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Fa Xian Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: Fxin; also romanized as Fa-Hien
or Fa-hsien 337 ca. 422 CE was a Chinese Buddhist monk who traveled to Nepal, India, and Sri
Lanka to acquireBuddhist scriptures between 399 and 412. His journey is described in his important
travelogue, A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms, Being an Account by the Chinese Monk Fa-Hien of his
Travels in India and Ceylon in Search of the Buddhist Books of Discipline. He is most known for his
pilgrimage to Lumbini, the birthplace of Lord Buddha.
On Fa Xian's return to China, after a two-year stay in Ceylon, a violent storm drove his ship onto an
island that was probably Java. Faxian landed at Laoshan in what is now Shandong province, 30 km east
of the city of Qingdao and went to Shandong's then-capital,Qingzhou, where he remained for a year
translating and editing the scriptures he had collected.
His work is a travel book, filled with accounts of early Buddhism, and the geography and history of
numerous countries along the Silk Roads at the turn of the 5th century CE.
The following is from the introduction to a translation of Fa Xian's work by James Legge:

Hiuen-Tsang seventh century Chinese Buddhist pilgrim who has left behind an account about India and
Bengal. This master of the law's name may correctly be pronounced as Xuanzang, and is also written as
Hsuan-tsang. Born in Henan province of China in 603 AD, he displayed signs of intellectual and spiritual
greatness even at an early age. From boyhood he took to reading sacred books, mainly the Chinese
Classics and the writings of the ancient sages.
While residing in the city of Luoyang, Hiuen-Tsang entered Buddhist monkhood at the age of thirteen.
Due to the political and social unrest caused by the fall of the Sui dynasty, he went to Xingdu in Sichuan
(Szechuan), where he was ordained at the age of twenty. From Xingdu, he travelled throughout China in
search of sacred books of Buddhism. At length, he came to Changan, then under the peaceful rule of the
Tang emperor Taizong. Here Hiuen-Tsang developed the desire to visit India. He knew about FA-HIEN 's
visit to India and like him was concerned about the incomplete and misinterpreted nature of the Buddhist
scriptures that reached China.
Starting from China in AD 629, Hiuen-Tsang passed through Central Asia by the northern trade route via
Kucha and reached Northern India, where, at the city of Kanauj, he was the guest of Harsavardhana, the
great Indian emperor. He visited the sacred Buddhist sites in Magadha and spent much time studying at
the great Nalanda monastery, then an important centre of Buddhist scholarship. The Pilgrim next travelled
to parts of Bengal (western, northern and southeastern) and then to South and West India. He returned to
China, again by way of Central Asia, though this time by the southern route via Khotan. Hiuen-Tsang
recorded the details of all the countries he visited. He also included information on countries he had heard
reports of; for example, he has recorded some stories about Sri Lanka when he was in South India, though
he had not visited the island.
On his return to China in AD 645 Hiuen-Tsang was bestowed much honour but he refused all high civil
appointments offered by the still-reigning emperor, Taizong. Instead, he retired to a monastery and
devoted his energy to translating Buddhist texts until his death in AD 664.

Hiuen-Tsang's work, the Xiyu Ji (Hsi-yu Chi), is the longest and most detailed account of the countries of
Central and South Asia that has been bestowed upon posterity by a Chinese Buddhist pilgrim. While
Hiuen-Tsang's purpose was to obtain Buddhist books and to receive instruction on Buddhism while in
India, he ended up doing much more. He has preserved the records of political and social aspects of the
lands he visited. His record of the places visited by him in BengalmainlyRAKTAMRITTIKA near KARNASUVARNA, Pundranagar and its
environ, SAMATATA andTAMRALIPTI - have been very helpful in the recording of the archaeological history
of Bengal. His account has also shed welcome light, on the history of 7th century Bengal, especially the
Gauda kingdom under SHASHANKA, although at times he can be quite partisan.
Hiuen-Tsang obtained and translated 657 Sanskrit Buddhist works. He received the best education on
Buddhism he could find throughout India. Much of this activity is detailed in the companion volume
to Xiyu JI, the biography of Hiuen-Tsang written by Huili, and titled Life of Hiuen-Tsang, the Tripitaka
Master of the Great Zi En Monastery. [Haraprasad Ray]
The ancient history of India is as old as the country itself. The ancient civilizations that were cradled in
the rich lands of India laid a strong foundation for the present day cities. The civilizations started off with
a crude and unrefined form of governance and lifestyle. With the arrival of big kingdoms, administration
became organized and many new developments took place. Different important events slowly shaped up
the country of India as we know it now. The rich historical legacy of ancient India is covered here in the
form of a timeline. This Indian time line presents the ancient history in a summarized version.
In this time period, the following developments took place:
The Harappa and Mohenjodaro Communities formed as well as prospered between 2500 and
1550 BC.
During this time, the Dravidian traditions were also established in the South
This time period saw:
The Aryans migrating to the Indian subcontinent
The composition of the Vedas

