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DDC-SVC-MAN-0056

EPA04 MBE 4000 Operator’s Manual

13400 Outer Drive, West, Detroit, Michigan 48239-4001 Telephone: 313-592-5000 www.detroitdiesel.com
13400 Outer Drive, West, Detroit, Michigan 48239-4001
Telephone: 313-592-5000
www.detroitdiesel.com

Specifications are subject to change without notice. Detroit Diesel Corporation is registered to ISO 9001:2001. Copyright © Detroit Diesel Corporation. All rights reserved. Detroit Diesel Corporation is a Daimler company. Printed in U.S.A.

MBE 4000 OPERATOR'S MANUAL

To the Operator

This Manual contains instructions on the safe operation and preventive maintenance of your Detroit Diesel MBE 4000 engine. Maintenance instructions cover routine engine services such as lube oil and lter changes in enough detail to permit self-servicing if desired.

The operator should become familiar with the contents of this Manual before operating the engine or carrying out maintenance procedures.

Power-driven equipment is only as safe as the person operating the controls. You are urged, as the operator of this diesel engine, to keep ngers and clothing away from the revolving belts, drive shafts, etc. on engine installation.

Throughout this Manual CAUTIONS regarding personal safety and NOTICES regarding engine performance or service life will appear. To avoid personal injury and ensure long engine service life, always heed these instructions.

Whenever possible, it will bene t you to rely on an authorized Detroit Diesel® service outlet for all your service needs from maintenance to major parts replacement. Authorized service outlets worldwide stock factory original parts and have the specialized equipment and

experienced, trained personnel to provide prompt preventive maintenance and skilled engine repairs.

The information and specications in this publication are based on the information in effect at the time of approval for printing. Contact an authorized Detroit Diesel service outlet for information on the latest revision. The right is reserved to make changes at any time without obligation.

NOTICE:

Coolant must be inhibited with the recommended Supplemental Coolant Additives (SCA) listed in this Manual. In addition, the engine can be equipped with a coolant lter/inhibitor system as an installed option or as an after-sale item. Failure to check and maintain SCA levels at required concentrations will result in severe damage corrosion to the engine cooling system and related components.

Trademark Information

Detroit Diesel®, DDEC®, and Diagnostic Link® are registered trademarks of Detroit Diesel Corporation. Nexiq™ is a trademark of Nexiq Technologies, Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

All information subject to change without notice. (Rev. )

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MBE 4000 OPERATOR'S MANUAL

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CAUTION SUMMARY

1

ENGINE OPERATION

1

PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE

2

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

4

COOLING SYSTEM

5

AIR INTAKE SYSTEM

5

FUEL SYSTEM

7

COMPRESSED AIR

8

LUBRICATING OIL AND FILTERS

8

IDENTIFICATION

9

PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS

10

ENGINE CONVERSIONS AND MODIFICATIONS

10

GENERAL VIEW OF THE MBE4000 ENGINE

10

ENGINE TYPE PLATE

13

DETAILS ON THE PLATE

13

ENGINE FEATURES

14

EXHAUST BRAKE/CONSTANT-THROTTLE VALVES

15

TURBO BRAKE, OPTIONAL

16

EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION

16

ELECTRONIC ENGINE CONTROL SYSTEM

17

DDEC-ECU — ENGINE-RESIDENT CONTROL UNIT

18

VEHICLE CONTROL UNIT

19

SENSOR LOCATIONS

19

OPERATION

21

BEFORE STARTING THE ENGINE

21

CHECKING THE BATTERIES

21

CHECKING THE OIL LEVEL

22

CHECKING THE COOLANT LEVEL (COLD CHECK)

23

ADDING FUEL

23

PRIMING THE FUEL SYSTEM

23

STARTING THE ENGINE

24

CHECKING THE COOLANT LEVEL (HOT CHECK)

24

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STARTING AN ENGINE THAT HAS NOT BEEN RUN FOR A LONG TIME

25

MONITORING ENGINE OPERATION

26

BATTERY CHARGE

26

OIL PRESSURE

26

EXCESSIVE IDLING

27

CHANGING THE IDLE SPEED

27

SHUTTING DOWN THE ENGINE

27

SHUTTING DOWN AFTER HIGH LOAD OPERATION

27

EMERGENCY RUNNING MODE

28

STOP ENGINE OVERRIDE OPTION

28

COLD WEATHER OPERATION

29

WINTER FRONTS

29

CLEANING AND STORAGE

30

CLEANING THE ENGINE

30

HIGH-PRESSURE CLEANING EQUIPMENT

30

CLEANING THE COOLING SYSTEM

30

DEGREASING

31

STORAGE

32

TROUBLESHOOTING

33

EMERGENCY STARTING

33

TROUBLESHOOTING THE ELEC TRONIC ENGINE CONTROL SYSTEM

33

GENERAL TROUBLESHOOTING

34

SERVICE PRODUCTS

47

DIESEL FUELS

47

FLOW IMPROVERS

47

KEROSENE

47

ENGINE OILS

48

SYNTHETIC OILS

48

COOLANT

49

FULLY-FORMULATED ANTIFREEZE

49

WATER

49

COOLANT SPECIFICATIONS

50

COOLANT CONCENTRATION

50

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SUPPLEMENTAL COOLANT ADDITIVES FOR FULLY FORMULATED COOLANT

51

DROPOUT

51

NON-APPROVED COOLANTS

51

RECYCLED ANTIFREEZE

52

CORROSION INHIBITORS

52

DISPOSAL

53

COLD WEATHER PRODUCTS

53

WINTER-GRADE DIESEL FUEL

53

LOW-VISCOSITY ENGINE OIL

54

WINTER COOLANT ANTIFREEZE PROTECTION

54

BATTERIES

54

TECHNICAL DATA

55

ENGINE DATA

56

TESTING AND ADJUSTING VALUES

57

MAINTENANCE

59

SCHEDULED INTERVALS

59

MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE TYPES

59

SEVERE SERVICE

59

SHORT-HAUL

60

LONG-HAUL

60

MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE AND INTERVAL OPERATIONS

60

MAINTENANCE INTERVALS

60

MAINTENANCE OPERATION SETS

60

SCHEDULE USE

61

MAINTENANCE TABLES

62

REQUIRED MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS

68

ENGINE INSPECTING

68

VALVE LASH CHECKING AND ADJUSTING

68

GAINING ACCESS TO THE VALVES

68

CHOOSING A METHOD

69

METHOD ONE

70

METHOD TWO

71

ADJUSTING VALVE LASH

72

RESTORING THE VEHICLE TO OPERATING CONDITION

72

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

FUEL/WATER SEPARATOR PREFILTER ELEMENT CLEANING

73

FUEL PRO® 382 FUEL/WATER SEPARATOR ELEMENT REPLACEMENT

74

MAIN FUEL FILTER ELEMENT CHANGING

75

ENGINE OIL AND FILTER CHANGING

76

OPTIONAL OIL CENTRIFUGE

79

COOLANT CONCENTRATION AND INHIBITOR LEVEL CHECKING

80

COOLANT INHIBITOR TEST INTERVALS

81

INHIBITOR LEVEL CHECKING

83

COOLANT FLUSHING AND CHANGING

84

COOLING SYSTEM INSPECTING

85

REAR ENGINE POWER TAKE-OFF (RE PTO)

86

REPTO TORSIONAL DAMPER INSPEC TION

86

REPTO TORSIONAL DAMPER CLEANING

86

CUSTOMER ASSISTANCE

88

WORKING WITH DDC SERVICE OUTLETS

92

STEP ONE

92

STEP TWO

92

STEP THREE

93

LIMITED WARRANTY ON NEW DETROIT DIESEL MBE 4000 ENGINES USED IN ON-HIGHWAY VEHICLE APPLICATIONS

94

TERMS OF COVERAGE

94

USES

94

DEFECTS

94

REPAIRS

94

WARRANTY PERIOD

94

LIKE REPLACEMENT ENGINE

95

SERVICE SUPPLIES

95

ENGINE REMOVAL AND REINSTALLATION

95

THIS WARRANTY DOES NOT COVER:

96

REPAIRS DUE TO ACCIDENTS, MISUSE, STORAGE DAMAGE, NEGLIGENCE OR CERTAIN MODIFICATIONS

96

FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM AFTER 100,000 MILES/160, 000 KILOMETERS

96

MAINTENANCE

96

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INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES

96

OTHER LIMITATIONS

96

LIMITED WARRANTY ON NEW DETROIT DIESEL MBE 4000 ENGINES USED IN FIRE TRUCK OR CRASH VEHICLE APPLICATIONS

98

TERMS OF COVERAGE

98

USES

98

DEFECTS

98

REPAIRS

98

WARRANTY PERIOD

98

LIKE REPLACEMENT ENGINE

99

SERVICE SUPPLIES

99

ENGINE REMOVAL AND REINSTALLATION

99

THIS WARRANTY DOES NOT COVER:

99

REPAIRS DUE TO ACCIDENTS, MISUSE, STORAGE DAMAGE, NEGLIGENCE OR CERTAIN MODIFICATIONS

99

FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM AFTER 100,000 MILES/160, 000 KILOMETERS

99

MAINTENANCE

100

100

INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OTHER LIMITATIONS

100

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CAUTION SUMMARY

The following cautions must be observed by the operator of the vehicle or equipment in which this engine is installed and/or by those performing basic engine preventive maintenance. Failure to read and heed these cautions and exercise reasonable care for personal safety and the safety of others when operating the vehicle/equipment or performing basic engine preventive maintenance may result in personal injury and engine and/or vehicle/equipment damage.

