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CONTENTS

PART I
Lesson I. MY FAMILY AND ME .............................................................. 5
Lesson II. HOBBY AND FREE TIME ....................................................... 10
Lesson III. DAILY LIFE............................................................................... 14
Lesson IV. OUR UNIVERSITY ................................................................... 17
Lesson V. MY SPECIALITY ....................................................................... 21
Lesson VI. MY HOME TOWN .................................................................... 26
Lesson VII. MY JOB ..................................................................................... 30
Lesson VIII. ENGINEERING JOBS ........................................................... 33
Lesson IX. NEW ENERGY FROM OLD SOURCES ............................... 38
PART II
Lesson I. WHAT IS GEOLOGY? ................................................................ 43
Lesson II. THE USES OF GEOPHYSICS ................................................. 49
Lesson III. THE PHYSICS OF THE EARTH............................................ 55
Lesson IV. HYDROGEOLOGY .................................................................. 59
Lesson V. DRILLING ................................................................................... 65
Lesson VI. MINERAL EXPLORATION .................................................... 70
Lesson VII. MINING ..................................................................................... 74
Lesson VIII. OIL EXTRACTING ............................................................... 79
Lesson IX. ECOLOGY AND GEOECOLOGY ......................................... 84
Lesson X. PIPELINE CONSTRUCTION ................................................... 90
3

Lesson XI. INTRODUCTION TO ECONOMICS AND

MANAGEMENT ........................................................................................... 95
APPENDIX ..................................................................................................... 99
REFERENCES .............................................................................................. 120


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PART I
Lesson I

1.

MY FAMILY AND ME

4.

.. . - :
, 2001
.. .- .,
, 1990
Glendinning E. Glendinning N. Mechanical Engineering. Oxford
University Press, 2001.
Greenall S. - Reward (Pre-intermediate). - Heinemann, 1997

5.

Hopkins A. - Look ahead. Longman, 1994

Do you have your own family?

6.

General engineering (English for academic purposes series) Vaughan James


1999

Listing

7.

Internet Electronic library, Educational Sites.

For example:

8.

Economic Geology, ,1998

9.

Geological Survey, , 1993

10.

Geology, 2000.

2.
3.

11. . I.,II/
: - / .. ,
.. , .. , .. , .. , ..
, .. , .. . :
-, 2009. 611.

Lead-in
What is a family?
What does a family mean to you?

Write down as many words that come to your mind on the topic My Family

from (Tomsk)

interested
in (music )

Nick
I am

(not) married

(20) years old

a student
Now say a few words about yourself using the example diagram

120

Vocabulary

1) family

2) large

3) flat

4) industrial centers

5) automobile plant

6) marks

7) do well

8) enter

9) by correspondence

10) combine

11) friendly

12) spend time

13) listen to music

14) relatives

15) uncle

16) aunt

17) cousins

1. The research institute needs ... skilled laboratory assistants (many, much). 2.
This research will take ... time (many, much). 3. The lab assistant had ... interest in
that kind of experimental work (few, little). 4. At the conference the scientists
delivered only ... reports but all the papers were of greatest value for science and
engineering (a few, a little). 5. Like ... other workers the operator knew his
machine perfectly well (many, much). 6. The new adding machine can add
numbers ... faster than a man can do (many, much). 7. Scholars from ... countries
attended the 13th International Congress of Historical Sciences (many, much). 8. It
will take you ... time to get the necessary information (few, little). 9. At the exams
our professor will put you only ... questions (a few, a little). 10. This report will
take ... time and ... paper (much, many, few, little).

1.Read the following words and remember their pronunciation.


[e] relative, together, spend, enter
[i] sister, listen
[a:] father, plant, mark,
[] mother, cousins
6

119

40. .

1. These experiments have shown these gaseous substances to serve as carriers


for electricity. 2. The substance formed does not appear to be suitable for our
experiments. 3. The results obtained proved to be applicable only in that case. 4.
There is a number of variants of such projects, the best being that advanced by the
young designer. 5. Scottish scientists are known to have founded geology as a
science. 6. This method seems to be the most efficient in producing oil. 7. I did not
see him leave the lab.

41. ,
.

1. We assume liquid to occupy a certain amount of the Earth. 2. A certain


amount of the Earth is assumed to be occupied by liquid. 3. Thousands of Russian
workers are believed to have worked at that field. 4. This phenomenon appeared to
be connected with the theory connected with experimental research. 5. Our age
proved to be the age of oil and gas.
42. ,
likely,
unlikely, certain, sure .

1. It is unlikely that this mineral will have practical aoolication. 2. This mineral
is unlikely to have practical application. 3. Water is likely to be present on Mars. 4.
They are unlikely to change their plans. 5. Gas pressure is certain to be the result of
multiple impacts of gas molecules upon the walls of the restraining enclosure. 6.
Automation is sure to be applied at different kinds of oil rigs. 7. The molecules of a
gas are certain to be in a constant state of motion.

2. Pay attention to the stress in the following words.


together

cousins

excellent

newspapers

automobile

correspondence

University

3. Read the text and fulfill the exercises

MY FAMILY AND ME
Our family is not very large. I have a father, a brother and a sister. We all live
together in a new flat in one of the industrial centers of Minsk.
My father Igor Ivanovich is 45 years old. He works at a big automobile plant as
an engineer. He likes his work and spends most of his time there. My mothers
name is Olga Petrovna. She is a teacher of music. My mother always has a lot of
work to do about the house and at school.
My sister Alla is three years younger than me. She is a pupil. She does well at
school and gets only good and excellent marks.
My name is Tanya. Last year I left school and entered the University. I study by
correspondence. I combine work with studies. Our family is very friendly. We
like to spend time together. In the evenings we watch TV, read books and
newspapers, listen to music or just talk about the events of the day. I have many
relatives: uncles, aunts, cousins and also many friends. We are happy when we
are together.

4. Express your opinion using the following phrases:

43. many, much, few, little, a few, a little


. , few, little , a
few, a little , .

Example: I was born in Tomsk. I am single. Im interested in sports and


music. Im especially fond of rock and roll. Last year I entered the University.
I have very little free time, because I work and study at the same time. I study
at the correspondence department.

118

1) to be born

was dangerous.

2) to be married ( to be single)

cross the river in such weather


one must know the current.

3) to be interested in smth.
4) to be fond of smth.

.

,
.

5) to be busy (to be free)


6) to enter the University
7) to study by correspondence

5. Tell about your likes and dislikes using the following table.

like
dislike

tea, coffee, ice-cream, English classes


swimming, working in garden, reading

hate

to get early, to play tennis, to do housework, to be late

6. Use the following phrases (to express your opinion) when answering the
questions and say a few words about yourself:
- I think
- In my opinion
- It seems to me
- Id like to say
- As far as I know

1) How old are you?


2) Whos the youngest (the eldest) in your family?

1. take his first steps into the atmosphere, man used hot-air balloons. To take
the first steps into the atmosphere was extremely difficult to the man. 2. To gain
control over nature means to know its laws. To gain control over nature, man needs
physical energy. 3. To determine physical properties of minerals, it is necessary to
take into account a number of conditions. 4. To make hydrogen we put zinc into
the flask () and add sulfuric acid ( ). make hydrogen at our
laboratory was not a difficult task. 5. To make television suitable for everyday use
required much detailed development of electronic technique. To make television
suitable for everyday use, the scientists and engineers had to work much to develop
new electronic technique.

39. ,
.

1. In order to solve problems dealing with heat energy, scientists had to be able to
measure heat and its effects on various substances. 2. Several thousand years ago
man discovered that metals can be separated from their ores by means of heating.
3. It should be noted, however, that these minerals cannot be used at such
temperatures. 4. First of all the ores have to be found and recognized; then they
must be made to give up the hidden metal. 5. In the future, titanium and its alloys
may largely replace steels for jobs where it is important to save weight. 6. At first
chemists found it very difficult to be able to tell how molecules were put together
by nature. 7. Experimental research has made it possible to be able to find out the
nature of the structure of substances.

3) Is your family big or small?


4) Is your family friendly?
8

117

1. It is difficult to imagine that hard bright minerals can be taken from earthylooking substances. 2. It is possible to explore very gently sloping seams by
boreholes. 3. It should be noted that there exist surface and real prospecting
methods. 4. It is important to use coal as the source of coke for the steel industry.

5) Do you spend much time together?


6) Do you have much in common with your relatives?
7) Where do you live?
8) Is it your hometown?

...to make it possible to speak to him ... .


.

9) Do you like your town? Why?


10) Are you married or single?
11) Have you got a girlfriend (a boyfriend)

7. Experimental research has made it possible to find out the nature of the
structure of substances. 8. Modern production techniques make it possible to use
ores that may contain only one or two per cent of the metal.

12) Do you have many friends?


13) Whos your best friend?
14) Do you spend much time together?

37. ,
in order to .

15) Do you have much free time?


16) What are you interested in?
17) What do you do at weekends?

In order to solve these problems,


scientists must measure heat.
,

18) Whats your idea of a good rest?


19) Do you work? Is your job difficult (interesting, well-paid)?

20) Is it difficult to work and to study at the same time?


1. In order to find oil, petroleum engineers have found it convenient to use a
special system of navigation. 2. program a machine, man must think through
all the steps that he takes to solve a problem. 3. Scientists have undertaken many
new experiments to produce melt. 4. New measurements of distances in the
universe are necessary in order to tell how far apart objects are. 5. In order to
separate a compound into its elements, chemical means must be used.

21) Whats your future profession?

38.
. .

cross the river in such, weather

116

34. ,
.

Lesson II.
HOBBY AND FREE TIME
Lead-in

The problem to be solved is of , ,


great importance to our industry.

.

What is a hobby?
What is your hobby?
Fill in the spidegram with the words associated with your hobby:

Hobby

1.
Gold was one of the first metals to be found by man. 2. There are a great
many things to be said about the Earth. 3. The geological investigations to be
carried out include field prospecting and exploration. 4. The geological and
physical conditions of the seam to be worked include its thickness, depth, hardness,
etc. 5. The possibility of making direct observations in workings depends on the
mining system to be applied. 6. The work of geologists at mines has its own
specific character its own range of problems to be solved during the exploration of
the deposit. 7. The main points to be observed during the driving of openings are
the mode of occurrence of the mineral body, country rocks exposed by the
openings, the type of fissuring, etc.

35. ,
.

Explain your associations

Vocabulary
1) differ

2) include

3) gardening

4) travelling

5) stamps

6) postcards

7) to be fond of

1. To estimate a nickel ore the geologists must know how the nickel is
distributed. 2. Geochemical methods are applied at different stages of geological
investigations, and are used to establish the general mineralization of rocks. 3. To
explore certain types of deposits geochemical methods have long been used. 4. In
coal basins these methods are used chiefly to study folded and faulted structures.
36.

,
is/was+ + .

10

It is important to use these minerals


.

115

it

31. B ,
-ed. ,
-ed Past Indefinite Tense, Participle II

. .

1. Of all the new minerals discovered quartz is among the most useful. 2. When
developed, the device was used for exploration. 3. Our scientists developed the
theory of atomic structure of the main minerals. 4. A number of new glass plastics
will be developed for special purposes. 5. The developed technology enables us to
improve the quality of articles produced. 6. Germanium was discovered by
Winkler in Germany in 1886. 7. As stated above J. Hutton may justly be called one
of the greatest experimentalists. 8. This mineral becomes soft when heated and
hard when cooled.

8) contain

9) twice a week

10) keep fit

11) pool

12) skating rink

13) collect

- c.

1. Read the following words and remember their pronunciation.


[i] differ, activity, swimming, winter, disk
[i:] skiing, week, feel
[ai] wide, like, twice, organized
[ei] taste, favourite, skating

32. ,
Participle I Participle II .

1. When translating the article I came across many unknown words. When
translated the article was published in the magazine. 2. While heating and cooling a
metal we improve its mechanical properties. This special kind of glass, if suddenly
heated, or cooled, does not break in operation. 3. While developing exploration
technology engineers are facing a number of difficulties. When developed this new
material was used in exploration technology. 4. Unless improved this device must
not be used in automatic lines.
33. ,
.

1. become skilled engineers students must study hard. 2. To cross the street
you must look first to the left and then to the right. 3. Pete often comes into my
room to do geometry. 4. Individual atoms come together to make molecules.

114

2. Pay attention to the stress in the following words.


collect

exercise

include

organized

variety
activity
3. Read the text and fulfill the exercises.

HOBBY AND FREE TIME


Hobbies differ like tastes. They include a wide variety of activities, everything
from gardening to travelling.
Almost everyone collects something at some period in his life: stamps, coins,
books, toys, and postcards. My friend collects compact discs. He is fond of
listening to music and his collection contains many interesting discs of his favorite
jazz singers. Some of my friends like reading, others prefer going to the clubs and
parties
As to me Im fond of sport. I go to the gym twice a week. The exercises help me
to keep fit. Once a week I go swimming to the pool. I think its very useful for my
health. I also like winter sports like skiing and ice skating, because its quite cold
in our region. So, when Im free I often go to the skating rink and it makes me feel
11

great. I think sport helps people to be healthy and makes them to be more
organized.
4. Use the words in the table to describe the following people. Then describe
yourself.
(1) Maria
(2) Tim
(3) You
Name

Maria

Tim

age

25

30

job

teacher of maths

economist

marriage status

yes (to

yes

children

1 boy

2 girls

hobby

tennis

football

You

5. Read the following text and answer the questions.

My name is Tom Mallory. Im British and a business student at Brooks


College. Im 20 and single. My hobbies are music and football. My two sisters are
students too. Our parents are from Ireland but they live in London now. My mother
is a teacher and my father is a manager of a small engineering company.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

How old is Tom?