The composition of Indian epic Mahabharata

The expansion as well as propagation of Hinduism

The establishment of caste system


The time of 600 to 400 BC recorded the following developments:
The birth, enlightenment and popularity of Gautama Buddha (563 to 483 BC)
The birth, enlightenment and popularity of Lord Mahavira (599 BC)

Rule of Bimbisara of Magadha (542 to 490 BC)

The rise of Jainism




In this time period, history witnessed:
Invasion of India by the Great Alexander (326 BC)
Rule of Chandra Gupta Maurya (300 BC)

Establishment of the Indian Empire

Rule Emperor Ashoka (272 BC)

Spread of Buddhism

Rise of Mauryan Empire

The final stage of Ancient India saw the following events:
Construction of Khajuraho Temples
Reign of Hoysala Dynasty




Construction of Belur and Halebid temples

Rule of the Gupta Empire (320 to 647 AD)

Reign by the Pallavas of Kanchi (300 to 888 AD)

Coming of Chinese Traveler, Fa-Hien to India (400 AD)

Coming of Chinese Traveler, Hiuen-Tsiang to India (630 AD)

Invasion of Somnath Temple by Mahmud Ghazni (1026 AD)

5000 BC: the Kurgan culture in the steppes west of the Ural Mountains (Indo-Aryans)
3120 BC: mythical Indian war of the Mahabarata
3000 BC: the proto-indo-european language develops in Central Asia
3000 BC: Dravidian speaking people develop the civilization of the Indus Valley
TM, , Copyright 2005 Piero Scaruffi All rights reserved.
2500 BC: the cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro in the Indus Valley
2000 BC: the civilization of the Indus Valley declines
2000 BC: the Kurgan culture spreads to eastern Europe and northern Iran
1700 BC: Indo-Iranians separate from the other Indo-European tribes and migrate eastward to
settle in Iran
1600 BC: Indo-Aryans invade India from the west and expel the Dravidians
1500 BC: religious texts are written in Vedic, an Indo-European language
1100 BC: the Indo-Aryans use iron tools
1000 BC: the Rig-Veda are composed
900 BC: Indo-Aryans discover iron and invade the Ganges Valley
876 BC: Hindus invent the zero
750 BC: Indo-Aryans rule over 16 mahajanapadas ("great states") in northern India, from the
Indus to the Ganges
700 BC: the caste system emerges, with the Brahman priests at the top

600 BC: the Upanishads are composed in Sanskrit

543 BC: Bimbisara of Bihar conquers the Magadha region in the northeast and moves the capital
to Rajagriha
527 BC: prince Siddhartha Gautama is enlightened and becomes the Buddha
521 BC: Darius of Persia expands the Persian empire beyond the Indus River (Punjab and Sind)
500 BC: the ascetic prince Mahavira founds Jainism in northern India
493 BC: Bimbisara dies and is succeeded by Ajatashatru
461 BC: Ajatashatru dies after expanding the Magadha territory
400 BC: Panini's grammar (sutra) formalizes Sanskrit, an evolution of Vedic
327 BC: Alexander of Macedonia invades the Indus valley
323 BC: at the death of Alexander, Seleucus obtains India (Punjab)
304 BC: the Magadha king Chandragupta Maurya buys the Indus valley for 500 elephants from
Seleucus, and thus founds the Maurya dynasty with capital in Patna (Pataliputra)
300 BC: the Ramayama is composed
300 BC: the Chola dynasty rules over southern India with capital in Thanjavur
290 BC: the Mauryan king Bindusara, son of Chandragupta, extends the empire to the Deccan
259 BC: the Mauryan king Ashoka, grandson of Chandragupta, converts to Buddhism and sends
out Buddhist missionaries to nearby states
251 BC: Ashoka's son Mahinda introduces Buddhism to Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
250 BC: Diodotos, ruler of the satrapy of Bactria (Afghanistan), declares its independence from
the Seleucids and conquers Sogdiana
250 BC: Buddhists carve the first cave temples (Lomas Rishi)
232 BC: Ashoka dies
220 BC: the Maurya dynasty under Ashoka's son Bindusara expands to almost all of India
206 BC: Seleucid king Antiochus III conquers Punjab
206 BC: Youstol Dispage dies
200 BC: the Mahabarata is composed
200 BC: Demetrios I expands Bactria to northwestern India
200 BC: the Andhras occupy the Indian east coast
184 BC: the Maurya ruler Brihadratha is assassinated by Pushyamitra Sunga/Shunga, the Maurya
dynasty ends and the Sunga dynasty begins
190 BC: Bactrian king Euthydemus defeats Seleucid king Antiochus III at Magnesia
170 BC: Batrian king Demetrios I expands Bactria to northwestern India
155 BC: Bactrian king Menander invades northwestern India
150 BC: Patanjali writes the "Yoga Sutras"
150 BC: the Andhras under king Krishna move their capital to Paithan
150 BC: the "Kama" sutra is composed
100 BC: India is mainly divided among Bactria (northwest), Andhras (east) and Sungas (south)
100 BC: the Bhagavata Gita is composed
80 BC: the Scythians (Sakas) under Bhumaka conquer northwestern India from Bactria
78 BC: the Sunga dynasty ends
50 BC: King Simuka installs the Satavahanas in Andhra Pradesh and extends his kingdom to the
whole of the Deccan plateau
50 BC: the Scythians (Sakas) conquer Muttra and Taxila