Engine Operation

Observe the following cautions when operating the engine.

FIRE To avoid injury from fi re, keep all potential ignition sources away from diesel

FIRE

To avoid injury from re, keep all potential ignition sources away from diesel fuel, including open ames, sparks, and electrical resistance heating elements. Do not smoke when refueling.

MBE 4000 OPERATOR'S MANUAL

PERSONAL INJURY Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents are known to the State

PERSONAL INJURY

Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents are known to the State of California to cause cancer, birth defects, and other reproductive harm.

Always start and operate an engine in a well ventilated area.

If operating an engine in an enclosed area, vent the exhaust to the outside.

Do not modify or tamper with the exhaust system or emission control system.

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CAUTION SUMMARY

Preventive Maintenance

Observe the following cautions when performing preventative maintenance.

HOT OIL To avoid injury from hot oil, do not operate the engine with the

HOT OIL

To avoid injury from hot oil, do not operate the engine with the rocker cover(s) removed.

PERSONAL INJURY To avoid injury from slipping and falling, immediately clean up any spilled liquids.

PERSONAL INJURY

To avoid injury from slipping and falling, immediately clean up any spilled liquids.

USED ENGINE OIL To avoid injury to skin from contact with the contaminants in used

USED ENGINE OIL

To avoid injury to skin from contact with the contaminants in used engine oil, wear protective gloves and apron.

PERSONAL INJURY To avoid injury when working near or on an operating engine equipped with

PERSONAL INJURY

To avoid injury when working near or on an operating engine equipped with an hydraulic clutch fan, remove loose items of clothing and jewelry. Tie back or contain long hair that could be caught in any moving part causing injury. The hydraulic fan may start without warning.

HOT COOLANT To avoid scalding from the expulsion of hot coolant, never remove the cooling

HOT COOLANT

To avoid scalding from the expulsion of hot coolant, never remove the cooling system pressure cap while the engine is at operating temperature. Wear adequate protective clothing (face shield, rubber gloves, apron, and boots). Remove the cap slowly to relieve pressure.

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PERSONAL INJURY To avoid injury from the projection of tools or other objects that may

PERSONAL INJURY

To avoid injury from the projection of tools or other objects that may fall on or behind the vibration damper of an engine, always check and remove these items before starting the engine.

PERSONAL INJURY To avoid injury from contact with rotating parts when an engine is operating

PERSONAL INJURY

To avoid injury from contact with rotating parts when an engine is operating with the air inlet piping removed, install an air inlet screen shield over the turbocharger air inlet. The shield prevents contact with rotating parts.

PERSONAL INJURY To avoid injury when using caustic cleaning agents, follow the chemical manufacturers usage,

PERSONAL INJURY

To avoid injury when using caustic cleaning agents, follow the chemical manufacturers usage, disposal, and safety instructions.

MBE 4000 OPERATOR'S MANUAL

FIRE To avoid injury from combustion of heated lubricating-oil vapors, stop the engine immediately if

FIRE

To avoid injury from combustion of heated lubricating-oil vapors, stop the engine immediately if an oil leak is detected.

FIRE To avoid injury from fi re, do not smoke or allow open fl ames

FIRE

To avoid injury from re, do not smoke or allow open ames when working on an operating engine.

FIRE To avoid injury from fi re from a buildup of volatile vapors, keep the

FIRE

To avoid injury from re from a buildup of volatile vapors, keep the engine area well ventilated during operation.

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CAUTION SUMMARY

Electrical System

Observe the following cautions when jump starting an engine, charging a battery, or working with the vehicle electrical system.

PERSONAL INJURY To avoid injury from accidental engine startup while servicing the engine, disconnect/disable the

PERSONAL INJURY

To avoid injury from accidental engine startup while servicing the engine, disconnect/disable the starting system.

Electrical Shock To avoid injury from electrical shock, use care when connecting battery cables. The

Electrical Shock

To avoid injury from electrical shock, use care when connecting battery cables. The magnetic switch studs are at battery voltage.

Battery Explosion and Acid Burn To avoid injury from battery explosion or contact with battery

Battery Explosion and Acid Burn

To avoid injury from battery explosion or contact with battery acid, work in a well ventilated area, wear protective clothing, and avoid sparks or ames near the battery. If you come in contact with battery acid:

Flush your skin with water.

Apply baking soda or lime to help neutralize the acid.

Flush your eyes with water.

Get medical attention immediately.

ELECTRICAL SHOCK To avoid injury from electrical shock, do not touch battery terminals, alternator terminals,

ELECTRICAL SHOCK

To avoid injury from electrical shock, do not touch battery terminals, alternator terminals, or wiring cables while the engine is operating.

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Cooling System

Observe the following cautions when servicing the cooling system.

HOT COOLANT To avoid scalding from the expulsion of hot coolant, never remove the cooling

HOT COOLANT

To avoid scalding from the expulsion of hot coolant, never remove the cooling system pressure cap while the engine is at operating temperature. Wear adequate protective clothing (face shield, rubber gloves, apron, and boots). Remove the cap slowly to relieve pressure.

PERSONAL INJURY To avoid injury from slipping and falling, immediately clean up any spilled liquids.

PERSONAL INJURY

To avoid injury from slipping and falling, immediately clean up any spilled liquids.

MBE 4000 OPERATOR'S MANUAL

Air Intake System

Observe the following cautions when working on the air intake system.

PERSONAL INJURY To avoid injury from hot surfaces, wear protective gloves, or allow engine to

PERSONAL INJURY

To avoid injury from hot surfaces, wear protective gloves, or allow engine to cool before removing any component.

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CAUTION SUMMARY

PERSONAL INJURY To avoid injury from contact with rotating parts when an engine is operating

PERSONAL INJURY

To avoid injury from contact with rotating parts when an engine is operating with the air inlet piping removed, install an air inlet screen shield over the turbocharger air inlet. The shield prevents contact with rotating parts.

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Fuel System

Observe the following cautions when fueling the vehicle or working with the fuel system.

PERSONAL INJURY To avoid injury from fuel spills, do not over fi ll the fuel

PERSONAL INJURY

To avoid injury from fuel spills, do not overll the fuel tank.

FIRE To avoid injury from fi re, contain and eliminate leaks of fl ammable fl

FIRE

To avoid injury from re, contain and eliminate leaks of ammable uids as they occur. Failure to eliminate leaks could result in re.

FIRE To avoid injury from fi re, keep all potential ignition sources away from diesel

FIRE

To avoid injury from re, keep all potential ignition sources away from diesel fuel, including open ames, sparks, and electrical resistance heating elements. Do not smoke when refueling.

MBE 4000 OPERATOR'S MANUAL

FIRE To avoid injury from fi re caused by heated diesel-fuel vapors: □ Keep those

FIRE

To avoid injury from re caused by heated diesel-fuel vapors:

Keep those people who are not directly involved in servicing away from the engine.

Stop the engine immediately if a fuel leak is detected.

Do not smoke or allow open ames when working on an operating engine.

Wear adequate protective clothing (face shield, insulated gloves and apron, etc.).

To prevent a buildup of potentially volatile vapors, keep the engine area well ventilated during operation.

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CAUTION SUMMARY

Compressed Air

Observe the following cautions when using compressed air.

EYE INJURY To avoid injury from fl ying debris when using compressed air, wear adequate

EYE INJURY

To avoid injury from ying debris when using compressed air, wear adequate eye protection (face shield or safety goggles) and do not exceed 276 kPa (40 psi) air pressure.

Lubricating Oil and Filters

Observe the following cautions when replacing the engine lubricating oil and lters.

PERSONAL INJURY To avoid injury from slipping and falling, immediately clean up any spilled liquids.

PERSONAL INJURY

To avoid injury from slipping and falling, immediately clean up any spilled liquids.

FIRE To avoid injury from combustion of heated lubricating-oil vapors, stop the engine immediately if

FIRE

To avoid injury from combustion of heated lubricating-oil vapors, stop the engine immediately if an oil leak is detected.

FIRE To avoid injury from fi re, do not smoke or allow open fl ames

FIRE

To avoid injury from re, do not smoke or allow open ames when working on an operating engine.

FIRE To avoid injury from fi re from a buildup of volatile vapors, keep the

FIRE

To avoid injury from re from a buildup of volatile vapors, keep the engine area well ventilated during operation.

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IDENTIFICATION

The MBE4000 engine is built in accordance with sound technological principles and based on state-of-the-art technology. It complies with all United States Environmental Protection

MBE 4000 OPERATOR'S MANUAL

Agency (USEPA) and California Air Resources Board (CARB) emission standards. An emission label is attached to the cylinder head cover, as required by law. See Figure 1.

the cylinder head cover, as required by law. See Figure 1. Figure 1 Emission Label, MBE4000

Figure 1

Emission Label, MBE4000

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IDENTIFICATION

Despite this, the engine may constitute a risk of damage to property or injury to persons under the following conditions:

It is not used for its intended purpose.