What nationality is he?
Whats the name of Toms college?
Is Tom married?
What are his hobbies?
What are his parents jobs?

6. Read about Gail Ann Dorsey, and decide if the following statements
are true (T) or false (F).

12

heated, will generate a continuous flow of electricity. 14. Some materials undergo
chemical changes when subjected to heat and pressure.

29. , ,

-ing -ed.

1.
The igneous rocks crystallized from magma may rise through fissures to the
surface of the Earth as lava. 2. Geology is a science dealing with the history of the
Earth. 3. The classification of igneous rocks given below is based on texture and
composition of minerals. 4. While using the new devices a young engineer found it
possible to give a new solution of this problem. 5. Igneous rocks known as magma
were crystallized from magma. 6. Observations have shown that the rocks
produced by molten volcanoes, include, for example, rhyolite, andesite and other
rocks. 7. We know of his taking part in the project. 8. Cutting coal is performed by
cutting chains. 8. Before entering the Mining Institute the students may take a
preliminary year. 9. Many different factors are taken into account in choosing a
prospecting method. 10. Charcoal is used for producing high grades of cast iron.
11. Copper, the first base metal used by man was discovered in Armenia more than
' 6,000 years ago.
30. . ,
-ed -ing.

1. The article published in the magazine Oil and Gas Journal is in the field of ore
exploration. 2. The achievements of these technically advanced countries are
enormous. 3. The results obtained provided the same solution of the problem. 4.
While thinking of exploration the scientist decided to carry on a new experiment.
5. Using coal as a fuel began in the twelfth century. 6. Extracting useful minerals
by underground methods will continue in future. 7. Mining coal from deep
horizons is difficult due to high temperatures. 8. Producing oil from shale has been
successfully carried out for many years. 9. The progress in the coal industry was
achieved by mechanizing and re-equipping underground operations. 10. Our
specialists are working along similar lines with the scientists of other countries.

113

27. . ,
Participle I, .
Participle I?

1. different ways of producing steel ()


( ); 2. different mills producing steel (Participle 1)
,

1....the changing energy is important...; ...by changing the energy the operator
can...; ...changing the energy we can get...; ... changing the energy was not
possible...; ...while changing the energy the operator must...; 2. ... by establishing
new facts one can get...; .. .establishing new facts demands much...; ...the scientist
establishing new facts is doing...; .. .while establishing new facts the scientist
must...; 3. .. .improving the properties of this mineral was...; .. .the process
improving the quality of this mineral is...; .. .improving the properties of the
mineral...; ...by improving the quality of this metal we can use....

28. ,
Participle I Participle II .

1. The man testing this engine belongs to the group exploring damages (troubles)
in equipment. 2. When translating the article he used no dictionary. 3. The problem
facing our designing bureau is of great significance for the development of aircraft.
4. Listening to this young scientist's report we improved in some way our
knowledge in that field of science. 5. While reading the article the student looked
up some words in the dictionary. 6. Minerals and rocks are subjected to a process
of constant development depending on geological conditions. 7. Studying and
exploring deep deposits, it is important to establish the relation between the
structures of different sequences controlling their localization. 8. Depending on the
structural conditions, there are several types of ore fields. 9. If applied this method
will increase the productivity of labor. 10. Unless treated (), the
mineral must not be used in exploration. 11. When worked the metal be hard.
12. This method cannot be used unless improved. 13. Some minerals, when
112

Gail Ann Dorsey is 31; shes a singer and songwriter. She also plays bass
guitar in a band. Shes from Philadelphia. Her family is in the United States, but
her home is in South London. Gail Ann Dorsey lives alone and doesnt go out
much in London. She has got a recording studio in her house where she works
during the day and in the evening. She writes, sings and plays music. Shes very
thin and has got short black hair.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

Gail Ann lives with her family.


In the evening she goes to clubs with friends.
She plays the piano in a band.
She has got long black hair.
Gail Ann lives in Philadelphia

7. Tell about your hobby and free time activities. Use the following
expressions.
e.g. I prefer walking in the forest because its healthy.
I like

watching television

because its very

I enjoy

meeting friends

- interesting

I relax

going to the club

- useful

Im fond of

going to the cinema

- exciting

Im crazy about

listening to the radio

- popular

My hobby is

playing music

- healthy

When Im free

reading books

I prefer

cooking
hunting

13

Lesson III.
DAILY LIFE

25. ,
.

Lead-in

What are week days?


What are days off?
Say what you usually do on week days?
Say what you prefer doing on days off?

Write these activities in the correct order for a typical working day. The first
and last examples are done.
1. get up
2. .
3. .
4. .
5

go home
have dinner
have a rest
get up
have breakfast

6. .
7. .
8. .

go to bed
start work
have lunch

9. ..
10. go to bed

finish work
get to work by bus (on foot)

Vocabulary
1) work for
2) oil company
3) combine
4) get up
5) morning exercises
6) on foot
7) employee
8) take (10) minutes to
9) have a rest
10) by correspondence
11) report
12) as a rule
9) be busy

(o )

,

14

a) 1. various means of (developing power; exploring a field; solving this


problem). 2. a new idea of (applying low temperatures; overcoming friction;
replacing old materials). 3. great interest in (publishing new articles; modifying
old equipment; mastering English). 4. the reason for (seeking new minerals;
identifying physical properties of minerals; launching new exploration devices)
b) 1. To think of developing new types of wells; 2. to object to extracting metals
from these ores; 3. to prevent somebody from using quartz; 4. to be interested in
getting new data
c) :
on reading ; after reading ; for reading ; in
reading ; by reading , ; without reading
,

1.
by publishing the article; before publishing the article; on publishing the
article; without publishing the article; after publishing the article; for publishing
the article. 2. before trying to find a new method; in trying to find a new method;
on trying to find a new method; without trying to find a new method; by trying to
find a new method. 3. on providing means of communication; by providing means
of communication; without providing means of communication; before providing
means of communication; in providing means of communication; for providing
means of communication.
26. ,
.

1. The progress in the coal industry was achieved by mechanizing and reequipping underground operations. 2. Brown coal and lignite are used as raw
materials for producing coke and chemical products. 3. The problem of extracting
geothermal energy is under consideration now. 4. On re-utilizing the wastes it will
be possible to make the extractive industries more efficient. 5. Geologists have got
good results in prospecting for mineral resources in the sea.
111

thick seams. 8. The ventilation air flowing through the mine has been greatly
increased. 9. Theory of prospecting and exploration is a link connecting specialists
in two fields of mining: the exploration geologists and the mining engineer. 10.
Folds, faults and fissures influencing the distribution and localization of
mineralization are observed in practically all ore fields.

1. Read the following words and remember their pronunciation.


[] company, study, lunch, does
[a:] class, start
[o:] sport, call, morning, short, report

23. ,
Participle I .

[o] watch, oclock, office.


[i] busy, live, finish, dinner
[i:] keep, week, employee

1. Carrying on an important research the engineer helped his plant to raise its
output. 2. Applying this new method the operator received good results. 3. Using
the most modern methods of calculations the designer improved his design. 4.
Speaking about the future of coal, it is necessary to note the production of liquid
fuels such as gas and oil from coal. 5. While studying at the engineering institutes,
every student is to go through practical training at mines and dressing plants. 6.
When making the geological map, the geologists study all the data of ground and
areal geological surveys. 7. When operating under extremes of temperatures the
instruments demonstrated accuracy and reliability.

2. Pay attention to the stress in the following words.


oil

employees

combine

sometimes

engineer

prepare

breakfast

library

3. Read the text about Nick and tell about his typical working day. Use the
vocabulary.
24. ,
.
DAILY LIFE
will speak to you before leaving
the town.
(: ,
).

1. Reading is my hobby. Especially I like reading scientific fiction ()


and detective stories. 2. It is impossible to master a foreign language without
reading. 3. By reading more we learn much. 4. You may want to discuss some
words before reading this difficult text. 5. He must improve his English by reading
books and listening in.

110

Nick works for an oil company. Hes going to be an engineer and studies at the
Polytechnic University. Its not easy to combine work with studies, so Nicks
working day begins very early. He gets up at 7 oclock and does his morning
exercises.
After breakfast he goes to work. He starts his work at 8 oclock in the morning. As
Nick lives not far from his work he goes there on foot. It takes him 10 minutes to
get his work. Nick usually has his lunch at home. But sometimes when hes very
busy with his work he has his lunch in his office. Theres a small caf for the
companys employees. Nick finishes work at 6 oclock in the evening. He usually
has dinner at home. He likes cooking. After dinner he has a short rest, reads
newspapers, makes some telephone calls, and watches TV. Then he prepares for
his classes. Nick studies by correspondence so he often goes to the library to get
ready for his classes or to write a report. As a rule he has no free time on his
15

week-days. Besides three times a week Nick goes to the sport club to keep fit. Hes
very busy.
4. What is your working day like? Describe it using the following questions.
1) When do you usually get up?
2) How do you get to your job?
3) What time do you start your work?
4) Where do you usually have your lunch?
5) When do you finish your work?
6) Do you have to work hard?
7) Do you have long holidays?
8) Do you like your job?
9) What are the good and bad things about it?
10) How do you usually spend your evenings?
11)
5. Match the occupations with the texts:
a) student
b) business woman

c) waiter
d) postman

1) I start work at 9. I finish at about 7. I often work late, and sometimes


work at home too. I usually have lunch in a restaurant because my company
pays. I go to work by train.
2) My job is an evening one. I start at 6 oclock in the evening and finish at
about 2 oclock in the morning. I have a break and I eat in the kitchen. I
wear a uniform.
3) Sometimes my classes start at 9, sometimes at 10 in the morning. I usually have
lunch at cafeteria. In the evening I often work in the library. I go everywhere by
bicycle.
4) I start early at 5 oclock in the morning. I usually finish at about 12
oclock in the afternoon, so I always have lunch at home.
6. What is their occupation?
1) Tim works for a radio station. He spends most of the time in the studio. He
plays records and tells jokes. Sometimes Tim works till 1 or 2 in the
morning. What is Tims occupation?
2) Diana works for a large company. She has her own secretary. She is responsible
for the companys money. Once a year Diana calculates the companys profit. Its
a very well paid job. What is Dianas occupation?
7. Write 2 or 3 sentences about where you work and what you do. Other
students will guess who you are.
16

twenty years remarkable advances have been made in the development of science
and technology. 4. This person is regarded as the founder of modern geology. 5.
The termgeology has been applicable to the Earth as a whole. 6. Only recently
geochemical and geophysical work has yielded information about the interior of
the Earths crust. 7. Geologic events have to be reconstructed in the present. 8
Geology is subdivided into several specialized disciplines. 8 The Earths crust is
constantly subjected to vertical and horizontal movements. 9. Endogenous forces
can result in formation of new rocks. 10. Regional geology aims at the integration
of all the geological information pertaining to a particular area. 11. V.I. Vernadsky
is known as the outstanding mineralogist. 12. Many research centers were
established by this scientist. 13. He conducted experiments in the geochemistry of
rare elements. 14. The role of such minerals as radium and uranium was forecast
by him. 15. Karpinsky was a member of many Academies abroad. 16. He made up
a detailed map of the Asian part of our country.

21. ,
.

1.Today uranium and radium are referred to as minerals of vital importance. 2.


Exogenous forces are generally spoken about when weathering is mentioned. 3.
Much attention is now being paid to the use of quartz because it has many
desirable properties. 4. The word "automation" is often mentioned nowadays. 5.
Stratigraphy is usually thought of as that part of geology which deals with
sedimentary rocks. 6. We were shown the superiority of the new system over the
old one. 7. The students are given every opportunity to apply their knowledge
according to their specialty.
22. ,
Participle I .

1. The man replacing this device by a new one is our mechanic. 2. The engineer
carrying on an important research has some inventions. 3. The worker applying the
new method of work will obtain good results. 4. Processes leading to the formation
of sedimentary rocks are known. 5. Coal beds may consist of different band of
varying thickness. 6. Laser is a more recent development replacing theodolites in
surveying. 7. The highest output of coal excluding seams of 6 to 15 is got from
109

18. ,
, , . . ,
.

His report was much spoken about.

Lesson IV.
OUR UNIVERSITY
Lead-in
Answer the following questions.

1. The application of these mining methods was often referred to. 2. These
crystals can be relied upon. 3. Special minerals suitable for use in the device will
be sent for at once. 4. The members of this expedition can be relied on. 5. The
parts of this device are acted on by more than two forces. 6. The process of
extracting lead from this ore was objected to at the recent conference.

19. , it-
, - .

It is said that Scotland became home ,


of practical geology.
.
It can be said that...

, ...

1. It is known that some minerals do not alter () their properties when


subjected to radiation. 2. It can be said that exogenous forces tend to destroy the
surface of the Earth. 3. It is known that automation ensures better working
conditions in operation. 4. It should be mentioned that the precision () of
these tools depends upon their weight. 5. It is known that paleontology is
subdivided into paleobotany and paleozoology.

