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# Engine Mechanism Simulation

Table of Contents
Abstract....3
Introduction......3-4
Experimental Procedure...........5
Results......6-8
Conclusions......8-9
References....9
Appendices.......9

## List of Figures, Graphs, Tables

Figure 1: Gasoline Engine.........3
Table 1: Engine Components.......4
Figure 2: CAD of 4 Stroke Engine...4
Figure 3: Kinematic Mechanism created in Adams...
Figure 4: Kinematic Mechanism in Motion to Simulate 4-Stroke Engine.
Graph 1: Displacement of the Piston for one Complete Revolution
Graph 2: Linear and Angular Velocities of the Piston for one Complete Revolution..
Graph 3: Angular Velocity and Acceleration of the Piston for one Complete Revolution
Graph 4: Linear and Angular Acceleration of the Connecting Rod for one Complete Revolution..
Graph 5: Constant linear velocity and acceleration of the crank
Graph 6: Angular velocity of the mechanism

Abstract
The purpose of this experiment is to study the various parts of a gasoline engine and to
create a kinematic mechanism of the moving parts. Through use of the Adams software, a
kinematic mechanism was then created. This allowed users to measure the performance factors
of the different mechanisms involved. This lab also functioned as a tutorial on use of the Adams
software and also on how to use the graphing capabilities of the software to gain a better
understanding of how the mechanisms function.
Introduction
This lab consists of first reverse engineering a gasoline engine and then simulating the
moving parts of the engine using a tool named Adams software. Reverse engineering is a
process, which involves taking apart an assembly of parts to analyze the functions of each part
individually. This method is beneficial in that it allows an engineer to see how a product works,
which can in turn provide insight in how to create other products. This method is also used to
improve products by improving the function of an individual part within that product. Although
some components of a product only have one function, others can have multiple functions. When
a component has multiple functions, they are typically divided into two classes: primary
functions and secondary functions. As expected, the primary functions are the main uses of the
part while any additional uses are considered secondary. For this experiment, a gasoline engine
was taken apart so the parts could be analyzed. The primary components that were analyzed were
the crankshaft, connecting rod, and piston, which can be viewed in the labeled diagram in Figure
1.

## Figure 1: Gasoline Engine

The engine works due to strokes created by the engine producing power. When the piston is
pulled downward by the crankshaft, the inlet valve opens which allows air and fuel to enter the
cylinder. When the valve closes, the piston moves back up the cylinder and compresses the fuel
and air causing it to be more flammable. Once the piston reaches the top, a spark fires. This
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spark ignites the gases causing a small explosion, which causes the piston to move back down
again. This continuing energy keeps the crankshaft powered
In order to fully understand how the piston, connecting rod, and crankshaft work
together, they must be simulated in Adams software. Adams is software that allows the user to
create links and other components such as spheres or prisms and simulate motion. The process
involves creating the desired assembly, connecting each component with a joint, and assigning a
motion to the desired joint. Using a link to simulate the crankshaft, a link to simulate the
connecting rod, and a cylinder to simulate the piston, this software is used to simulate the
gasoline engine.
Experimental Procedure
1. The first portion of the lab involved disassembling the gasoline engine provided similar
to the one shown in Figure 1.
2. The different components were analyzed and inspected in a reverse engineering process
that included recording the dimensions and masses of each component as well as making
rudimentary sketches.
3. The second portion of the lab comprised of going through a tutorial to learn the Adams
software tool. The knowledge gained in this tutorial was used to create each link of the
mechanism. After creating and assembling the links in their respective positions, joints
were assigned and then motion was added.
4. The students then simulated the kinematic mechanism and produced an animation that
encompasses two full rotations and therefore all four strokes of the simple engine.
5. The performance of the mechanism was observed and graphs were developed based on
the required information in the lab manual.
Results
Below in Table1, the data that was compiled during the reverse engineering portion
of the lab including dimensions and masses for each part of the engine analyzed.