It is modi ed or converted in an incorrect manner.

The safety instructions included in this manual are disregarded.

Personnel Requirements

Work on the engine should be carried out only by skilled technicians who have been instructed in the speci c skills necessary for the type of work being performed.

Engine Conversions and Modi cations

The function and safety of the engine could be affected if unauthorized modi cations are made to it. Detroit Diesel will not accept responsibility for any resulting damage.

Tampering with the fuel injection system and engine electronics could also affect the engine's power output or exhaust emission levels. Compliance with the manufacturer's settings and with statutory environmental protection regulations cannot then be guaranteed.

General View of the MBE4000 Engine

For a general view of the MBE4000 engine, showing major components, see Figure 2 for the left-hand side, and Figure 3 for the right-hand side.

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MBE 4000 OPERATOR'S MANUAL

MBE 4000 OPERATOR'S MANUAL 1. EGR Outlet Pipe 8. Engine Trim Cover 2. Coolant Pump 9.

1. EGR Outlet Pipe

8.

Engine Trim Cover

2. Coolant Pump

9.

Crankcase Breather

3. Thermostat Housing

10.

Air Compressor

4. Modulated EGR Valve

5. EGR Cooler

6. EGR Shutoff Valve (hidden)

7. Air Intake Manifold

11. Fuel Filter Housing

12. Oil Pan

13. EGR Mixer

14. Air Conditioning Compressor

Figure 2

Major Engine Components, Left Side

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IDENTIFICATION

IDENTIFICATION 1. Oil Filter 2. Air Solenoid Valve (Engine Brake) 3. Turbocharger 7. EGR Cooler 8.

1. Oil Filter

2. Air Solenoid Valve (Engine Brake)

3. Turbocharger

7. EGR Cooler

8. Reed Valve Housing

9. EGR Control Valve

4. EGR Hot Pipe

10. EGR Mixer

5. Exhaust Manifold

11. Alternator

6. EGR Shutoff Valve

12. Belt Tensioner

Figure 3

12

Major Engine Components, Right Side

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Engine Type Plate

The engine type plate is used to identify the engine. It is located on the oil lter housing. See Figure 4.

It is located on the oil fi lter housing. See Figure 4. Figure 4 Location of

Figure 4

Location of Engine Type Plate

Details on the Plate

The engine type reference, OM 460 LA, is the production code. The rst three numbers of the engine serial number are the model number. See Figure 5.

MBE 4000 OPERATOR'S MANUAL

model number. See Figure 5. MBE 4000 OPERATOR'S MANUAL Figure 5 Engine Type Plate The last

Figure 5

Engine Type Plate

The last six numbers are the serial numbers (745111 in see Figure 5).

NOTE:

In addition to the fourteen digit number etched on the crankcase, there is a ten digit number used for warranty and service that is found on the DDEC-ECU label. The ten digit number is derived from the fourteen digit number (see Figure 6).

is derived from the fourteen digit number (see Figure 6). Figure 6 Engine Serial Number All

Figure 6

Engine Serial Number

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IDENTIFICATION

Engine Features

All MBE4000 engines are water-cooled, four-stroke, direct-injection inline diesel engines. Each cylinder has a separate fuel injection pump (unit pump) with a short injection line to the injection nozzle, which is located in the center of the combustion chamber. The unit pumps are attached to the crankcase and are driven from the camshaft. Each cylinder has two intake valves and two exhaust valves.

Charge-air cooling and an exhaust gas turbocharger are standard equipment.

The engine has a fully electronic control system consisting of a DDEC-ECU (Engine Control Unit) and a DDEC-VCU (Vehicle Control Unit) connected by a proprietary datalink. This system regulates the injection quantity and timing using solenoid valves, allowing extremely low-emission operation.

Standard engine braking is controlled by a pneumatically-operated exhaust brake on the turbocharger and by a hydraulically-operated constant-throttle system. For greater braking power, an optional turbo brake is available.

The cylinder block has integrated oil and water channels. The upper section of the cylinder bore has a carbon scraper ring seated in a groove on

the top part of the cylinder. The six individual cylinder heads are made of cast iron. The cylinder head gasket is an adjustment-free seal with rubber sealing elements.

The pistons are made of aluminum alloy with ring carriers and a shallow combustion chamber recess. The pistons are cooled by oil spray nozzles.

The crankshaft is precision-forged with seven main bearings and eight custom-forged counter weights, and a vibration damper at the front end.

The camshaft is made of induction-hardened steel and has seven cam bearings. Each cylinder has cams for intake and exhaust valves and a unit pump.

The valves are controlled by roller tappets, pushrods, and rocker arms. The intake and exhaust valves are opened and closed by a free- oating valve bridge.

There is a force-feed lubricating oil circuit supplied by a gear-type oil pump. This pump is positioned at the rear of the oil pan and driven by gears from the crankshaft. The oil heat exchanger is integrated with the oil lter housing on the right-hand side.

The gear-type fuel pump is located near the front of the crankcase on the left hand side. The pump is driven from the forward end of the camshaft.

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The air compressor, with a power-steering pump attached, is driven by a gear on the camshaft.

The engine is cooled by a closed system using recirculated coolant; temperature is regul ated automatically by a thermostat.

There are two main drive belts, each with its own automatic belt tensioner.

The alternator and coolant pump (and any other accessories) and the refrigerant compressor are driven by a main drive belt. The fan is driven by its own drive belt

Electrical equipment includes a starter and an alternator.

MBE 4000 OPERATOR'S MANUAL

Exhaust

Brake/Constant-Throttle

Valves

To increase braking performance, the engine is equipped with an exhaust brake on the turbocharger in conjunction with constant-throttle valves on the cylinder head. See Figure 7.

NOTE:

On EGR engines, the constant-throttle valves are activated by engine oil pressure.

The exhaust back pressure is used by the exhaust brake to increase braking performance.

used by the exhaust brake to increase braking performance. Figure 7 Constant-Throttle Activation (shown with EGR

Figure 7

Constant-Throttle Activation (shown with EGR system removed)

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IDENTIFICATION

The constant-throttle valves use the air that escapes through them on the compression stroke to provide braking force. The constant throttles are small valves which are built into the cylinder heads. When open, a link is created between the combustion chamber and the exhaust port.

The engine brake is activated by the DDEC-VCU. In engine braking mode, an engine rpm range of up to 2,500 rpm can be used by the operator. 2,500 rpm, however, may never be exceeded. The engine is turned off automatically when the engine rpm is:

Below 900 rpm for Allison Automatic Transmissions

Below 1100 rpm for all other transmissions

Also, the engine brak e is automatically turned off when the accelerator pedal is pressed.

NOTE:

When in emergency running mode (constant rpm), the engine brake can be activated only when the engine is in overrun. When constant rpm has been attained, the engine brake is automatically turned off.

Turbo Brake, Optional

For high braking output, the MBE4000 engine can be equipped with an optional turbo brake. The

turbo brake increases the air mass ow through the engine to provide very high braking horsepower.

The turbo brake can be operated either manually or automatically, through the cruise control function.

Because the charge air pressure is maintained at a high level during braking, full throttle response is available immediately, if the operator desires it, without any turbo lag.

The turbo brake is maintenance-free, highly reliable, and adds virtually no weight to the engine.

Exhaust Gas Recirculation

The purpose of the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) System is to reduce engine exhaust gas emissions in accordance with EPA regulations.

The MBE4000 engines for on-highway EPA 2004 regulation applications use a cooled EGR system consisting of an EGR cooler, EGR control valves, reed valves, and an EGR mixer.

In the cooled EGR system, part of the exhaust gasses from the front three cylinders are routed from the exhaust manifold through the EGR cooler, past control and reed valves, and are mixed with the intake manifold charge air.

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The addition of cooled exhaust gasses back into the combustion air ow reduces the peak in cylinder combustion temperature. Less oxides of nitrogen (NOx) are produced at lower combustion temperatures.

The recycled exhaust gases are cooled before engine consumption in a tube and shell engine water cooler.

MBE 4000 OPERATOR'S MANUAL

Electronic Engine Control System

The engine is equipped with a fully

electronic control system. See Figure

8.

with a fully electronic control system. See Figure 8. Figure 8 Electronic Engine Control System This

Figure 8

Electronic Engine Control System

This system is composed of the DDEC-ECU (Engine Control Unit)

and the DDEC-VCU (Vehicle Control Unit).

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17

IDENTIFICATION

The two control units are connected by

a proprietary datalink through which

all necessary data and information can be exchanged. The DDEC-VCU then broadcasts all information on the

J1587 and J1939 datalinks, where it can be read by minidiag2, the Nexiq™ Diagnostic Data Reader (DDR) or Detroit Diesel Diagnostic Link® (DDDL) PC software.

The DDEC-ECU monitors both

the engine and the datalink. When

a malfunction or other problem

is detected, the system selects an appropriate response; for example, the emergency running mode may be activated. For more information on the emergency running mode, refer to the “Emergency Running Mode” section under “Operations.”

DDEC-ECU — Engine-Resident Control Unit

The DDEC-ECU (see see Figure 9) is located on the left-hand side of the engine.

