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ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ

Государственное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования

«ТОМСКИЙ ПОЛИТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»

Английский язык

Учебно-методическое пособие для студентов заочного отделения ИГНД

Издательство Томского политехнического университета

2009

УДК 802.0(075.8) ББК Ш 143.21–98

А647

А647 Английский язык: учебно-методическое пособие для студентов заочного отделения ИГНД/сост. Л.М.Болсуновская, Р.Н.Абрамова, О.В.Белоусова, Т.Ф.Долгая, Е.С.Овчинникова, А.Ю.Снисар; Томский политехнический университет.–Томск: Изд-во Томского политехнического университета, 2009.–121 с.

Данное учебно-методическое пособие состоит из 2-х частей, включающих в себя тематические тексты и лексико-грамматические упражнения. Предназначено для студентов заочной формы обучения ИГНД.

УДК 802.0(075.8) ББК Ш 143.21–98

Рецензенты

Кандидат педагогических наук, доцент кафедры иностранных языков ТГПУ И.Е. Высотова Кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры иностранных языков ТГПУ Н.С. Коваленко

© Составление. ГОУ ВПО «Томский политехнический университет», 2009

© Болсуновская Л.М., Абрамова Р.Н., Белоусова О.В., Долгая Т.Ф., Овчинникова Е.С., Снисар А.Ю., составление, 2009

© Оформление. Издательство Томского политехнического университета, 2009

CONTENTS

PART I

Lesson I.

MY FAMILY AND ME

5

Lesson II. HOBBY AND FREE TIME

10

Lesson III. DAILY LIFE

14

Lesson IV. OUR UNIVERSITY

17

Lesson V. MY SPECIALITY

21

Lesson VI. MY HOME TOWN

26

Lesson VII. MY JOB

30

Lesson VIII. ENGINEERING JOBS

33

Lesson IX. NEW ENERGY FROM OLD SOURCES

38

PART II

Lesson I. WHAT IS GEOLOGY?

43

Lesson II. THE USES OF GEOPHYSICS

49

Lesson III. THE PHYSICS OF THE EARTH

55

Lesson IV. HYDROGEOLOGY

59

Lesson V. DRILLING

65

Lesson VI. MINERAL EXPLORATION

70

Lesson VII. MINING

74

Lesson VIII. OIL EXTRACTING

79

Lesson IX. ECOLOGY AND GEOECOLOGY

84

Lesson X. PIPELINE CONSTRUCTION

90

3

Lesson XI. INTRODUCTION TO ECONOMICS AND

MANAGEMENT

95

APPENDIX

99

REFERENCES

120

4

Учебное издание

Английский язык

учебно-методическое пособие для студентов заочного отделения ИГНД

Составители

БОЛСУНОВСКАЯ Людмила Михайловна АБРАМОВА Раиса Николаевна БЕЛОУСОВА Ольга Витальевна ДОЛГАЯ Татьяна Федоровна ОВЧИННИКОВА Екатерина Сергеевна СНИСАР Анастасия Юрьевна

Издано в авторской редакции

Отпечатано в Издательстве ТПУ в полном соответствии с качеством представленного оригинал-макета

Подписано к печати

12.12.2009. Формат 60х84/16. Бумага «Снегурочка».

Печать XEROX. Усл.печ.л. 7,04. Уч.-изд.л. 6,36. Заказ 1061-09. Тираж 50 экз.

. л . 6,36. Заказ 1061-09. Тираж 50 экз . Томский политехнический

Томский политехнический университет Система менеджмента качества Томского политехнического университета сертифицирована NATIONAL QUALITY ASSURANCE по стандарту ISO 9001:2008

QUALITY ASSURANCE по стандарту ISO 9001:2008 . 634050, г . Томск , пр . Ленина ,
QUALITY ASSURANCE по стандарту ISO 9001:2008 . 634050, г . Томск , пр . Ленина ,

. 634050, г. Томск, пр. Ленина, 30 Тел./факс: 8(3822)56-35-35, www.tpu.ru

СПИСОК ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ

1. Агабекян И.П. Английский для технических вузов. - Ростов на Дону:

Издательство «Феникс», 2001

2. Бахчисарайчева М.Э. Пособие по английскому языку.- М., «Высшая школа», 1990

3. Glendinning E. Glendinning N. Mechanical Engineering. – Oxford University Press, 2001.

4. Greenall S. - Reward (Pre-intermediate). - Heinemann, 1997

5. Hopkins A. - Look ahead. – Longman, 1994

6. General engineering (English for academic purposes series) Vaughan James

1999

7. Internet Electronic library, Educational Sites.

8. “Economic Geology”, журнал,1998

9. “Geological Survey”, журнал, 1993

10. ”Geology”, журнал 2000.

11. Геология и нефтегазовое дело. Часть I.,II/ Профессиональный

английский язык: учебно-методическое пособие / Л.М. Болсуновская, Р.Н. Абрамова, И.А. Матвеенко, Т.Ф. Долгая, С.В. Хопкинсон, Т.В. Васильченко, А.С. Климентьева, Н.В. Сухорукова. – Томск: Издательство Томского политехнического ун-та, 2009. – 611с.

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PART I

Lesson I

MY FAMILY AND ME

Lead-in

What is a family?

What does a family mean to you?

Do you have your own family?

Listing

Write down as many words that come to your mind on the topic “My Family”

For example:

from (Tomsk)

interested Nick I am in (music ) (not) married (20) years old
interested
Nick
I am
in (music )
(not) married
(20) years old

a student

Now say a few words about yourself using the example – diagram

5

Vocabulary

1. The research institute needs

skilled laboratory assistants (many, much). 2.

1) family

семья

2) large

большой

3) flat

квартира

4) industrial centers

промышленные центры

5) automobile plant

автомобильный завод

6) marks

отметки

7) do well

хорошо учиться

8) enter

поступать в ВУЗ

9) by correspondence

заочно

10) combine

совмещать

11) friendly

дружелюбный

12) spend time

проводить время

13) listen to music

слушать музыку

14) relatives

родственники

15) uncle

дядя

16) aunt

тетя

17) cousins

двоюродные братья и сестры

1.Read the following words and remember their pronunciation.

[e] relative, together, spend, enter

[i] sister, listen

[a:] father, plant, mark,

[٨] mother, cousins

6

interest in

that kind of experimental work (few, little). 4. At the conference the scientists

delivered only

other workers the operator knew his

machine perfectly well (many, much). 6. The new adding machine can add

numbers

attended the 13th International Congress of Historical Sciences (many, much). 8. It

countries

engineering (a few, a little). 5. Like

reports but all the papers were of greatest value for science and

This research will take

time (many, much). 3. The lab assistant had

faster than a man can do (many, much). 7. Scholars from

will take you

our professor will put you only

take

time to get the necessary information (few, little). 9. At the exams

questions (a few, a little). 10. This report will

time and

paper (much, many, few, little).

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40. Переведите письменно следующие предложения.

1. These experiments have shown these gaseous substances to serve as carriers for electricity. 2. The substance formed does not appear to be suitable for our experiments. 3. The results obtained proved to be applicable only in that case. 4. There is a number of variants of such projects, the best being that advanced by the young designer. 5. Scottish scientists are known to have founded geology as a science. 6. This method seems to be the most efficient in producing oil. 7. I did not see him leave the lab.

Переведите

инфинитивный оборот.

41.

следующие

предложения, обращая внимание на

1. We assume liquid to occupy a certain amount of the Earth. 2. A certain

amount of the Earth is assumed to be occupied by liquid. 3. Thousands of Russian workers are believed to have worked at that field. 4. This phenomenon appeared to

be connected with the theory connected with experimental research. 5. Our age proved to be the age of oil and gas.

42. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на перевод

инфинитива в субъектном инфинитивном обороте после слов likely, unlikely, certain, sure .

1. It is unlikely that this mineral will have practical aoolication. 2. This mineral

is unlikely to have practical application. 3. Water is likely to be present on Mars. 4. They are unlikely to change their plans. 5. Gas pressure is certain to be the result of multiple impacts of gas molecules upon the walls of the restraining enclosure. 6. Automation is sure to be applied at different kinds of oil rigs. 7. The molecules of a

gas are certain to be in a constant state of motion.

43. Заполните пропуски словами many, much, few, little, a few, a little и переведите предложения. Помните, что few, little переводятся «мало», a few, a little «несколько, немного».

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2. Pay attention to the stress in the following words.

to´gether

´cousins

´excellent

´newspapers

´automobile

corre´spondence

Uni´versity

3. Read the text and fulfill the exercises

MY FAMILY AND ME

Our family is not very large. I have a father, a brother and a sister. We all live together in a new flat in one of the industrial centers of Minsk.

My father Igor Ivanovich is 45 years old. He works at a big automobile plant as an engineer. He likes his work and spends most of his time there. My mother’s name is Olga Petrovna. She is a teacher of music. My mother always has a lot of work to do about the house and at school.

My sister Alla is three years younger than me. She is a pupil. She does well at school and gets only good and excellent marks.

My name is Tanya. Last year I left school and entered the University. I study by correspondence. I combine work with studies. Our family is very friendly. We like to spend time together. In the evenings we watch TV, read books and newspapers, listen to music or just talk about the events of the day. I have many relatives: uncles, aunts, cousins and also many friends. We are happy when we are together.

4. Express your opinion using the following phrases:

Example: I was born in Tomsk. I am single. I’m interested in sports and music. I’m especially fond of rock and roll. Last year I entered the University. I have very little free time, because I work and study at the same time. I study at the correspondence department.

7

1) to be born

2) to be married ( to be single)

3) to be interested in smth.

4) to be fond of smth.

5) to be busy (to be free)

6) to enter the University

7) to study by correspondence

5. Tell about your likes and dislikes using the following table.

like

tea, coffee, ice-cream, English classes

dislike

swimming, working in garden, reading

I

hate

to get early, to play tennis, to do house- work, to be late

6. Use the following phrases (to express your opinion) when answering the questions and say a few words about yourself:

- I think

- In my opinion

- It seems to me

- I’d like to say

- As far as I know

1) How old are you?

2) Who’s the youngest (the eldest) in your family?

3) Is your family big or small?

4) Is your family friendly?

8

was dangerous.

через реку в такую погоду.

То cross the river in such weather one must know the current.

Чтобы переправиться через реку

в такую погоду, нужно знать

 

течение.

1. То take his first steps into the atmosphere, man used hot-air balloons. To take

the first steps into the atmosphere was extremely difficult to the man. 2. To gain control over nature means to know its laws. To gain control over nature, man needs physical energy. 3. To determine physical properties of minerals, it is necessary to take into account a number of conditions. 4. To make hydrogen we put zinc into the flask (колба) and add sulfuric acid (серная кислота). То make hydrogen at our laboratory was not a difficult task. 5. To make television suitable for everyday use required much detailed development of electronic technique. To make television suitable for everyday use, the scientists and engineers had to work much to develop

new electronic technique.

39. Переведите предложения, содержащие инфинитив в сочетании с модальными глаголами.

1. In order to solve problems dealing with heat energy, scientists had to be able to

measure heat and its effects on various substances. 2. Several thousand years ago man discovered that metals can be separated from their ores by means of heating. 3. It should be noted, however, that these minerals cannot be used at such temperatures. 4. First of all the ores have to be found and recognized; then they must be made to give up the hidden metal. 5. In the future, titanium and its alloys may largely replace steels for jobs where it is important to save weight. 6. At first chemists found it very difficult to be able to tell how molecules were put together by nature. 7. Experimental research has made it possible to be able to find out the nature of the structure of substances.

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1.

It is difficult to imagine that hard bright minerals can be taken from earthy-

5) Do you spend much time together?

looking substances. 2. It is possible to explore very gently sloping seams by boreholes. 3. It should be noted that there exist surface and real prospecting methods. 4. It is important to use coal as the source of coke for the steel industry.

to

make it possible to speak to him

дать

с ним.

возможность поговорить.

7. Experimental research has made it possible to find out the nature of the

structure of substances. 8. Modern production techniques make it possible to use ores that may contain only one or two per cent of the metal.

37.

Переведите

предложения, содержащие инфинитив в функции

обстоятельства цели с союзом in order to и без него.

In order to solve these problems, scientists must measure heat.

Для того чтобы решить эти задачи, ученые должны измерить

теплоту.

1. In order to find oil, petroleum engineers have found it convenient to use a

special system of navigation. 2. То program a machine, man must think through all the steps that he takes to solve a problem. 3. Scientists have undertaken many new experiments to produce melt. 4. New measurements of distances in the universe are necessary in order to tell how far apart objects are. 5. In order to separate a compound into its elements, chemical means must be used.

38. Найдите сказуемое и по месту инфинитива относительно сказуемого определите его функцию. Предложения переведите.

То cross the river in such, weather

Было опасно переправляться

116

6) Do you have much in common with your relatives?

7) Where do you live?

8) Is it your hometown?

9) Do you like your town? Why?

10) Are you married or single?

11) Have you got a girlfriend (a boyfriend)

12) Do you have many friends?

13) Who’s your best friend?

14) Do you spend much time together?

15) Do you have much free time?

16) What are you interested in?

17) What do you do at weekends?

18) What’s your idea of a good rest?

19) Do you work? Is your job difficult (interesting, well-paid)?

20) Is it difficult to work and to study at the same time?

21) What’s your future profession?

9

Lesson II.

HOBBY AND FREE TIME

Lead-in

What is a hobby?

What is your hobby?

Fill in the spidegram with the words associated with your hobby:

Hobby
Hobby
spidegram with the words associated with your hobby: Hobby Explain your associations   Vocabulary 1) differ

Explain your associations

 

Vocabulary

1) differ

- отличать

2) include

- включать

3) gardening

- садоводство

4) travelling

- путешествие

5) stamps

- марки

6) postcards

- открытки

7) to be fond of

- любить

10

34. Переведите следующие функции определения.

предложения, содержащие

инфинитив в

The problem to be solved is of great importance to our industry.

Задача, которую нужно решить, имеет большое значение для нашей промышленности.

1. Gold was one of the first metals to be found by man. 2. There are a great

many things to be said about the Earth. 3. The geological investigations to be carried out include field prospecting and exploration. 4. The geological and physical conditions of the seam to be worked include its thickness, depth, hardness, etc. 5. The possibility of making direct observations in workings depends on the mining system to be applied. 6. The work of geologists at mines has its own specific character its own range of problems to be solved during the exploration of the deposit. 7. The main points to be observed during the driving of openings are the mode of occurrence of the mineral body, country rocks exposed by the openings, the type of fissuring, etc.

35. Переведите следующие функции обстоятельства.

предложения,

содержащие инфинитив в

1. To estimate a nickel ore the geologists must know how the nickel is distributed. 2. Geochemical methods are applied at different stages of geological investigations, and are used to establish the general mineralization of rocks. 3. To explore certain types of deposits geochemical methods have long been used. 4. In coal basins these methods are used chiefly to study folded and faulted structures.

it

is/was+прилагательное + инфинитив.

36.

Переведите предложения,

содержащие

сочетание

It is important to use these minerals

Важно

использовать

эти

минералы.