1) When was our university founded?


2) How many faculties are there in the University? What are they?
3) How many research institutes are there?
4) What do students have at their disposal?
5) How many departments for corresponding students are there?
6) What department do you study at?
7) What subjects do you study?
8) Whats your favorite subject?
9) What subject is the most difficult one for you?
10) Do you study successfully?
11) Is it interesting for you to study at the University?
Listing
Write everything that comes into your mind when you har the word University
Fill in the spidegram with the words associated with the Tomsk Polytechnic
University.

Tomsk
Polytechnic
University

20. ,
.
.

1. Owing to its light weight and high melting point this mineral has been used by
scientists. 2. These materials have been available for over a decade. 3. In the last
108

17

Vocabulary
1) higher school
2) be founded
3) chemist
4) contribution
5) establishment
6) outstanding
7) well - known
8) to graduate from
9) founder
10) chief designer
11) helicopter
12) full-time
13) department
14) applied mathematics
15) welding
16) drilling
17) to provide with
18) various
19) sophisticated
20) up-to-date
21) installations
22) available for
23) post-graduate

,

,

1.Read the following words and remember their pronunciation.

the founder of modern geology. James Hutton is regarded as the founder of modern
geology. 7. Past conditions formed the rocks. The rocks were formed by past
conditions. 8. Hall melted rock specimens in the furnace of an iron foundry. Rock
specimens were melted in the furnace of an iron foundry. 9. Scientists conduct
experiments in original conditions. The experiments are conducted in original
conditions. 10. Any daily discovery in rocks has long fascinated people. People
have long been fascinated by any daily discovery in rocks.

b) 1. This material may not be used in mining technology. 2. It should be noted


that these processes cannot be automated. 3. It must not be said that he knows this
subject well. 4. It has to be remembered that the machine cannot work at high
speeds for a long time. 5. Lowly organisms must stand in stark contrast to the giant
dinosaurs. 6. Under favorable conditions the complete animal may be preserved in
its original state.

17.
.

was given the wrong address to


the lab.
.

[e] speciality, helicopter, technical, welding


[] graduate, establishing, mathematics, many
[] other, country
[a:] part, department, staff
[u:] student, computer, newest
[i:] chief, magazine
[k] Polytechnic, technical, chemical, chemistry
18

1. The explorers were shown the nearest way to the river. 2. The design of the
engine was given much attention to. 3. The explorers were seen not far from the
camp of the expedition. 4. The student was asked several difficult questions. 5. She
was told to leave the laboratory. 6. The students are taught English at our Institute.
7. The engineers of our laboratory were offered new research work. 8. He was
helped while translating the article.
107

geology has to combine all the information from different fields of geological
science and make maps. 4. We have some limited knowledge of this problem. 5.
Only recently geologists have yielded enough information about the constitution of
the Earth.6. Most fossils are the hard parts of organisms, which have been
embedded in sediments. 7. A further progress has been made in this field. 8. By the
end of this week the students will have conducted all the experiments.

15. ,
.

1. There exist no substances which have absolutely the same properties


(). 2. The results of our experiment are of greatest importance only for
our research. They are neither of any interest for you personally, nor for your
work. 3. No method of exploration is effective in that case. 4. You cannot
determine the velocity of wind if you have not any special instruments. 5. No
manager of any enterprise can produce the maximum results if he has no practical
knowledge of the production technology. 6. When you study a subject of
importance never miss any lectures, seminars or classes. 2. Let's never be late for
the consultations. 3. I can see no group-mates of ours in the lab today. 4. We shall
have no classes in Petroleum Engineering next week. 5. The assistant had no idea
about these natural phenomena.

16. ,
.

a) 1. I invite the students to the conference. I am invited to the conference. 2. He


invited the students to the conference. He was invited to the conference. 3. The
researcher carries out the experiment at high temperatures. This experiment is
carried out at high temperatures. 4. Scientists use crystals in electronic devices.
Crystals are also used in electronic devices. 5. I shall inform you about this new
discovery. We shall be informed about this discovery. 6. We regard James Hutton
106

2. Pay attention to the stress in the following words.


Polytechnic

helicopter

department

University

speciality

technological

contribution

industrial

robotics

engineers

graduate

laboratory

installation

magazine

abroad

3. Read the text and fulfill the exercises.


OUR UNIVERSITY
The Tomsk Polytechnic University is one of the oldest and largest higher schools
in our country. It was founded in 1896. At first it was called Technological
Institute. The greatest Russian chemist D.I. Mendeleev made great contribution to
the establishment of this first higher technical school in Siberia. Such
outstanding scientists as V.A. Obruchev, I.N. Butakov took part in training young
engineers.
Many well-known scientists graduated from our University: Academican M.A.
Usov the founder of Siberian Geological School, M.I. Kamov the chief
designer of helicopters, N.V. Nikitin the designer of TV Ostankino Tower and
many others.
Now the University has 12 full time departments. They are Power Engineering
Department, Machine-Building Department and others. Besides there are 5
departments for those who combine work with studies. The students train in 60
specialities, such as: welding, drilling , applied mathematics, computers and
automation, medical and industrial electronics, robotics and others.
The teaching staffs do their best in order to provide the students with all round
scientific and technical education. There are about 20 buildings where there are
various laboratories, computer centers with sophisticated computers,
experimental laboratories with up-to-date installations. Theres a new modern
library at the University. The newest magazines, books and newspapers both in
Russian and foreign languages are available for students. There are 15 hostels for
students and post-graduates. The graduates of our University work in different
fields of national economy all over the country and abroad.
4. Compile sentences using the following words:
1) train in, computer and automation, drilling and oil wells, such as, welding, the
students, in 60 specialties, and others.
19

2) library, theres, at the University, a new.


3) well-known, our University, many, graduated from, scientists.
4) for those who, with studies, besides, 5 departments, combine, work, there are
5. Make up your own sentences using the following words:
1) teaching staff
2) to provide the students with
3) up-to-date installations
4) technical education
6. Give a short summary of the text.

1. improved his device a week ago. He had improved his device before they
were able to examine the properties of this alloy. He has improved his device; you
may use it. His device was improved at our laboratory. The device improved by
him is very useful. 2. This fact was established some years ago. James Hutton
founded modern geology in the late 1700s. The theory formulated by James Hutton
is included in every text-book on geology. Who has established this daily routine
( ) at our laboratory? 3. The experiment prepared by our laboratory
assistant was successfully carried out. My friend had prepared his report before we
spoke to you. His report was prepared ahead of time. Have you prepared your
report? He prepared his lessons at the library yesterday. 4. He had published his
new novel by the end of the year. The results of his research published a month ago
have revealed many new facts. The results of their exploration were published long
ago. My friend has already published the results of his discovery. He published his
article a month ago.

14. ,
to have .

has a car ( )

has
seen
this
( ).

(
)
film .

has to go there by air (


).
.

a) 1. They have many new devices. They have to change old equipment. They
have changed old equipment. 2. The engineer has to consider this problem. He has
a experimental approach. He has examined many samples of this ore. 3. You will
have translated this text by 12 o'clock. You will have to go to the library to get this
book. You will have many new subjects next term. 4. This method had produced
good results by the end of the year. This method had to be introduced at the plant
as it had many advantages over the old one.
b) 1. The Earth has a very complex structure. 2. We have already seen that the
larger molecules in petroleum () have the higher melting points. 3. Regional
20

105

11. ,
.

Lesson V.
MY SPECIALITY

1. Geologists have to explore the interior or exterior part of our planet. 2.


Geology has to do with the nature and development of the Earths crust. 3.
Endogenous forces can result in the formation of new rocks. 4. The origin and
development of past mountain belts can be determined. 5. You should take into
consideration the results of our experiments. 4. The miners were to launch the new
device yesterday. 5. The engineer has to use new technological processes. 6. The
electronic devices will have to ensure regular production processes. 7. The
engineer from our plant is to take part in this conference. 8. Are you able to
conduct this experiment once again? 9. At present our engineers are to develop the
most advanced methods of production. 10. In the mountain ranges the structure of
the crust can be very complex. 11. In his experimental work any research worker
must apply the necessary safety measures. 12. First of all we can and must explore
the Earth. 13. Under favorable conditions either the complete animal or a part of it,
may be preserved in the original state. 14. Large numbers of dead animals can be
deposited in sediments. 15. Fossils may become calcified or silicified.

Lead in
In what field of engineering do you work?
What specialities are popular at your Institute?
What is the name of the Institute you study at?

Fill in the spidegram with the words associated with your speciality

My
Speciality

12. .

1. The first-year students take their exams in May. 2. My brother works as a


miner. 3. You must come here a little earlier tomorrow. 4. The speaker shows
diagrams and tables during his report. 5. We like these subjects. 6. He is an expert
in applied geology. 7. We have time to spare.

Now explain your associations

Vocabulary

13.
-ed. , .

104

1) specialize in

2) namely

3) mineral exploration

4) petroleum geology

5) oil (gas ) field development


21

6) prospecting

7) hydrology

8) geology

9) (ore) mining

; ;
;

10) prominent

, ,

11) a wide range of

12) contribute to

13) deal with

, ,

14) properties (chemical)

( )

15) rocks

16) trend

17) tuition

18) embrace

19) mineral extraction

20 ) processing method

21) business administration

22) vital for

23) career development

24) enterprise

1. Read the following words and remember their pronunciation.


[] study, industrial, production
[ei] range, embrace, great
[o] prospect, prominent, knowledge, property
[a:] department
[o:] explore, importance
22

The action of plants is even more destructive. 6. This mineral is more than 0,5 mm.
7. Igneous rocks tend to penetrate into older pre-existing rocks. 8. Clay has even
finer grains. 9. Marbles form smaller rock masses. 10. Dykes are much longer than
sills.

9. , the
... the .

1. The sooner you start the sooner , ,


you will get there.
.
2. The less said the better.

, .

1. The quicker the work, the greater will be the power needed. 2. The hotter is the
body, the more is the radiation concentrated in the blue end of the spectrum. 3. The
movement of molecules increases as the temperature rises: the faster the
movement, the higher the temperature; the slower the movement, the lower the
temperature. 4. Any smooth () surface will reflect light: the smoother the
surface, the greater the amount of reflection.

10. ,
as.

1. As a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences M. V. Lomonosov directed


all his energies to the development of Russian science. 2. As new synthetic
materials appear science and engineering use them widely for the development of
new electronic instruments. 3. With the help of radio electronics radio
communication with the earth as well as with other cosmonauts in the orbit became
possible. 4. Modern communication is as swift as light. 5. As the power station is
very small in size, only one machine hall houses its entire equipment. 6. When we
say that the device solves problems automatically, we mean that there is as little
human intervention as possible in the operation of the device. 7. As an
astronomical device the radio telescope is far more efficient means than optical
telescopes which were in use in the 19th century.
103

There
are
endogenous
and

exogenous forces that affect the ,


Earths crust. Both are the objects of .
exploration.
.

2. Pay attention to the stress in the following words.

1. Both instruments will be in wide use when we carry on the experiment. 2.


Both this instrument and that device can provide us with the necessary
information. 3. In both cases the operation of the devices was the same. 4. All
team leaders at the plant have either higher or specialized secondary education. 5.
For a moment neither of our friends spoke. 6. Either of these up-to-date methods
will increase labor productivity.

3. Read the text and answer the questions:

geology

prospecting

importance

knowledge

contribute

educational

existence

1) What specialities are there at the geological faculty?


2) When did the faculty come into existence?
3) What famous scientists worked at the faculty?
4) What subjects do the students study?

8. ,
.
,
, .

5) Where do students get their practical knowledge?


6) What new courses appeared at faculty?
7)What specialities do the graduates of the faculty get?
8) What does general geology study?

bad

worse

(the) worst

rapidly

more rapidly

intensive

, ,

most rapidly

more intensive

the most intensive


,

1. Scientists observe the higher temperature at day time and the lower temperature
at night. 2. The river has become wider and deeper. 3. These forces cause more
complex and varied changes. 4. Our planet becomes more and more destroyed. 5.
102

MY SPECIALITY
I study at Tomsk Polytechnic University, Geology and Petroleum
Engineering Institute. There are many specialities at our Institute, namely, mineral
exploration, hydrology and geo-ecology, petroleum geology, oil and gas field
development, and others. I am a second-year student of the Geology and Mineral
Exploration Department.
This department came into existence in 1901. It was called the Mining Department
and for many years it was headed by the prominent scientist V. A. Obruchev.
Among the well-known scientists who have contributed to the development of ore
mining and to the work of our University are M. A. Usov, M. K. Korovin, K. V.
Radugin, I. P. Schvartzev.
Modern geologists must know a wide range of subjects. During the first two years
of studies students deal mostly with basic subjects. They get knowledge in higher
mathematics, physics, general geology, mineralogy. General geology is of great
importance to every specialist as it gives the general knowledge of the Earth, its
history, as well as, the physical and chemical properties of rocks.