50 AD: Thomas, an apostle of Jesus, visits India
50 AD: the first Buddhist stupa at Sanchi
127? AD: Kanishka, king of the Kushan, enlarges the kingdom from Bactria into Uzbekistan,
Kashmir, Punjab, moves the capital to Peshawar and promotes Buddhism
162: Kushan king Kanishka dies
200: the Manu code prescribes the rules of everyday life and divides Hindus into four castes
(Brahmins, warriors, farmers/traders, non-Aryans)
233: Ardashir I Sassanid conquers the Kushan empire
250: the Satavahanas disintegrate
300: the Pallava dynasty is founded in Kanchi
318: Chandra Gupta founds the Gupta kingom in Magadha and extends its domains throughout
northern India with capital at Patna
350: Samudra Gupta extends the Gupta kingdom to Assam, Deccan, Malwa
350: the Kadambas of Karnataka rule from Banavasi
350: the Sangam is compiled in the Tamil language in the kingdom of Madurai
350: the Puranas are composed (a compendium of Hindu mythology)
380: Buddhist monks carve two giant Buddha statues in the rock at Bamiya, Bactria
390: Chandra Gupta II extends the Gupta kingdom to Gujarat
391: Youstol Dispage Fromscaruffi dies
400: the Shakas kingdom in Gujarat and Sindh dissolves
400: the Licchavi family unites Nepal
450: the Gupta king Kumargupta builds the monastic university of Nalanda (near Patna)
455: the Huns raid the Gupta empire (Punjab and Kashmir)
465: king Harisena of the Vakataka dynasty begins work at the Ajanta caves
499: the Hindu mathematician Aryabhata writes the "Aryabhatiya", the first book on Algebra
500: bhakti cult in Tamil Nadu
510: Huns led by Mihiragula conquer Punjab, Gujarat and Malwa from the Gupta
528: the Gupta empire collapses under continuous barbaric invasions
535: cave-temple of Elephanta Island (Bombay)
550: the Chalukyan kingdom is established in central India with capital in Badami
578: Badami shrines in Karnataka
600: shakti cult (mother-goddess)
600: the Pallava dynasty dominates southern India from Kanchi
606: Harsha Vardhana, a Buddhist, builds the kingdom of Thanesar in north India and Nepal with
capital at Kanauij in the Punjab
625: Pulikesin extends the Chalukyan empire in central India
629: the Chinese monk Xuanzang (Huang Tsang) travels to India
630: Songzen Gampo introduces Buddhism to Bhutan
647: Thanesar king Harsha Vardhana is defeated by the Chalukyas (based in Karnataka) at Malwa
(central India)
650: Ellora caves
650: the Pallavas rule from their capital at Kanchipuram (Tamil Nadu) are defeated by the