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31. B следующих предложениях определите функцию слов, оканчивающихся на суффикс -ed. Укажите, является ли слово с суффиксом -ed глаголом в Past Indefinite Tense, Participle II в функции определения или обстоятельства или входит в состав сказуемого в пассивной форме. Переведите предложения на русский язык .

1. Of all the new minerals discovered quartz is among the most useful. 2. When developed, the device was used for exploration. 3. Our scientists developed the theory of atomic structure of the main minerals. 4. A number of new glass plastics will be developed for special purposes. 5. The developed technology enables us to improve the quality of articles produced. 6. Germanium was discovered by Winkler in Germany in 1886. 7. As stated above J. Hutton may justly be called one of the greatest experimentalists. 8. This mineral becomes soft when heated and hard when cooled.

32. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на перевод

Participle I и Participle II в функции обстоятельства.

1. When translating the article I came across many unknown words. When translated the article was published in the magazine. 2. While heating and cooling a metal we improve its mechanical properties. This special kind of glass, if suddenly heated, or cooled, does not break in operation. 3. While developing exploration technology engineers are facing a number of difficulties. When developed this new material was used in exploration technology. 4. Unless improved this device must not be used in automatic lines.

33. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на употребление

инфинитива.

1. То become skilled engineers students must study hard. 2. To cross the street you must look first to the left and then to the right. 3. Pete often comes into my room to do geometry. 4. Individual atoms come together to make molecules.

114

8) contain

- содержать

9) twice a week

- два раза в неделю

10) keep fit

- быть в форме

11) pool

- бассейн

12) skating rink

- каток

13) collect

- cобирать. коллекционировать

1. Read the following words and remember their pronunciation.

[i] differ, activity, swimming, winter, disk

[i:] skiing, week, feel

[ai] wide, like, twice, organized

[ei] taste, favourite, skating

2. Pay attention to the stress in the following words.

co´llect

´exercise

inc´lude

´organized

var´iety

ac´tivity

3. Read the text and fulfill the exercises.

HOBBY AND FREE TIME Hobbies differ like tastes. They include a wide variety of activities, everything from gardening to travelling.

Almost everyone collects something at some period in his life: stamps, coins, books, toys, and postcards. My friend collects compact discs. He is fond of listening to music and his collection contains many interesting discs of his favorite jazz singers. Some of my friends like reading, others prefer going to the clubs and parties

As to me I’m fond of sport. I go to the gym twice a week. The exercises help me to keep fit. Once a week I go swimming to the pool. I think it’s very useful for my health. I also like winter sports like skiing and ice skating, because it’s quite cold in our region. So, when I’m free I often go to the skating rink and it makes me feel

11

great. I think sport helps people to be healthy and makes them to be more organized.

4. Use the words in the table to describe the following people. Then describe

yourself.

(1) Maria

(2) Tim

(3) You

Name

Maria

Tim

You

age

25

30

 

job

teacher of maths

economist

 

marriage status

yes (to…

yes

 

children

1 boy

2 girls

 

hobby

tennis

football

 

5. Read the following text and answer the questions.

My name is Tom Mallory. I’m British and a business student at Brooks College. I’m 20 and single. My hobbies are music and football. My two sisters are students too. Our parents are from Ireland but they live in London now. My mother is a teacher and my father is a manager of a small engineering company.

1) How old is Tom? 2) What nationality is he? 3) What’s the name of Tom’s college? 4) Is Tom married? 5) What are his hobbies? 6) What are his parents’ jobs?

6. Read about Gail Ann Dorsey, and decide if the following statements

are true (T) or false (F).

12

heated, will generate a continuous flow of electricity. 14. Some materials undergo chemical changes when subjected to heat and pressure.

29. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на то, какие грамматические функции в предложении выполняют слова с суффиксами -ing и -ed.

1. The igneous rocks crystallized from magma may rise through fissures to the

surface of the Earth as lava. 2. Geology is a science dealing with the history of the Earth. 3. The classification of igneous rocks given below is based on texture and composition of minerals. 4. While using the new devices a young engineer found it

possible to give a new solution of this problem. 5. Igneous rocks known as magma were crystallized from magma. 6. Observations have shown that the rocks produced by molten volcanoes, include, for example, rhyolite, andesite and other rocks. 7. We know of his taking part in the project. 8. Cutting coal is performed by cutting chains. 8. Before entering the Mining Institute the students may take a preliminary year. 9. Many different factors are taken into account in choosing a prospecting method. 10. Charcoal is used for producing high grades of cast iron. 11. Copper, the first base metal used by man was discovered in Armenia more than ' 6,000 years ago.

30. Переведите письменно следующие предложения. Назовите, какие функции выполняют слова с суффиксами -ed и -ing.

1. The article published in the magazine Oil and Gas Journal is in the field of ore exploration. 2. The achievements of these technically advanced countries are enormous. 3. The results obtained provided the same solution of the problem. 4. While thinking of exploration the scientist decided to carry on a new experiment. 5. Using coal as a fuel began in the twelfth century. 6. Extracting useful minerals by underground methods will continue in future. 7. Mining coal from deep horizons is difficult due to high temperatures. 8. Producing oil from shale has been successfully carried out for many years. 9. The progress in the coal industry was achieved by mechanizing and re-equipping underground operations. 10. Our specialists are working along similar lines with the scientists of other countries.

113

27. Переведите следующие сочетания. Определите, в каких сочетаниях

употребляется Participle I, а в каких герундий. По каким признакам можно определить герундий и Participle I?

1. different ways of producing steel (герундий) различные пути производства стали (производить сталь); 2. different mills producing steel (Participle 1) различные заводы, производящие сталь

1

the

changing energy is important

;

by

changing the energy the operator

can

;

changing

the energy we can get

;

changing the energy was not

possible

new facts one can get

establishing new facts is doing

must

improving the quality of this mineral is

mineral

;

while changing the energy the operator must

;

by establishing

the scientist

.while establishing new facts the scientist

.the process

;

.establishing new facts demands much

;

;

;

.improving the properties of this mineral was

by

;

;

.improving the properties of the

;

improving the quality of this metal we can use

28. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на перевод

Participle I и Participle II в функции обстоятельства.

1. The man testing this engine belongs to the group exploring damages (troubles) in equipment. 2. When translating the article he used no dictionary. 3. The problem facing our designing bureau is of great significance for the development of aircraft. 4. Listening to this young scientist's report we improved in some way our knowledge in that field of science. 5. While reading the article the student looked up some words in the dictionary. 6. Minerals and rocks are subjected to a process of constant development depending on geological conditions. 7. Studying and exploring deep deposits, it is important to establish the relation between the structures of different sequences controlling their localization. 8. Depending on the structural conditions, there are several types of ore fields. 9. If applied this method will increase the productivity of labor. 10. Unless treated (обрабатывать), the mineral must not be used in exploration. 11. When worked the metal be hard. 12. This method cannot be used unless improved. 13. Some minerals, when

112

Gail Ann Dorsey is 31; she’s a singer and songwriter. She also plays bass guitar in a band. She’s from Philadelphia. Her family is in the United States, but her home is in South London. Gail Ann Dorsey lives alone and doesn’t go out much in London. She has got a recording studio in her house where she works during the day and in the evening. She writes, sings and plays music. She’s very thin and has got short black hair.

1) Gail Ann lives with her family. 2) In the evening she goes to clubs with friends. 3) She plays the piano in a band. 4) She has got long black hair. 5) Gail Ann lives in Philadelphia

7. Tell about your hobby and free time activities. Use the following expressions.

e.g. I prefer walking in the forest because it’s healthy.

