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CIRCUIT THEORY

CIRCUIT
THEORY
Qafqaz University Press
Bak - 2009

Ministry of Education of
Azerbaijan Republic

a Educational
Corporation

Institute of Educational
Problems

Qafqaz University

CIRCUIT THEORY
LABORATORY MANUAL

Khalil Ismailov

Approved by the decision of the Scientific-Methodical


Commissions Informatics and Computer Technologies
Section of the Ministry of Education of Azerbaijan
Republic dated September 08, 2009 (minute No. 33)

Baku, 2009

CIRCUIT THEORY
LABORATORY MANUAL

Prepared by

Kh.A. Ismailov, Associate Professor


Department of Computer Engineering,
Qafqaz University

Reviewed by A.Z. Melikov, Professor

Associate Member of the National


Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan Republic,
The Institute of Cybernetics of the National
Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan Republic

A.Z. Adamov, PhD

Department of Computer Systems and Networks,


Qafqaz University

Design

Sahib Kazimov

Is published as a Qafqaz University publication


by the decision of the Senate dated from 13.05.2009
(minute No. 2009/80.02)

Book is printed by Adiloglu Publishing House.

Qafqaz University Publications


No: 40
Copyright Qafqaz University
Copyright Khalil Ismailov

Baku - 2009

CONTENTS
Preface

To the Student

General Circuit Theory Lab Policies and Guidelines

Experiment CT-1. Instruments Familiarization

. 11

Experiment CT-2. Series and Parallel Resistance Circuits

Experiment CT-3. Voltage and Current Measurements

. 40

Experiment CT-4. Ohms Law and the Series Circuits

. 56

Experiment CT-5. The Parallel Circuits

. 66

Experiment CT-6. Series-Parallel Circuits

. 77

Experiment CT-7. Kirchhoffs Laws

Experiment CT-8. Thevenins Theorem

. 93

Experiment CT-9. Power

. 99

Experiment CT-10. Alternating Current Measurements

. 106

Experiment CT-11. Capacitors Charge and Discharge

. 129

Experiment CT-12. Filter Circuits

. 140

REFERENCES

. 150

26

85

APPENDIX A Product descriptions and performance characteristics of


the multimeters MASTECH MY-64, MY-68, and ProsKit 3PK-600T
.. 151
APPENDIX B EZ Digital GP4303TP Digital DC Power Supply

. 161

APPENDIX C The Breadboard

. 163

APPENDIX D Resistors

. 167

APPENDIX E Capacitors

. 175

APPENDIX F Inductor (Coil)

. 181

APPENDIX G Analog Oscilloscope OS-5020

. 184

APPENDIX H A list of SI prefixes

. 202

Circuit Theory

PREFACE
The experiments in this laboratory course are designed to cover the theoretical and
analytical materials in Circuit Theory. Each experiment begins with a set of stated
objectives, text references, and required equipment, followed by a procedure for meeting
each objective. The objective of the experiments is to enhance the students understanding
of important analytical principles developed in this course by engaging them in the realworld application of these principles in the laboratory. In addition to further develop the
students laboratory practice for experimentally testing and evaluating electrical circuits.
Each lab session lasts two hours and starts promptly at the scheduled time. A brief
introduction and guide line for the experiments will be given by the instructor at the
beginning of the each lab section.
Preparing the lab is very important as it will save time and allows working more
efficiently. The pre-lab includes reading the lab assignment in advance, and doing the
pre-lab assignment specific to each lab experiment. All pre-lab assignments have to be
handed in with the main lab report at the beginning of the class.
Students are working in groups of two in the laboratory. This encourages team work
and makes the conduct of the experiments more efficient. You can collaborate on the
pre-lab and on interpretation of the measured data. However, each student is
responsible for writing the pre-lab and main Lab report. Copying of data from other
groups or submitting artificial or altered information will result in a zero grade for the
course. The lab report is an individual effort and each student should present his or her
own report.
Each lab notebook will be reviewed and signed and dated by the instructor or
teaching assistant before leaving the lab.
This manual contains several appendixes at the end. The students is encouraged to
become familiar with the contents of the appendixes early
Appendix A covers product descriptions and performance characteristics of the
multimeters MASTECH MY-64 and MY-68, and ProsKit 3PK-600T.
Appendix B covers product descriptions and performance characteristics of the EZ
Digital GP4303TP Digital DC Power Supply.
Appendix C covers the types of circuit breadboards used in laboratory experiments
for temporary circuit testing.
The information about resistors, capacitors and inductors is provided in Appendices
D, E and F.
Appendix G covers product descriptions, performance characteristics and operation
of the Analog oscilloscope OS-5020.
A list of SI prefixes is provided in Appendix H.
5

