oC

## LMTD = (Tmax - Tmin) / ln (Tmax / Tmin)

LMTD = (58.94 - 30.94) / ln (58.94 / 30.94)
LMTD = 43.45 oC

## Solving for total Area of heat transfer:

Qc = 329352.12 kJ/s
A = Qc / (LMTD x U)
A = 329352.12 kJ/s / (43.45 oC x 17.44 kW / m2-K)
A = 434.67 m2

## Solving for No. of Tubes:

Assumption:
No. of Pass = 2
L = 3.05 m (Maximum Length)

## No. of Tubes = A / (DL x No. of Pass)

D = 1 = 0.0254 m
L = 3.05 m
No. of tubes = 434.67 / ( x 0.0254 x 3.05)(2)
No. of tubes = 892.99 tubes
No. of tubes = 893 Tubes

## Condenser Water Velocity

From fig 8-9 of Power Plant Theory and Design page 351 by Philip Potter
For inlet water of 26 C = 78.8 F @ 1 in diam.
C = 263

Water Velocity

## Corrected Coefficient of Heat Transfer

From Power Plant Theory and Design by Philip Potter, page 356.
It is good to practice to use 7 7.5 fps velocity."
Use 7 fps to have more heat transfer.

## COOLING TOWER CALCULATIONS

Solving for Cooling Water Flow Rate:
Q = mcwCpT
Where:
Q = 329352.12 kJ/s
Cp = 4.1868 kJ/kg-K

mcw = Q / CpT
mcw = 329352.12 kJ/s / (4.1868 kJ/kg-K) (55-27) K
mcw = 2809.44 kg/s

## Volume Needed For The Cooling Tower

P = 0.06 MPa
Vf = 1.01x10-3 m3/kg
Vw = mw * Vf
Vw = 2809.44 kg/s (1.01x10-3 m3/kg)
Vw = 2.84 m3/s

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## Cooling Tower Make-Up Water

From Power Plant Engineering by Frederick Morse, Page 179.
The makeup water is 2-5% of the water flow.
Use 3% make-up water
Vwc = 2.84 * 0.03
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## Cooling Water Pump Capacity

P = 0.06 MPa
Vf = 1.01x10-3 m3/kg
Vw = mw * Vf
Vw = 2809.44 kg/s (1.01x10-3 m3/kg)
Vw = 2.84 m3/s
= 990.1 kg/m3
= 990.1 kg/m3 x 9.81 N/kg(1KN/1000N)
= 9.71 kN/m3

Assumptions:
Length of Pipe = 250 m approx.

## Note: Cooling Water to be used if coming from South China Sea

P = Vf x x H
P = 2.84 m3/s x 9.71 kN/m3 x 22.5 m
P = 620.65 kJ/s
P = 621 KW

PUMPS

## Solving for Pump Capacity:

Pump 1
Qp1 = ms (1-m1-m2-m3-m4-m5-m6)(v11)(P12-P11)
Qp1 = 304.51(1.033)(0.52)(3.53 - 0.06)
Qp1 = 567.59 kJ/s

Assumption:
TDH = 10 m
Note: Specific Weight = 9.81 kN/m3
V = 567.59 (kN-m)/s / (9.81 kN/m3 * 10 m)
V = 5.79 m3/s
V = 20829.99 m3/hr = 91710

## Use Torishima Pump. (See A-6)

Pump 2:
Qp2 = ms (1 - m6)(v17)(P18 - P17)
Qp2 = 304.51(0.66)(1.236)(18 - 3.53)
Qp2 = 3594.45 kJ/s
Assumption:
TDH = 15m
Note: Specific Weight = 9.81 kN/m3
V = 3594.45 (kN-m)/s / (9.81 kN/m3 * 15m)
V = 24.43 m3/s
V = 87937.62 m3/hr = 387200

COAL STORAGE

## Mass Of The Active Pile Coal Storage To Accumulate The Coal

For a 15 Days Supply

mf = 51.26 kgfuel/s(3600s/hr) =
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## Volume Of The Active Pile Coal Storage To Accumulate The Coal

Approximate coal weight is 800 - 929 kg/m3
The average is 864.5 kg/m3

## Active Pile Coal Storage Area

Use storage depth of 4 m

Bunker/Silo Capacity
Storage silos are typically 10 to 90 ft (4 to 30 m) in diameter and 30 to 275 ft (10 to 84 m) in height
Bunker/Silo Capacity for 1 Day Operation
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BACK-UP FUEL

## Back-Up Coal Mass

From Power Plant Engineering by Frederick Morse page 441
A storage of 10% of the annual consumption might suffice for most cases or emergency reserved.
For thermal power plants, there are 45 days allotted for maintenance purposes per year.
(

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of coal that will be used for back up

## Volume Of The BackUp Coal Storage To Accumulate The Coal

Approximate coal weight is 800 - 929 kg/m3
The average is 864.5 kg/m3

## Back-Up Coal Storage Area:

Use storage depth of 10 m

STACK SPECIFICATION
from Sual power plant
H= 226 m

Dry average Flue gas temperature of 300 C at the Stack and 32 C outside air temperature