The DDEC-ECU processes the data received from the DDEC-VCU, for example the position of the accelerator pedal, engine brake, etc.

the position of the accelerator pedal, engine brake, etc. Figure 9 DDEC-ECU These data are evaluated

Figure 9

DDEC-ECU

These data are evaluated together with the data from the sensors on the engine, such as coolant and fuel temperature and oil and charge pressure.

The data is then compared to the characteristic maps or lines stored in the DDEC-ECU.

From these data, quantity and timing of injection are calculated and the unit pumps are actuated accordingly through the solenoid valves.

NOTE:

To obtain a replacement DDEC-ECU, all the data given on the DDEC-ECU label are required.

The DDEC-ECU data label has the 10 digit engine serial number (see Figure 6), the engine horse power and torque.

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Vehicle Control Unit

The DDEC-VCU, see Figure 10, communicates with the other electronic control units installed on the vehicle over the J1587 and J1939 data link.

installed on the vehicle over the J1587 and J1939 data link. Figure 10 DDEC-VCU Sets of

Figure 10 DDEC-VCU

Sets of data for speci c applications are stored in the DDEC-VCU including idle speed, maximum running speed, and speed limitation.

The DDEC-VCU receives data from the following sources:

The operator (accelerator pedal position, engine brake switch)

Other electronic control units (the antilock brake system)

The DDEC-ECU (oil pressure and coolant temperature)

From these data, instructions are computed for controlling the engine

MBE 4000 OPERATOR'S MANUAL

and transmitted to the DDEC-ECU via the proprietary data link.

The DDEC-VCU controls various systems, for example, communications with the datalink and the engine brake.

If the engine control system detects a fault, the appropriate fault code is broadcast on the datalink and can be read using minidiag2, the Nexiq DDR or DDDL PC software. Fault code information may al so be available on the vehicle or equipment instrument panel.

Sensor Locations

Use caution when handling the sensors.

CHEMICAL BURNS To avoid injury from chemical burns, wear a face shield and neoprene or

CHEMICAL BURNS

To avoid injury from chemical burns, wear a face shield and neoprene or PVC gloves when handling sensor hoses.

The Engine Oil Pressure/Temperature

Sensor is located at the base of the oil

lter.

See Figure 11 for sensor locations on the MBE4000 engine.

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IDENTIFICATION

IDENTIFICATION 1. Intake Air Pressure/Temperature Sensor 2. EGR Temperature Sensor 3. Camshaft Position Sensor 4.

1. Intake Air Pressure/Temperature Sensor

2. EGR Temperature Sensor

3. Camshaft Position Sensor

4. Crankshaft Position Sensor

Figure 11 Sensor Location

5. Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor

6. Barometric Pressure Sensor (Integrated into DDEC-ECU)

7. Supply Fuel Temperature Sensor

8. Engine Oil Pressure/Temperature Sensor

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OPERATION

Important: Before starting the engine, carefully read all operating instructions in this manual and do all the recommended pretrip inspections and daily maintenance. Check the engine oil and fuel levels, and drain contaminants from the fuel/water separator (optional).

Before Starting the Engine

NOTE:

If you drain the fuel/water separator completely, you may have to prime the fuel system.

Be sure you are familiar with all of the instruments, gauges and controls which are needed to operate the engine.

Note especially the location and function of the following:

Oil pressure gauge

Low oil pressure warning light

Coolant temperature gauge

High coolant temperature warning light

Water in fuel warning light

Tachometer

Air restriction indicator

Watch for any signs of engine problems when starting or driving. If

MBE 4000 OPERATOR'S MANUAL

the engine overheats, uses excessive fuel or lubricating oil, vibrates, mis res, makes unusual noises, or shows an unusual loss of power, turn the engine off as soon as possible and determine the cause of the problem. Engine damage may be avoided by a quick response to early indications of problems.

When starting the engine in cold weather, refer to the “ Service Products” section. Checking the Batteries

Use only batteries that have been correctly lled and serviced. To provide corrosion protection, apply dielectric grease, part number 48-02349-000, liberally to the terminal pads. Approved suppliers are listed in Table 1.

Lubricant or

Part Number

Manufacturer

Shell Oil Co.

No. 71032; No.

71306

Texaco, Inc.

No. 955

Quaker State

No. NYK-77

Table 1

Approved Electrical Lubricants

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OPERATION

Battery Explosion and Acid Burn To avoid injury from battery explosion or contact with battery

Battery Explosion and Acid Burn

To avoid injury from battery explosion or contact with battery acid, work in a well ventilated area, wear protective clothing, and avoid sparks or ames near the battery. If you come in contact with battery acid:

Flush your skin with water.

Apply baking soda or lime to help neutralize the acid.

Flush your eyes with water.

Get medical attention immediately.

Checking the Oil Level

Check the oil level as follows:

1. Check the oil level using the oil dipstick (see Figure 12).

PERSONAL INJURY To avoid injury from slipping and falling, immediately clean up any spilled liquids.

PERSONAL INJURY

To avoid injury from slipping and falling, immediately clean up any spilled liquids.

and falling, immediately clean up any spilled liquids. Figure 12 Oil Dipstick 2. If necessary, top

Figure 12 Oil Dipstick

2. If necessary, top off by lling engine oil through the oil ll cap (see Figure 13) to the maximum ll level on the oil dipstick.

13) to the maximum fi ll level on the oil dipstick. Figure 13 Oil Fill Cap

Figure 13 Oil Fill Cap

For detailed procedures, refer to the “Maintenance” section.

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Checking the Coolant Level (Cold Check)

Check coolant level as follows:

1. Ensure that all coolant plugs in the bottom of the radiator and on the radiator outlet pipe are secure and tight.

2. Check the coolant level. The cooling system is correctly lled when the coolant is between the maximum and minimum marks on the surge tank.

For more information, refer to the “Maintenance” section.

Adding Fuel

When adding fuel, pay attention to the following:

Add winter or summer grade fuel according to the season of the year.

Work in the cleanest conditions possible.

Prevent water from entering the fuel tank.

For further information, refer to the “Service Products” section.

MBE 4000 OPERATOR'S MANUAL

NOTICE:

Correct torque on the high pressure lines is critical. Incorrect torques could result in leaks or lack of power due to restricted fuel ow.

1. Make sure that all high-pressure and low-pressure lines are securely tightened. For tightening speci cations, refer to the ”Technical Data” section.

2. If equipped with a hand pump on the fuel/water separator, work the hand pump 50 times.

NOTE:

There should be a strong resistance in the hand pump, caused by the pressure buildup within the fuel system.

3. Crank the engine for 30 seconds at a time, but no longer. Wait at least two minutes. The engine should start within four 30-second attempts.

Priming the Fuel System

Prime the fuel system as follows:

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OPERATION

Starting the Engine

Before operating the engine, do the work described under "Before Starting the Engine." Start the engine as follows:

NOTICE:

Never attempt to start any Mercedes-Benz electronic engine using ether or any other starting uid. Serious engine damage could result.

PERSONAL INJURY To avoid injury when working near or on an operating engine, remove loose

PERSONAL INJURY

To avoid injury when working near or on an operating engine, remove loose items of clothing and jewelry. Tie back or contain long hair that could be caught in any moving part causing injury.

[b] Check the oil feed and return lines at the turbocharger for tightness. Shut down the engine and tighten them if necessary.

4. Shut down the engine.

5. Approximately ve minutes after shutdown, check the engine oil level. If necessary, add oil up to the maximum ll level on the oil dipstick.

6. Check all the mounting fasteners on the engine for tightness.

Checking the Coolant Level (Hot Check)

Check the coolant levels as follows:

1. Allow the engine to run for approximately ve minutes at a moderate speed.

1.

Turn on the ignition switch.

2.

With the accelerator pedal in the idle position, start the engine.

3.

Check the engine for leaks.

[a] Check all hoses, hose clamps, and pipe unions on the engine for tightness. Shut down the engine and tighten them if necessary.

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MBE 4000 OPERATOR'S MANUAL

HOT COOLANT To avoid scalding from the expulsion of hot coolant, never remove the cooling

HOT COOLANT

To avoid scalding from the expulsion of hot coolant, never remove the cooling system pressure cap while the engine is at operating temperature. Wear adequate protective clothing (face shield, rubber gloves, apron, and boots). Remove the cap slowly to relieve pressure.

2. Then, with the coolant temperature above 50°C (122°F), recheck the coolant level.

3. Add more coolant if necessary. Open the heater valves before adding coolant.

4. Do not close the heater valves until the engine has been run brie y and the coolant level again checked and corrected as necessary.

Starting an Engine That Has Not Been Run for a Long Time

Before starting an engine which has not been run for a long time, certain special work must be carried out. Refer to the “Cleaning and Storage” section.

Important: At outside temperatures below –20°C (–4°F), a coolant preheater is recommended.

1. Chock the tires, place the transmission in neutral, and set the parking brake.

2. Turn on the ignition switch and start the engine

3. If the engine doesn't start after 20 seconds, stop. Try again after waiting about one minute.

NOTICE:

Do not rev the engine if the oil pressure gauge indicates no oil pressure. To avoid engine damage, shut down the engine within approximately ten seconds. Check to determine the cause of the problem.

4. Monitor the oil pressure gauge immediately after starting the engine.

NOTE:

Do not place the engine under full load until it reaches operating temperature.