23

The new trend in the educational system is the development of courses in geoecology, computer science, economics, and marketing. So, we have mining
engineering courses which provide wide and general tuition, embracing not only
mineral extraction and processing methods, but also business administration,
economics, as well as, communication skills which are vital for important career
development. Practical training in the field and at different industrial enterprises
is also of great importance. There students gain practical knowledge and
experience needed for their future job. The graduates of our Institute get such
specialties as exploration geologists, geo-ecologists, mining engineers, drillers,
development geologists and others.
4. Match the English words in column A with their Russian equivalents in
column B.
A

1) geological

a)

2) department

b)

3) speciality

c)

4) prospecting

d)

5) hydrology

e)

6) prominent

f)

7) contribute

g)

8) development

h)

9) extraction

i)

10) processing

j)

11) property

k)

12) trend

l)

13) tuition

m)

14) embrace

n)

15) exploration

o)

5. Compile sentences using the following words.


1) in 1901, the geological faculty, existence, came into.
24

igneous rocks.
3. It means that most of sedimentary rocks are formed by
sediments. 4. That experiment was conducted in the laboratory. 5. He formulated
theories about the past conditions that formed the rocks. 6. The fact that the crust is
constantly subjected to vertical and horizontal movements can be observed from
satellites. 7. Another approach to practical geology is that of the experimental
scientist.

5. ,

that, those .
1. For many centuries men were interested in metals that occurred in the Free
State and those that were obtained by simple processes. 2. Mention should be
made that regular maintenance of the equipment is very important. 3. Minerals
usually possess hardness, that is, the ability to withstand repeated stresses. 4. Most
of minerals are good conductors of heat. That is why they are widely used in
industries. 5. This new material possesses better service properties than that used
in the old installation.

6. ,
it
is (was) ... who that.
It was J. Hutton who is regarded the .
founder of modern geology

1. It was in the late 1700s that Scotland became the home of practical geology.
2. It is igneous rocks that mainly form the Earths crust. 3. It is regional geology
that is aimed at making maps. 4. It was J. Hall who conducted experiments to
stimulate the formation of various rock structures by compressing layers of clay. 5.
It was he who put the Neptunian theories to rest.
7. ,
both, either, neither
.
101

1. Our lab assistant studies three foreign languages. His studies take a lot of
time. 2. My brothers' favorite sports are football and tennis. 3. My sister lives in a
three-room flat in the new district of St. Petersburg. 4. When we come to St.
Petersburg in summer we see all the places of historic interest. 5. The main task of
the Academy is to train mining engineers. 6. The Earths crust consists of
sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks.

2) as well, practical training, at industrial enterprise, in the field, is of great


importance, and.
3) at our, have, specialities, we, several, department.
4) of subjects, geologists, know, modern, must, a wide range

6. Make up your own sentences with the following words.


3. ,
some, any.

1) specialist
2) training
3) properties of rocks

,
1. The student needs some time to
answer your questions.

-
() .
2. Some 500
delegates
present at the conference.


were

()
500 .

3. Any data on that problem will be


of greatest interest for the
explorers.

4) mining engineering
5) educational system
7. Give a short summary of the text.

1.
Have you got any books on geology? 2. There is some interesting
information about the internal structure of the Earth. 3. The rock near Earths
center is somewhere between 10 and 15 times as dense as water. 4. Igneous rocks
more than any other kind of rocks show that the Earth is changing. 5. Is there
anybody in the lab? - Yes, there is. There is somebody there. 6. In some cases
limestone is a clastic rock.
4. ,
,
that .
1. The amount of sedimentary rocks on the Earths surface is three times that of
igneous rocks. 2. It should be noted that 95% of the Earths crust is made up of
100

25

Lesson VI.

APPENDIX
MY HOME TOWN

Lead-in

What is the difference between city and town?


What are the characteristic features of the place where you live?
Fill in the spidegram with words that go with the topic City/Town.

1.
.

My sister is twenty three. ... is an engineer. ... has a family. ... husband is an
officer. ... is twenty nine. ... live in Sevastopol. In summer when ... am free ... go to
Sevastopol to meet ... sister and ... husband and ... family. The family has a very
good flat in a new house. ... is a three-room flat. We like ... very much. The rooms
are light and clean. I, ... wife and ... children will come back to Moscow on the 5th
of September by plane. Please, meet ... at the airport!

City /
Town

2. , ,
-(e)s, -'s.
; .
Vocabulary
1) to be founded
2) be situated on (in)
3) be surrounded by
4) technical college
5)scientific
6) research institute
7) industrial enterprise
8) be evacuated to
9) to give rise to
10) discovery
11) deposit

-

,
, ,

1. Read the following words and remember their pronunciation.

-s, -'s, -s'

3-

leaves home.
, to
leave-

Their summer leaves. the school-leavers' final


, a leave - exams school-leaver

[i] Siberia, sixth, industry, river


[:] research, birch, University
26

99

[e] electrical, chemical, centre

7. Match synonyms in columns A and B.


A.

B.

[] discovery, industrial, country, culture


[au] town, founded, now, surrounded

range

well - to do

[i:] leading, cedar,

part

piece

2. Pay attention to the stress in the following words.

to produce

comprehension

surrounded

producing

to deal with

to examine

education

appear

to explore

to manufacture

academic

architecture

unemployment

outside the sphere

discipline

question

3. Read the text and answer the following questions:

firm

scope

wealthy

company

province

subject

understanding

several

a number

connection

1) Where is Tomsk situated?


2) Whats the population of Tomsk?
3) Why is Tomsk considered a students town?
4) How many higher educational institutes are there in Tomsk?
5) Which are the oldest universities in Tomsk?
6) Is Tomsk an industrial center? Why?
7) What is Tomsk famous for?

tie

lack of jobs

issue

to consider

MY HOME TOWN

My home town is Tomsk.Tomsk is an old Siberian town. It was founded in 1604


and now its population is over 500 thousand. It is situated on the bank of the river
Tom in West Siberia. It is surrounded by fine forests of pine, birch, cedar and fir
trees.

8. Give a short summary of the text.

In old times Tomsk was just like any other small Siberian town wooden houses,
narrow streets, no parks and gardens. In 1888 Tomsk University, the first in
Siberia, was opened and Tomsk became a centre of education and culture of
Siberia. Tomsk is often called a students town. And it is really right. There are
now six higher educational institutes in Tomsk. There are also about 30 technical
colleges. So every sixth person in Tomsk is a student. The Tomsk Polytechnic
University is one of the oldest and largest higher schools in our country. It was
founded in 1896 and trains more than 16 thousand students.
Tomsk is a big scientific and cultural centre. The oldest in Siberia State University,
the Polytechnic and Medical Universities have become the basis for the
98

27

development of academic science in Tomsk and in 1979 the Siberian Branch of the
USSR Academy of Sciences was founded. There are many research institutes in
Tomsk. Many Tomsk scientists are well known all over the world.
Tomsk is an industrial centre too. The first industrial enterprise appeared
in Tomsk in 1920. During the Great Patriotic War many big industrial enterprises
were evacuated to Tomsk and they gave rise to the development of industry in
the region. There are many plants and factories in Tomsk now. The leading
industries are electrical and mechanical engineering, metal-working, foodproducing industries and others. Thanks to the discovery of oil and gas deposits,
the chemical industry began to develop in Tomsk.
There are a lot of beautiful places in Tomsk. Tomsk is famous for its
wooden architecture. You will see wonderful buildings decorated with traditional
Russian woodwork, so called wooden laces.

town, a whole country. Somebody decided to build the factories. Somebody


decided to construct roads, build the housing, produce the cars, knit the shirts, and
smoke the bacon. Why? What is going on in all those buildings? It is easy to see
that understanding individual micro decisions is very important to any
understanding of your society. Macroeconomics, in its turn, deals with the
functioning of national economic complex and the behaviour of the main classes
and social groups.
4. Answer the following questions.
1) What branch of science does economics belong to?
2) What problems does economics deal with?
3) Why, do you think, some are people poor and others are rich?

4. Now describe the city \ town where you live. Pay attention to the following
questions and the words.
1) Do you know the town where you live in well?
2) What district do you live in?
3) Do you like modern many-storied buildings or wooden architecture?
4) How can you get to the centre of your town from your place?
5) What places do you like to go for a walk?
6) Have you any favourite places?
7) What changes would you like to see in your town?
8) What places of interest can you name?
architecture
climate
entertainment
church
art gallery
night club
traffic
public transport

beautiful
crowded
modern
dirty
expensive
cheap
excellent
famous for

4) Which two main divisions of economics do you know?


5) What do micro- and macroeconomics deal with?
5. Complete the sentences.
1) Economics studies a wide _________ questions.
2) Economics is closely tied with ________
3) Many social philosophers were trying to solve a questions of ________
4) Economics is subdivided into ________
5) Microeconomics deals with ________ industries.
6) A household can be considered as a _______
7) The firm must make a ________ what to produce.
8) Microeconomics doesnt ______ with the questions of output distribution.
9) The functioning of national economic complex is the sphere of ________
6. Give English equivalents for the following words and phrases from the text.

5. Read the texts given below and say what are the advantages and
disadvantages of living in these towns.
1) THE TOWN WHERE I LIVE

, , ,
, ,
, ,
, .

I love living in Venice, its full of history. I like it because its quite a small
city. I think it has got a population of about 200.000 people, but there are lots of
28

97

1. Pay attention to the pronunciation of the following terms.


[ju:] consume, distribution
[ei] paid, speculation, scale, separate

tourists, especially in summer. There are no cars or lorries, but there are water
buses on the main canals all day and night. But you need lots of money to live
here. Flats are very expensive. Apart from the cinemas and theatres, theres not
much to do in the evenings. But I still love it here.

[i] briefly, principle, issue, discipline


2) PERM IS MY NATIVE TOWN
2. Pay attention to the stress in the following words.
attempt

determine ......inflation

exclusively

output .......distributional

3. Read the text, fulfill the exercises.

I live in Perm. Perm is my native town. It is one of the largest towns in the Urals. It
was founded in 1723. The population of Perm is more than 900.000. Today Perm
is an important industrial center. There are many factories and plants in our city.
They produce modern metal cutting machine tools, television sets and others.
Perm is a big center. There are 40 secondary schools and 7 institutes and
University in our town.
Perm is a beautiful town. There are many trees and flowers in the streets of our
town.

WHAT DOES ECONOMICS STUDY?


Economics is a social science studying economy. Like the natural sciences and
other social sciences, economics attempts to find laws and principles of economic
functioning of society. Most students who take economics for the first time hardly
can imagine the range of questions which this science studies. Some think that
economics will teach them about the stock market, or what to do with their
money. Others think that economics deals exclusively with problems like inflation
and unemployment. In fact, it deals with all these subjects but they are parts of a
much larger system.
First of all, there are two major divisions of economics: microeconomics and
macroeconomics. Microeconomics deals with the functioning of individual
industries and the behaviour of individual economic decision making units:
single business firms and households. Macroeconomics explores the decisions that
individual businesses and consumers make. The choices of firms about what to
produce and how much to charge and the choices of households about what to buy
and how much of it to buy help to explain why the economy produces the things it
does.
Another big question that microeconomics addresses is who gets the things that are
produced. Wealthy households get more output then do poor households, and the
forces that determine this distribution of output are outside the scope of
microeconomics. Why do we have poverty? Who is poor? Why do some jobs pay
more than others? Think about all the things we consume in a day on the scale of a
96

29

Lesson XI.
INTRODUCTION TO ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT

Lesson VII.
MY JOB

Lead-in

Lead-in

Discuss the following questions:

What is a job for you?


What kind of jobs would you like to have?
Is there a difference between jobs for men and jobs for women?

1) Why did you decide to become an economist?

Ask questions concerning the topic My Job using the following question
words:

2) In your opinion, what does an economist do?


3) Do you know any world famous economists?
4) Do you agree that all human activity is connected with economy?
Vocabulary

-Why? -Where? -When? - How? -Who? -What?


Ex. What is your job?
1) social sciences

2) natural sciences

3) attempts

4) functioning (economic)

5) stock market

6) exclusively

, ,

7) inflation

8) unemployment

9) individual industry

1. Read the following words and remember their pronunciation.

10) individual behavior

[e] friend, assemble, special, attentive, necessary

11) consumer

[] dull, become, much

12) output

; ,

[a:] plant, start, department

13) poverty

14) wealthy

Vocabulary
1) plant
2) skilled
3) assembly workshop
4) lorry
5) responsible for
6) attentive
7) realize
8) equipment
9) properly
10) salary

2. Pay attention to the stress in the following words.


assembly
lorries

necessary ................attentive
specialist
30

95

product ...................equipment

3. Read the text about Nick and his job, and decide if the following statements
are true (T) or false (F).
MY JOB

Fig. 2 Pipeline system

My friend Nick works at a plant. He is a skilled metal worker. He works in the


assembling workshop of tractor plant. Tractors and lorries of different kinds are
produced there. His work starts at 8 oclock in the morning and finishes at 5
oclock in the evening.
Nick is responsible for special assembling operations. He makes a part of
the product and passes it to the next person. So he has to be very attentive. He tries
to do his job well as he realizes he is part of a team.
Nicks work is not easy because he has to do the same work every day. Sometimes
it is a monotonous and dull process. But he likes it anyway because he deals with
modern machines. All departments and shops of the plant have up-to-date
equipment. To use it properly, its necessary to know a lot of things, so Nick is
going to enter the Polytechnic University to become a specialist in MachineBuilding. The good thing about Nicks job is that his salary is rather high and he
has holidays twice a year.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Nick is a skilled worker.