I like

watching television

because it’s very…

I enjoy

meeting friends

- interesting

I relax

going to the club

- useful

I’m fond of

going to the cinema

- exciting

I’m crazy about

listening to the radio

- popular

My hobby is

playing music

- healthy

When I’m free

reading books

I

prefer

cooking

 

hunting

13

Lesson III.

Lead-in

DAILY LIFE

What are week days?

What are days off?

Say what you usually do on week days?

Say what you prefer doing on days off?

Write these activities in the correct order for a typical working day. The first and last examples are done.

1. get up

go home

2. …….

have dinner

3. …….

have a rest

4. …….

get up

5………

have breakfast

25.

Переведите

перевод герундия.

следующие сочетания слов, обращая внимание на

a) 1. various means of (developing power; exploring a field; solving this problem). 2. a new idea of (applying low temperatures; overcoming friction; replacing old materials). 3. great interest in (publishing new articles; modifying old equipment; mastering English). 4. the reason for (seeking new minerals; identifying physical properties of minerals; launching new exploration devices)

b) 1. To think of developing new types of wells; 2. to object to extracting metals

from these ores; 3. to prevent somebody from using quartz; 4. to be interested in getting new data

c) Образец:

on reading прочтя; after reading после прочтения; for reading для чтения; in reading читая; by reading читал, при помощи чтения; without reading не читая, без чтения

6. …….

go to bed

7. …….

start work

8. …….

have lunch

1.

by publishing the article; before publishing the article; on publishing the

9. ……

10. go to bed

1) work for 2) oil company 3) combine 4) get up 5) morning exercises 6) on foot 7) employee 8) take (10) minutes to 9) have a rest 10) by correspondence 11) report 12) as a rule 9) be busy

finish work get to work by bus (on foot)

Vocabulary

работать в нефтяная компания совмещать просыпаться зарядка пешком служащий занимать (o времени) отдыхать заочно доклад как правило, обычно быть занятым

14

article; without publishing the article; after publishing the article; for publishing

the article. 2. before trying to find a new method; in trying to find a new method; on trying to find a new method; without trying to find a new method; by trying to find a new method. 3. on providing means of communication; by providing means of communication; without providing means of communication; before providing means of communication; in providing means of communication; for providing means of communication.

26. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на перевод герундия.

1. The progress in the coal industry was achieved by mechanizing and re- equipping underground operations. 2. Brown coal and lignite are used as raw materials for producing coke and chemical products. 3. The problem of extracting geothermal energy is under consideration now. 4. On re-utilizing the wastes it will be possible to make the extractive industries more efficient. 5. Geologists have got good results in prospecting for mineral resources in the sea.

111

thick seams. 8. The ventilation air flowing through the mine has been greatly increased. 9. Theory of prospecting and exploration is a link connecting specialists in two fields of mining: the exploration geologists and the mining engineer. 10. Folds, faults and fissures influencing the distribution and localization of mineralization are observed in practically all ore fields.

23. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на перевод

Participle I в функции обстоятельства.

1. Carrying on an important research the engineer helped his plant to raise its

output. 2. Applying this new method the operator received good results. 3. Using the most modern methods of calculations the designer improved his design. 4. Speaking about the future of coal, it is necessary to note the production of liquid fuels such as gas and oil from coal. 5. While studying at the engineering institutes, every student is to go through practical training at mines and dressing plants. 6. When making the geological map, the geologists study all the data of ground and areal geological surveys. 7. When operating under extremes of temperatures the instruments demonstrated accuracy and reliability.

24. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на перевод

герундия.

Не will speak to you before leaving the town.

Он поговорит с вами до отъезда из города (или: до того, как

уедет из города).

1. Reading is my hobby. Especially I like reading scientific fiction (фантастика)

and detective stories. 2. It is impossible to master a foreign language without reading. 3. By reading more we learn much. 4. You may want to discuss some words before reading this difficult text. 5. He must improve his English by reading books and listening in.

110

1. Read the following words and remember their pronunciation.

[٨] company, study, lunch, does

[a:] class, start

[o:] sport, call, morning, short, report

[o]

watch, o’clock, office.

[i]

busy, live, finish, dinner

[i:]

keep, week, employee

2. Pay attention to the stress in the following words.

´oil

employ´ees

com´bine

sometimes

engi´neer

pre´pare

´breakfast

´library

3. Read the text about Nick and tell about his typical working day. Use the

vocabulary.

DAILY LIFE

Nick works for an oil company. He’s going to be an engineer and studies at the Polytechnic University. It’s not easy to combine work with studies, so Nick’s working day begins very early. He gets up at 7 o’clock and does his morning exercises. After breakfast he goes to work. He starts his work at 8 o’clock in the morning. As Nick lives not far from his work he goes there on foot. It takes him 10 minutes to get his work. Nick usually has his lunch at home. But sometimes when he’s very busy with his work he has his lunch in his office. There’s a small café for the company’s employees. Nick finishes work at 6 o’clock in the evening. He usually has dinner at home. He likes cooking. After dinner he has a short rest, reads newspapers, makes some telephone calls, and watches TV. Then he prepares for his classes. Nick studies by correspondence so he often goes to the library to get ready for his classes or to write a report. As a rule he has no free time on his

15

week-days. Besides three times a week Nick goes to the sport club to keep fit. He’s very busy.

4.

What is your working day like? Describe it using the following questions.

1) When do you usually get up? 2) How do you get to your job? 3) What time do you start your work? 4) Where do you usually have your lunch? 5) When do you finish your work? 6) Do you have to work hard? 7) Do you have long holidays? 8) Do you like your job? 9) What are the good and bad things about it? 10) How do you usually spend your evenings?

11)

5.

Match the occupations with the texts:

 
 

a) student

c) waiter

b) business woman

d) postman

1)

I start work at 9. I finish at about 7. I often work late, and sometimes

2)

work at home too. I usually have lunch in a restaurant because my company pays. I go to work by train. My job is an evening one. I start at 6 o’clock in the evening and finish at

about 2 o’clock in the morning. I have a break and I eat in the kitchen. I wear a uniform. 3) Sometimes my classes start at 9, sometimes at 10 in the morning. I usually have

lunch at cafeteria. In the evening I often work in the library. I go everywhere by bicycle.

4)

I start early – at 5 o’clock in the morning. I usually finish at about 12 o’clock in the afternoon, so I always have lunch at home.

6.

What is their occupation?

1) Tim works for a radio station. He spends most of the time in the studio. He plays records and tells jokes. Sometimes Tim works till 1 or 2 in the morning. What is Tim’s occupation? 2) Diana works for a large company. She has her own secretary. She is responsible for the company’s money. Once a year Diana calculates the company’s profit. It’s a very well paid job. What is Diana’s occupation?

7. Write 2 or 3 sentences about where you work and what you do. Other

students will guess who you are.

16

twenty years remarkable advances have been made in the development of science and technology. 4. This person is regarded as the founder of modern geology. 5. The term”geology” has been applicable to the Earth as a whole. 6. Only recently geochemical and geophysical work has yielded information about the interior of the Earth’s crust. 7. Geologic events have to be reconstructed in the present. 8 Geology is subdivided into several specialized disciplines. 8 The Earth’s crust is constantly subjected to vertical and horizontal movements. 9. Endogenous forces can result in formation of new rocks. 10. Regional geology aims at the integration of all the geological information pertaining to a particular area. 11. V.I. Vernadsky is known as the outstanding mineralogist. 12. Many research centers were established by this scientist. 13. He conducted experiments in the geochemistry of rare elements. 14. The role of such minerals as radium and uranium was forecast by him. 15. Karpinsky was a member of many Academies abroad. 16. He made up a detailed map of the Asian part of our country.

21. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на

особенности перевода английских пассивных конструкций.