Khalil Ismailov

TO THE STUDENT
To protect both yourself and the circuit you build, you need to become
thoroughly familiar with basic laboratory procedures.

Avoid direct contact with any voltage source.

Be certain that your hands are dry and that you are not standing on a wet floor
when making tests and measurements in a live circuit.

Shut off power before connecting test instruments in a live circuit.

When you are connecting all circuits either leave the power supply unplugged or
make sure it is turned off until the measurements are to be made.

Set the power supply output to 0 V before you turn it on. This is a good habit to
acquire. You will not always be told these things.

Another good habit is to turn off the power any time a change is made in a circuit.
The circuit may not be so harmless. Form good work habits now and save yourself
the shock of having to do it later.

Do not defeat any safety device, such as fuse or circuit breaker, by shorting across it
or by using a higher amperage fuse than that specified by the manufacturer. Safety
devices are intended to protect you and your equipment.

Avoid shocks. You experience a shock when a current passes through some part of
your body. Therefore dont let your body become a branch in a live circuit. Metal
objects, water pipes, electrical conduit, etc are usually at ground potential. Parts of
your circuit will be at other potentials. So touching part of the circuit while part of
your body simultaneously touches a grounded metal object may give you a jolt. Be
sure that power sources are disconnected before you touch any wires or components
in the circuit. Even with circuits you think are not live, develop the electrical
servicemans habit of working one-handed, with the other hand safely in your lap
or in a pocket.

Avoid accidental shorts between circuit terminals and components. Shorts can
permanently damage expensive equipment. See that spade lugs on adjacent
terminals do not touch each other. Spade lugs should also not touch the metal cases
of instruments. Use insulated wires for all connections on temporary and exposed
circuits.

Know the limitations of equipment. Every circuit component has limits of current,
voltage, or power beyond which it will not work properly and may be damaged.
These limitations are clearly stated in the manufacturers catalogs which are on file
in the lab. Find these values and record them in your lab notebook before wiring
and powering the circuits. If some information is not available in the files, ask the
instructor for it.

Circuit Theory

The current meter must never be connected across (in parallel with) any component.
It must always be connected in series with the component to measure the current
moving through the device. Since there is only one path for current in a series
circuit, current is the same everywhere in that circuit. So it does not matter where
the series circuit is broken and the ammeter inserted. Never connect an ammeter
directly to a voltage source.

When the ammeter is placed in the circuit, it should always be set to its highest
range and then switched to lower ranges, as necessary, for an accurate reading.
This will protect the meter from damages that can occur if the meter is set to a low
range and placed into a high-current circuit. In general, CALCULATE BEFORE
CONNECTING!

Instrument leads: The two-lead arrangement requires a common, or negative, lead


and a positive lead. These leads may be separate, individual wires with plastic
insulating probe handles or a single coaxial lead. Coaxial (or coax) wire consists
of a center conductor surrounded by insulation with another wire, usually a
braided wire, surrounding the insulation. The inner wire is the signal, or positive,
wire. And the braid (sometimes called the shield) is the negative, or common lead.
If separate wires are used, the black wire is common and should always be plugged
into the common jack (hole). The red lead is the positive lead and should be
plugged into the proper positive jack.

If a digital multimeter (DMM) is used, either a + or sign will appear


with the readout. If it is , the meter lead polarity is reversed. This is of no
consequence because usually the DMM can be connected either way. It does,
however, tell you which point is negative in the circuit.