His working day lasts for 10 hours.
Nick is responsible for the different operations.
Nicks work is not difficult.
Nick thinks that his job is interesting and and not dull.
Nick is a student of the Polytechnic University.
Nick has a good salary and holiday two times a year.

4. What job are you interested in?


1) well - paid
2) interesting
3) in a large up-to-date company
4) in perspective industry
5) prestigious
6) not to sit the whole day in the office
5. What position would you like to have?
94

31

1) to manage people manager


2) to work for someone employee
3) to be a boss self-employed, businessman
4) be responsible for something top manager, director
5) to work in a private or public company employee
6. Answer the following questions.
1) Is it simple to choose a career?
2) What qualities are necessary for future business people? Teachers? Engineers?
Your profession?
3) What qualities are considered universal for all careers?
4) Are you the right person for the profession youve chosen?
5) Do you enjoy your present job? What are the good and bad things about it?
6) Do you earn a lot?
7) How difficult is it to find a good job in your specialty?
7. Describe your job - your duties, salary, working hours, conditions and
difficulties.

1.gathering system

A.

2.pump station

B.

3.crude trunkline

C.

4.crude tank farm

D.

5.tanker

E.

6.marine terminal

F.

7.refinery

G.

8.petrochemical
plant

H.

9.product line

I. \

10.processing

J.

11.distribution center K.
12. oil tankage

L.

13. destination

M.

5. Give an explanation to the following purposes of the pipeline system.


Example: Moving gas progresses from the gas field to gas processing plants
and from there to the market.

Gathering Transporting
Moving
Distributing
Gathering system -

6. Here is the diagram of Russian pipeline gathering system. Use the abovementioned terms and give a short explanation to each element of the pipeline
system. (Note* the differences)
32

93

3. Read the mini-textPipeline System; look at the diagram and pay attention
to the underlined terms in the text.
Pipeline System

Lesson VIII.
ENGINEERING JOBS
Lead-in
What does the word engineering mean?
What types of engineering jobs do you know?
Match the following engineering jobs with their translation and give an
explanation to each of these jobs.
1) chemical engineering
2) civil engineering
3) electrical engineering
4) marine engineering

Fig. 1 Pipeline system

5) metallurgical engineering

6) mechanical engineering

7) transportation (traffic) engineering
8) petroleum engineering

9) software engineering

10) design engineering

What other engineering jobs do you know?

In the petroleum industry, pipelines are used for a variety of purposes:


1. gathering crude oil from individual leases and delivering it to a central
location for processing;
2. transporting crude oil from fields to port terminals for tanker transportation;
3. moving crude oil from processing centers and supply points to the refineries
and other markets;
4. moving gas from fields to gas processing plants and from these plants to
markets;
5. distributing petroleum products from the refineries to the distribution centers.
(http://www. Wikipedia)

4. Match the English terms with the Russian ones.


Example: 13. destination - A.
92

Vocabulary
1) design engineer
2) production engineer
3) technican engineer
4) test/laboratory technician
5) service technician
6) installation (maintanence)
technician
7) production planning and control
technician
8) inspection technician
9) designer (draftsman)
10) skilled worker


-
-

-
,
()
,
,
33

11) mechanic
12) welder
13) electrician

o, , ,

14) to create
15) to extend
16) to update

,
, ,


,
;
,
,
-.
,
, ,

, ,

()
c,

; ;

;
,
,
, ,
( -. )

; ,

17) application
18) reliability
19) component
20) to ensure
21) to handle
22) fault
23) to occur
24) cost-effective
25) to require
26) to maintain
27) to install
28) preventative maintanence
29) repairs
30) incoming
31) outgoing
32) specifications
33) to manufacture
34) in accordance with
35) joining
36) to wire
37) to carry out

tanker

marine (port) terminal

refinery

petrochemical plant

product line

processing

distribution center

oil tankage

destination

gathering

individual lease

moving

transporting

supply

point

distributing

1. Pronounce the following words. Pay special attention to the letters in bold.
lease individual terminal supply variety tankage crude
2. Read the following word formations and remember their pronunciation
Pay special attention to the stress.

distribute- distributing-distribution

deliver- delivering- delivery

1. Read the following words and remember their pronunciation.

process-processing

transport-transporting-transportation

[ei] aim, create, detailed, maintain

produce-product-production

refine-refinery

[i] efficient, technician, equipment


[o] product, quality

locate-location

gather - gathering

34

91

2. Pay attention to the stress in the following words.


Lesson X.
PIPELINE CONSTRUCTION
Pipeline transport is a transportation of goods through a pipe. Most commonly,
liquid and gases are sent, but pneumatic tubes that transport solid capsules using
compressed air have also been used.
As for gases and liquids, any chemically stable substance can be sent through a
pipeline. Therefore, sewage, slurry, water, or even beer pipelines exist; but the
most important are those transporting oil and natural gas.
Lead-in
Fill in the spidergram with the words associated with Pipeline Engineering

Pipeline
Engineering

Explain your associations.


Terms and Vocabulary
gathering system

pump station

crude trunkline

crude tank farm

\
90

design

draughtsmen ...........essential

updating

craftsmen...............specification

reliability

component

repair

technician
3. Read the text below and fulfill the exercises.
ENGINEERING JOBS
Professional engineers may work as:
Design engineers: They work as part of a team to create new products and
extend the life of old products by updating them and finding new applications for
them. Their aim is to build quality and reliability into the design and to introduce
new components and materials to make the product cheaper, lighter, or stronger.
Production engineers: They ensure that the production process is efficient,
that materials are handled safely and correctly, and that faults which occur in
production are corrected. The design and development departments consult with
them to ensure that any innovations proposed are practicable and cost-effective.
Just below the professional engineers are the technican engineers. They
require a detailed knowledge of a particular technology electrical, mechanical,
electronic, etc.
Engineering technicians may work as:
Test/Laboratory technicians: They test samples of the materials and of the
product to ensure quality is maintained.
Installation and service technicians: They ensure that equipment sold by
the company is installed correctly and carry out preventative maintenance and
essential repairs.
Production planning and control technicians: They produce the
manufacturing instructions and organize the work of production so that it can be
done as quickly, cheaply, and efficiently, as possible.
Inspection technicians: They check and ensure that incoming and outgoing
components and products meet specifications.
Designers (draftsman ): They produce the drawings and design documents
from which the product is manufactured.
There are also many skilled workers, such as:
Mechanics: They can be different in accordance with their work- engine
mechanic, maintenance mechanic, and others.
Welders: They do specialized joining, fabricating, and repair work.
Electricians: They wire and install electrical equipment.

35

4. Give the Russian equivalents to the following English verbs and compose
sentences with them:
1) to create
2) to extend
3) to update
4) to handle
5) to ensure

6) to require
7) to occur
8) to maintain
9) to carry out
10) to install

5. Give the English equivalents to the following expressions.

9. Translate the following sentences, using the words in the brackets:


1) ..
50 (present-day, develop).
2) - ,
(transform).
3)
(cycling).

1)
2)
3)
4) ()
5)

4) , ,
, (interdisciplinary).
5)
(radically, as a result of).

6.Translate the following phrases:


1) incoming information; professional engineer; engineer taking part in the
experiment; joining detail
2) innovations proposed; detailed knowledge; equipment sold; highly skilled
work; produced by the plant; well-done work .

10. Make your own sentences using the following expressions:


1) into two parts
2) consist of

7. Form nouns from the following verbs using the modal and complete the
table.
Verb +suffix noun
To produce + -ion production
To appear + ance appearance
To teach + -er teacher (Suffixes er, -or describe people and their
jobs )
1) to create
2) to manage
3) to design
4) to ensure
5) to differ
6) to install
-ion

3) a complex system
4) living organisms
5) parts of
11.Give a short summary of the text.

7) to maintain
8) to introduce
9) to operate
10) to occur
11) to work
12) to employ
-ance
-ence

-er
-or
36

89

6) interdisciplinary science

f)

7) to emerge

g)

8) to affect

h)

9) cycling

i)

10) to contain

j)

6.Agree or disagree with the following statements:


1) The idea of biosphere appeared more than a century ago.
2) The part of the biosphere containing the lowest concentration of living matter.
3) The biosphere is a simple system of energy use and material cycling.
4) We can divide the biosphere into two parts.
5) Facts about ecological systems are drawn from biology, geology, chemistry,
physics, and other sciences.
7. Complete the following sentences:
1) The idea of biosphere appeared more than .
2) The biotic part of the biosphere consisting of fauna and flora is called .
3) Ecology is a branch of science which deals with .
4) Geoecology is not a synonym for .
5) Humankind is entering a new era in its evolution characterised by .
8. Find the synonyms to the following words:
influence (v)

mankind

include (v)

release (v),

large

field of science,

emerge (v)

be concerned with

1. creation

1.

1. manager

8. Check how many engineering jobs you could name before and after reading
the text. State who fulfills the following tasks:
1) tests completed motors from a production line.
2) finds out why a new electronics assembly doesnt work.
3) sees that the correct equipment is available on a production line.
4) finds a cheaper way of manufacturing a workpiece.
5) repairs heating system installed by their company.
6) sees that a new product is safe to use.
9. Work in pairs. Ask your partner
- which area of engineering is the most interesting for you?
- which area is the most demanding in our job market?
- which engineering area did you choose?
-why did you choose this area?
- what are your duties at work?
10. Express your personal viewpoint on the following:
1) The work of an engineer is:
prestigious
well-paid
difficult
exciting
responsible
creative
monotonous and dull
2) Mechanical engineers have a lot of job opportunities
3) Mechanical engineers are extremely important in the running of different plants
and industries.
4) Teamwork is very important.
5) Engineers manage our future.

change (v)

88

37

Lesson IX.
NEW ENERGY FROM OLD SOURCES

in foreign aid programs, and as freelance consultants or engineers. Broad


education combined with high-quality specialized training allows geoecologists to
work in fields such as environmental analytics, waste disposal, contaminated
sites remediation as well as agriculture and forestry.
Today environment is not just modified by human action: it is radically
transformed. Global satellite observations of the Earth have revealed that about 60
% of land surface is to some extent damaged by industrial, agricultural, and other
human activities, whereas no more than 40 % of land remains intact. Humankind
is entering a new era in its evolution characterised by a new relationship with
nature. Understanding of how biosphere works, and how it reacts to the global
environmental change is of fundamental importance.

Lead-in
What is energy?
What sources of energy do you know?
What sources of energy are more efficient and why?

( . . Introduction to Ecology. ., 1999)

What source of energy is number 1 today?


4. Give Russian equivalents to the following words and word-groups:
Vocabulary

1) living organisms
2) multidisciplinary science
3) life-supporting layer

1) world-wide

2) demand for

3) effort

5) interdisciplinary science

4) delay

, , ,

6) highest concentration

5) nuclear power plant

8) human

6) to increase

9) interaction

7) consumption

( )

8) to expand

(); () ,

9) overall

, , ;

10) supply

11) available

12) unlimited

13) tides

38

4) concept of the biosphere

7) environmental change

5. Match the words with their translation:


1) to influence

a)

2) mankind

b)

3) high concentration

c)

4) to appear

d)

5) composition

e)
87

14) current

2. Pay attention to the stress in the following words.

15) steam

bio sphere

freelance

16) deposit

; ;

remediation

magnitude

17) heat n

biota

primarily

18) heating

19) surface

20) transfer

21) to circulate (through)

22) to estimate

23) solar energy

24) solar cell

25) to produce

26) to convert (conversion)

()

27) in the meantime

28) mass production

3.Read the text and fufill the exercises


ECOLOGY AND GEOECOLOGY
The idea of biosphere appeared more than a century ago, but it was developed
later by the Russian scientist V. I. Vernadsky. It is his concept of the biosphere
that we accept today.
The first living cell emerged between 4 billion and 3.8 billion years ago. At present
biosphere includes a vast number of plants, animals, and other life-forms of our
planet. Biosphere is a relatively thin life-supporting layer around the Earth
containing living organisms, which is strongly influenced in its composition,
structure and energetic by the living organisms. The part of the biosphere
containing the highest concentration of living matter the Earths thin and fragile
film of life varies from a few meters in deserts and tundra to a hundred meters
in a tropical forest region and oceans.
The biosphere is a complex system of energy use and material cycling. This
system functions on energy flowing from the Sun and it gives off energy (primarily
as heat) to space. We can divide the biosphere into two parts, living and nonliving,
or biotic and abiotic. The biotic part of the biosphere consisting of fauna and flora
is called biota. We can further divide the abiotic portion into three parts: the solid
Earth or lithosphere, liquid water or hydrosphere, and the atmosphere.

1. Read the following words and remember their pronunciation.


[e] present, energy, develop, efforts
[i:] receive, heating, steam, these
[ei] available, delay, estimate, application, circulation
[:] convert, transfer, conversion

Ecology is a branch of science which deals with the world of nature including its
human component at certain levels of biological organization. It is the study of
the living organisms interactions with each other and with their environment.
Particular concern of the ecologists is with the higher levels of life organization:
from populations to biosphere. The functional unit in ecology is the ecosystem
because it comprises all interactions of communities with both their living (biotic)
and their nonliving (abiotic) environments. Ecology is a multidisciplinary science.
Modern ecology has to deal with environmental problems caused by human
activities.