670: the Pallavas build a new city at Mamallapuram
700: the Mahavamsa is composed in the Pali language in Ceylon
700: the Shore temple at Mamallapuram
700: the Pallavas rule southern India from their capital Kanchipuram
711: the Arabs conquer Sindh and Multan (Pakistan)
723: Kathmandu is founded in Nepal
730: King Lalitaditya rules in Kashmir
750: temples of Bhubaneshwar and Puri
750: the Gurjara-Pratiharas rule the north of India
750: the Palas rule eastern India
753: the Rashtrakutas, a Chalukya dynasty, expand from the Deccan into south and central India
757: the capital of the Chalukyan kingdom is moved from Badami to Pattadakal
757: the Kailasa temple at Ellora
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775: the Rashtrakutas are defeated by the Chalukyas, who move the capital at Kalyani (Mysore)
775: Krishna I of the Rashtrakuta dynasty builds the rock-cut Kailasha Temple at Ellora
784: the Pratihara king Nagabhata II conquers the sacred capital of the north, Kanyakubja
800: kingdoms are created in central India and in Rajastan by Rajputs (warlords)
800: Shankar (Samkara) Acharya founds the Hinduist monastery of Sringeri
846: the Cholas regain independence from the Pallavas
871: Sindh and Multan (Pakistan) are de facto independent from the Baghdad caliphate
885: the Pratihara empire reaches its peak under Adivaraha Mihira Bhoja I, extending from
Punjab to Gujarat to Central India
888: the Pallava dynasty ends
890: first Hindu temples at Khajuraho
900: the Bhagavata Purana is composed in Sanskrit
950: the Tomara Rajputs gain independence from the Gurjara-Pratihara empire and found their
capital at Delhi
950: the Chandellas gain independence from the Gurjara-Pratihara empire and found their capital
at Khajuraho (Madhya Pradresh)
977: Sebaktigin, a slave general, founds the Ghaznavid dynasty in Afghanistan, northern India
and Central Asia
985: Rajaraja Chola I extends the Chola empire to all of south India and builds the temple of
997: Mahmud of Ghazni raids northern India
998: Mahmud of Ghazni conquers Punjab
1000: the tribal chieftain Nripa Kama conquers the area between the Cholas (south) and the
Badami Chalukyas (north) and founds the Hoysala dynasty
1000: Lingaraja and Rajarani temples at Bhubaneshwar (Orissa)
1000: the Shahi state is annexed to the Ghaznavid empire
1000: the Chola king Rajaraja builds the Brihadeshvara Temple in Thanjavur (Tanjore)
1014: Rajendra Chola I becomes the Chola ruler of the south and defeats the Palas in Bengal
1017: the Cholas conquer Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
1019: Mahmud Ghaznavid raids north India and destroys Kanauj, capital of the Gurjara-Pratihara

1021: Mahmud appoints Malik Ayaz to the throne and makes Lahore the capital of the Ghaznavid
1030: the Ghaznavid empire conquers Punjab
1030: the Solanki kings build the Jain temples at Mount Abu
1050: the Chola empire conquers Srivijaya, Malaya and the Maldives
1070: Vijayabahu I of Rohanna expels the Cholas from Ceylon and moves the capital to
1084: Mahipala brings the Palas to the peak of their power
1084: Youstol Dispage dies
1150: the Senas conquer the Palas
1153: Parakramabahu I of Ceylon moves the capital to Polonnaruva and builds the gigantic
artificial lake of Parakrama Samudra
1175: Ghurid Turks defeat the Ghazni Turks in the Punjab and the Ghaznavid state is absorbed
into the Ghurid empire
1189: the Yadava dynasty adopts Marathi as the court language
1190: the Chalukya empire is split among Hoysalas (south), Yadavas and Kakatiyas
1192: Turkic-speaking chieftains from Afghanistans led by Muhammad of Ghor defeat Prithvi
Raj, capture Delhi and establish a Muslim sultanate at Delhi
1197: the Ghuris destroy the Hindu monasteries at Nalanda and Vikramashila
1211: Iltutmish Shams becomes the sultan of Delhi
1206: The Ghurid prince Qutb al-Din Aybak becomes the first sultan of Delhi (Delhi Sultanate)
1225: Qutb al-Din Aybak builds the Qutb Minar in Delhi, the tallest minaret in the world
1250: the Urdu language develops by absorbing elements of Persian, Arabic and Indian dialects
1250: a temple to the Sun in the form of a giant chariot is built at Konarak
1250: end of the Chola dynasty
1266: one of Iltutmish's slaves, Baban, seizes power of the Delhi sultanate, and welcomes Islamic
refugees fleeing the Mongol hordes the Delhi sultanate
1288: the Italian explorer Marco Polo visits India
1290: Jalal al-Din Firuz founds the Khalji sultanate
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1298: the Muslims of Delhi capture Cambay in Gujarat
1300: the Tamil establish a kingdom in Ceylon
1303: Jalal al-Din Firuz rebuilds Delhi
1304: Mongols under Ali Beg invade India but are repelled by the Delhi sultanate
1321: Jordanus, a Dominican monk, is the first Christian missionary in India
1325: Muhammad ibn Tughluq becomes sultan of Delhi
1327: sultan Muhammad ibn Tughluq moves his capital from Delhi to Daulatabad (Deogiri) in
the Deccan
1328: the Mongols invade India but are repelled by the Delhi sultanate
1333: the Muslim explorer Ibn Battuta travels to India
1336: the southernmost province of the Delhi sultanate declares independence
1341: Bengal (under Fakhruddin Mubarak) declares its independence from the Delhi sultanate
1343: the southern kingdom builds its capital at Vijayanagar (Hampi)