Mass (lb)
Length (in)
Diameter 1 (in)
Diameter 2 (in)
Diameter 3 (in)
Thickness 1 (in)
Thickness 2 (in)
Depth 1 (in)
Depth 2 (in)

Piston
Crank Shaft
Connecting Rod
0.3
3.22
1.8
4.494
1.1
0.911
0.375
0.395
0.192
0.51
0.86

## Piston Connecter Rod

0.065
1.882
0.489
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A professional engineering drawing of the 4-stroke engine was created using Solid
Edge ST6 software and is shown below in Figure 2. This drawing was done using the
dimensions from Table 1 therefore giving a representation of the physical engine that was
reverse engineered in the lab.
Figure 2: CAD of 4 Stroke Engine
The main components of the four-stroke engine shown in Figure 2 are the piston, the
connecting rod, and the crankshaft. The piston has the primary function of linearly transferring
force to the crankshaft due to the expansion of gas. Secondary functions could include providing
the force for the fuel injector and exhaust. Pistons are made of aluminum alloys due to the
lightness of the material in conjunction with the ability to deal with high temperatures. The
second component in the system is the connecting rod, which as the name would suggest,
connects the piston with the crankshaft. The primary function of the connecting rod is to convey
the force provided by the power stroke of the piston to the crankshaft as well as provide the
reciprocating motion from the crankshaft to the piston. The connecting rod is generally made of
steel for strength and cost considerations but can also be made of titanium alloys or even cast
iron for different applications. The last component in the simplified 4-stroke engine shown in
Figure 2 is the crankshaft whose primary function is to turn the rod outputting angular motion to
turn wheels in the case of a car. If this is the primary function, the secondary function might be
the reciprocating motion to force the piston back into the top dead center (TDC) position. This
reciprocating motion is also integral to the engine function. The crankshaft is most often made of
steel also generally of low alloyed content due to the added expense of high alloys.
A kinematic drawing and simulation of the motion of a 4-stroke internal combustion
engine was created using Adams software and displayed below in Figures 3 and 4.

## Figure 4: Kinematic Mechanism in Motion to Simulate 4-Stroke Engine

Several graphs were also created and can be viewed below in Graphs 1-6 with short explanations
of what they entail below each.
Graph 1: Displacement of the Piston for one Complete Revolution

The displacement in all three directions (x,y,z) for the piston is shown in Graph 1 above. As
expected, there is no movement in the x- or z-directions and an oscillation up and down as
the piston moves linearly.

Graph 2: Linear and Angular Velocities of the Piston for one Complete Revolution

The velocities of the piston, both angular and linear are shown above in Graph 2. The
angular velocity is zero, which makes sense, as the piston is moving in a linear fashion. The
linear velocity oscillates as the piston moves from top dead center (TDC) to bottom dead
center (BDC). When at TDC of BDC, the piston has a velocity of zero, and then reaches peak
velocity in the middle of the stroke.
Graph 3: Angular Velocity and Acceleration of the Piston for one Complete Revolution

The angular velocity and acceleration for the piston is shown in Graph 3, and as expected there is
no angular velocity or acceleration for a piston as it moves linearly only.

Graph 4: Linear and Angular Acceleration of the Connecting Rod for one Revolution

The accelerations of the connecting rod, both angular and linear are shown above in Graph
2. The angular acceleration is shown by the blue dashed line and goes between zero and
fourteen degrees/sec^2. The linear acceleration shown by the red line oscillated between
around 0.55 and 1.2 inches/sec^2. To find the magnitude of the total acceleration at any
given point, the square root of the squares of each acceleration at that point could be
calculated.
Graph 5: Constant linear velocity and acceleration of the crank

The linear velocity and acceleration of the crankshaft are both constant. As can be seen in Graph
5, the constant linear velocity for the crankshaft is approximately 0.5 inches/sec and the constant
acceleration is approximately 0.55 inches/sec^2.

## Graph 6: Angular velocity of the mechanism

As is seen in Graph 6, the angular velocity for the crankshaft is 60 rpm as instructed in the
lab procedure.
Conclusions
This lab involved using reverse engineering along with Adams software simulation. A
kinematic mechanism model was developed, the joints and motion was defined, and the
performance was observed. In reverse engineering, a system is disassembled and each
component is analyzed and its function is defined. This aids in the overall understanding of how
a system functions. Adams is an engineering software used for design, analysis, animation, and
prototyping. It allows engineers to create and analyze systems before building actual prototypes.
In Adams the students had to start by assembling the mechanism. The mechanism consisted of a
piston, crankshaft, connecting rod and wrist pin for the piston.
For this lab, the mechanism was simplified to the piston, connecting rod, and the
crankshaft. Then the joints, direction of motion, and constraints were added to the mechanism. A
kinematic mechanism was modeled as a result of the system having moving components. Using
Adams, the mechanism was set in motion and plots of displacement, velocity and acceleration of
the components were plotted on graphs. Discussion about the motion displayed by each plot can
be seen in the results section of the lab.
The lab was essential in understanding how to appropriately use the Adams software and
all its capabilities. By using this Adams software and reverse engineering the 4-stroke engine, the
lab participants came to understand how a mechanism and all contained components function.

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