[o:] resources, warmth, source, small

Geoecology is probably best translated as environmental sciences. Geoecology is


not a synonym for physical geography. Geoecologists work in the industry, for
municipal, regional or federal authorities, in universities and research institutes,

circulation

86

2.Pay attention to the stress in the following words.


application

electricity

demand

nuclear

transferred

consumption

39

9) composition

10) living organism

11) living matter

12) film

At present the energy is the result of many complex and different factors, including
a world-wide demand for energy: efforts during the recent past to develop new
energy resources; delays in the construction of nuclear power plants, automobile
changes that increase gasoline consumption. Demand must be moderated, and
intensive efforts must be made to expand the overall energy supply.

13) cycling

14) biotic

15) abiotic

16) biota

( )

But energy is available to use in practically unlimited quantities from other


sources. Large amount of energy can be received from ocean tides and currents,
from tremendous underground steam deposits, from the power of wind and from
the heat of the Sun. Here comes the Sun. The idea of heating houses with warmth
of the Sun has become popular in the last few years.

17) lithosphere

18) hydrosphere

19) atmosphere

20) interaction

21) environment

22) ecosystem

23) municipal authorities

24) federal authorities

25) aid program

26) freelance

27) waste diposal

4. Say whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F). If false,
correct them according to the text.

2)
()

28) contaminated

1) At present there is no energy problem

29) remediation

2) During the recent years efforts are being made to develop new energy
resources.

30) intact

3. Read the text and fulfill the exercises:

NEW ENERGY FROM OLD SOURCE

Most solar-heating systems use a black surface to absorb the Suns heat. Engineers
cover the surface with glass which lets in the rays, but holds heat. The heat is
transferred to water that runs through small pipes. The hot water is then
circulated through the house. It is estimated that 40 million new buildings will
be heated by solar energy by the year 2000. The solar cell is another way to
produce power from the Sun. It converts sunlight directly into electricity. These
cells are used with great success in space program, but remain far expensive for
wide-spread application. In the meantime, solar homes are being built and lived in
from California to Connecticut. The next step is mass production of homes, office
buildings and schools all heated by the Sun.

3) It is not possible to receive energy from ocean tides and currents.


4) Most solar-heating systems use a white surface to absorb the Suns heat.

1. Pay attention to the pronunciation of the following terms.

5) The heat is transferred to water that runs through small pipes.

[ai] biota, biosphere, hydrosphere

6) The solar cell doesnt convert sunlight directly into electricity.

[e] accept,energy, century

7) The solar cells are cheap.

[i] freelance, little, living, system


40

85

Lesson IX.
ECOLOGY AND GEOECOLOGY

5. Translate the sentences into Russian.


1) Demand must be moderated, and intensive efforts must be made to

Lead-in

expand the overall energy supply.

What is a biosphere?

2) Energy is available to use in practically unlimited quantities from other sources.

What is ecology?

3) Engineers cover the surface with glass which lets in the rays, but holds heat.

What is geoecology?

4) The next step is mass production of homes, office buildings and schools all
heated by the Sun.

Fill in the spidegram with your associations about ECOLOGY and


GEOECOLOGY , then explain your associations

6. Translate the sentences into English.


1)

.
2)
.

Ecology and
Geoecology

3) -
.
4)
.
7. Match the English equivalents with the Russian ones.

Vocabulary
1) biosphere

2) concept

3) to include

4) relatively

5) life-supporting

6) layer

7) to emerge

8) be influenced (in \ by)


84

1) a world-wide demand

2) gasoline consumption

b)

3) intensive efforts

c)

4) energy supply

d)

5) unlimited quantity

e)

6) wide-spread

f)

8.
a) What are the synonyms to the following words:
1) different

a) to get

2) to use

b) various

3) amount

c) vapour
41

4) to receive d

d) to apply

5) steam

e) quantity

b) What are the antonyms to the following words:

8. Make your own sentences using the following expressions:

1) production
2) inject, v

1) new

a) to cool

2) increase

b) unlimited

3) production facilities

3) limited

c) decrease

4) economically viable

4) expensive

d) old

5) recovery factor

5) to heat

e) cheap
9. Translate the following sentences into English:

9. Complete the following sentences.

1) .

1) At present the energy problem is


3) The suns heat is used for

2) ,
.

4) Most solar-heating systems use

3) , .

2) Large amount of energy can be receive from

5) The solar cell converts sunlight

4) , , :
, , .

6) These cells are used


7) The next step is

10. Translate the following sentences into Russian:

10. Make up 5 questions according to the text., using the following questionwords:
What?
Where?

1) Discovering new reserves of oil is only the beginning of the story.


2) Once oil or gas have been discovered, it has to be established how much is
there, how much can be recovered, what its quality is and how the oil and gas can
be transported safely to a refinery or terminal.

How?

3) Crude oil is found in underground pockets or traps.

Why?

4) This pressure is sometimes sufficient to force the oil to the surface of the well
unaided and excess pressure may cause problems.

Which? -

11.Give a short summary of the text.

42

83

2) Who usually estimates the quality and quantity of oil in a reservoir?


3) What is the reason of an increased recovery factor?

PART II

4) Is crude oil the only hydrocarbon found in a reservoir?

Lesson I.
WHAT IS GEOLOGY?

5) Does reservoir pressure cause problems?


6) Why is pumping so necessary?

Lead-in

7) What is the way to increase pressure?

1. What does the word geology mean?


2. What does geology deal with?

8) Does oil in one reservoir differ from that of the other one?

Vocabulary

9) What does oil look like?


1) crust (Earth)

()

2) event

3) force (s)

4) evidence

5) to interpret

6) to affect

3) The fluid extracted from the well

7) endogenous

4) There is no single solution to the problem of getting oil out

8) exogenous

9) to originate

7. Give Russian equivalents to the following word-groups:

10) volcanic activity

1) Underground pockets

11) earthquake

2) Composition

12) destructive

3) Economically viable

13) effect

14) weathering

15) erosion

16) transport (of rock material)

17) pertain to

, ( to -. )

10) What do production and transport methods depend on?


11) Where is it cheaper to drill oil?
12) What is the only way of getting oil to the recovery? Why?
6. Complete the following sentences:
1) Once oil or gas have been discovered
2) Crude oil is found

4) Recovery factor
5) Production
6) Underwater production system

82

43

18) be concerned with

19) draw on

20) to decipher

1. Pay attention to the pronunciation of the following terms.


[:] surface, earth, first

[i] history, living, consist


[ai] science, sides, kinds, limestone
[o:] transform, organism, formed, source
2. Pay attention to the stress in the following words.
phenomena

proceed

participation

event

accumulation

climatology

saturate

The recovery factor - the amount of oil that can be economically extracted
compared with the total amount estimated to be in the ground - varies widely.
Twenty years ago a recovery factor of about 30 per cent was normal. Today the
average is about 45 per cent. Improved technology is likely to increase this further.
Crude oil is found in underground pockets or traps. Gas and water are generally
found in the reservoir too - usually under pressure. This pressure is sometimes
sufficient to force the oil to the surface of the well and excess pressure may
cause problems.

[o] geology, carbonic, oxygen,

geology

transported safely to a refinery or terminal. In other words, is the find


economically viable? If so, further wells will have to be drilled and production
facilities established.

In the early stages of production an oilfield may have freely flowing wells, but as
oil is extracted the pressure decreases and pumping may become necessary.
Alternatively, it may be possible to increase the pressure by injecting further gas
or water into the edges of the reservoir.
Crude oil is a natural substance whose composition varies. Even in the same
oilfield, where oil is obtained from different depths, it can vary greatly in
composition and appearance. It may be an almost colorless liquid or a sluggish,
black substance, so heavy that it cannot be pumped at atmospheric temperatures.
Generally, however, crude oils look rather like thin, brown treacle.

3. Read the text and fulfill the exercises.


The word geology comes from the Greek language and means science or
knowledge of the Earth. Geology has to do with the nature and development of
the Earths crust. Events, which happened hundreds of millions of years ago,
have to be reconstructed from evidence that is available. Geology has been
subdivided into several specialized disciplines. Classical geology interprets the
events of the past in terms of processes, which occur at present.

There is no single solution to the problem of getting oil out. Production and
transport methods will depend on where the oil is found, and in particular, whether
it has been found under the land or under the sea. Obviously, it is a lot harder and
more expensive to drill for oil beneath the sea than on land, which is one reason
why the majority of the oil that we use is produced onshore.
(Material supplied by the Institute of Petroleum)

4. Agree or disagree with the following statements:

The uppermost part of the crust is affected by two different kinds of forces.
Firstly, there are endogenous forces that originate within the Earth. The crust is
never completely at rest because of movements resulting from these endogenous
forces. Everything is in motion. Volcanic activity and earthquakes are
endogenous forces.

1) Crude oil is the only hydrocarbon found in a reservoir.

The form of the Earths surface is the result of a balance between the endogenous
forces and exogenous forces that act at the Earths surface. They are the
destructive effects of the weathering, erosion and transport of rock material.The

5. Answer the following questions:

44

2) Reservoir pressure causes problems.


3) The fluid extracted from the well usually contains oil.
4) Crude oil is a natural substance whose composition is stable.

1) What team is needed to solve the problem of production?


81

16) sluggish

17) treacle

18) seam

; ;

19) large scale

, ;

20) commercial production

21) production facilities

22) trap (pocket)

(
)

23) reservoir

-;
( , )

24) sufficient

25) to force

26) to inject

27) atmospheric temperature

1. Pay attention to the pronunciation of the following terms.

principal agents of this process are water, wind and in the polar and mountain
ranges, ice. Endogenous forces can result in the formation of new rocks (for
example, in volcanoes), while exogenous forces are destructive and transportive.
The study of the Earths geological history is called stratigraphy.
Regional geology aims at the integration of all the geological information
pertaining to a particular area and this is expressed in the form of geological map.
Such maps are the essential basis of all kinds of practical geological work.
Applied geology is concerned with the practical use of geological knowledge
(discovery of mineral resources, oil and water, etc.). The natural laws controlling
geological processes have remained essentially the same for thousands of millions
of years.
So geology is the study of the Earths history and draws on all the technological
resources of modern science in deciphering the record of the rocks as documents
of Earth history. The present state of geology has been attained as a result of much
work spread over many years and even now, views on the Earths evolution and
Mans ideas of his own development are far from complete..
(Robert Lauterbach The World of Geology -The Earth then and now 1983
Leipzig)
4. Match the parts of the sentences.

[ai] refinery, viable, widely, pipeline


[e] excess, well, generally

1. The word geology comes

a. with the practical use of geological


knowledge.

2. Geology has become


subdivided

b. to a particular area.

3. We can draw

c. into several
disciplines.

[i:] treacle, seam, decrease, increase


2. Pay attention to the stress in the following words.
viable

established

excess

terminal

sluggish

discovered

more

specialized

4. The upper part of the crust is d. at the integration of the geological


affected
information.

3. Read the text and fulfill the exercises.


Discovering new reserves of oil is only the beginning of the story. It's then the job
of a new team of economists, scientists and engineers to decide whether - and how
- to go into large-scale commercial production.
Once oil or gas have been discovered, it has to be established how much is there,
how much can be recovered, what its quality is and how the oil and gas can be
80

5. The crust is constantly


subjected

e. from the Greek language.

6. Regional geology aims

f. by two different kinds of forces.

7. This information pertains

g. to vertical and horizontal movements.


45

8. Applied geology is
concerned

h. on information
disciplines

from

several

5. Study the following verbs. Fill in the gaps with one of the verbs from the list
in the correct form and a suitable preposition. Use the passive where
necessary.
come from

draw on

be subdivided into

be affected by

.-.

aim at

, -

pertain to

be concerned with

Lesson VIII.
OIL EXTRACTION
Oil extraction = oil production is a process of oil recovery from a well.
Lead-in
Associations: close your eyes and think of Oil extraction. You should jot down all
the things associated with the process that come into your minds. The time limit is
2 minutes. If you dont know the English terms, you can jot down things in
Russian. Then start sharing what you have jotted down. Listen to other students
making suggestions, explanations and try to learn the English words for the ideas
which you have tried to jot down.
Vocabulary
1) extract oil

2) establish (v)

3) refinery

4) reserves

5) decrease (v)

, ,

6) increase (v)

,,

7) discover (v)

1. The word geology _____________ the Greek language.


2. Geology ____________ many different disciplines.
3. Many geological processes ____________endogenous and exogenous forces.
4. Integration of all the geological information ________a particular area.
5. The Earths surface _______________ many destructive forces, such as
weathering, erosion, etc.
6. Applied geology _____________ the practical use of geological knowledge.
7. Geology is the study of the Earths history and _________all the technological
resources of modern science in deciphering the record of the rocks as documents of
Earth history.

8) recover (v)

(), (, )

9) pump (v\n)

, \

6. Give the English equivalents to the Russian words:

10) substance

11) omposition

12) viable

13) recovery factor

14) extract (v)

(,
)

15) excess pressure

1) Classical geology () events of the past ( ) processes


which () at present.
2) Regional geology () at the integration of all the geological
information which ( ) particular area.
3) Geology ( ) the study of development of ( ).
4) We () the present state of geology as a result of much work and
() of records of rocks as documents of its history.
5) The most obvious () of such () are the ()
effects of (, ) which (
) to () landscape and irregularities of the surface.
46

79

8) broadly speaking
8. Translate the following sentences into English:

7. Match the science with the description of what it studies:

1) .