Be sure to connect any electrolytic capacitor with marked + and leads to the
correct polarity. Nonelectrolytic capacitors may be connected to the circuit with any
polarity. They have no polarity markings.

Always record the units of measure (volts, ohms, amperes, milliamperes, etc.).

Dont indulge in horseplay or play practical jokes in the laboratory.

Exercise good judgment and common sense and your life in the laboratory will be
safe, interesting and rewarding.

If an accident shall occur, shut off power immediately. Report the accident at once
to your instructor.

Keep your work area uncluttered. All instruments not being used should be set
aside on another table. Extra wires should be set aside. Coats and book bags should
not be kept on your work tables.
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Khalil Ismailov

Know what you are doing. It is the experimenter's responsibility to have studied the
experiment before coming to lab, and to be able to calculate in advance how the
circuit will behave.

Report all damage to equipment so that it can be repaired or replaced before the
next lab period.

When you leave, tidy up your workplace and return all equipment, wires, etc. to
their proper place. If a circuit must be left wired, place a prominent DO NOT
DISTURB sign on it.

Cell-phone ringing or use is not allowed in the lab.

Your lab activities will be continuously

monitored and graded by your instructor and teaching assistant.

Circuit Theory

GENERAL CIRCUIT THEORY LAB POLICIES


AND GUIDELINES
Guidelines for writing Lab Reports
Each student is required to maintain a laboratory notebook which is used
to take notes during the lab session, record, data, circuit analyses, calculations,
graphs, etc. The goal of the lab notebook is to keep complete and accurate
records of your work in the lab. You will be using these notes to write your
report.
Credit for the labs is given upon completion of the tasks associated with
a lab exercise. Completion of the exercise means that you yourself produced
a working version of the required circuits AND are able to explain how it
works. You will also have to show documentation on how you calculated the
parameters for your circuit (e.g. the values for resistances in your circuit). So
please make it a habit to keep a precise log of all your work and in particular
all the calculations you do when designing your circuit.
Work not documented is work not done!
No leaps of faith in science or engineering, please.
The lab reports will be graded according to the experimental procedure,
clarity of presentation, neatness, data recording, analysis, calculation, and
discussion of the results. The main purpose for the report is to communicate
the results to others and to enable others to duplicate the work in a straight
forward manner.
Organization
Students will be divided into groups of two or three. All members of a
group are expected to be present and participate in conducting an experiment
with as much equal contribution as possible. All members of a group are
expected to come prepared, and complete the work within the scheduled
laboratory period with their laboratory partners. No individual member and
no individual group will be allowed to do an experiment outside the
scheduled times except under extenuating circumstances and only with the
consent of the instructor.
Purpose
The objective of this laboratory is for you to become familiar with some
common electronic instrumentation which you will encounter in your
laboratory work. There are five pieces of equipment which you will use: a
digital multimeter (DMM), a DC power supply, an oscilloscope, a function
9

Khalil Ismailov

generator and a breadboard. The basic idea is to learn how these instruments
work and how to use them to measure some simple circuit properties.
Included in the appendices of this write-up are some instructions on the use
of these instruments. In general, the pages for the operating manuals will be
sufficient to get you started but you will have to just experiment with the
controls yourself to get a true feeling of how the instruments work.

10

EXPERIMENT

CT-1

INSTRUMENTS
FAMILIARIZATION

E X P E R I M E N T 1.1
DMM FAMILIARIZATION
Objectives
1. To learn to identify the operating controls of typical digital multimeters
2. To be able to identify the meter lead polarity and connections
3. To learn to test for voltage, current, resistance, continuity, capacitance
and frequency using digital multimeters
4. To be familiarized with the performance characteristics of the digital
multimeters

