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JR2

(i) ASTM D36/D36M-09 Standard Test Method for Softening Point of Bitumen (Ringand-Ball Apparatus)

INTRODUCTION
The softening point is defined as the mean of the temperature at which the bitumen disks
soften and sag downwards a distance of 25mm under the weight of a steel. In general, with
material of these types, softening does not take place at a definite temperature. As
temperature rises, these materials gradually and imperceptibly change from brittle or
exceeding slow-flowing materials to softer and less viscous liquids. For this reason, the
determination of the softening point must be made by a fixed, arbitrary and closely defined
method if the results are to be comparable. This method is useful in determining the
consistency of bitumen in establishing the uniformity of shipments or sources of supply.

OBJECTIVE
To determine the temperature at which a phase change occurs in the asphalt cement. It is
measured in accordance to ASTM D6/D36M-09.

APPARATUS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Steel ball, 9.53mm diameter, weighing between 3.50 0.05g.


Ring
Ball-centering guide
Ring Holder
Bath
Thermometer

PROCEDURE
1. Pour hot asphalt into the ring and cool samples at room temperature for about 30
minutes. Level the samples.
2. Place the ring on the ring holder. Maintain the temperature in the water at 5 1C for
about 40 minutes. Keep the sample in the water at a level of not less than 102mm and
not more than 108mm from the bottom of the bath.
3. Place the ball in each ball-centering guide using a forceps. Then, apply heat at a rate
5C per minute and make sure it is increasing uniformly.
4. Record for each ring and ball temperature shown by the temperature when the
specimen surrounding the ball touches the bottom plate.

RESULT
Time (min)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

Temperature (C)
3
6
7
9
10
11
12
14
16
19
21
24
31
35
41
46
51 (R1)
52 (R2)

CALCULATION

Where,
R = Temperature reading upon the ball touches the bottom plate

JR2
(ii) ASTM D5 Standard Test for Penetration of Bituminous Materials

INTRODUCTION
The penetration test is an empirical test used to measure the consistency of asphalt cement.
Generally, the penetration of a bituminous substance may be defined as distance in hundredth
to which a standard needle penetrates the material under known conditions of times, loading
and temperature. This test is used for evaluating the consistency of asphalt material before
and after heating.

OBJECTIVE
To measure the consistency of a bituminous material at a given temperature.

Apparatus
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Penetration Needle
Water Bath
Stopwatch
Penetration Container
Penetrometer
Asphalt sample
Thermometers

PROCEDURE
1. Penetration needle was cleaned with toluene or other solvent and dried it with a clean
cloth.
2. Needle was carefully insert in the penetrometer.
3. Sample container was placed directly on the submerged stand in the penetrometer.
The sample was keep completely covered with water at 25C 0.5C temperature.
4. The needle position by slowly lowering it until its just makes contact with the surface
of the sample.
5. Penetrometers pointer was bring to zero.
6. The needle holder was released for the specified period of time (5 sec) and get the
reading. Ignore the result if the container moves.
7. Three determinations at points was make on the surface of the sample not less than
10mm from side of the container and not less than 10mm apart.

RESULT
No.
1
2
3

Penetration reading
96
97
96

CALCULATION

Where,
R = is the penetration reading at different location

DISCUSSION
Based on the result on experiment (i), the softening point for the sample that was
tested is 51.5 C. Table 1 show the requirement for 60/70 penetration grade bitumen (PWD
1992). The bath we use is same between the other groups, but it different in the heat of fire on
Bunsen Burner. The other group get faster result compare our group. The result that we get
follow the requirement for 60/70 penetration grade. The different between the temperature
reading (R1 and R2) just differ by 1C. Based on the result on experiment (ii), average
penetration reading, R is 69.33. From the two experiment, we know the value of softening
point and the value of penetration.
Based on the value, we can plot the graph on Figure 1 to get the value of Penetration
Index (PI). Figure shown the Nomograph for the Penetration Index of bitumen (Whiteoak,
1990). From the graph on figure we known the value of Penetration Index is -0.5. Table 2
show the Bitumen type base on the PI value. Thus the type of bitumen is Conventional
Paving Bitumen because it between -2 and +2 of PI. The PI values can be used to determine
the stiffness (modulus) of a bitumen at any temperature and loading time. It can also,to a
limited extent, be used to identify a particular type of bituminous material.

Table 1: Requirements for 60/70 penetration grade bitumen (PWD 1992)

Property
Penetration at 25C, 100g, 5 s (deci-millimetre, d-mm)
Softening Point, ring and ball (C)
Flash Point, Cleveland open cup (C)
Thin film oven test , 3.2 mm at 163C for 5 hours
Loss on heating (% by mass)
Penetration of residue at 25C (% of original penetration)
Ductility of residue at 25C at 5 cm/min (cm)
Solubility in trichloroethylene (% by mass)
Specific gravity at 25C

Requirement
60-70
47-56
Min. 232
Max. 0.8
Min. 54
Min. 50
Min. 99
1.0-1.11

Table 2: Type of bitumen base on PI value.

Bitumen type
Blown Bitumen
Conventional Paving Bitumen
Temperature Susceptible Bitumen (Tars)

PI
>2
-2 to +2
<-2

Figure 1: Nomograph for the Penetration Index of bitumen (Whiteoak, 1990)