1. Palaeontology-

2)
.

2. Classical geology-

3)
.

3. Geology-

9. Translate the following sentences into Russian:


1) Mining refers to ore extraction.

4. Regional geology-

2) Mining is the industrial process of removing a mineral-bearing substance from


the place of its natural occurrence in the Earths crust.

5. Stratigraphy-

3) The term mining includes the recovery of oil and gas from wells.
4) The mode of occurrence of the sought-for-metallic substance governs to a large
degree the type of mining that is practiced.
5) Depending on their function mine workings are described as exploratory, if they
are driven with a view to finding or proving mineral and as productive if they are
used for the immediate extraction of useful mineral.
10. Give a short summary of the text:
1) Give the definition to mining and its methods.
2) Tell about the functions of mining.

6. Applied geology-

combines all the information from


different fields of geological science
and makes maps.
is concerned with the study of Earths
geological history on the basis of
research of sedimentary rocks.
deals
with
observations
and
classification of the remains in the
rocks and thus constructs their
evolution.
studies the Earth history and uses
technology to decode the records of
rocks.
deals with practical application of
geological knowledge.
seeks to interpret the past events in
terms of the processes which are at
work at present.

8. Choose the correct variant.


1. The surface of the Earth is formed by
A. endogenous forces B. exogenous forces C. both
2. Geological maps
A. show all geological information B. geological information from particular
areas C. essential bases of all kinds of mining
3. In the present days, views on the Earth evolution and development of a man
A. have changed B. are not complete C. have not been determined
4. Geologists
A. input different geological events B. establish history of the Earth C. both
5. Applied geology deals with
A. practical application of geological science B. present day processes
C. geological maps of different areas
9. Discuss and comment on the following questions:

78

47

1. What does the word geology mean?


2. What does geology deal with?
3. What is classical geology aimed at?
4. What forces affect the Earths crust?
5. How do endogenous forces affect the crust?
6. What are the obvious effects of the exogenous forces?
7. What does stratigraphy deal with?
8. What is regional geology aimed at?
9. What does applied geology deal with?

4) If the rock containing the metallic substance is at a deep site and is massive.
5) Mine workings vary ony in shape.
6) Depending on their function mine workings are described as exploratory or
productive.
7) Productive mining can be divided into three works.
5. Complete the following sentences:
1) Mining is a branch of industry, which deals with
2) Many factors affect the choice of the mining method. In case the deposit
3) Mine workings may have different functions, for example, productive workings
which
4) If we describe underground workings, we should divide them into
6. Give Russian equivalents to the following phrases:
Direct access to the surface
Open-cast mining
Tabular deposits
Oil well
Underground workings
Production face

7. Make your own sentences using the following expressions:


1) refer to
2) to include
3) in other words
4) the tendency
5) to contribute
6) to depend on
7) development
48

77

[] earth, depth, length, method

Lesson II.
THE USES OF GEOPHYSICS

2. Pay attention to the stress in the following words.


mining

improving..........substance

ext raction

dimension

exploitation

bearing

Lead-in

Fill in the spidergram with the words associated with Geophysics

3. Read the text and fulfill the exercises.


MINING
Mining refers to ore extraction. Mining is the industrial process of removing a
mineral-bearing substance from the place of its natural occurrence in the Earths
crust. The term mining includes the recovery of oil and gas from wells; metal,
non-metallic minerals, coal, peat, oil shale and other hydrocarbons from the
earth.
Mining can be done either as a surface operation (quarries, opencasts or open
pits) or by an underground method. The mode of occurrence of the sought-for
metallic substance governs to a large degree the type of mining that is practiced.
The problem of depth also affects the mining method. If the rock containing the
metallic substance is at a shallow site and is massive, it may be economically
excavated by a pit or quarry-like opening on the surface. If the metal-bearing mass
is tabular, as a bed or vein, and goes to a great distance beneath the surface, then
it will be worked by some method of underground mining. Working or exploiting
the deposit means the extraction of mineral. Mine workings vary in shape,
dimensions, location and function.
Depending on their function mine workings are described as exploratory to find
or prove mineral and productive when used for the immediate extraction of useful
mineral. Productive mining can be divided into capital investment work,
development work, and face or production work. Investment work aims at
ensuring access to the deposit from the surface. Development work prepares for
the face work, and mineral is extracted (or produced) in bulk.
4. Agree or disagree with the following statements:
1) The term mining includes the recovery of oil and gas from wells as coal, iron
ores and other useful minerals from the earth.
2) There are only two mining methods.
3) The problem of depth also affects the mining method.
76

Geophysics

Explain your associations.

Vocabulary

1) to process

2) to extract

3) ore

4) surface method

5) origin

6) beyond (one's) scope

( .)

7) mineral exploration

8) geophysical exploration


49

9) to call upon

18) to govern

10) soil

, ,

19) depth

11) covering

20) site

12) subsurface

; ,

13) mineral deposit

21) shallow

22) massive

( )

14) rely upon

23) to excavate

15) sought-for

24) tabular

16) assist in

, ,

25) bed

17) procedure

; ;

26) vein

18) density

27) mine working

19) acoustic

28) dimension

20) electrical conductivity

29) exploratory

21) geophysical surveying

30) productive

22) self-powered

31) useful mineral

23) end product

32) capital investment

24) needs

33) development work

25) instrumentation

-
;

34) production work

26) utilize

35) to ensure

27) reasonableness

36) access

37) (in) bulk

1. Pay attention to the pronunciation of the following terms.


[ei] surveying, became, exploration, ancient

1. Pay attention to the pronunciation of the following terms.

[o] property, deposit, origin

[ai] mining, incline, either, drives

[i:] seek, reasonable, heated, conceal

[e] tremendous, tendency dimensions, metal

[o:] sought, ore, source

[i] mineral, distance, driven, dimention, drift

[:] subsurface, alert, survey

[] tabular, capacity, extraction


50

75

Lesson VII.
MINING
2. Pay attention to the stress in the following words.

Lead-in
1) What is mining?
2) What has contributed to the better working conditions of miners?
3) What factors influence the choice of a mining method?
4) What is the difference between development and production work?
Vocabulary

1) ore extraction

2) mineral- bearing

3) occurrence

4) mining

5) metallic mineral

6) non-metallic mineral

7) coal

()

8) peat

9) oil shale

10) hydrocarbon

11) surface method

12) underground method

13) quarry

14) opencast

15) open pit

16) mode of occurrence

17) sought for

74

conceal

ancient .............engineer

rely

surveying ........instrumentation

3. Read the text and fulfill the exercises.


THE USES OF GEOPHYSICS
In ancient times men noted that some heavier, shining rocks could be heated and
processed to extract useful metals. Ore rocks were sought by visual surface
methods and eventually the science of geology became developed to explain the
presence and origin of these useful materials. The geologists tasks have finally
become so numerous that it is beyond the scope of any one persons mind to
contain all the knowledge and skills of the field of mineral exploration.
Geophysical exploration is necessary in the search for minerals.
The methods of geophysics are most often called upon when soil or other earth
covering materials conceal the presence of possible subsurface mineral deposits.
Then we rely upon the contrasts in physical properties of these sought-for
minerals, or any associated properties of the deposit environment, to assist in the
exploration procedure. The methods of geophysical exploration do not rely on the
visual properties of mineral color but rather on the unseen contrasts in density,
magnetism, acoustic behavior, electrical conductivity, or radioactivity of earth
materials.
Instruments used for geophysical surveying usually are specially-engineered, selfpowered devices designed to operate under a wide variety of environmental
conditions. They are the end product of considerable research of geophysical
conditions, field needs, and advanced methods of instrumentation. They utilize
miniaturized electronics, often together with mechanical and optical devices in
order to achieve their purposes. The interpretation of geophysical exploration field
results depends on geological reasonableness as one of the necessary
interpretative conditions. A combination of geophysical methods when used
together with geological and geochemical information is much more helpful in
understanding a subsurface exploration situation than using a single geophysical
method alone.
51

(D.H. Griffiths, R.F. King Applied Geophysics for Geologists and Engineers. The
Elements of Geophysical Prospecting. Oxford, 1981)
4. Read the text. Agree with or reject the following statements from the text.
1) Nowadays people noted that some heavier, shining rocks could be heated .
2) It is beyond the scope of any one persons mind to contain all of the knowledge
of mineral exploration.
3) Usually the methods of geophysics are used when soil materials conceal the
presence of subsurface mineral deposits.
4) Instruments used for geophysical surveying are the end product of considerable
research on geophysical conditions and field needs.
5) Using a single geophysical method alone is much more helpful in understanding
a subsurface exploration situation.
5. Match words from column A with words from column B.
A

11) amount

k.

12)target

l.

13) acquire

m.

14) technique

n.

7. Find 5 sentences presenting the main idea of the text.

8. Give a short summary of the text using following words.


Mineral, exploration, deposit, fundamental question, amount, program target,
search, favorable, available, region, selection, sample, procedure company,
approach, feature, detect, appraisal, area, geology.

a. to extract

1. within the science

b. origin

2. for minerals

c. specializations

3. useful metals

d. in the search

4. conductivity

e. acoustical

5. of useful materials

f. electrical

6. surveying

g. geophysical

7. behaviour

6. Fill in the gaps using the words and phrases from the text :
1) Ore rocks were sought by ... methods.
2) The methods of geophysical exploration rely on the ... contrasts in density,
magnetism and so on.
3) Specially-engineered, self-powered devices were ... to operate under a wide
variety of environmental conditions.
4) A combination ... geophysical methods ... geological and geochemical
information is very useful.

52

73

Several accepted methods or procedures are available for the appraisal during the
different stages. Probably the most common approach is the examination of
prospects described in the literature or documented in company files. New
submittals may also be solicited.

7. Fill in the following table. Remember how adverbs are formed from
adjectives.

adjective

4. Define the sentences which belong to the text:


1. The type and amount of metal required will determine the program target.
2. The process of investigating all submittals can be expensive in time and money.
3. A balance in this case is desired.
4. Planning involves the fundamental questions what, where, and how?
5. Agree or disagree with the following statements:
1) Mineral exploration will never be considered the effort to find and acquire a
maximum number of new economic mineral deposits with a minimum cost...
2) Success is impossible if the area does not have the economic deposits sought.
3) The intelligent selection of favorable areas can be easily done without any of
the regional geologic maps.
4) The examination of prospects described in the literature is know to be the lest
common approach.
6. Match English and Russian words.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

general
eventual
final
usual
physical
possible
probable
real
visual
electrical
wide
helpful

adverb
generally

8. Translate the following phrases:


1) rocks could be heated and
processed

8) subsurface mineral deposits

2) were sought

9) associated properties

3) are developed to explain

10) visual properties

1) in order to

a.

4) in the search for minerals

11) unseen contrasts

2) exploration

b.

5) is combined with

12) a wide variety

3) establish

c.

6) geophysical exploration

13) miniaturized electronics

4) impossible

d.

7) is often called upon

5) region

e.

6) evaluation

f.

7) prospect

g.

8) favorable

h.

9) carefully

i.

10) importance

j.

9. Translate the following sentences into English:


1) .
2) .
3) ,
.
72

53

4)
.

19) submittal

5)
, .

20) solicit

; , ,

1. Pay attention to the pronunciation of the following terms.

10. Give a short summary of the text:


1) Tell what information in the text is new for you.
2) Divide the text into logical parts. Give a title to each part.

[ai] item, provided, divided, size


[o] cost, policy, deposits, product
[i] critical, solicit, submittal, mineral, decision

2. Pay attention to the stress in the following words.


exploration

program .........amount

economic

fundemental.......target

minimum

personnel.........product

3. Read the text and fulfill the exercises.


MINERAL EXPLORATION
Mineral exploration may be considered the effort to find and acquire a
maximum number of new economic mineral deposits or ore bodies with a
minimum cost in a minimum amount of time.
Planning involves the fundamental questions what, where, and how? The type
and amount of metal or product required to satisfy executive policies will
determine the program target. In order to make this decision, all available data
must be processed and carefully studied. Although economics and politics are
important, the critical item is geology. Without the regional geologic maps the
selection of favorable areas is difficult..
Exploration of a selected favorable region can usually be divided into four stages:
regional appraisal, detailed reconnaissance of favorable areas, detailed surface
appraisal of target area, and detailed three-dimensional sampling and
preliminary evaluation.
54

71

Lesson VI.

LESSON III.
THE PHYSICS OF THE EARTH

MINERAL EXPLORATION
Lead-in
Lead-in
What is mineral exploration in your opinion?
Try to list as many words as you can on this topic.
Vocabulary
1) mineral exploration

2) to acquire

3) mineral deposit

4) ore body

5) planning

6) to require

7) to satisfy

8) executive policy

()

1.
2.
3.
4.

Where do earthquakes occur ?


What methods of geophysics are used ?
Can people predict where ore deposits are in the process of their formation?
What procedure could be called geological mapping by geophysical
methods?
5. What are the main purposes of surveying?
Vocabulary

1) in a broad sense

2) to detect

3) earthquake

4) environment

e,

5) magnetic field

6) particular

9) target

7) applicable in

10) available

8) to search for

11) to process

9) frequently

12) favorable

10) background

13) regional appraisal

11) to provide

14) reconnaissance

( -.
) ( with )

15) 3- dimensional

12) to occur

16) sampling

;
;

13) weakness

c,

14) be related to

17) preliminary evaluation

15) ore mineral

18) prospect

16) mineralized

70

55

17) mountain building

18) to predict

19) distribution

20) location

( -. );
,

21) sparsely

22) preliminary

23) resource evaluation

24) underdeveloped

25) gravity

26) geological mapping

27) detailed

, ,

28) mineral exploration

29) overall

( )

30) by and large

31) approach

4) formation
pressure

D. operations to consolidate casing in a well after it


was run in the hole during drilling.