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Density Of Air,
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## Average Air Outlet Velocity

From Power Plant Theory and Design by Philip Potter, page 306
Outlet velocities must be in the range of 15 30 fps.
For safety purposes use the average velocity:

## Volume Flow Rate at 5m Diameter

For a stack diameter of 5m, determining the volume flow rate, QFG

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## Table 5-4 Analysis of Typical American Fuels by Morse

Proximate Analysis
Moisture
SemiAnthracite

1.28

Volatile

Fixed

Matter

Carbon

12.84

73.69

Ash

Sulfur

Hydrogen Carbon

Nitrogen Oxygen

12.21

2.01

3.74

1.37

77.29

3.36

## Theoretical Air Fuel Ratio

(

Since the Ultimate Analysis of coal is not available, an approximate formula to obtain the theoretical airfuel ratio where the heating value of the fuel is known:
( )

## Percentage Excess Air Needed for combustion

From Power Plant Theory and Design by Philip Potter page 191.
The amount of excess air that is required by a boiler depends on many factors, including the type of
burner, fuel, and combustion chamber. Well-designed pulverized coal boilers may operate with
complete combustion as slightly less than 15% excess air; i.e., 15% more than the theoretical air
calculated from the chemical equations. Other boilers may require 50% or even 100% excess air.
Use 50% excess air for safety purposes.

## Actual Air Fuel Ratio

The weight of the air supplied for combustion is necessarily in excess of what is theoretically required.
The volumetric analysis of the dry flue gas can be used to calculate the actual weight of air.
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## Average Temperature Needed To Dry Of The Coal

From Power Plant Theory and Design by Philip Potter page 247
Air supplied to a stoker-fired furnace should not exceed 300 F or 350 F at the most; otherwise, stoker
war page and maintenance will be too high. Pulverized units can employ 500 F to nearly 700 F air if the
coal is wet.

## Air Volume Flow Rate

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ASH
Ash To Be Collected Per Day
Ash content of 18% for the fuel to be used.
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FLYASH
Fly Ash To Be Collected Located Under The Precipitator
From Power Plant Engineering by Frederick Morse page 341.
For pulverized coal there is entrainment of 60-70% of the ash as Fly ash

(

## Average Density Of Fly Ash

Fly ash density ranges from 1,000 1,400 kg/m3
(

## Height Of The Fly Ash Silo For A Diameter Of 3m

Two bottom ash silos should be installed

Since the height of a single bottom ash silo is too high. It is recommended to use 3 silos to be collected
twice a day.

BOTTOM ASH
Bottom Ash To Be Collected Located Under The Boiler
Since 70% of the ash is the fly ash therefore the other 30% that will complete the total number of ash is
the bottom ash.
(

## Average Density Of Bottom Ash

Bottom ash density ranges from 1,200 1,500 kg/m3
(

## Height Of Bottom Ash Silo For A Diameter Of 3m

Two bottom ash silos should be installed

CONVEYOR

## Speed = 150 m/min

No. of hours to fill the silo = 5 hours

Conveyor Capacity = (

## Conveyor Capacity = 132.87 tons / hour

Length of Conveyor:
L1 = L2 = 40 m

## From PPE by Morse, Table 12-2:

Where
S = speed of Conveyor, m/min
b = width of belt, cm
Conveyor Capacity = capacity of conveyor, ton/hr

## Solving for width of belt:

132.87 tons/hr= 0.000404(150m/min) b2

b = 46.82 cm

## Solving for the Driveshaft Horsepower:

Re: P = [{(L + 45.72) /9000} {0.06KS + T}]

Where:
K = horsepower constant
T = capacity of conveyor, ton/hr
S = speed of conveyor
From PPE by Morse, Table 12-3:

K = 31.3
P = [{(40 + 45.72)/9000} {0.06(31.3)(150) + 132.87}]
P = 3.95 hp

## Solving for the Tripper Horsepower:

b= 46.82 cm
THP = 1.03+0.0045T
THP = 1.03+0.0045(132.87)
THP = 1.63 hp

## Belt type = 5 ply, 32 duck

Note: No. of plies provided by the table are for 4, 6 and 8 plies. Therefore interpolate the value of
Minimum Pulley diameter for a 5 ply belt.

PUMP CALCULATION

= 783.29 KJ/s

## Wp2 = (hb12-h12)(1-m2) = (1 - 0.0089)(836.5 825.5)(674.32)

= 6805.30 KJ/s

Assumption
TDH1 = 10 m
TDH2 = 20 m
Note: Specific Weight = 9.81 kN/m3
V1= 783.29 (kN-m)/s / (9.81 kN/m3 * 10m)
V1= 7.98 m3/s
V1=28744.98 m3/hr
V2 = 6805.30 (kN-m)/s / (9.81 kN/m3 * 20m)
V2 = 34.69 m3/s
V2 = 124867.89 m3/hr