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OPERATION

Monitoring Engine Operation

While the engine is operating, monitor the battery charge indicator light, the oil pressure and avoid excessive idling.

Battery Charge

The battery charge indicator light (see Figure 14) must go out once the engine starts.

light (see Figure 14) must go out once the engine starts. Figure 14 Battery Charge Indicator

Figure 14 Battery Charge Indicator Light

If the indicator light comes on while the engine is running, do the following:

1.

2.

Shut down the engine.

Check the poly-V belt for tightness.

FIRE To avoid injury from fi re, keep all potential ignition sources away from diesel

FIRE

To avoid injury from re, keep all potential ignition sources away from diesel fuel, including open ames, sparks, and electrical resistance heating elements. Do not smoke when refueling.

3. Do a load test on the batteries. Charge or replace the batteries as needed.

4. If necessary, visit the nearest authorized dealer to have the alternator voltage and output checked.

Oil Pressure

When the engine has reached its normal operating temperature, the engine oil pressure must not drop below the following values:

36 psi (250 kPa) at rated speed

7 psi (50 kPa) at idling speed

If oil pressure drops below these values, stop the engine and determine the cause.

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Excessive Idling

Never allow the engine to idle for more than 30 minutes. Excessive idling can cause oil to leak from the turbocharger.

Changing the Idle Speed

The rpm range of the MBE4000 engine is 600 to 850 rpm if the parameters in the DDEC-VCU are set to the default range.

Change the idle speed as follows:

1. Turn the cruise control switch to the OFF position.

2. To increase the idle speed, push the "Resume" switch until the idle is fast enough.

3. To decrease the idle speed, push the "Decel" switch until the idle is slow enough.

Shutting Down the Engine

If the engine has been running at full output or the coolant temperature has been high, allow the engine to idle for one to two minutes without load. Then turn off the ignition key switch.

If any the following occur, shut down the engine immediately.

The oil pressure swings back and forth or falls sharply.

MBE 4000 OPERATOR'S MANUAL

Engine power and rpm fall, even though the accelerator pedal remains steady.

The exhaust pipe gives off heavy smoke.

The coolant and/or oil temperature climb abnormally.

Abnormal sounds suddenly occur in the engine or turbocharger.

Shutting Down After High Load Operation

After high load operation, do the following:

NOTICE:

After high load operation, allow the engine to idle for one to two minutes without load. Shutting down the engine without idling may cause damage to the turbocharger.

1. If the engine has been running at full output or the coolant temperature has been high, allow the engine to idle for one to two minutes without load.

2. Turn off the ignition switch and shut down the engine.

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OPERATION

Emergency Running Mode

The engine is equipped with the electronic engine control system, which monitors the engine as it is running.

As soon as a fault is detected, it is evaluated and one of the following measures is initiated.

NOTICE:

To prevent possible serious engine damage, have any faults corrected without delay by an authorized dealer.

In conjunction with any dashboard or instrument panel display, the code for the electronic control unit reporting the fault can be read immediately on the display.

Complete fault codes are transmitted and can be read using minidiag2, the Nexiq DDR or DDDL PC software.

If the fault is serious enough to impair normal operation, the electronic engine system switches over to emergency running mode. When in emergency running mode, the engine operates at a constant 1300 rpm. This allows you to move the vehicle to a service location.

28

For fault codes and their meanings, see the vehicle service manual.

Stop Engine Override Option

The Stop Engine Override Option is used for a momentary override. The DDEC-ECU will record the number of times the override is activated after a fault occurs.

Momentary Override – A Stop Engine Override (SEO) switch is used to override the shutdown sequence (see Figure). This override resets the 60 second (30 seconds for oil pressure) shutdown timer, restoring power to the level when the Red Stop Lamp (RSL) was illuminated. The switch must be recycled after ve seconds to obtain a subsequent override.

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Figure 15 Typical SEO Switch and Warning Lamps NOTE: The operator has the responsibility to

Figure 15 Typical SEO Switch and Warning Lamps

NOTE:

The operator has the responsibility to take action to avoid engine damage.

Cold Weather Operation

Special precautions must be taken during cold weather. To protect your engine, special cold weather handling

is required for fuel, engine oil, coolant,

and batteries.

Winter Fronts

A winter front may be used to improve

cab heating while idling. At least 25%

of the grill opening should remain

open in sectioned stripes that run perpendicular to the charge air cooler tube ow direction. This assures even cooling across each tube and reduces header to tube stress and possible failure. Winter fronts should only be used when the ambient temperature remains below -12.2° C (10° F).

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CLEANING AND STORAGE

CLEANING AND STORAGE

Special precautions should be taken for a stored engine to protect the its interior and exterior.

Cleaning the Engine

Important: Observe all environmental protection regulations.

High-Pressure Cleaning Equipment

Information on suitable cleaning and protective pro ducts is available from any authorized dealer. Note the equipment manufact urer's operating instructions.

NOTICE:

To prevent damage to engine components, keep the water moving at all times while cleaning. Never direct water onto electrical components, plug connectors, seals or exible hoses.

Comply with the minimum working distance between the high-pressure nozzle and the surface being cleaned:

Cleaning the Cooling System

Important: Collect the used coolant, cleaning solutions, and washing liquids and dispose of them in an environmentally responsible manner.

Clean as follows:

NOTICE:

Clean at moderate pressures only; otherwise the ns of the radiator grille could be damaged.

1. First remove debris (dust, insects, etc.) from the ns of the radiator grille.

Approximately 28 inches (700

 

mm)

for circular pattern jets

Approximately 12 inches (300

 

mm)

for 25-degree at jets and

dirt cutters

 

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EYE INJURY To avoid injury from fl ying debris when using compressed air, wear adequate

EYE INJURY

To avoid injury from ying debris when using compressed air, wear adequate eye protection (face shield or safety goggles) and do not exceed 276 kPa (40 psi) air pressure.

2. Remove the debris by blowing them through with compressed air or spraying them out with water. Work from the rear of the radiator (in the opposite direction of the normal cooling air ow).

3. Drain the coolant when the engine is cold. For detailed procedures, see the vehicle/chassis maintenance manual. For types of coolant, refer to the “Service Products” section.

4. If the HVAC unit is connected to the cooling system, open the regulating valves all the way.

Degreasing

Degrease as follows:

1. Fill the cooling system with a 5% solution (1.6 ounces per quart of water—50 grams per liter) of a mildly alkaline cleaning agent, such as sodium carbonate.

MBE 4000 OPERATOR'S MANUAL

2. Run the engine at moderate speed until the thermostat starts to open, at an operating temperature of approximately 80°C (176°F). Then run it for about ve minutes longer. Shut down the engine and allow it to cool to approximately 50°C (112°F).

HOT COOLANT To avoid scalding from the expulsion of hot coolant, never remove the cooling

HOT COOLANT

To avoid scalding from the expulsion of hot coolant, never remove the cooling system pressure cap while the engine is at operating temperature. Wear adequate protective clothing (face shield, rubber gloves, apron, and boots). Remove the cap slowly to relieve pressure.

3. Drain all the cleaning solution.

4. Flush the cleaning solution from the cooling system.

[a]

Immediately after draining the cleaning solution, ush the system with clean water.

[b]

Once the clean water has drained, ll the system again with clean water.

[c]

Run the engine. Allow the engine to warm up to approximately 80°C (176°F),

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CLEANING AND STORAGE

and then run it about ve minutes longer.

[d] Drain the hot water.

5. Fill the cooling system with new coolant. For detai led procedures, see the vehicle/chassis maintenance manual. For types of coolant, refer to the “Service Products” section.

Storage

Required protective measures for the MBE4000 engine depend on the following:

The length of time that the engine will be out of service

The climate and conditions where the engine is stored

After cleaning, engines should, whenever possible, be placed in a dry, well-ventilated place.

In all cases, protect the engine against direct exposure to moisture (rain/splash water).

If the engine is to be out of service for 12 months or less, anticorrosion measures are not necessary, provided that the place of storage are dry and well-ventilated as described above.

If the engine is to be out of service for over 12 months, or under extraordinary storage or transportation conditions, then special protective measures are necessary. Information is available from any authorized dealer. It is strongly recommended that you request this information.

NOTE:

If the engine is to be out of service for over 18 months, the oil must be changed before the engine can be brought back into service.

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TROUBLESHOOTING

In addition to operating the engine carefully and maintaining it properly, make sure to correct any malfunction promptly.

Emergency Starting

For emergency starting procedures (jump starting), see the driver's manual under the heading "Emergency Starting With Jumper Cables."

Troubleshooting the Electronic Engine Control System

When the electronic engine control system detects a fault, it broadcasts a message on the datalink. The dash display will show the code "ECU 128," indicating there is an engine fault.

Important: To read the complete fault code, bring the vehicle to an authorized dealer. Complete fault codes can be read using minidiag2, the Nexiq DDR or DDDL PC software.

For fault codes and their meanings, see the next section in this Manual.

MBE 4000 OPERATOR'S MANUAL

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TROUBLESHOOTING

General Troubleshooting

The tables that follow are designed to identify the causes of common problems, suggest further checks and appropriate remedies. When dealer service is necessary, this is mentioned in the table.