1.Today uranium and radium are referred to as minerals of vital importance. 2. Exogenous forces are generally spoken about when weathering is mentioned. 3. Much attention is now being paid to the use of quartz because it has many desirable properties. 4. The word "automation" is often mentioned nowadays. 5. Stratigraphy is usually thought of as that part of geology which deals with sedimentary rocks. 6. We were shown the superiority of the new system over the old one. 7. The students are given every opportunity to apply their knowledge according to their specialty.

22. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на

грамматические признаки и перевод Participle I в функции определения.

1. The man replacing this device by a new one is our mechanic. 2. The engineer carrying on an important research has some inventions. 3. The worker applying the new method of work will obtain good results. 4. Processes leading to the formation of sedimentary rocks are known. 5. Coal beds may consist of different band of varying thickness. 6. Laser is a more recent development replacing theodolites in surveying. 7. The highest output of coal excluding seams of 6° to 15° is got from

109

18.

Переведите следующие предложения, обращая особое внимание на

то, что перевод нужно начинать с послелога, т. е. слова, стоящего после глагола.

His report was much spoken about.

О его докладе много говорили.

1. The application of these mining methods was often referred to. 2. These

crystals can be relied upon. 3. Special minerals suitable for use in the device will be sent for at once. 4. The members of this expedition can be relied on. 5. The

parts of this device are acted on by more than two forces. 6. The process of extracting lead from this ore was objected to at the recent conference.

19.

Переведите

предложения, содержащие сочетание

it-

глагол в

пассиве, которое переводится неопределенно-личным предложением.

It is said that Scotland became home of practical geology.

Говорят, что Шотландия родина практической геологии.

It can be said that

Можно сказать, что

1. It is known that some minerals do not alter (изменять) their properties when

subjected to radiation. 2. It can be said that exogenous forces tend to destroy the

surface of the Earth. 3. It is known that automation ensures better working conditions in operation. 4. It should be mentioned that the precision (точность) of these tools depends upon their weight. 5. It is known that paleontology is subdivided into paleobotany and paleozoology.

20. Выпишите предложения с глаголами в активной форме, а затем

предложения с глаголами в пассивной форме. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. Owing to its light weight and high melting point this mineral has been used by

scientists. 2. These materials have been available for over a decade. 3. In the last

108

Lesson IV.

Lead-in

OUR UNIVERSITY

Answer the following questions.

1) When was our university founded? 2) How many faculties are there in the University? What are they? 3) How many research institutes are there? 4) What do students have at their disposal? 5) How many departments for corresponding students are there? 6) What department do you study at? 7) What subjects do you study? 8) What’s your favorite subject? 9) What subject is the most difficult one for you? 10) Do you study successfully? 11) Is it interesting for you to study at the University?

Listing

Write everything that comes into your mind when you hеar the word “University”

Fill in the spidegram with the words associated with the Tomsk Polytechnic University.

Tomsk Polytechnic University
Tomsk
Polytechnic
University

17

1) higher school 2) be founded 3) chemist 4) contribution 5) establishment 6) outstanding 7) well - known 8) to graduate from 9) founder 10) chief designer 11) helicopter 12) full-time 13) department 14) applied mathematics 15) welding 16) drilling 17) to provide with 18) various 19) sophisticated 20) up-to-date 21) installations 22) available for 23) post-graduate

Vocabulary

высшая школа обоснованный химик вклад создание выдающийся знаменитый, известный окончить ВУЗ основатель, основоположник главный проектировщик вертолет дневное обучение факультет прикладная математика сварка бурение нефтяных скважин обеспечивать разный, разнообразный усовершенствованный современный установки, оборудование доступный аспирант

1.Read the following words and remember their pronunciation.

[e] speciality, helicopter, technical, welding

[ǽ] graduate, establishing, mathematics, many

[٨] other, country

[a:] part, department, staff

[јu:] student, computer, newest

[i:]

chief, magazine

[k]

Polytechnic, technical, chemical, chemistry

18

the founder of modern geology. James Hutton is regarded as the founder of modern geology. 7. Past conditions formed the rocks. The rocks were formed by past conditions. 8. Hall melted rock specimens in the furnace of an iron foundry. Rock specimens were melted in the furnace of an iron foundry. 9. Scientists conduct experiments in original conditions. The experiments are conducted in original conditions. 10. Any daily discovery in rocks has long fascinated people. People have long been fascinated by any daily discovery in rocks.

b) 1. This material may not be used in mining technology. 2. It should be noted that these processes cannot be automated. 3. It must not be said that he knows this subject well. 4. It has to be remembered that the machine cannot work at high speeds for a long time. 5. Lowly organisms must stand in stark contrast to the giant dinosaurs. 6. Under favorable conditions the complete animal may be preserved in its original state.

17.

Переведите

подлежащего.

предложения,

обращая внимание на перевод

Не was given the wrong address to the lab.

Ему дали неправильный адрес в лабораторию.

1. The explorers were shown the nearest way to the river. 2. The design of the engine was given much attention to. 3. The explorers were seen not far from the camp of the expedition. 4. The student was asked several difficult questions. 5. She was told to leave the laboratory. 6. The students are taught English at our Institute. 7. The engineers of our laboratory were offered new research work. 8. He was helped while translating the article.

107

geology has to combine all the information from different fields of geological science and make maps. 4. We have some limited knowledge of this problem. 5. Only recently geologists have yielded enough information about the constitution of the Earth.6. Most fossils are the hard parts of organisms, which have been embedded in sediments. 7. A further progress has been made in this field. 8. By the end of this week the students will have conducted all the experiments.

15.

Переведите следующие

предложения, помня о единичности

отрицания в английском предложении.

1. There exist no substances which have absolutely the same properties (свойства). 2. The results of our experiment are of greatest importance only for our research. They are neither of any interest for you personally, nor for your work. 3. No method of exploration is effective in that case. 4. You cannot determine the velocity of wind if you have not any special instruments. 5. No manager of any enterprise can produce the maximum results if he has no practical knowledge of the production technology. 6. When you study a subject of importance never miss any lectures, seminars or classes. 2. Let's never be late for the consultations. 3. I can see no group-mates of ours in the lab today. 4. We shall have no classes in Petroleum Engineering next week. 5. The assistant had no idea about these natural phenomena.

16. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на перевод пассивных конструкций.

a) 1. I invite the students to the conference. I am invited to the conference. 2. He invited the students to the conference. He was invited to the conference. 3. The researcher carries out the experiment at high temperatures. This experiment is carried out at high temperatures. 4. Scientists use crystals in electronic devices. Crystals are also used in electronic devices. 5. I shall inform you about this new discovery. We shall be informed about this discovery. 6. We regard James Hutton

106

2. Pay attention to the stress in the following words.

Poly´technic

´ helicopter

de´partment

Uni´versity

speciality

techno´logical

contri´bution

in´dustrial

ro´botics

engi´neers

´graduate

la´boratory

insta´llation

maga´zine

a´broad

3. Read the text and fulfill the exercises.

OUR UNIVERSITY

The Tomsk Polytechnic University is one of the oldest and largest higher schools in our country. It was founded in 1896. At first it was called Technological Institute. The greatest Russian chemist D.I. Mendeleev made great contribution to the establishment of this first higher technical school in Siberia. Such outstanding scientists as V.A. Obruchev, I.N. Butakov took part in training young engineers. Many well-known scientists graduated from our University: Academican M.A. Usov – the founder of Siberian Geological School, M.I. Kamov – the chief designer of helicopters, N.V. Nikitin – the designer of TV Ostankino Tower and many others. Now the University has 12 full – time departments. They are Power Engineering Department, Machine-Building Department and others. Besides there are 5 departments for those who combine work with studies. The students train in 60 specialities, such as: welding, drilling , applied mathematics, computers and automation, medical and industrial electronics, robotics and others. The teaching staffs do their best in order to provide the students with all – round scientific and technical education. There are about 20 buildings where there are various laboratories, computer centers with sophisticated computers, experimental laboratories with up-to-date installations. There’s a new modern library at the University. The newest magazines, books and newspapers both in Russian and foreign languages are available for students. There are 15 hostels for students and post-graduates. The graduates of our University work in different fields of national economy all over the country and abroad.