1.1 The Basics of Digital Multimeters


The multimeter gets its name from the fact that it is a multipurpose
device measuring voltage, current, resistance and some other parameters.
Multimeters come in two types: analog and digital. The analog multimeter
uses a moving pointer which indicates the measured quantity on a calibrated
scale. The quantity measured by the digital multimeter appears as a number
on a numerical (digital) display. Any one who reads numbers can read the
digital meter, but it takes a little practice to read the analog meter.
Reading errors associated with analog meters are eliminated by the
digital meter. Moreover, the digital meter is more accurate. Reduced cost
and better accuracy have led them to be widely used.
11

Khalil Ismailov

Digital multimeters (DMM) use integrated circuits which are entire


circuits inside small packages no larger than many transistors. These meters
are also most likely to be battery-powered. DMMs feature a digital or liquid
crystal display (LCD), where measurement readings in exact numerical values
appear. The display also alerts you to any pertinent symbols and warnings.
Most meters have two basic operating controls; the function switch and
the range switch. The function switch of the DMM allows you to select the
function you want to measure. Whether you intend to measure one of the
three elements of Ohms Law or a more advanced function like frequency or
capacitance, you must first set the function switch to the appropriate
function.
The range switch plays role in determining the range of measurement.
The range you select on the range switch determines the placement of the
decimal point as it appears on the LCD. In turn, the position of the decimal
point determines how refined, or precise, your reading is. This is called
resolution.
To get a better understanding of resolution, lets examine what range to
set the function switch to if youre going to test AC voltage. The highest
possible reading with the range set to 20 V is 19.99 V. The highest reading
with the range set to 200 V is 199.9 V. As you can see, in the transition from
20 V to 200 V, the decimal point has moved one place to the right, yielding a
less refined resolution. So setting the range switch to the lowest possible
range yields the best resolution.
However, if the range is set on 20 V and youre measuring an application
that puts out more than 20 V, the display will read OL, or overload. You
must reset the range switch to a higher range and take a new reading.
The most refined reading, therefore, uses the range that provides the best
resolution without overloading. Select the range just higher than the
expected reading.
Most meters require two leads. The two-lead arrangement requires a
common, or negative, lead and a positive lead. These leads may be separate,
individual wires with plastic insulating probe handles or a single coaxial
lead. Coaxial (or coax) wire consists of a center conductor surrounded by
insulation with another wire, usually a braided wire, surrounding the
insulation. The inner wire is the signal, or positive, wire. And the braid
(sometimes called the shield) is the negative, or common, lead. If separate
wires are used, the black wire is common and should always be plugged into
the common jack (hole). The red lead is the positive lead and should be
plugged into the proper positive jack.
12

Circuit Theory

Testing Voltage
To test for voltage, first determine whether the application youre testing
uses AC or DC voltage. Then set the function switch to the appropriate
function: V for AC voltage or V for DC voltage.
Like all test procedures, when testing voltage set the range to the
number just higher than the expected reading. If you dont know the
expected range, set the range to the highest number.
For AC voltage, take the leads and apply them to the circuit, making
sure that no part of your body contacts any part of the live circuit. The position
of the test leads may need to be adjusted until a reliable measurement
appears on the LCD. Then read the voltage measurement displayed.
When testing AC voltage, youll encounter fluctuations in the reading.
As the test continues the reading will stabilize to yield a reliable measurement.
For DC voltage, connect the black test lead to the negative polarity point
(ground) and the red lead to the positive polarity test point. Then take a
reading.

Testing Current
To test for current first determine if youre testing AC or DC current.
Then set the function switch to the appropriate function: A for AC current
or A for DC current. Next, set the appropriate range on the function switch.
Testing with a standard DMM and test leads. To measure current on an open
line using test leads, plug in the leads and set the function switch to AC or
DC current depending on what youre testing. Apply the leads to the open
current, and take a reading.
Note that for current measurements above 1 A, its most common to use
a clamp meter. For measurements less than 1 A, its preferable to use a
standard DMM.