NOTE:

Remember to follow all cautions when troubleshooting the engine.

Problem - The Engine Will Not Crank

Cause

Remedy

The batteries are damaged or weak.

Test the batteries. Replace them, if needed.

The ignition switch is damaged.

Replace the ignition switch.

The battery cables are damaged and/or corroded.

Replace the battery cables.

The starter is damaged and/or worn.

Have an authorized dealer replace the starter.

The clutch or transmission is damaged.

Bring the vehicle to an authorized dealer for service.

There is internal damage to the engine.

Bring the vehicle to an authorized dealer for service.

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MBE 4000 OPERATOR'S MANUAL

Problem—The Engine Turns Over Slowly

Cause

Remedy

The batteries are damaged or weak.

Test the batteries. Replace them, if needed.

The ignition switch is damaged.

Replace the ignition switch.

The battery cables are damaged and/or corroded

Replace the battery cables.

The starter is damaged and/or worn.

Have an authorized dealer replace the starter.

The engine oil does not meet the correct specications.

Change the engine oil, using the correct type of oil.

The transmission uid does not meet the correct specications.

Change the transmission uid, using the correct type of uid.

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TROUBLESHOOTING

Problem—The Engine Cranks, But Won't Start

Cause

Remedy

The batteries are damaged or weak.

Test the batteries. Replace them, if needed.

The cranking speed is not set correctly.

Bring the vehicle to an authorized dealer for service.

No intake air preheater is installed, and it is too cold to start without one.

Install an intake air preheater.

The intake air preheater is malfunctioning.

Check the intake air preheater, and replace it, if necessary.

The camshaft TDC sensor and/or the crank angle position sensor are out of adjustment.

Push both sensors into their holes as far as they will go. If this does not solve the problem, bring the vehicle to an authorized dealer for service.

The camshaft TDC sensor and/or the crank angle position sensor are damaged.

Bring the vehicle to an authorized dealer for service.

There is air in the fuel system.

Check the fuel lines for air pockets. Bleed the fuel system and start the engine.

The air lter is clogged.

Clean or replace the air lter.

The fuel lter is clogged.

Replace the lter element.

The exhaust brake valve is malfunctioning.

Have an authorized dealer check the operation of the valve.

The valves are not adjusted properly.

Check the valve lash.

There are other problems in the fuel system.

Bring the vehicle to an authorized dealer for service.

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MBE 4000 OPERATOR'S MANUAL

Problem—The Engine Starts Only After Cranking for a Long Time

Cause

Remedy

The fuel tank is low or empty.

Add fuel and bleed the fuel system, if necessary.

There are leaks in the fuel lines.

Check the fuel lines for leaks and repair them, if necessary.

The fuel lter is clogged.

Replace the lter element.

The fuel line, the fuel pre lter, or the screen in the fuel tank is blocked.

Clean and bleed the system. Have the fuel lines and lters checked by an authorized dealer.

The camshaft TDC sensor and/or the crank angle position sensor are out of adjustment.

Push both sensors into their holes as far as they will go. If this does not solve the problem, bring the vehicle to an authorized dealer for service.

The camshaft TDC sensor and/or the crank angle position sensor are damaged.

Bring the vehicle to an authorized dealer for service.

There are other problems in the fuel system.

Bring the vehicle to an authorized dealer for service.

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TROUBLESHOOTING

Problem—The Engine Starts, But Dies

Cause

Remedy

The fuel tank is low or empty.

Add fuel and bleed the fuel system, if necessary.

The fuel lter is clogged.

Replace the lter element.

The fuel line, the fuel pre lter, or the screen in the fuel tank is blocked.

Clean and bleed the system. Have the fuel lines and lters checked by an authorized dealer.

The camshaft TDC sensor and/or the crank angle position sensor are out of adjustment.

Push both sensors into their holes as far as they will go. If this does not solve the problem, bring the vehicle to an authorized dealer for service.

The camshaft TDC sensor and/or the crank angle position sensor are damaged.

Bring the vehicle to an authorized dealer for service.

The constant-throttle valves are malfunctioning.

Bring the vehicle to an authorized dealer for service.

There are other problems in the fuel system.

Bring the vehicle to an authorized dealer for service.

Problem—The Engine Fan Doesn't Work

Cause

Remedy

The fan hub is damaged.

Replace the fan hub.

The fan wiring is damaged.

Repair the fan wiring.

The parameter settings in the DDEC-ECU or DDEC-VCU are incorrect.

Have an authorized dealer reprogram the control unit.

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MBE 4000 OPERATOR'S MANUAL

Problem—The Engine Fan Is Constantly On

Cause

Remedy

The fan override switch is on.

Check the operation of the fan override switch.

The fan hub is damaged.

Replace the fan hub

The parameter settings in the DDEC-ECU or DDEC-VCU are incorrect.

Have an authorized dealer reprogram the control unit.

AC switch is damaged

Check AC switch.

Problem—Fuel Consumption Is Too High

Cause

Remedy

The tires are not properly in ated.

Check all tires for correct pressure.

The air lter and/or intake air system is clogged.

Check the air restriction indicator. Clean the intake air system and replace the air lter if necessary.

The fuel lter is clogged.

Replace the lter element.

The exhaust brake valve is malfunctioning.

Have an authorized dealer check the operation of the valve.

The engine performs poorly, or does not develop full power.

The remedies are listed in "The Engine Performs Poorly, Does Not Develop Full Power."

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TROUBLESHOOTING

Problem—The Engine Performs Poorly, Does Not Develop Full Power

Cause

Remedy

The air lter and/or intake air system is clogged.

Check the air restriction indicator. Clean the intake air system and replace the air lter if necessary.

The exhaust brake valve is malfunctioning.

Have an authorized dealer check the operation of the valve.

The fuel lter is clogged.

Replace the lter element.

There are other problems with the fuel system.

Bring the vehicle to an authorized dealer for service.

The valves are not adjusted properly

Check the valve lash.

The coolant temperature sensor is damaged or reading incorrectly.

Bring the vehicle to an authorized dealer for service.

The fuel temperature sensor is damaged or reading incorrectly.

Bring the vehicle to an authorized dealer for service.

The engine oil temperature sensor is damaged or reading incorrectly.

Bring the vehicle to an authorized dealer for service.

The charge-air temperature sensor is damaged or reading incorrectly.

Bring the vehicle to an authorized dealer for service.

There are problems with the DDEC-ECU or DDEC-VCU.

Bring the vehicle to an authorized dealer for service.

There is internal damage to the engine.

Bring the vehicle to an authorized dealer for service.

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Problem—The Engine Is in Emergency Running Mode (constant speed 1,300 rpm)

Problem—The Engine Is in Emergency Running Mode (constant speed 1,300 rpm)

Cause

The DDEC-ECU or DDEC-VCU is damaged.

An incorrect parameter is in the DDEC-ECU or DDEC-VCU.

Remedy

Bring the vehicle to an authorized dealer for service.

Bring the vehicle to an authorized dealer and have the parameter settings reprogrammed in the DDEC-ECU or DDEC-VCU.

Problem—The Coolant Temperature Is Above Normal

Cause

Remedy

The coolant level is too low.

Check for coolant leaks, and repair as needed.

The poly-V belt is loose.

Tighten or replace the poly-V belt.

The coolant temperature gauge and/or sensor is not reading correctly.

Bring the vehicle to an authorized dealer for service.

The radiator is damaged or dirty.

Clean the radiator. Repair or replace the radiator if necessary.

The coolant pump is damaged.

Have an authorized dealer replace the coolant pump.

The thermostat is damaged.

Have an authorized dealer replace the coolant pump.

The fan is not operating properly.

Bring the vehicle to an authorized dealer and have the fan hub checked or have the parameter settings reprogrammed in the DDEC-ECU or DDEC-VCU.

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TROUBLESHOOTING

Problem—The Coolant Temperature Is Below Normal

Problem—The Coolant Temperature Is Below Normal

Cause

The coolant temperature gauge and/or sensor is not reading correctly.

The thermostat is damaged.

The fan is not operating properly.

Remedy

Bring the vehicle to an authorized dealer for service.

Have an authorized dealer replace the thermostat.

Bring the vehicle to an authorized dealer and have the fan hub checked. Bring the vehicle to an authorized dealer and have the parameter settings reprogrammed in the DDEC-ECU or DDEC-VCU.

Problem—The Cooling System Is Losing Coolant

Cause

Remedy

There is an external coolant leak.

Repair the leaking component.

The radiator cap is leaking.

Replace the radiator cap.

The air compressor head is damaged.

Have an authorized dealer replace the air compressor.

The cylinder head gasket is leaking.

Have an authorized dealer replace the head gasket.

Problem—There Is Coolant in the Engine Oil

Problem—There Is Coolant in the Engine Oil

Cause

The cylinder head gasket is damaged.

The oil/water heat exchanger is leaking.

There is an internal coolant leak.

Remedy

Have an authorized dealer replace the head gasket.

Have an authorized dealer replace the heat exchanger.

Bring the vehicle to an authorized dealer for service.

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MBE 4000 OPERATOR'S MANUAL

Problem—There Is Foam in the Engine Oil

Cause

Remedy

The oil level is too low or too high.

Correct the oil level.

The oil has not been changed within the recommended interval.

