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Chemical disinfection

Introduction to Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage, Module 3.3


Dr. Richard Johnston

Introduction: Chemical disinfection

Sedimentation

Filtration

Disinfection

Safe Storage

Chlorine
Chemistry and dosing

Forms
Example application
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Chlorine disinfection
Since 1890s in England, took off in
th
early 20 century
Used in 98% of US utilities

Second most reported HWTS


5.6% of households
Latin America and Caribbean

Strong oxidant
Devastates cell wall, DNA, enzymes
Mechanisms not fully understood
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Chlorine speciation
Elemental Chlorine (Cl2 gas)
High Test Hypochlorite (HTH)
Calcium hypochlorite
Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) liquid
Electrolytic generation
All generate Free Chlorine
hypochlorous acid (HOCl)
hypochlorite (OCl-)
pKa 7.54

Aim for pH < 8


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Chlorine dose and demand


Dose = Demand + Residual
Chlorine demand
Organic carbon
Iron and manganese
Ammonia

Target 0.5 mg/L residual


Usually need 1-5 mg/L dose, typically 2
If turbid, double dose
Guideline value for chlorine 5 mg/L
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Safe Water System (CDC, PAHO)


Household water treatment
Safe storage
Behavior change communication
Dilute liquid chlorine 0.75% solution
pH 11+
Water Guard, Clorin, Claro, SurEau

One capful per 20 L water


Dose of at least 1.9 mg/L (e.g. 5 mL of 0.75%)

www.cdc.gov/safewater/

Double if turbid
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NaDCC Tablets
Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate
About 60% free chlorine
Reservoir chlorine
Guideline value of 40 mg/L

Consistent free chlorine level


Less taste and odour

Effervescent tablets, long shelf life


10 litres: 1x33 mg tablet if clean, 2 if dirty
20 litres: 1x67 mg tablet if clean, 2 if dirty

Easy to use
Source: www.medentech.com
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Efficacy against pathogens


Dose = Concentration * Time (Ct)
min-mg/L

Recommended 0.5 mg/L, 30 min


Ct = 15 min-mg/L
Equivalent to 1 mg/ for 15 minutes

HWTS, minimum dose 1.9 mg/L


Ct = 56 min-mg/L

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Efficacy against pathogens


Protozoa
25 - 245

Viruses
2 30

Bacteria
0.04 0.08

0.01

0.1

10

100

1000

Ct99, mg-min/L
Source: WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water, 4th ed.
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Efficacy against pathogens


Protozoa
25 - 245

Viruses
2 30

Bacteria
0.04 0.08

0.01

0.1

10

100

1000

Ct99, mg-min/L
Source: WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water, 4th ed.
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Efficacy against pathogens


Protozoa
25 - 245

Viruses
2 30

Bacteria
0.04 0.08

0.01

0.1

10

100

1000

Ct99, mg-min/L
Source: WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water, 4th ed.
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Disinfection effectiveness
Protozoa 2-5 LRV
Cryptosporidium unaffected

Bacteria 3-6+ LRV


Spores may be more resistant
Viruses 2-5 LRV
Longer time requirement

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Combined chlorine
Free chlorine + Ammonia =
Chloramines
Monochloramine
Dichloramine
Trichloramine

Less efficient disinfectant


Stronger odour

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Note: Disinfection By-products


Organic carbon
Trihalomethanes (e.g. chloroform)
Haloacetic acids
Carcinogenic in laboratory animals at high

concentrations

Guideline values, 1 in 100,000 excess


cancer cases

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Note: Disinfection By-products


The health risks from these
byproducts at the levels at which they
occur in drinking water are extremely
small in comparison with the risks
associated with inadequate
disinfection.

Organic carbon
Trihalomethanes (e.g. chloroform)
Haloacetic acids
Carcinogenic in laboratory animals at high

concentrations

Guideline values, 1 in 100,000 excess


cancer cases

Thus, it is important that disinfection


not be compromised in attempting to
control such byproducts.
WHO Guidelines
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Example: Gadyen Dlo in Haiti

Credit: M. Ritter, Deep Springs International


deepspringsinternational.org

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Gadyen Dlo evaluation


Conducted in Northern Haiti
Not in the earthquake zone

75% report current use


56% had free chlorine residual at time of visit

Expansion to earthquake zone


Massive free distribution
High uptake, uncertain sustainability
Credit: M. Ritter, Deep Springs International
deepspringsinternational.org

Source: Harshfield, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 2012.

Other disinfectants
Chloramines
Chlorine dioxide
Ozone
Bromine
Silver

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Considerations for chlorination


Advantages

Challenges

Highly effective against bacteria

Ineffective against protozoa

Residual protection

Taste and odour

Simple to use

Requires low turbidity

Low cost

Requires supply chain


Misunderstanding about by-products
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Summary
Chlorine is widely used in both
conventional treatment and HWT
A variety of sources, all produce free
chlorine in water
Highly effective against bacteria

Effective against viruses and some


protozoa
Not Cryptosporidium

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