Testing Resistance
To test for resistance, first turn off the power in the circuit or component
youre testing. Otherwise you may not get the most accurate reading and
damage the DMM. After ensuring that all power is off, set the function
switch to the resistance mode. Select the appropriate range on the range
switch. Plug in your test leads, connect them to the component under test,
and take a reading.
Its important that you have good contact between the test leads and
circuit you're testing. Dirt, oil, bodily contact, and poor test lead connection
can significantly increase resistance readings.
13

Khalil Ismailov

The most common resistance test is performed on a standard outlet


where ground resistance should be 1 ohm or less.

Testing Continuity
Its essential that circuits are continuous or complete, thereby allowing
current to flow. Switches, fuses, conductors, and wire connectors demand
good continuity. While good fuses and closed switches have good
continuity, blown fuses and open switches have no continuity. A common
continuity test verifies that the test leads are good before using the DMM.
The continuity test on a DMM is simple. Set the function switch to the
continuity function. Plug in your lead. After ensuring that the power is off,
make contact with the component under test using the leads. The DMM will
beep if there is good continuity, or a good path that allows current to flow.
If there is no continuity, the DMM wont beep.

Testing Capacitance
To test capacitance, set the function switch on the DMM to the
capacitance function and plug in your leads. After ensuring that the capacitor
has been discharged, connect the test leads to the capacitor terminals and
take a reading. If the measurement is similar to the rating listed on the
capacitor, the capacitor is good. A significant variation from the rating
indicates the capacitor should be replaced.

Testing Frequency
Frequency is measured in hertz (Hz) the number of times per second
a waveform repeats. Maintaining the right frequency is crucial for devices
that rely on AC voltage and current. However, its important to realize that
not all DMMs include a Hz testing function.
To test frequency, set the function switch to Hz. Plug in your leads and
connect them to the circuit. Read the measurement and compare it with the
frequency listed for the component under test.

Advanced DMM Features


When taking AC measurements in commercial and industrial environments, an electrician needs a DMM with a true-rms feature. DMMs take AC
measurements using either an averaging method or a true rms method.
Average responding DMMs take an AC measurement, multiply it by 1.11,
and then display it on the LCD. This method is accurate when a pure sine
14

Circuit Theory

wave exists like in residential environments. But electronic lighting ballasts,


variable speed motor drives, computers, and other electronic equipment in
commercial and industrial environments cause harmonics that distort the
sine wave. In these cases a DMM needs a true rms feature, which measures
the waveform using a root mean square (rms) calculation to provide an
accurate reading.
When taking a measurement using a DMM, its sometimes useful to
capture and retain the reading as it appears on the display. If you're taking a
measurement in a dimly lit or tight area, the data hold button retains the
measurement on the LCD until it can be easily read. You can capture the
reading simply by pushing the button.
Pushing the max hold button will allow you to capture the highest
reading of any given measurement. If the reading falls to a lower value, this
button ensures the highest value remains on the screen. Its especially helpful in
capturing the in-rush current flow when equipment is first turned on.
An auto ranging DMM doesnt require you to set the range on the range
switch. Select the function youre measuring and the auto ranging DMM
automatically establishes the range that yields the best resolution.
Not all digital multimeters (DMMs) are the same. Theyre all calibrated
to give an rms indication for the measured signal. However, the difference
between them is the method of calculation. The three commonly used
methods are as follows:
Peak method: The meter reads the peak of the signal and then divides
the result by 1.414 (the square root of 2) to get the rms value.
Averaging method: The meter determines the average value of the
rectified signal. For a clean, sinusoidal signal, this average value is related to
the rms value by the constant k, which is equal to 1.1. The meter uses this
value k to scale all the waveforms it measures.
True rms: The meter measures the heating that will result if the
voltage is impressed across a resistive load. One method to detect the true
rms value is by using a thermal detector to measure a heating value.
However, modern DMMs use a digital calculation of the rms value by
squaring the signal on a sample-by-sample basis, averaging over a period,
and then taking the square root of the result.
All these methods give the same result for a clean, undistorted,
sinusoidal signal, but they can give different answers for distorted signals,
and significant distortion levels arent uncommon.
15

Khalil Ismailov

At the laboratory Circuit Theory and Electronics the following


multimeters are in use: DM-333, M890G and MY-68. Product descriptions
and performance characteristics of these multimeters are outlined in
APPENDIX A.1.