4. Compile sentences using the following words:

1) train in, computer and automation, drilling and oil wells, such as, welding, the students, in 60 specialties, and others.

19

2) library, there’s, at the University, a new. 3) well-known, our University, many, graduated from, scientists. 4) for those who, with studies, besides, 5 departments, combine, work, there are

5. Make up your own sentences using the following words:

1) teaching staff 2) to provide the students with 3) up-to-date installations 4) technical education

6. Give a short summary of the text.

20

1. Не improved his device a week ago. He had improved his device before they were able to examine the properties of this alloy. He has improved his device; you may use it. His device was improved at our laboratory. The device improved by him is very useful. 2. This fact was established some years ago. James Hutton founded modern geology in the late 1700s. The theory formulated by James Hutton is included in every text-book on geology. Who has established this daily routine (распорядок дня) at our laboratory? 3. The experiment prepared by our laboratory assistant was successfully carried out. My friend had prepared his report before we spoke to you. His report was prepared ahead of time. Have you prepared your report? He prepared his lessons at the library yesterday. 4. He had published his new novel by the end of the year. The results of his research published a month ago have revealed many new facts. The results of their exploration were published long ago. My friend has already published the results of his discovery. He published his article a month ago.

14.

Переведите предложения,

функции глагола to have .

обращая внимание

на

различные

Не has a car (смысловой глагол)

У него есть автомобиль (Он имеет)

Не

has

seen

this

film

Он видел этот фильм.

(вспомогательный

глагол).

Не has to go there by air (модальный глагол).

Ему приходится (он должен) лететь туда.

a) 1. They have many new devices. They have to change old equipment. They

have changed old equipment. 2. The engineer has to consider this problem. He has a experimental approach. He has examined many samples of this ore. 3. You will have translated this text by 12 o'clock. You will have to go to the library to get this book. You will have many new subjects next term. 4. This method had produced good results by the end of the year. This method had to be introduced at the plant as it had many advantages over the old one.

b) 1. The Earth has a very complex structure. 2. We have already seen that the

larger molecules in petroleum (нефть) have the higher melting points. 3. Regional

105

11. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на перевод модальных глаголов и их эквивалентов.

1. Geologists have to explore the interior or exterior part of our planet. 2. Geology has to do with the nature and development of the Earth’s crust. 3. Endogenous forces can result in the formation of new rocks. 4. The origin and development of past mountain belts can be determined. 5. You should take into consideration the results of our experiments. 4. The miners were to launch the new device yesterday. 5. The engineer has to use new technological processes. 6. The electronic devices will have to ensure regular production processes. 7. The engineer from our plant is to take part in this conference. 8. Are you able to conduct this experiment once again? 9. At present our engineers are to develop the most advanced methods of production. 10. In the mountain ranges the structure of the crust can be very complex. 11. In his experimental work any research worker must apply the necessary safety measures. 12. First of all we can and must explore the Earth. 13. Under favorable conditions either the complete animal or a part of it, may be preserved in the original state. 14. Large numbers of dead animals can be deposited in sediments. 15. Fossils may become calcified or silicified.

12. Поставьте следующие предложения в отрицательную форму.

1. The first-year students take their exams in May. 2. My brother works as a miner. 3. You must come here a little earlier tomorrow. 4. The speaker shows diagrams and tables during his report. 5. We like these subjects. 6. He is an expert in applied geology. 7. We have time to spare.

13. Найдите в следующих предложениях глагольные формы с суффиксом -ed. Переведите эти предложения, определяя значение гла- гольных форм по их связям с другими словами.

104

Lesson V.

MY SPECIALITY

Lead in

In what field of engineering do you work?

What specialities are popular at your Institute?

What is the name of the Institute you study at?

Fill in the spidegram with the words associated with your speciality

My Speciality
My
Speciality

Now explain your associations

Vocabulary

1) specialize in

специализироваться

2) namely

а именно, то есть

3) mineral exploration

разведка полезных ископаемых

4) petroleum geology

геология нефти

5) oil (gas ) field development

разработки месторождения нефти

21

6) prospecting

разведка

The action of plants is even more destructive. 6. This mineral is more than 0,5 mm.

7) hydrology

гидрология

8) geology

геология

9) (ore) mining

горное дело; горная промышленность; горные работы; разработка месторождения

10) prominent

выдающийся, знаменитый, известный

11) a wide range of

широкий спектр

12) contribute to

вносить вклад

13) deal with

имеет дело, заниматься, изучать

14) properties (chemical)

(химические )свойства

15) rocks

горная порода

16) trend

направление

17) tuition

обучение

18) embrace

охватывать

19) mineral extraction

добыча минералов

20 ) processing method

технологический метод

21) business administration

управление предприятием

22) vital for

важный, насущный

23) career development

трудовая жизнь; продвижение по службе

24) enterprise

предприятие

1. Read the following words and remember their pronunciation.

[٨] study, industrial, production

[ei] range, embrace, great

[o] prospect, prominent, knowledge, property

[a:] department [o:] explore, importance

22

7. Igneous rocks tend to penetrate into older pre-existing rocks. 8. Clay has even

finer grains. 9. Marbles form smaller rock masses. 10. Dykes are much longer than

sills.

9. Переведите следующие предложения, содержащие двойной союз the the .

1.

The sooner you start the sooner

Чем, раньше вы отправитесь, тем раньше вы туда прибудете.

you will get there.

2.

The less said the better.

Чем меньше слов, тем лучше.

1. The quicker the work, the greater will be the power needed. 2. The hotter is the body, the more is the radiation concentrated in the blue end of the spectrum. 3. The movement of molecules increases as the temperature rises: the faster the movement, the higher the temperature; the slower the movement, the lower the temperature. 4. Any smooth (гладкий) surface will reflect light: the smoother the surface, the greater the amount of reflection.

10.

Переведите

следующие

изменения значений слова as.

предложения, обращая внимание на

1. As a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences M. V. Lomonosov directed all his energies to the development of Russian science. 2. As new synthetic materials appear science and engineering use them widely for the development of new electronic instruments. 3. With the help of radio electronics radio communication with the earth as well as with other cosmonauts in the orbit became possible. 4. Modern communication is as swift as light. 5. As the power station is very small in size, only one machine hall houses its entire equipment. 6. When we say that the device solves problems automatically, we mean that there is as little human intervention as possible in the operation of the device. 7. As an astronomical device the radio telescope is far more efficient means than optical telescopes which were in use in the 19th century.

103

There

are

endogenous and

Существует эндогенные или экзогенные силы, которые влияют на земную кору. И та и другая являются объектом исследования.

exogenous forces that affect the Earth’s crust. Both are the objects of

exploration.

1. Both instruments will be in wide use when we carry on the experiment. 2. Both this instrument and that device can provide us with the necessary information. 3. In both cases the operation of the devices was the same. 4. All team leaders at the plant have either higher or specialized secondary education. 5. For a moment neither of our friends spoke. 6. Either of these up-to-date methods will increase labor productivity.

8. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на разные формы выражения сравнения в английском языке. Выпишите по образцу прилагательное или наречие в той форме, в какой оно встречается в предложении, а две остальные формы выпишите рядом.