5) drilling

E. a process of well construction by means of rock


destruction with a bit

6) cementing

H. pressure at the bottom of a well that is shut in

7. Give a short summary of the text.

1. Pay attention to the pronunciation of the following terms.


[ei] evaluation, exploration, information
[u:] through, group, movement
[i] predict, particular
[i:] weakness, frequently
2. Pay attention to the stress in the following words.
detect

weakness...............mineralized

relationship

deposit ...............distribution

mountain

movement

56

69

Installing a smaller diameter tubing may be enough to help the production, but
artificial lift methods may also be needed. Common solutions include downhole
pumps, gas lift, or surface pump jacks. The use of artificial lift technology in a
field is often termed as "secondary recovery" in the industry.
4. Find the Russian equivalents to the English terms. There is one extra
answer.
1) cuttings

A.

2) production zone

B.

3) drilling site

C.

4) completion

D.

5) hoist

E.

6) produce

F.

7) production tubing

G.

5.Agree or disagree with the following statements:


1) Completion is the process in which the well is able to produce oil or gas.
2) The perforations provide a path for the oil to flow from the surrounding rock
into the production tubing.
4) The drilling rig has everythingt to circulate the drilling fluid, hoist and turn the
pipe.
5) Hydrocarbons are produced by the smaller diameter of the tubing order to
overcome the hydrostatic effects of heavy fluids.
6. Match the words in the right column with the definitions in the left one.
1) well completion

2) production well

3) well

A. cylindrical hole drilled without entering of people


and having a diameter significantly less than its
length

3. Read the text and fulfill the exercises.


THE PHYSICS OF THE EARTH
In a broad sense, the methods of geophysics are used to detect the very
deep structure of the earth itself, to study earthquakes and earths magnetic field,
and to give us a better understanding of our physical environment. These
particular geophysical fields of knowledge are not directly applicable in the
search for mineral deposits, but they frequently provide a useful background of
indirect information. For example, we now know that earthquakes occur along
zones of weakness on earth, often between continents and oceans, in regions that
are also related to places where ore minerals are being deposited. Mineralized
districts on the earth bear a relationship to areas where there has been past
mountain building, and we can now see and predict places where ore deposits are
in the process of being formed. Thus, through the study of the physical processes
of earth movements and the broader, deeper aspects of geophysics we will learn
more about the distribution and the regional location of mineralized areas.
1.
Regional geophysical surveys, in which data are gathered some what
sparsely over a large area, are often part of a preliminary resource evaluation
program of an underdeveloped area. These surveys are carried out for the general
purposes of learning the background subsurface physical characteristics of an area.
Maps made from these gravity, magnetic, electrical, or radiometric data are also
useful for making geologic maps. This procedure could be called geological
mapping by geophysical methods.
2.
Regional geophysical survey maps are generally not too complex in detail.
But mainly these surveys are useful in providing fundamental geological
information about a region, and can also be useful in planning more detailed
exploration and general engineering programs.
3.
In mineral exploration, geophysics is used as part of the overall program.
By and large, a team effort has been the most successful approach to exploration,
and here geophysics plays its role as a cooperative member of the technical group.
4. Read the text. Find the number of the paragraph which has each of the
following information.
a. Regional geophysical mapping is not too costly.

B. well preparation for oil production after drilling


that includes such operations as perforation jobs, acid
and frac jobs...

b. The earthquakes occur along zones of weakness on earth.

C. pipes run in the hole and cemented during drilling


in order to consolidate well bore walls and prevent
their collapse

5. Find the wrong word in each sentence and change it into the right one:

68

c. A team effort is the most successful approach to exploration

1) The methods of geophysics are used to give us a worse understanding of our


physical environment.
57

2) Through the study of the chemical processes of earth movements we will learn
more about the distribution of mineralized areas.
3) Regional geophysical surveys are often part of a final resource evaluation
program.

1. Pay attention to the pronunciation of the following terms.


[ ai] slightly, provide, high
[ ] production, recovery, pump redundant

4) In mineral exploration, hydrology is used as part of the overall program.

[i:] depleted, field, leak

6. Match the verbs on the left with the nouns or phrases on the right:

[] diameter, migration, sands, fracture, jack

a. to be

1. along zones of ...

b. to provide

2. applicable in sth.

2. Pay attention to the stress in the following words.

c. to occur

3. a useful background

reservoir

redundant ........recovery

d. to make

4. in smth. to smth.

artificial

fracturing .........permeability

e. to be similar

5. geologic maps.

3. Read the text and fulfill the exercises.

7. Complete the sentences using the following verbs. Put the verbs into the
right form:
to detect

to predict

to give

to learn

to interpret

1) Most exploration people easily ... regional geophysical survey maps.


2) We usually ... the very deep structure of the earth itself using the methods of
geophysics.
3) This field of geology ... us a better understanding of our environment.
4) In future our scientists ... more about the regional location of mineralized areas.
5) It is not so difficult ... places where ore deposits are being formed.

DRILLING
The well is created by drilling a hole 5 to 30 inches (1376 cm) diameter
into the earth with an oil rig which rotates a drill bit. After the hole is drilled, a
steel pipe (casing) slightly smaller than the hole is placed in the hole, and secured
with cement. The casing provides structural integrity to the newly drilled wellbore
in addition to isolating potentially dangerous high pressure zones from each other
and from the surface. This process is all facilitated by a drilling rig which
contains all necessary equipment to circulate the drilling fluid, hoist and turn the
pipe, control downhole pressures, remove cuttings from the drilling fluid, and
generate onsite power for these operations.
After drilling and casing the well, it must be 'completed'. Completion is the
process in which the well is enabled to produce oil or gas. In a cased-hole
completion, small holes called perforations are made in the portion of the casing
which passed through the production zone, to provide a path for the oil to flow
from the surrounding rock into the production tubing.
After a flow path is made, acids and fracturing fluids are pumped into the well
to fracture, clean, or prepare and stimulate the reservoir rock to produce
hydrocarbons into the wellbore. Finally, the area above the reservoir section of
the well is packed off inside the casing, and connected to the surface via a smaller
diameter pipe called tubing.
In many wells, the natural pressure of the subsurface reservoir is high enough for
the oil or gas to flow to the surface. However, this is not always the case.

58

67

21) operation

; ;

22) completion

23) cased-hole completion

Lead-in

24) to produce

25) perforation

What comes to your mind if you see or hear the word water? Complete the
following spidergram with the words associated with water.

26) surrounding rock

27) production zone

28) flow path

( )

29) production tubing

30) fracturing fluid

31) acid

32) pump into

33) to fracture

Read the following quotations and comment on them.

34) to stimulate

( );
( )

Water! One cannot say that you are necessary for life: you are life itself.

35) reservoir

-; (
, ); ;
; ;
; ( , )

36) reservoir rock

37) hydrocarbon

( , )

38) tubing

( ); ;

39) via

-., -.

40) artificial lift methods

41) secondary recovery

Lesson IV.
HYDROGEOLOGY

hydrogen

evaporation

Water

steam

(A. de St-Exupery)
How inappropriate to call this planet Earth, when clearly it is Ocean.
(Arthur C.Clarke)
Quiz. Test yourself. The first letter is given. The words in bracket will help
you.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

When water falls in small frozen crystals, it's called s____________.


When the snow begins to melt, it's called s______________.
If the slush freezes again and becomes hard and solid, it's called i________.
The combination of rain and snow is known as s_________.
Small round lumps that fall during a thunderstorm are called h________.
The water forming on the leaves and flowers is d_______in warm weather.
The same in cold weather is f_________.
( snow, spring, ice, sleet, hail, dew, frost)

66

59

Lesson V.
Vocabulary

DRILLING
An oil well is a term for any perforation through the Earth's surface designed to
find and release both oil and gas hydrocarbons.

1) hydrogeology

2) to deal with

-., -.

3) distribution

4) groundwater

5) soil

, ,

1) well

6) rocks

2) drilling

7) aquifer

3) oil rig

4) to rotate

8) occurrence

1. 2. 3.

9) porous media

5) drill bit

10) pertinent

6) hole

11) shallow

, ,

12) flow

7) casing

13) subsurface

8) to secure

14) soil science

9) cement

15) civil engineering

10) integrity

16) viscous

11) to isolate

17) Reynolds number

12) pressure zone

18) unity

13) to facilitate

19) diffusion

14) drilling rig

20) Laplace equation

15) circulate drilling fluid

21) diverse

, ;

16) hoist

17) pipe ( turn)

()

22) steady flow

18) downhole pressure

23) to stimulate

19) cuttings

24) ) transient flow

20) onsite

60

Vocabulary

65

6) Name types of groundwater flow.

25) uncoupled processes

7)What is a traditional study of groundwater?

26) to mature

9. Give a short summary of the text.

27) interaction

28) surface wtaer

29) soil moisture

1. Pay attention to the pronunciation of the following terms.


[o] water,common, complex
[] occurence, study, subject
[i:] deal, media, beneath
[i] typically, distinction,
2. Pay attention to the stress in the following words.
hydrogeology

applying

aquifers

terminology

interchangeably

environment

distinction

surface

3. Read the text and fulfill the exercises.


HYDROGEOLOGY
Hydrogeology (hydro- meaning water, and -geology meaning the study of the
Earth) is the area of geology that deals with the distribution and movement of
groundwater in the soil and rocks of the Earth's crust, (commonly in aquifers).
Hydrogeology is the part of hydrology that deals with the occurrence, movement
and quality of water beneath the Earth's surface.
Hydrogeology is a branch of the earth sciences dealing with the flow of
water through aquifers and other shallow porous media (typically less than 450 m
or 1,500 ft below the land surface.) The very shallow flow of water in the
subsurface (the upper 3 m or 10 ft) is pertinent to the fields of soil science,
agriculture and civil engineering, as well as to hydrogeology. Groundwater is a
slow-moving, viscous fluid (with a Reynolds number less than unity). The
mathematical relationships used to describe the flow of water through porous
64

61

media are the diffusion and Laplace equations, which have applications in many
diverse fields. Steady groundwater flow (Laplace equation) has been simulated
using electrical, elastic and heat conduction analogies. Transient groundwater
flow is analogous to the diffusion of heat in a solid.
Traditionally, the movement of groundwater has been studied separately from
surface water, climatology, and even the chemical and microbiological aspects of
hydrogeology (the processes are uncoupled). As the field of hydrogeology
matures, the strong interactions between groundwater, surface water, water
chemistry, soil moisture and even climate are becoming more clear.
(www.Wikipedia)

4. Fill in the gaps with the correct preposition.


1) Hydrogeology is the area of geology that deals _________the distribution and
movement _______ groundwater in the soil and rocks of the Earth's crust.
2) The very shallow flow of water in the subsurface is pertinent _____ the fields
of soil science, agriculture and civil engineering.

2) The study of the () between groundwater movement and


geology can be quite complex.
3) Hydrogeology, ( ), is a () of the earth sciences
dealing with the flow of water through aquifers and other shallow porous ().
4) Groundwater is a slow-moving, () fluid (with a Reynolds number less
than unity). 8) Steady groundwater flow ( ) has been simulated
using electrical, elastic and heat conduction analogies.
5) Traditionally, ( ) has been studied separately from
surface water, (), and even the chemical and microbiological aspects
of hydrogeology.
6) ( ), the strong interactions between groundwater,
surface water, water chemistry, soil moisture and even climate are becoming more
clear.
7. What are the subjects of the following sciences?
1. Hydrology

flow of water through aquifers and


other shallow porous media.

3) Transient groundwater flow is analogous ____ the diffusion of heat in a solid.

2. Hydrogeology

farming

4) As the field of hydrogeology matures, the strong interactions _____


groundwater, surface water, water chemistry, soil moisture and even climate are
becoming more clear.

3. Topography
4.Civil
engineering

5. Agree or disagree with the following statements.


1) Hydrology is the science of soil occurrence, movement and transport.
2) Hydrogeology is a branch of the earth sciences dealing with the flow of water
through aquifers.
3) Groundwater flows from high pressure gradient to low.
4) The movement of groundwater has been studied together with surface,
climatology.

deals with

planning, building and repair of roads,


bridges, large buildings.

is
concerned
all aspects of the waters of the Earth:
with
their circulation; their chemical and
physical properties; and their reaction
with the environment, including their
relation to living things.

5. Agriculture

describing an area of land, or making


maps of it.

8.Answer the following questions.


water,

1) How is hydrogeology defined?


2) What term can be also used to define hydrogeology?
3) How is hydrogeology related to other fields of science?

6. Give the English equivalents to the Russian words.


1) Hydrogeology is the () of geology that (, ) the
distribution and movement of groundwater in the soil and rocks of the Earth's
crust, ( ) in aquifers.
62

4) What difficulties can be named in the study of the interaction between


goundwater movement and geology?
5)What is groundwater?
63