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ME310

Ch 09 - Part I: Vapor Power Cycles

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CHAPTER 09
POWER AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMSWITH PHASE CHANGE
Lecture Outlines
Review: Rankine Cycle
Ways to Enhance the Thermal Efficiency of Ideal Rankine Cycles
Improving the Overall Performance of Ideal Rankine Cycles: Superheat and
Reheat
Example
Review: Class Discussion / Rankine Cycle
Table 9-2 Comparison of Thermodynamic Cycles: Vapor Power Plants
Power Cycle

Pboiler
[bar]

Pcond
[bar]

x at turbine exit

80
08

0.08
0.08

0.6745
0.6745

Carnot
Ideal Rankine

W t / m
[kJ/kg]

th

963.2
963.2

44.62
37.1

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Enhancements of Simple Ideal Rankine Cycles


The general idea to increase the thermal
efficiency of the cycle is:
(i) to increase the fluid average temperature
during heat addition, or
(ii) to decrease the fluid temperature during heat
rejection.
In this section, the effects of varying operating
boiler and condenser pressures on the overall
Fall 2014

ME310

Ch 09 - Part I: Vapor Power Cycles

Instructor:

performance of the cycle will be introduced.


Ways to Enhance the Thermal Efficiency of Ideal Rankine Cycles
1- Decreasing the Condenser Pressure (Pcondenser )
Case (1)

Lowering Condenser Pressure


Pcondenser

T-s diagram

Advantages

Q in / m : the total area under 4-4


/ m : the colored area
1- W
net , cycle

2- th compared to a simple Rankine cycle


Side Effects 1- moisture or x2 : Turbine blades erosion
2- turbine
3- Pcond is limited. See Yunus & Bole (5th)
class discussion:
These effects (1, 2) can be corrected!

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Fig: Effects of varying operating condenser pressures on the ideal Rankine cycle
Example 9.2: working fluid exits the boiler as a saturated vapor at P1 = 80 bar

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Class Discussion:

ME310

Ch 09 - Part I: Vapor Power Cycles

Instructor:

2- Superheating the Steam to a Higher Temperature


Case (2)

Superheating the Steam


(average temperature at which heat is added )
Tin, turbine

T-s diagram

Advantages

Side Effects

Q in / m : the total area under 1-1


: the colored area
1- W net, cycle / m
2- th
3- moisture or x2 :
T1 is limited. See Yunus & Bole (5th)
class discussion:
T1 vs turbine materials withstanding Tave,high

Class Discussion:

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Fig: Effects of superheating steam to higher temperatures on ideal Rankine cycles


Example 9.2: working fluid exits the boiler as a superheated vapor at P1 = 80 bar

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ME310

Ch 09 - Part I: Vapor Power Cycles

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3- Increasing the Boiler Pressure (Pboiler )


Case (3)
(average temperature at which heat is added )
Tin, turbine

Increasing Boiler Pressure


Pboiler

T-s diagram

Advantages

: the dotted area


1- W net, cycle / m

2- th
Side Effects 1- moisture or x2 : Turbine blades erosion
class discussion:
This effect can be corrected by reheat!

Class Discussion:

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Fig: Effects of varying operating boiler pressures on the ideal Rankine cycle
Example 9.2: working fluid exits the condenser as a saturated liquid at P4 = 8 kPa

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ME310

Ch 09 - Part I: Vapor Power Cycles

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Ideal Reheat Rankine Cycle


Goals:
1- To increase the thermal efficiency by superheating , reheating the working
fluid, and increasing the boiler pressure
2- To avoid low-quality steam (excessive moisture) at the final stages of the
turbine exhaust, x 90 %
Class Discussion: How Reheat Process Works!
Assumptions Ideal Reheat Rankine Cycle:
No pressure drop during a reheat process, in a boiler, a condenser and pipes.
Internally reversible expansion and compression, SSSF processes.
Adiabatic turbine and pump.
Working fluid exits the condenser as saturated liquid
No KE & PE effects

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12345-

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ME310

Instructor:

Ch 09 - Part I: Vapor Power Cycles

Example 9.3:
Let us extend Example 9.2 to more practical Ideal Reheat Cycle in which the steam
expands isentropically through the HP turbine from 80 bar to 7 bar, and then is re-sent
(reheated) back to the steam generator to 440C before another isentropic expansion takes
place through the LP turbine. Sketch the T - s diagram and determine the followings
(1) The thermal efficiency, th .
(2) The back work pressure.
(3) m steam , Q in , and Q out , in kg/hr, MW, and MW, respectively, if the net power
output of the cycle is 100 MW.
(4) The mass flow rate of the condenser cooling water, in kg/ hr, if cooling water
enters the condenser at 15C and exits at 35C, using the same net power output.