Change the oil.

The oil is not of the recommended quality.

Change the oil.

Problem—The Engine Oil Pressure Is Low

Cause

Remedy

The oil pressure gauge and/or sensor is not reading correctly.

Bring the vehicle to an authorized dealer for service.

There is fuel in the oil.

Bring the vehicle to an authorized dealer for service.

The oil lter is clogged.

Replace the lter element.

The oil lter bypass valve is damaged.

Replace the bypass valve.

The oil pump and/or relief valve is damaged.

Have an authorized dealer replace the oil pump.

Problem—The Engine Exhaust Is White

Cause

Remedy

The fuel is of poor quality.

Add fuel of the right quality.

The intake air preheater is malfunctioning.

Check the intake air preheater, and replace it, if necessary.

The valves are not adjusted properly.

Check the valve lash.

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TROUBLESHOOTING

Problem—The Engine Exhaust Is Black

Cause

Remedy

The air lter and/or intake air system is clogged.

Check the air restriction indicator. Clean the intake air system and replace the air lter if necessary.

The exhaust brake valve is malfunctioning.

Have an authorized dealer check the operation of the valve.

The intake air preheater is malfunctioning.

Check that the heater is not staying on all of the time.

The valves are not adjusted properly.

Check the valve lash.

There is damage to the fuel system:

 

the fuel pump, one or more fuel injectors, or one or more unit pumps are damaged.

Bring the vehicle to an authorized dealer for service.

The charge-air temperature sensor is damaged.

Bring the vehicle to an authorized dealer for service.

There is internal damage to the engine.

Bring the vehicle to an authorized dealer for service.

Problem—The Engine Exhaust Is Blue

Cause

Remedy

The engine oil level is too high (engine oil is reaching the combustion chamber).

Adjust the oil level, and then have the oil level checked by an authorized dealer.

The turbocharger is leaking oil.

Have an authorized dealer replace the turbocharger

The valve stem seals are loose or damaged.

Have an authorized dealer replace the seals.

The piston rings are worn.

Have an authorized dealer replace the piston rings.

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Problem—Engine Brake Performance Is Poor

Cause

Remedy

The engine brake control switch is damaged.

Replace the switch

The exhaust brake is not operating properly.

Have an authorized dealer check the operation of the valve.

The constant-throttle valves are malfunctioning.

Bring the vehicle to an authorized dealer for service.

Components of the DDEC-ECU and/or DDEC-VCU are damaged.

Bring the vehicle to an authorized dealer for service.

Problem—Cruise Control Is Not Working

Cause

Remedy

One or more of the cruise control switches are damaged.

Replace the damaged switch.

Components of the DDEC-ECU and/or DDEC-VCU are damaged or not working properly.

Bring the vehicle to an authorized dealer for service.

Problem—The Battery Charge Indicator Light Does Not Come On When the Engine Is Not Running

Problem—The Battery Charge Indicator Light Does Not Come On When the Engine Is Not Running

Cause

The bulb is damaged.

The circuit is broken.

Remedy

Change the bulb.

Repair the break in the circuit.

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TROUBLESHOOTING

Problem—The Battery Charge Indicator Light Comes On When the Engine is Running

Cause

Remedy

The poly-V belt is too loose.

Check the belt tension; if necessary, have an authorized dealer replace the belt tensioner.

The belt tensioner is damaged.

Have an authorized dealer replace the belt tensioner.

The poly-V belt is worn or damaged.

Replace the belt.

The alternator is damaged (has a damaged recti er or voltage regulator).

Have an authorized dealer replace the alternator.

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SERVICE PRODUCTS

Carefully match together the components of the engine with the lubricants they need. Use only brands which have been tested and approved by DDC. Information is available from any authorized dealer.

Do not use special lubricant additives. None are needed, and the use of additives could affect warranty.

Important: Dispose of service products in an environmentally responsible manner. This includes any parts which have been in contact with them (for example, lters). Reclaim them or recycle them, if possible, and be sure to comply with all legal disposal requirements.

Diesel Fuels

Use only commercially available vehicle diesel fuel. Grades such as marine diesel fuel, heating oil, and others are not permissible.

Do not use fuel additives. Using fuel additives could affect your warranty.

If using diesel fuel with a high sulphur content, exceeding 0.5 percent by weight, change the engine oil at shorter intervals.

Fuel added from drums or cans could be contaminated. This could lead to malfunctions in the fuel system.

MBE 4000 OPERATOR'S MANUAL

Always lter the fuel before adding it to the tank.

For information about fuel in cold weather operation, see the heading "Winter-Grade Diesel Fuel" later in this chapter.

Flow Improvers

The effectiveness of ow improvers is not guaranteed with all fuels. Comply with the product manufacturer's recommendations. Any authorized dealer can provide information on approved ow improvers.

Kerosene

Keep the quantity added as low as possible, bearing in mind the outside temperature.

The addition of ve percent by volume of kerosene will improve the fuel's resistance to cold by about 1°C (1.8°F). Never add more than 50 percent kerosene to the fuel.

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SERVICE PRODUCTS

NOTICE:

For safety reasons, add the kerosene to the diesel only in the fuel tank. Add the kerosene rst, then the diesel. Run the engine for a short time to allow the mixture to reach all parts of the fuel system.

Engine Oils

The engine is delivered from the factory lled with an approved engine oil.

NOTICE:

The use of non-approved engine oils could affect warranty rights, and cause engine damage.

Only multigrade oils of American Petroleum Institute (API) service designation PGOS 93K214 or CI-4 Plus quality engine oils will achieve proper performance for the cooled EGR engines. Look for the service mark printed on the oil container. See Figure 16.

service mark printed on the oil container. See Figure 16. Figure 16 API Lubricant Service Mark

Figure 16 API Lubricant Service Mark

When maintenance work is performed, record engine oil changes including details of the brand used, the quality category, and the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) viscosity rating of the oil. When topping off, use only engine oils of the correct API des ignation and SAE rating.

For information about oil in cold weather operation, see the heading "Low-Viscosity Engine Oil" later in this chapter.

Synthetic Oils

Synthetic oil may be used in MBE4000 engines, provided they are of the correct API designation and viscosity, as required for non-synthetic oil.

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MBE 4000 OPERATOR'S MANUAL

Synthetic oil offers improved low-temperature ow properties and high-temperature resistance to oxidation. However, it is generally more costly than non-synthetic oil.

Review carefully the product information published by the synthetic oil manufacturer. Performance additive systems often respond differently in synthetic oil. Use of synthetic oil does not change the recommended oil change service interval.

Coolant

Coolant is a mixture of water and antifreeze. Under nor mal conditions, it is a mixture of 50 percent water and 50 percent antifreeze, but under extreme cold weather conditions, as much as 60 percent antifreeze can be added. For reasons of anticorrosion protection and to raise the boiling point, the coolant must remain in the cooling system all year round.

Regardless of mileage, replace the coolant every two years since the degree of corrosion protection gradually drops with time.

Fully-Formulated Antifreeze

Antifreeze approved for use in the MBE4000 engine is a mixture of glycol compound (ethylene glycol), and corrosion inhibitors. Antifreeze containing glycol compounds and

corrosion inhibitors is known as fully-formulated antifreeze.

NOTICE:

D o n o t use propylene glycol.

Fully-formulated antifreeze has the following properties:

It protects the radiator and engine from freezing.

It provides protection against corrosion and cavitation for all components in the cooling system.

It raises the boiling point of the coolant. This slows the rate of evaporation, avoiding coolant loss at high temperatures.

Water

Water containing no additives is not suitable as a coolant, even if no antifreeze protection is needed.

The water used in the coolant must comply with certain requirements, which are not always satis ed by drinking water. If water quality is inadequate, the water must undergo suitable treatment.

The following types of water are preferred for use in coolant:

Distilled water

Water puri ed by reverse osmosis

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SERVICE PRODUCTS

De-ionized water

NOTICE:

In some areas, tap water can contain high levels of dissolved chlorides, sulfates, magnesium, and calcium, causing scale deposits, sludge deposits and/or corrosion. These deposits can damage the coolant pump and allow the engine to overheat.

Coolant Speci cations

To avoid damage to the cooling system, use only an approved corrosion-inhi biting antifreeze. Approved antifreeze must be fully-formulated and comply with

the requirements of the Truck Maintenance Council (TMC). Coolant speci cations are listed in Table 2.

Coolant Concentration

When topping off the cooling system after a drop in the coolant level, the concentration of corrosion-inhibiting antifreeze in the coolant must be 50 percent by volume. This affords protection down to a temperature of –37°C (–34°F). The cooling mixing ratio is listed in Table 3.

NOTE:

If the concentration is too low, there is risk of corrosion/cavitation in the cooling system.

Type of Coolant

Requirement

Fully-Formulated Ethylene Glycol

TMC RP-329 Type "A"

Water plus Corrosion Inhibitors

Temperature Must Not Fall Below 0°C (32°F)

Table 2

Coolant Specications

Antifreeze Protection Down to °C (°F)

Water %

Corrosion - Inhibiting Antifreeze % by Volume

by Volume

–37 (–34)

50

50

–52 (–62)

40

The cooling mix ratio is Max. 60

Table 3

Coolant Mixing Ratio

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For information about coolant in cold weather operation, see the heading "Winter Coolant Antifreeze Protection" later in this chapter.