Положительная

Сравнительная

Превосходная

степень

bad

worse

(the) worst

плохой

хуже

хуже всего, самый плохой, наихудший

rapidly

more

rapidly

most rapidly

intensive —

 

the most intensive — наиболее интенсивный, самый интенсивный

интенсивный

more intensive — интенсивнее

1. Scientists observe the higher temperature at day time and the lower temperature at night. 2. The river has become wider and deeper. 3. These forces cause more complex and varied changes. 4. Our planet becomes more and more destroyed. 5.

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2. Pay attention to the stress in the following words.

ge´ology

prospecting

im´portance

ex´istence

´knowledge

cont´ribute

edu´cational

3. Read the text and answer the questions:

1) What specialities are there at the geological faculty?

2) When did the faculty come into existence?

3) What famous scientists worked at the faculty?

4) What subjects do the students study?

5) Where do students get their practical knowledge?

6) What new courses appeared at faculty?

7)What specialities do the graduates of the faculty get?

8) What does general geology study?

MY SPECIALITY

I study at Tomsk Polytechnic University, Geology and Petroleum Engineering Institute. There are many specialities at our Institute, namely, mineral exploration, hydrology and geo-ecology, petroleum geology, oil and gas field development, and others. I am a second-year student of the Geology and Mineral Exploration Department.

This department came into existence in 1901. It was called the Mining Department and for many years it was headed by the prominent scientist V. A. Obruchev. Among the well-known scientists who have contributed to the development of ore mining and to the work of our University are M. A. Usov, M. K. Korovin, K. V. Radugin, I. P. Schvartzev.

Modern geologists must know a wide range of subjects. During the first two years of studies students deal mostly with basic subjects. They get knowledge in higher mathematics, physics, general geology, mineralogy. General geology is of great importance to every specialist as it gives the general knowledge of the Earth, its history, as well as, the physical and chemical properties of rocks.

23

The new trend in the educational system is the development of courses in geo- ecology, computer science, economics, and marketing. So, we have mining engineering courses which provide wide and general tuition, embracing not only mineral extraction and processing methods, but also business administration, economics, as well as, communication skills which are vital for important career development. Practical training in the field and at different industrial enterprises is also of great importance. There students gain practical knowledge and experience needed for their future job. The graduates of our Institute get such specialties as exploration – geologists, geo-ecologists, mining engineers, drillers, development geologists and others.

4. Match the English words in column “A” with their Russian equivalents in column “B”.

A

B

1) geological

a) добыча

2) department

b) исследование

3) speciality

c) обучение

4) prospecting

d) свойство

5) hydrology

e) внести вклад

6) prominent

f) гидрология

7) contribute

g) специальность

8) development

h) геологический

9) extraction

i) факультет

10) processing

j) обработка

11) property

k) специальность

12) trend

l) разведка

13) tuition

m) выдающийся

14) embrace

n) направление

15) exploration

o) охватывать

5. Compile sentences using the following words.

1) in 1901, the geological faculty, existence, came into.

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igneous rocks. 3. It means that most of sedimentary rocks are formed by sediments. 4. That experiment was conducted in the laboratory. 5. He formulated theories about the past conditions that formed the rocks. 6. The fact that the crust is constantly subjected to vertical and horizontal movements can be observed from satellites. 7. Another approach to practical geology is that of the experimental scientist.

5. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на разные грамматические функции и различные значения омонимичных слов that, those .

1. For many centuries men were interested in metals that occurred in the Free State and those that were obtained by simple processes. 2. Mention should be made that regular maintenance of the equipment is very important. 3. Minerals usually possess hardness, that is, the ability to withstand repeated stresses. 4. Most of minerals are good conductors of heat. That is why they are widely used in industries. 5. This new material possesses better service properties than that used in the old installation.

6. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на выделение отдельных членов предложения при помощи оборотов типа it

is (was)

who that.

It was J. Hutton who is regarded the founder of modern geology

Именно Дж. Хаттон считается основателем современной геологии.

1. It was in the late 1700s that Scotland became the home of practical geology.

2. It is igneous rocks that mainly form the Earth’s crust. 3. It is regional geology that is aimed at making maps. 4. It was J. Hall who conducted experiments to stimulate the formation of various rock structures by compressing layers of clay. 5. It was he who put the Neptunian theories to rest.

следующие предложения, обращая внимание на

изменение значений слов both, either, neither в зависимости от выполняемой ими грамматической функции.

7. Переведите

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1. Our lab assistant studies three foreign languages. His studies take a lot of time. 2. My brothers' favorite sports are football and tennis. 3. My sister lives in a three-room flat in the new district of St. Petersburg. 4. When we come to St. Petersburg in summer we see all the places of historic interest. 5. The main task of the Academy is to train mining engineers. 6. The Earth’s crust consists of sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks.

3.

Переведите

следующие предложения, помня об особенностях

перевода слов some, any.

1. The student needs some time to answer your questions.

Чтобы ответить на ваш вопрос, студенту необходимо какое-то количество (немного) времени.

На конференции присутствовало

2. Some 500

delegates

were

present at the conference.

примерно

500 делегатов.

(около)

3. Any data on that problem will be of greatest interest for the explorers.

Любые данные по этому вопросу будут представлять для этих исследователей величайший ин- терес.

1. Have you got any books on geology? 2. There is some interesting

information about the internal structure of the Earth. 3. The rock near Earth’s center is somewhere between 10 and 15 times as dense as water. 4. Igneous rocks

more than any other kind of rocks show that the Earth is changing. 5. Is there anybody in the lab? - Yes, there is. There is somebody there. 6. In some cases limestone is a clastic rock.

4. Переведите следующие предложения, определив по формальным признакам, какую грамматическую функцию в предложении выполняет слово that .

1. The amount of sedimentary rocks on the Earth’s surface is three times that of

igneous rocks. 2. It should be noted that 95% of the Earth’s crust is made up of

100

2) as well, practical training, at industrial enterprise, in the field, is of great importance, and.

3) at our, have, specialities, we, several, department.

4) of subjects, geologists, know, modern, must, a wide range

6. Make up your own sentences with the following words.

1) specialist

2) training

3) properties of rocks

4) mining engineering

5) educational system

7. Give a short summary of the text.

25

Lesson VI.

APPENDIX

Lead-in

MY HOME TOWN

What is the difference between “city” and “town”? What are the characteristic features of the place where you live?

Fill in the spidegram with words that go with the topic “City/Town”.

City / Town
City /
Town

1) to be founded 2) be situated on (in) 3) be surrounded by 4) technical college

5)scientific

6) research institute 7) industrial enterprise 8) be evacuated to 9) to give rise to 10) discovery 11) deposit

Vocabulary

был основан расположенный быть окруженным техникум научный научно-исследовательский институт промышленное предприятие эвакуировать, вывозить обуславливать, создавать,приводить к открытие месторождение

1. Read the following words and remember their pronunciation.

[i] Siberia, sixth, industry, river

[ə:] research, birch, University

26

Лексико-грамматические упражнения

1. Заполните пропуски в предложениях личными и притяжательными местоимениями.

My sister is twenty is twenty Sevastopol to meet good flat in a new are light and clean. I,

of September by plane. Please, meet

is an

husband is an

go to

husband and

very much. The rooms

children will come back to Moscow on the 5th at the airport!

has a

live in Sevastopol. In summer when

am free

sister and

family. The family has a very

is a three-room flat. We like

wife and

2. Определите, какую грамматическую функцию выполняет слово, имеющее окончание -(e)s, -'s. Напишите для глаголов форму инфинитива; для существительных форму единственного числа.