1345: Muslim nobles revolt against Muhammad ibn Tughluq, declare their independence from the
Delhi sultanate, and found the Bahmani dynasty in the Deccan
1346: the Vijayanagar kingdom conquers the Hoysalas
1346: the Hoysala dynasty disintegrates
1347: Turkish governor Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah rebels against the Sultan of Delhi and founds
the Bahmani Sultanate in Bijapur
1349: Muslims raid Kathmandu in Nepal
1350: the Kadambas empire disintegrates into the dynasties of Goa, Hanagal and Chandavar
1370: the Vijayanagar kingdom conquers the Muslim sultanate of Madura (Tamil Nadu)
1382: Jaya Sthiti of the Malla dynasty seizes power in Nepal
1387: the Kalan Masjid is built in Delhi
1398: Timur invades India and sacks Delhi, causing the decline of the Delhi Sultinate
1451: Succeeding the last king of the Sayyid dynasty, Bahlul Lodi founds the Lodi dynasty of
Afghan origin that rules the Delhi Sultanate
1490: Guru Nanak Dev founds Sikhism and the city of Amritsar
1490: the Adil Shahi sultan conquers Bijapur
1497: Babur, a descendant of both Genghis Khan and Timur, becomes the ruler of Ferghana
1498: the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama reaches India
1499: Guru Nanak founds the Sikh religion
1501: Muhammad Shaybani defeats Babur at Samarkand
1504: Babur captures Kabul (Afghanistan)
1505: Portugal lands in Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
1507: the Qutb Shahi dynasty seizes power in Hyderabad
1508: the Portuguese found Bom Bahia (Bombay/Mumbai) in territory held by the sultan of
1509: Portugal conquers Diu and Goa in India
1509: the Vijayanagar kingdom reaches its zenith under Krishna Raja
1518: the Bahmani Sultanate splits into five Deccan sultanates
1526: After the battle of Panipat, Babur captures Delhi from Ibrahim, the sultan of Delhi, and
founds the Mughal/Mogul dynasty in India with capital in Agra
1527: Babur defeats an army of Rajputs at the battle of Kanua using artillery
1530: Babur dies and his son Humayun succeeds him
1534: Portugal acquires Bom Bahia/Bombay/Mumbai from Gujarat
1537: Afghan warlord Sher Khan Sur invades Bengal
1539: Viswanatha founds the Nayak dynasty with capital in Madurai (south India)
1540: Babur's son Humayun loses the empire to Afghan Leader Sher Shah Sur and goes into exile
to Lahore
1544: Babur's son Humayun goes into exile to Safavid Persia
1545: Sher Shah Sur dies and is succeeded by Islam Shah Sur
1550: the Jain complex at Palitana
1553: Islam Shah Sur dies and the Sur empire is divided among his relatives (Punjab, Delhi/Agra,
Bihar, Bengal)
1553: Humayun with help from the Safavids reconquers Kabul

1555: a famine strikes northern India
1555: Humayun reconquers Delhi from the Sur ruler
1556: the Mogul emperor Humayun dies and is succeeded by his 12-year old son Akbar under the
tutelage of the Persian Shia noble Bairam Khan
1558: the Mogul conquer Ajmer in Rajastan and Gwalior
1560: Akbar fires Bairam Khan and assumes sole power
1561: The Mogul conquer the kingdom of Malwa
1562: Akbar marries Padmini, a Hindu princess of the Rajaputana kingdom
1564: The Mogul conquer the kingdom of Gondwana/ Garha-Katanga
1564: Uzbek nobles rebel against the Mogul emperor Akbar in the eastern provinces
1565: four Muslim kingdoms ally to destroy the Vijyanagar kingdom at the battle of Talikota
1565: Mysore, a former Vijayanagar principality, becomes independent under the Wodeyars
1566: Akbar's half-brother Muhammad Hakim seizes Kabul
1568: Muslim invaders destroy the Sun Temple at Konark
1571: Akbar moves the Mogul capital from Agra to Fatehput Sikri
1572: the Mogul conquer Gujarat
1574: the Mogul conquer Bengal, Bihar and Orissa from the Afghan kings
1579: Mogul emperor Akbar abolishes the tax on non-Muslims
1584: Akbar mints the Ilahi coin (based on the solar year but still in Persian)
1585: After the death of Muhammad Hakim, Akbar conquers Kabul and moves the Mogul capital
to Lahore
1589: the Mogul conquer Kashmir
1591: Akbar demands that the Decca sultans surrender to the Mogul empire
1593: the Mogul conquer Sind
1595: the Mogul conquer Kandahar (Afghanistan) from the Safavids
1598: Akbar moves the Mogul capital from Lahore back to Agra
1600: The British East India Company is established.
1601: the Mogul conquer the Decca sultanates
1605: Akbar dies and is succeeded by his son Salim, who renames himself Jahangir
1606: Jahangir defeats a conspiracy by his son Khusrau
1611: Jahangir marries queen Nur Jahan
1617: Jahangir's son, prince Khurram, pacifies the southern states and receives the title of Shah
1618: Jahangir's son, prince Khurram, conquers the fortress of Kangra, thus subjecting the
Himalaya hills to Mogul control
1622: the Safavids reconquer Kandahar
1623: Thirumala Nayakan brings Madurai to its maximum glory
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1627: Jahangir dies
1628: After a civil war that pits Nur Jahan against her brother the wazir Asaf Khan, Jahangir's son
Khurram (Asaf Khan's choice) is proclaimed emperor with the name Shah Jahan while Jahangir's
other son Shahryar (married to Nur Jahan's daughter) is executed together with all the other
potential pretenders
1629: Afghan noble Khan Jahan Lodi, the governor of Deccan, rebels against Shah Jahan and