Basic Equations:

th

Wnet, cycle WHP,t1 / m WLP,t2 / m Wp / m (h1 h2 ) (h3 h4 ) (h6 h5 )

Q
Q / m Q
/ m
(h h ) (h h )
in

in,b

in,reheat

(h1 h2 )
HP Turbine 1: WHP,t1 / m
(h h )
/m
LP Turbine 2: W
LP,t2

in

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out

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(h6 h5 )
Pump
: Wp / m
Q in / m Q in,b / m Q in,reheat / m (h1 h6 ) (h3 h2 )
Wnet, cycle
Wnet, cycle WHP,t1 WLP,t2 Wp or m
(h1 h2 ) (h3 h4 ) (h6 h5 )
(h h ) Q W
Q m
net, cycle

Fall 2014

ME310

Ch 09 - Part I: Vapor Power Cycles

Instructor:

Q out
(hcw,out hcw,in )
Determination of unknown Properties:

cw (hcw,out hcw,in ) or m cw
Q out m

State
1
2
3
4
5
6
cw,in
cw,out

T, C
480
440

P, bar
80
7
7
0.08
0.08
80

x (if possible)
undefined
0.9895
undefined
0.9382
0
undefined

15
35

h, kJ/kg
3348.4
2741.8
3353.3
2428.5
173.88
181.94
62.99
146.68

s, kJ/kg.K
6.6586
7.7571
7.7571

Phase description
Superheated vapor
Saturated mixture
Superheated vapor
Saturated mixture
Saturated liquid
Compressed liquid
Compressed liquid
Compressed liquid

Notes: (1) obtain only data needed for your calculation. (2) Bold = given, Italic = obtained or calculated

State 01: the steam is a superheated vapor.


P1 80 bar
h1

T1 480C
s1

3348.4 kJ / kg
6.6586 kJ / kg . K

(Table A-4)

State 02: it is a saturated liquid-vapor mixture @ 7 bar.


s2 s f
P2 7 bar
6.6586 1.9922

0.9895
x2

s2 s1
s

s
6
.
708

1
.
9922
g
f

@ 7 bar

(Table A-3)

h2 h f x2h fg 697.22 (0.9895)2066.3 2741.8 kJ / kg


State 03: the steam is a superheated vapor.
P3 7 bar
h3

T3 440C
s3

3353.3 kJ / kg
7.7571 kJ / kg . K

(Table A-4)

State 04: it is a saturated liquid-vapor mixture @ 0.08 bar.


s4 s f
P4 0.08 bar
7.7571 0.5926

0.9382
x4

s3
s4
s

s
8
.
2287

0
.
5926
g
f

@ 0.08 bar

(Table A-3)

h4 h f x4 h fg 173.88 (0.9382)2403.1 2428.5 kJ / kg

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State 05: it is a saturated liquid @ 0.08 bar.

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ME310

Ch 09 - Part I: Vapor Power Cycles

Instructor:

P5 0.08 bar
h5 h f @ 0.08 bar 173.88 kJ / kg
x5
0

State 06: the state is a compressed liquid.


W p / m = (h6 h5 ) v5 ( P6 P5 ) h6 h5 v5 ( P6 P5 ) 181.94 kJ / kg

as done in Example 9.2

T-s Diagram

Analysis:
(1) Thermal Efficiency of the Ideal Reheat Vapor Rankine Cycle
W
W
/ m WLP,t2 / m Wp / m (h1 h2 ) (h3 h4 ) (h6 h5 )
th net, cycle HP,t1

Qin
Qin,b / m Q in,reheat / m
(h1 h6 ) (h3 h2 )

(3348.4 2741.8) (3353.3 2428.5) (181.94 173.88)


(3348.4 181.94) (3353.3 2741.8)
(606.6) (924.8) (8.06) 1523.3 kJ / kg

0.403
(3166.5) (611.5)
3778 kJ / kg
(2) Back Work Ratio
W / m
(h6 h5 )
(8.06)
bwr p

0.52 %
W / m (h h ) (h h ) (606.06) (924.8)

th

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(3) m steam , Q in , and Q out , in kg/hr, MW, and MW, respectively

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Fall 2014

ME310

Instructor:

Ch 09 - Part I: Vapor Power Cycles

m steam

Wnet, cycle
(h1 h2 ) (h3 h4 ) (h6 h5 )

100 103
(606.6) (924.8) (8.06)

65.65 kg / s 2.363 105 kg / hr

Q in m steam (h1 h6 ) (h3 h2 ) (65.65 kg / s) (3166.5 kJ / kg 611.5 kJ / kg) / 1000


248 MW
or

Qout m steam (h2 h3 ) Q in Wnet, cycle 248 100 148 MW

(4) The mass of the cooling water, in kg/hr


Q out
148 103

mcw

1768.3 kg/s = 6.366 106 kg/hr


(hcw,out hcw,in ) (146.68 - 62.99)
Do it as HW: Check th

Q in / m Q out / m
Q out / m
!