Supplemental Coolant Additives for Fully Formulated Coolant

The concentrations of some inhibitors will gradually deplete during normal engine operation. SCAs replenish the protection for cooling system components. The coolant must be maintained with the proper concentration of SCA. Detroit Diesel Power Cool maintenance SCAs are recommended.

NOTICE:

Failure to properly maintain coolant with SCA can result in damage to the cooling system and its related components. Conversely, over-concentration of SCA inhibitor can result in poor heat transfer, leading to engine damage. Always maintain concentrations at recommended levels. Do not use traditional SCAs with OAT coolant.

The proper application of SCA will provide:

pH control

Restored inhibitor levels to prevent corrosion

MBE 4000 OPERATOR'S MANUAL

Water-softening to deter formation of mineral deposits

Cavitation protection to protect wet sleeve cylinder liners

Dropout

Excessive amounts of some corrosion inhibitors can cause a g el or crystalline deposit that reduces both heat transfer and coolant ow. This deposit is called "dropout."

Dropout takes the color of the coolant when wet, but becomes a white or gray powder when dry. It can pick up solid particles in the coolant and become gritty. It will cause premature wear of the coolant pump seals and other components of the cooling system.

The wet gel can be removed using an alkaline (non-acid) cleaner containing either sodium nitrite or sodium tetraborate.

If the gel is allowed to dry, it is necessary to disassemble the engine and clean it with a caustic solution, or physically clean the individual components.

Non-Approved Coolants

The following types of coolant are not approved for use in MBE4000 engines:

Antifreeze or cool ant containing phosphate can cause dropout,

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SERVICE PRODUCTS

overheating, and damage to coolant pump seals.

Automotive coolants offer no protection against liner pitting, and generally contain high levels of phosphate and silicate.

Antifreeze based on methyl alcohol can damage the non-metallic components of the cooling system. They are not suitable for use with diesel engines because of their low boiling point.

Antifreeze based on methoxy propanol is not compatible with the uoroelastomer seals used in the cooling system.

Glycol-based HVAC coolants contain phosphates which can deposit on hot internal engine surfaces and reduce heat transfer.

Recycled Antifreeze

Recycled antifreeze that complies with TMC RP-329 Type "A" (for ethylene glycol) is approved for use in MBE4000 engines. The antifreeze must be recycled by distillation, reverse osmosis, or ion exchange.

Other recycled antifreeze, especially any antifreeze recycled by means of ltration processes, is not approved.

Corrosion Inhibitors

NOTICE:

Do not mix types of corrosion inhibitors. Do not add additional inhibitors to new, fully-formulated antifreeze, or coolant containing new, fully-formulated antifreeze. This can cause deposits or dropout in the cooling system.

The following types of corrosion inhibitors are approved for use in MBE4000 engines:

Supplemental Coolant Additives (SCAs)

Organic Acid Technology (OAT) Inhibitors

Corrosion inhibitors are very important in maintaining engine life. All corrosion inhibitors protect against corrosion caused by acid, and cavitation of w et cylinder liners. SCAs also protect against mineral deposits.

The concentrations of some inhibitors will gradually diminish during normal engine operation. To protect the engine, nitrite concentration must be checked at regular intervals, and inhibitors added as necessary. The intervals are longer if OAT inhibitors are used.

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NOTICE:

Always maintain inhibitor at the recommended level. Failure to properly maintain coolant with SCA can result in damage to the cooling system and related components. Over-concentration of SCA inhibitor can result in poor heating transfer and lead to engine damage.

The following types of inhibitor must not be used in MBE4000 engines:

Soluble oil additives cause poor heat transfer and lead to engine damage.

Chromate additives can lead to the build-up of "green slime" (chromium dioxide) in the engine, leading to engine damage.

Disposal

Coolants are biologically degradable substances.

When disposing of used coolant, comply with local legal requirements and waste water regulations.

Consult the local water supply authorities to determine the best method of disposal.

A modern engine coolant has complex tasks to perform. Do not allow any form of "reprocessing" which consists only of mechanical puri cation.

MBE 4000 OPERATOR'S MANUAL

Cold Weather Products

Special precautions must be taken during cold weather. To protect your engine, take the following special measures in cold weather.

Use the recommended cold weather fuel and engine oil.

Check the concentration of antifreeze in yo ur coolant.

Take special care of the batteries to ensure proper cranking amperage

Winter-Grade Diesel Fuel

At low outside temperatures, parafn may separate from the diesel and affect its ability to ow freely. Avoid breakdowns caused by this problem (for example, blocked lters) by using cold-resistant winter-grade diesel fuel with improved low-temperature ow characteristics. In most cases, winter-grade fuel can be used without problems at cold outside temperatures.

If using summer-grade fuel or a less cold-resistant winter grade, a ow improver or kerosene can be added. The amount needed depends on the outside temperature.

Flow improver or petroleum spirit must be mixed with diesel fuel before its ow characteristics have been adversely affected by parafn separation.

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SERVICE PRODUCTS

If changes have already been caused by parafn separation, they can be corrected only by heating the entire fuel system.

Do not add anything to cold-resistant winter-grade diesel fuels. The fuel's low-temperature ow characteristics could actually deteriorate with additives.

FIRE To avoid increased risk of a fuel fi re, do not mix gasoline and

FIRE

To avoid increased risk of a fuel re, do not mix gasoline and diesel fuel.

Low-Viscosity Engine Oil

When changing the engine oil, estimate the interval before your next oil change. Choose an oil from the SAE viscosity class which corresponds to the outside temperatures anticipated during this period of operation. See Figure 17.

Winter Coolant Antifreeze Protection

Before the temperature dips below freezing, check the concentration of antifreeze in the coolant. If necessary, increase it.

Do not increase the proportion (mixing ratio) of corrosion-inhibiting

antifreeze beyond 55 percent by volume (this gives the maximum antifreeze protection). Further increases in the mixing ratio would reduce the level of antifreeze protection and adversely affect the coolant's ability to dissipate heat.

affect the coolant's ability to dissipate heat. Figure 17 Engine Oil Temperature Ranges Batteries Batteries

Figure 17 Engine Oil Temperature Ranges

Batteries

Batteries should receive more frequent maintenance and recharging during the cold season of the year. Careful maintenance and low current consumption will help to maintain the full battery charge. Starting capacity drops severely in cold weather. At –10°C (14°F) starting capacity is about 60 percent of normal. If the engine is shut down or out of use for an extended period of time, store the batteries out of the vehicle in a heated area if possible. Ensure good ventilation when recharging.

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TECHNICAL DATA

General technical information is listed in Table 4.

MBE 4000 OPERATOR'S MANUAL

Description

MBE4000 Engine

Engine Type

Vertical, inline cylinder block with turbocharger and charge-air cooler

Cooling System

 

Liquid Circuit

Combustion Principle

4-Stroke direct-injection diesel

Number of Cylinders

 

6

Bore

128

mm (5.04 in.)

Stroke

166

mm (6.54 in.)

Displacement (total)

12.816 liters (782 in³)

Compression Ratio

 

17.75:1

Starting Speed

Approximately 100 rpm

Direction of Engine Rotation (viewed from ywheel)

Counterclockwise

Starter

 

Electric Motor

Table 4

General Technical Information

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TECHNICAL DATA

Engine Data

The engine weights are listed in Table

5. The engine dimensions (ready

for shipment) are listed in Table 6. Also see Figure 18 and Figure 19.

Coolant capacities are listed in Table

7. Lubricating oil capacities

arelisted in Table 8.

Engine

6-Cylinder

Engine Dry

Weight

960 kg (2117 lb)

Table 5

Engine Weights

Dry Weight 960 kg (2117 lb) Table 5 Engine Weights Figure 18 Side View Dimension Size

Figure 18 Side View

Dimension

Size

 

1338.7

mm

Length (A)

(53.1 in.)

 

1069.3

mm

Width (B)

(42.1 in.)

 

1130.3

mm

Height (C)

(44.5 in.)

Table 6

Engine Dimensions

mm Height (C) (44.5 in.) Table 6 Engine Dimensions Figure 19 Front View Description MBE4000 Engine

Figure 19 Front View

Description

MBE4000 Engine

Coolant Capacity*

Max. 70 L (74 qt)

*Does not include capacity of cooling system.

Table 7

Coolant Capacity

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Description

Oil Pan Capacity

Oil System Fill Capacity †

EGR engines w/front Sump *

36

L (38 qts)

39.5

L (41.7 qts)

Non-EGR Engines w/front Sump & Right Hand Drive Export Applications *

36

L (38 qts)

39.5

L (41.7 qts)

Rear Sump Applications

40.0

L (42.3 qts)

43.5

L (46.0 qts)

Non-EGR Engines w/front Sump & Left Hand Drive Applications

40.0

L (42.3 qts)

43.5

L (46.0 qts)

Front Sump Engine s/n 833529 and below

40.0

L (42.3 qts)

43.5

L (46.0 qts)

* Engine s/n 833530 and above † Including oil lter.

Table 8

Lubricating Oil Capacity

Testing and Adjusting Values

Valve lash checking and adjustments are listed in Table 9. Engine Oil