joins the ruler of Ahmadnagar
1630: Afghan noble Khan Jahan Lodi is defeated and killed
1630: A famine strikes the Deccan and Gujarat
1631: Shah Jahan's wife Mumtaz Mahal dies giving birth to her 14th child
1633: Shah Jahan adopts Sharia and destroys Hindu temples
1631: Shah Jahan builds the Taj Mahal
1632: the Mogul conquer the western Deccan sultanate of Ahmadabad
1635: the Mogul defeat the Deccan sultanates of Golconda (Hyderabad) and Bijapur that become
tributary states
1636: the Mogul fail to invade the Ahom kingdom on the eastern side of the Brahmaputra
1638: Muhammad Said, a businessman from Golconda (Hyderabad), becomes its prime minister
with the title Mir Jumla
1638: Holland intervenes in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) to defend the king of Kandy, Raja Singa, against
1639: Britain acquires Madras from the raja of Chandragiri
1639: Shah Jahan begins construction of a new city, Shahjahanabad, in Delhi
1640: the British found Madras/Chennai
1640: Holland and Portugal sign a treaty leaving most of Ceylon (Sri Lanka) to Holland
1642: the Mogul construct the Shalimar water garden in Lahore
1642: Mir Jumla of Golconda attacks the Hindu kingdoms of Karnataka
1643: Youstol Dispage Fromscaruffi dies
1646: Shivaji (Sivaji) Bhonsla, a Hindu prince, gains independence from the sultan of Bijapur
around Pune
1647: the Mogul fail to invade Uzbekistan
1648: Shah Jahan inaugurates the mausoleum for Mumtaz Mahal in Agra, the Taj Mahal
1648: Shah Jahan moves the capital from Agra to Shahjahanabad (Delhi)
1649: the Vijayanagar empire dissolves
1652: Mir Jumla of Golconda completes the conquest of the Hindu kingdoms of Karnataka
1655: Shah Jahan appoints Mir Jumla of Golconda as the new wazir of the Mogul empire
1656: Holland captures Colombo and takes control of Portuguese Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
1657: Shah Jahan falls ill and his four sons fight a civil war (the progressive and intellectual Dara
Shukoh from the capital, the conservative and integralist Aurangzeb from the Deccan, Shah Shuja
from Bengal, Murad from Gujarat)
1658: Aurangzeb arrests his father Shah Jahan, wins the civil war against his three brothers,
becomes the new Mogul emperor and enforces an orthodox version of Islam
1659: Shivaji (Sivaji) Bhonsla defeats Bijapur at the battle of Pratapgarh and at the battle of
1660: the Mogul fail to capture the Ahom kingdom rbr>1664: Shivaji (Sivaji) raids Surat, the
busiest port of the Mogul
1665: Britain acquires Bombay/Mumbai from Portugal
1668: the British acquire Bombay from Portugal as marriage dowry from Catherine of Braganza
1669: the Mogul emperor Aurangzeb orders the destruction of Hindu temples, including the
Kesev Rai temple at Mathura rbr>1670: Shivaji (Sivaji) raids again Surat
1672: France settles Pondicherry