Окончание -s, -'s, -s' служит признаком

глагола в 3-м лице единственного числа настоящего времени

множественного

числа имени

существительного

притяжательного падежа имени существительного

Не leaves home. Он уходит из дома, to leave-уходить

Their summer leaves. Их летние отпуска, a leave - отпуск

the school-leavers' final exams school-leaver оканчивающий среднюю школу

99

7. Match synonyms in columns A and B.

[e]

electrical, chemical, centre

A.

B.

[٨]

discovery, industrial, country, culture

 

[au] town, founded, now, surrounded

range

well - to do

[i:]

leading, cedar,

part

piece

2. Pay attention to the stress in the following words.

to produce

comprehension

su´rrounded

pro´ducing

to deal with

to examine

edu´cation

a´ppear

to explore

to manufacture

aca´demic

archi´tecture

unemployment

outside the sphere

discipline

question

3. Read the text and answer the following questions:

firm

scope

1) Where is Tomsk situated?

wealthy

company

2) What’s the population of Tomsk?

province

subject

3) Why is Tomsk considered a student’s town? 4) How many higher educational institutes are there in Tomsk? 5) Which are the oldest universities in Tomsk?

understanding

several

6) Is Tomsk an industrial center? Why?

a number

connection

7) What is Tomsk famous for?

tie

lack of jobs

 

MY HOME TOWN

issue

to consider

8. Give a short summary of the text.

98

My home town is Tomsk.Tomsk is an old Siberian town. It was founded in 1604 and now its population is over 500 thousand. It is situated on the bank of the river Tom in West Siberia. It is surrounded by fine forests of pine, birch, cedar and fir trees.

In old times Tomsk was just like any other small Siberian town – wooden houses, narrow streets, no parks and gardens. In 1888 Tomsk University, the first in Siberia, was opened and Tomsk became a centre of education and culture of Siberia. Tomsk is often called a student’s town. And it is really right. There are now six higher educational institutes in Tomsk. There are also about 30 technical colleges. So every sixth person in Tomsk is a student. The Tomsk Polytechnic University is one of the oldest and largest higher schools in our country. It was founded in 1896 and trains more than 16 thousand students. Tomsk is a big scientific and cultural centre. The oldest in Siberia State University, the Polytechnic and Medical Universities have become the basis for the

27

development of academic science in Tomsk and in 1979 the Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences was founded. There are many research institutes in Tomsk. Many Tomsk scientists are well – known all over the world. Tomsk is an industrial centre too. The first industrial enterprise appeared in Tomsk in 1920. During the Great Patriotic War many big industrial enterprises were evacuated to Tomsk and they gave rise to the development of industry in the region. There are many plants and factories in Tomsk now. The leading industries are electrical and mechanical engineering, metal-working, food- producing industries and others. Thanks to the discovery of oil and gas deposits, the chemical industry began to develop in Tomsk. There are a lot of beautiful places in Tomsk. Tomsk is famous for its wooden architecture. You will see wonderful buildings decorated with traditional Russian woodwork, so called wooden laces.

4. Now describe the city \ town where you live. Pay attention to the following questions and the words.

1) Do you know the town where you live in well? 2) What district do you live in? 3) Do you like modern many-storied buildings or wooden architecture? 4) How can you get to the centre of your town from your place? 5) What places do you like to go for a walk? 6) Have you any favourite places? 7) What changes would you like to see in your town? 8) What places of interest can you name?

architecture

beautiful

climate

crowded

entertainment

modern

church

dirty

art gallery

expensive

night club

cheap

traffic

excellent

public transport

famous

for

5. Read the texts given below and say what are the advantages and disadvantages of living in these towns.

1) THE TOWN WHERE I LIVE

I love living in Venice, it’s full of history. I like it because it’s quite a small city. I think it has got a population of about 200.000 people, but there are lots of

28

town, a whole country. Somebody decided to build the factories. Somebody decided to construct roads, build the housing, produce the cars, knit the shirts, and smoke the bacon. Why? What is going on in all those buildings? It is easy to see that understanding individual micro decisions is very important to any understanding of your society. Macroeconomics, in its turn, deals with the functioning of national economic complex and the behaviour of the main classes and social groups.

4. Answer the following questions.

1) What branch of science does economics belong to?

2) What problems does economics deal with?

3) Why, do you think, some are people poor and others are rich?

4) Which two main divisions of economics do you know?

5) What do micro- and macroeconomics deal with?

5. Complete the sentences.

1) Economics studies a wide

questions.

2) Economics is closely tied with

3) Many social philosophers were trying to solve a questions of

4) Economics is subdivided into

5) Microeconomics deals with

6) A household can be considered as a

7) The firm must make a

8) Microeconomics doesn’t

9) The functioning of national economic complex is the sphere of

industries.

what to produce.

with the questions of output distribution.

6. Give English equivalents for the following words and phrases from the text.

Изучать экономику, иметь глубокие корни в, национальная экономика, отдельная самостоятельная экономическая единица, изучать проблему, домашнее хозяйство, отдельная предпринимательская фирма, получить представление, функционирование отдельных отраслей промышленности.

97

1. Pay attention to the pronunciation of the following terms.

[ju:] consume, distribution

[ei] paid, speculation, scale, separate

[i]

briefly, principle, issue, discipline

2.

Pay attention to the stress in the following words.

a´ttempt

de´termine

inf´lation

exc´lusively

´output

distri´butional

3. Read the text, fulfill the exercises.

WHAT DOES ECONOMICS STUDY?

Economics is a social science studying economy. Like the natural sciences and other social sciences, economics attempts to find laws and principles of economic functioning of society. Most students who take economics for the first time hardly can imagine the range of questions which this science studies. Some think that economics will teach them about the stock market, or what to do with their money. Others think that economics deals exclusively with problems like inflation and unemployment. In fact, it deals with all these subjects but they are parts of a much larger system.

First of all, there are two major divisions of economics: microeconomics and macroeconomics. Microeconomics deals with the functioning of individual industries and the behaviour of individual economic decision making units:

single business firms and households. Macroeconomics explores the decisions that individual businesses and consumers make. The choices of firms about what to produce and how much to charge and the choices of households about what to buy and how much of it to buy help to explain why the economy produces the things it does.

Another big question that microeconomics addresses is who gets the things that are produced. Wealthy households get more output then do poor households, and the forces that determine this distribution of output are outside the scope of microeconomics. Why do we have poverty? Who is poor? Why do some jobs pay more than others? Think about all the things we consume in a day on the scale of a

96

tourists, especially in summer. There are no cars or lorries, but there are water buses on the main canals all day and night. But you need lots of money to live here. Flats are very expensive. Apart from the cinemas and theatres, there’s not much to do in the evenings. But I still love it here.

2) PERM IS MY NATIVE TOWN

I live in Perm. Perm is my native town. It is one of the largest towns in the Urals. It was founded in 1723. The population of Perm is more than 900.000. Today Perm is an important industrial center. There are many factories and plants in our city. They produce modern metal cutting machine tools, television sets and others. Perm is a big center. There are 40 secondary schools and 7 institutes and University in our town. Perm is a beautiful town. There are many trees and flowers in the streets of our town.

29

Lesson VII.

Lead-in

MY JOB

What is a job for you? What kind of jobs would you like to have? Is there a difference between jobs for men and jobs for women?

Ask questions concerning the topic “My Job” using the following question words:

-Why? -Where? -When? - How? -Who? -What? Ex. What is your job?

1) plant 2) skilled 3) assembly workshop 4) lorry 5) responsible for 6) attentive 7) realize 8) equipment 9) properly 10) salary

Vocabulary

завод квалифицированный сборочный цех грузовой автомобиль, грузовик ответственный внимательный понимать, осознавать оборудование должным образом заработная плата

1. Read the following words and remember their pronunciation.

[e] friend, assemble, special, attentive, necessary

[٨] dull, become, much