Summary
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Two types of DMMs are used today: analog and digital.


Digital meters are more accurate and eliminate usual reading errors.
Most meters have two controls: function and range.
The negative meter lead is black; the positive is red.
To test for voltage or current appropriate function (AC or DC) and range
must be selected.
6. To test for resistance or continuity the power in the circuit or component
must be switched off.
7. To test capacitance it must to be discharged.
8. DMMs are calibrated to give an rms indication for the measured signal.

Self-Test
Check your understanding of the introductory information by answering
the following questions:
1. What is a DMM?
________________
What are its advantages? ________________
2. What are the major two controls? ____________ ____________
3. The red lead is the ______________ lead.
4. The black lead is the ______________ lead.
5. The autoranging DMM will not have a(n) ___________ switch.

Materials Required

DMM

Procedure
1. Examine your meter
2. Read the manufacturers instructions to learn how to operate the meter.
3. Get one RED and one BLACK lead. Find on your multimeter an input
labeled V/ (volt/ohms, RED), plug the RED lead into that input. Find
an input labeled COM (black), and plug the black lead into that input.
16

Circuit Theory

4. Ensure that the multimeter is set up to measure voltage and function


pushbuttons selected correctly.
5. Use the power supply on the laboratory (see APPENDIX A.2) to measure
its output voltage. On the power supply there are two complete supplies
in one box, each with their own meter, hubs, and adjustment knobs.
Measure and record in Table 1.1.1 the voltage between each power
supply jack and ground. In each case set the meters range for the
highest precision (i.e., one setting above overflow).
Power Supply Meter Setting

DMM Range

DMM Reading

5V
10 V
15 V
20 V
25 V
30 V
Table 1.1.1. Power Supply and DMM Readings

6. Shut down the power supply and disconnect the multimeter leads.
7. Compare the power supply meter readings to DMM readings and
explain why there are differences between them.
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________ .

Answers to Self-Test
1. Digital multimeter, accuracy and ease of reading
2. Function, range
3. Positive
4. Negative
5. Range

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Khalil Ismailov

E X P E R I M E N T 1.2
RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT
BY METER AND COLOR CODE
Objectives
1. To learn how to measure resistance to within the color-coded tolerance
of the resistors used.

Basic Information
Resistance is opposition to resistance current flow. It is measured in units
called ohms. The symbol for ohms is , the Greek capital letter omega.
Everything has some resistance. Some materials such as rubber, glass and
even air have very high opposition to current flow. These materials are
called insulators. Other materials such as copper, silver, aluminum, and gold
have very little resistance. They are called conductors. In electronics we use a
component called a resistor. Its function is to limit the flow of current in an
electric circuit. For example a resistor is placed in series with a lightemitting diode (LED) to limit the current passing through the LED.
We have mentioned that measuring ohms is one of the functions of the
DMM. Various ranges are found on the DMM. The range switch indicates
the maximum amount of resistance which can be measured on each range.
For example, the range switch setting may indicate R = 1000 . This means
that the maximum resistance which can be measured at this setting is 1000.
Basic resistor types are shown in Fig. 1.2.1. The most common type (Fig.
1.2.2a) has color bands to indicate its resistance. These color bands are
coded to allow the user to see the resistor value without having to measure
it. The code is standard one adopted by manufacturers through their trade
association, the Electronic Industries Association (EIA). This code is given
in Table 1.2.2.
Most resistors have 4 bands:

18

The first band gives the first digit.


The second band gives the second digit.
The third band indicates the number of zeros.
The fourth band is used to shows the tolerance (precision) of the
resistor, this may be ignored for almost all circuits but further details
are given below.