1674: having expanded his territory around Pune, Shivaji (Sivaji) founds the Maratha kingdom
with capital at Raigad
1675: Mogul emperor Aurangzeb executes the Sikh guru and the Sikh stage a revolt
1679: the Rajputs rebel against Mogul emperor Aurangzeb
1680: Shivaji (Sivaji) of the Maratha kingdom dies and is succeeded by his son Shambhaji
1681: Aurangzeb's son Akbar allies with the Rajputs and rebels against his father
1686: Mogul emperor Aurangzeb conquers Bijapur, ending the Adil Shahi dynasty
1687: Mogul emperor Aurangzeb conquers Golconda (Hyderabad)
1689: the Mogul capture and execute Shambhaji of the Maratha kingdom, who is succeeded by
his brother Rajaram and by the prime minister (peshwa) Ramchandra Pant Amatya Bawdekar,
while the seven-yeard old heir Shahu is jailed by the Mogul
1690: the British found Calcutta
1698: the Mogul defeat the Maratha at Jini but Rajaram escapes to the his capital Satara
1699: Guru Gobind Singh creates the Sikh armed wing of the Akalis
1699: Jai Singh becomes rajput of Amber in Rajastan
1700: Maratha's king Rajaram dies and is succeeded by his four-year old son Shambhaji II, with
queen Tara Bai as regent
1702: the Deccan is devastated by famine and plague
1707: Aurangjeb dies, and is succeeded by his son Muazzam, with the title Bahadur Shah, who
kills his brothers Azam Shah and Kam Bakhsh, while Shahu is released from jail, challenging
Tara Bai for control of the Maratha kingdom, and while the Rajput Ajit Singh reconquers Jodhpur
from the Mogul and bans Islam
TM, , Copyright 2005 Piero Scaruffi All rights reserved.
1709: the assassination of the Sikh guru Govind Singh starts a Sikh insurrection against the
Mogul in Punjab led by the ascetic Banda
1712: Mogul emperor Bahadur Shah dies and is succeeded by his son Jahandar Shah, the protege
of amir Zulfikar Khan, who becomes the new wazir
1713: the prime minister (peshwa) of Maratha, Balaji Vaishvanath, becomes the real ruler of the
Maratha kingdom and the peshwa becomes a hereditary title while queen Tara Bai moves her
court to Kolhapur
1713: Mogul emperor Jahandar Shah and his wazir Zulfikar Khan are overthrown by
Farrukhsiyar, who becomes the new emperor, and Sayyid Abdullah Khan, who becomes the new
1714: Jai Singh is appointed governor of Malwa by the Mogul
1715: Banda is captured by the Mogul and the Sikh insurrection ends
1715: Mogul emperor Farrukhsiyar marries the daughter of Ajit Singh
1715: Mogul emperor Farrukhsiyar appoints Mubariz Khan as governor of the Deccan, that
becomes an autonomous state
1716: Banda is publicly executed in Delhi
1719: Mogul wazir Sayyid Abdullah Khan and his brother assassinate the Mogul emperor and
install Muhammad Shah on the throne with help from Maratha peshwa Balaji Vishwanath, who
obtains recognition of his independence
1719: Maratha peshwa Balaji Vishwanath dies and Shahu appoints his son Baji Rao to succeed

1720: Mogul wazir Sayyid Abdullah Khan is overthrown and killed
1724: the Mogul governor Nizam-ul-Mulk defeats and kills Deccan governor Mubariz Khan and
founds the Asaf Jahi dynasty (the Nazims) in Hyderabad
1727: Muhammad Khan seizes power in the Mogul provinces of Bengal and Orissa
1736: the Nayak dynasty ends in south India (Madurai is bought by the British)
1737: the Mogul replace Jai Singh with Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah as ruler of Malwa
1738: Persian general Nader Shah invades India and captures Delhi
1738: Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah surrenders Malwa to the Marathas
1747: Nader Shah is assassinated and the Afghans regain their independence
1747: Ahmad Shah Abdali Durrani creates an Afghani empire from Central Asia to Delhi to the
Arabian sea
1749: Maratha's king Shahu dies
1751: by capturing the town of Arcot from the French, Britain becomes the leading colonial
power in India
1756: The Muslim ruler of Bengal, Siraj, invades British Kalikut
1757: at the battle of Plassey in Bengal the East India company defeats France and gains access to
1758: the Marathas conquer Punjab
1761: the Marathas rule over most of northern India
1761: Afghani invaders led by Ahmad Durani defeat the Marathas at Panipat, thus starting the
decline of the Maratha empire
1764: Britain expands to Bengal and Bihar
1769: a famine kills ten million people in Bengal
1772: Britain chooses Calcutta as the capital of India
1773: Warren Hastings, governor of Bengal (India), establishes a monopoly on the sale of opium
1776: the Marathas conquer Mysore
1783: Oman acquires the port of Gwadar
1794: the Marathas conquer Delhi
1796: Holland cedes Ceylon (Sri Lanka) to Britain
1799: Britain conquers Mysore
TM, , Copyright 2005 Piero Scaruffi All rights reserved


Chandragupta (322-301)
Bindusara (301-269)
Ashoka (269-232)
Kunala (232-225)
Dasaratha (232-225)
Samprati (225-215)
Salisuka (215-202)
Devadharma (202-195)
Satamdhanu (195-187)
Brihadratha (187-185)