Q in / m
Q in / m

steam & Q out (i.e, m


cw )
Example 9.2 vs Example 9.3: th, Example 9.2 m

Table 9-3 Comparison of Thermodynamic Cycles: Vapor Power Plants


Power Cycle

Pcond
[bar]

x at turbine exit

80
08
80

0.08
0.08
0.08

0.6745
0.6745
HP: 0.9895
LP: 0.9382

W t / m
[kJ/kg]

th

963.2
963.2
1531.4

44.62
37.1
40.03

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Carnot
Ideal Rankine
Ideal Rankine
with Reheater

Pboiler
[bar]

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Fall 2014

ME310

Ch 09 - Part I: Vapor Power Cycles

Instructor:

IT Code
// Solving some parts of Example 9.3 presented in class
//Fix the states
T1 = 480 // C
p1 = 80 // bar
h1 = h_PT("Water/Steam", p1, T1)
s1 = s_PT("Water/Steam", p1, T1)
p2 = 8 // bar , reheat pressure
h2s = h_Ps("Water/Steam", p2, s1)
etat1 = 1 // isentropic efficiency of turbine 1
h2 = h1 - etat1*(h1 - h2s)
T3 = 440 // C
p3 = p2
h3 = h_PT("Water/Steam", p3, T3)
s3 = s_PT("Water/Steam", p3, T3)
p4 = 0.06 // bar
h4s = h_Ps("Water/Steam", p4, s3)
etat2 = etat1
h4 = h3 - etat2 * (h3 - h4s)
p5 = p4
h5 = hsat_Px("Water/Steam", p5, 0) // kJ/kg
v5 = vsat_Px("Water/Steam", p5, 0) // m3/kg
p6 = p1
etap = 1 // isentropic efficiency of pump
h6 = h5 + v5 * (p6 - p5) * 100/etap // The 100 in this expression is a unit conversion factor.
// Calculate thermal efficiency
Wnet = (h1 - h2) + (h3 - h4) - (h6 - h5)
Qin = (h1 - h6) + (h3 - h2)
eta = Wnet/Qin
Qout=Qin-Wnet

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Note: Please feel free to notify us of any problems you may experience or corrections you
may find while reading the class notes.

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Recall:

ME310

Ch 09 - Part I: Vapor Power Cycles

Instructor:

Homework Problems:
(a) For the ideal reheat cycle shown, show the cycle on a T-s diagram and determine
, (2) th , and (3) Q out / m . (4) How would your results change if the
(1) Q in / m
isentropic efficiencies of the turbine and the pump are to be be 85% and 90 %,
respectively? (5) Check your answer using IT code.
Ans: (1) 3913.9 kJ/kg, (2) 41.9 %, (3) 2274.1 kJ/kg, and (4) 3828 kJ/kg, 36.63 %, and 2426 kJ/kg

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(b) Consider the ideal reheat cycle. As shown, steam leaves the boiler and enters the
high-pressure (HP) turbine at 15 MPa, 600C. After expansion in the turbine, the
steam leaving the reheat section of the steam generator is at 500C and then
expanded in the low-pressure (LP) turbine to a condenser pressure of 10 kPa and a
quality of 90 %.

The University of Tripoli

Fall 2014

ME310

Ch 09 - Part I: Vapor Power Cycles

Instructor:

steam , in kJ/kg.
(1) Find the rate of heat transfer from the condenser Q out / m
(2) Determine the power input to the pump, in kJ/kg.
(3) What should the reheat pressure be so that the quality at the exit of the LP
turbine is 90%?
(4) Determine the thermal efficiency.
(5) If the cooling water enters the heat exchanger unit of the condenser as a
separate stream at 15C and exits at 35C and constant pressure of 1 atm, and
cw / m
steam is 27,
the ratio of the mass of cooling water to the mass of steam m
nd
calculate the 2 -law (exergetic) efficiency of the heat exchanger.
Let T0 = 27C, P0 = 100 kPa,
Ans: (1) 2153 kJ/kg, (2) 15.14 kJ/kg, (3) 21.35 bar, and (4) 44.1 %, and (5) %

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(c) Consider Example 9.3 presented in class. Let the isentropic efficiencies of the
turbine and the pump be 85%. Determine the thermal efficiency.
Ans: 35.06 %

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