Circuit Theory
COLORS
INDICATES VALUE

INDICATES TOLERANCE
(a)

DATA CODE, LOT CODE, JAN


(MILITARY SPECS) DESIGNATION
MIL (MILITARY) STYLE
AND POWER DESIGNATION
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT
CHARACTERISTIC AND RESISTANCE VALUE
OTHER NUMBERS/LETTERS:
TOLERANCE CODE, FAILURE RATE CODE,
AND TRADEMARK

(b)
Fig. 1.2.1. (a) Color-coded resistor; (b) printed resistor

In Fig. 1.2.2 assume the color of the first is red. The first band tells the
first significant figure of the resistors value. According to the code, red
stands for the number 2. Assume the second color band is violet and thus
indicates a value of 7. It is the second significant figure in the resistors
value. The third color band is yellow. The third band indicates the number
of zeros to add to the first two significant numbers. It is often called the
multiplier. In this example, since the third color is yellow or 4 there will be 4
zeros added. The value of this resistor is 270 000 or 270 k. The fourth
color band is gold, indicating in the color code that the resistor has a
tolerance of 5%. By tolerance we mean that the actual value of the resistor
may be 5% more or less (plus or minus) than the coded value. In our
example the actual resistance can be between 256.5 and 283.5 k.
270 k color coded
0.05 percent tolerance
13.5 k above or below the coded value.

Fig. 1.2.2 Color coded resistor

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Khalil Ismailov

Sometimes a fifth band will be found on a color coded resistor. A fifth


band is necessary on some high precision resistors. In this case there are
three significant digits and the fourth color band is the multiplier. The fifth
band will be the tolerance. In the case of a standard 4-band code, a fifth
band may indicate a manufacturers special code, such as failure rate or
some physical characteristic of the device.
Tolerance may be ignored for almost all circuits because precise resistor
values are rarely required.
The resistance and often the wattage rating, is printed on the resistor
(Fig. 1.2.1b). In writing the values of resistors, the following designations
are used:
k, a multiplier which stands for kilo and means 1000;
M, a multiplier which stands for mega and means 1000 000.
For example, 33 k or 33 kilohms stands for 33 000 ; 1.2 M or 1.2
megohms stands for 1 200 000 .
Because resistors limit current in a circuit they perform work.
Because of the work they perform, heat is generated. The more work they
perform the more heat is generated. At this point in our studies we will say
that power is consumed when work is performed and that power is
exhibited as heat. Power is measured in watts and, you will learn more
about it in a later experiment. However, at this time you do need to know
that larger sized resistors are larger because they can dissipate more heat
into the air, and they are called high wattage resistors.
Typical resistor wattage sizes are 1/8, 1/4, 1/2, 1, 2, 5, 10, and 20 watts (W).
You will usually use 1/8, 1/4, and 1/2 W units. Fig. 1.2.3 shows a variety of
wattage sizes. The larger sized resistors, from about 5 W and up are not color
coded.

250 5 W

SIZES NOT ACTUAL FOR ILLUSTRATING


SIZE RELATIONSHIPS ONLY

1/8 W

1/4 W

1/2 W

1W

2W

5W

Fig. 1.2.3. Resistor size indicates power rating; it has nothing to do with resistance value