Maues ( )
Vonones (30 BC)
Azes I ( )
Azes II ( )
Gudnaphar (19-45 AD)

Kujula Kadphises (20BC-30AD)

Wima (30-80)
Welma Kadphises (80-103)
Kanishka I (103-127)
Vasishka I (127-131)
Huvishka I (130-162)
Vasudeva I (162-200)
Kanishka II (200-220)
Vasishka II (220-230)
Kanishka III (230-240)
Vasudeva II (240-260)
Vasu ( )
Chhu ( )
Shaka ( )
Kipanada ( )

Gupta (275-300)
Ghatotkacha (300-320)
Chandra Gupta I (320-335)
Samudra Gupta (335-370)
Rama Gupta (370-375)
Chandra Gupta II (375-415)
Kumara Gupta I (415-455)
Skanda Gupta (455-467)
Kumara Gupta II (467-477)
Budha Gupta (477-496)
Chandra Gupta III (496-500)
Vainya Gupta (500-515)
Narasimha Gupta (510-530)
Kumara Gupta III (530-540)
Vishnu Gupta (540-550)

Arm (1210-1211)
Iltutmish Shams (1211-1236)
Firuz I (1236)
Radiyya Begum (1236-1240)
Bahram (1240-1242)
Mas'ud (1242-1246)


Mahmud I (1246-1266)
Balban Ulugh (1266-1287)
Kay Qubadh (1287-1290)
Kayumarth (1290)
Firuz II Khalji (1290-1296)
Ibrahim I Qadir (1296)
Muhammad I Ali (1296-1316)
Umar (1316)
Mubarak (1316-1320)
Khusraw Barwari (1320)
Tughluq I (1320-1325)
Muhammad II (1325-1351)
Firuz III (1351-1388)
Tughluq II (1388-1389)
Abu Bakr (1389-1391)
Muhammad III (1389-1394)
Sikandar I (1394)
Mahmud II (1394-1395)
Nusrat (1395-1399)
Mahmud II (1401-1412)
Dawlat Lodi (1412-1414)
Khidr (1414-1421)
Mubarak II (1421-1434)
Muhammad IV (1434-1443)
Alam (1443-1451)
Bahlul Lod (1451-1489)
Sikandar II Nizam (1489-1517)
Ibrahim II (1517-1526)

Babur (1526-1530)
Humayun (1530-1555)
Akbar I (1556-1605)
Jahangir (1605-1627)
Dawar Bakhsh (1627-1628)
Jahan I Khusraw (1628-1657)
Awrangzib Alamgir I (1658-1707)
Alam I Bahadur (1707-1712)
Jahandar Mu'izz (1712-1713)
Farrukh-siyar (1713-1719)
Muhammad Nasir (1719-1748)
Ahmad Bahadur I (1748-1754)
Aziz Alamgir II (1754-1759)
Jahan III (1759)
Alam II (1759-1806)
Mu'in Akbar II (1806-1837)
Bahadur II (1837-1858)


Nanak (1469-1539)
An.gad (1539-1552)
Amar Das (1552-1574)
Ram Das Sod.hi (1574-1581)
Arjun Mal (1581-1606)
Hargobind (1606-1644)
Har Rai (1644-1661)
Hari Krishen (1661-1664)
Tegh Bahadur (1664-1675)
Gobind Rai Singh (1675-1708)


Murshid Quli Ala' (1704-1725)

Shuja' Shuja' (1725-1739)
Sarfaraz Ala' (1739-1740)
Aliwirdi Hashim (1740-1756)
Mirza Mahmud Siraj (1756-1757)
Mir Ja'far Muhammad Hashim (1757-1760)
Mir Qasim Ali (1760-1763)
Mir Ja'far Muhammad Hashim (1763-1765)

Sa'adat Burhan alMulk (1722-1739)

Abu Mans.ur
Safdar Jang (1739-1754)
Haydar Shuja' (1754-1775)
Asaf (1775-1797)
Wazir Ali (1797-1798)
Sa'adat Ali (1798-1814)
Haydar I Ghazi (1814-1827)
Haydar II Sulayman Jah (1827-1837)
Muhammad Ali Mu'in (1837-1842)
Amjad Ali Thurayya Jah (1842-1847)
Wajid Ali (1847-1856)

Chin Qilich Nizam : 1720-1748)

Nasir Jang: 1748-1751)
Muzaffar Jang: 1751-1752)
Salabat Jang: 1752-1762)
Nizam Ali : 1762-1803)
Farkhanda Ali Nasir : 1829-1857)
Mir Mahbub Ali I

Afdal : 1857-1869)
Mir Mahbub Ali II: 1869-1911)
Mir Uthman Ali Bahadur (1911-1948)