20

Circuit Theory

Resistor values are often written on circuit diagrams using a code system
which avoids using a decimal point because it is easy to miss the small dot.
Instead the letters R, K and M are used in place of the decimal point. To read
the code: replace the letter with a decimal point, then multiply the value by
1000 if the letter was K, or 1000000 if the letter was M. The letter R means
multiply by 1.
For example:
560R means 560
2K7 means 2.7 k = 2700
39K means 39 k
1M0 means 1.0 M = 1000 k
You may have noticed that resistors are not available with every possible
value, for example 22 k and 47 k are readily available, but 25 k and 50
k are not!
Why is this? Imagine that you decided to make resistors every 10
giving 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and so on. That seems fine, but what happens when
you reach 1000? It would be pointless to make 1000, 1010, 1020, 1030 and so
on because for these values 10 is a very small difference, too small to be
noticeable in most circuits. In fact it would be difficult to make resistors
sufficiently accurate.
A logical scheme is to produce resistors in a range of values which
increase in a geometrical progression, so that each value is greater than its
predecessor by a fixed multiplier, chosen to match the tolerance of the range.
For example, for a tolerance of 20% it makes sense to have each resistor
about 1.5 times its predecessor, covering a decade in 6 values. In practice the
factor used is 1.4678, giving values of 1.47, 2.15, 3.16, 4.64, 6.81, 10 for the
1-10 decade (a decade is a range increasing by a factor of 10; 0.1-1 and 10100 are other examples); these are rounded in practice to 1.5, 2.2, 3.3, 4.7,
6.8, 10; followed, of course by 15, 22, 33, and preceded by 0.47, 0.68, 1.
This scheme has been adopted as the E6 range of the IEC 60063 preferred
number series. There are also E12, E24, E48, E96 and E192 ranges for
components of ever tighter tolerance, with 12, 24, 96, and 192 different
values within each decade. The actual values used are in the IEC 60063 lists
of preferred numbers.
A resistor of 100-ohms20% would be expected to have a value between
80 and 120 ohms; its E6 neighbors are 68 (54-82) and 150 (120-180) ohms.
A sensible spacing. E6 is used for 20% components; E12 for 10%; E24 for
5%; E48 for 2%, E96 for 1%; E192 for 0.5% or better. Resistors are
21

Khalil Ismailov

manufactured in values from a few milliohms to about a gigaohm in


IEC60063 ranges appropriate for their tolerance.
The E6 series (6 values for each multiple of ten, for resistors with 20%
tolerance) 10, 15, 22, 33, 47, 68, ... then it continues 100, 150, 220, 330, 470,
680, 1000 etc. Notice how the step size increases as the value increases. For
this series the step (to the next value) is roughly half the value.
The E12 series (12 values for each multiple of ten, for resistors with 10%
tolerance) 10, 12, 15, 18, 22, 27, 33, 39, 47, 56, 68, 82, ... then it continues
100, 120, 150 etc. Notice how this is the E6 series with an extra value in the
gaps.
The E12 series is the one most frequently used for resistors. It allows you
to choose a value within 10% of the precise value you need. This is
sufficiently accurate for almost all projects and it is sensible because most
resistors are only accurate to 10% (called their tolerance). For example a
resistor marked 390 could vary by 10%390 = 39 , so it could be
any value between 351 and 429 .

Summary
1.

Resistance is the opposition to electric current.

2.

On a digital meter, the range switch indicates the maximum amount of


resistance measurable on that range.

3.

Resistor values are given on the device by means of a color code.

4.

Most resistors have a 4-band code with the fourth band giving tolerance.
Others have a 5-band code with the fifth band showing tolerance.

5.

Resistors are produced in a range of values which increase in a


geometrical progression, so that each value is greater than its predecessor
by a fixed multiplier, chosen to match the tolerance of the range.

6.

The E12 series is the one most frequently used for resistors.

7.

Resistors are sold by resistance and wattage ratings.

Self-Test
Check your understanding of the introductory information by answering
these questions.
1.

The measurement of resistance is one function of a(n) ________ .

2.

What is resistance?

3.

What is the value of resistors color-coded as follows:

22

Circuit Theory

a. red, violet, silver? _______


b. red, red, gold? _______
c. green, blue, brown? _______
d. yellow, violet, yellow? _______
4.

What is the color code for the following resistances:


a. 39 ___________, ___________, ___________.
b. 68 k ___________, ___________, ___________.

5.

The fourth band of a resistor is silver. The tolerance of this resistor is


______ percent.

6.

If the resistor has only three bands, its tolerance is _______ percent.

7.

The resistor color bands are red, red, red, silver, red. What is its precise
value? What is the maximum and minimum value that it can be?

8.

A short has _______ of resistance.

Materials Required

DMM
Resistors: five, different values
Miscellaneous: a piece of hookup wire and hand tools

Procedure
1.

Using the color code determine the resistance of each of your resistors
and complete Table 1.2.1.

2.

Measure the resistance of each resistor and complete Table 1.2.1. The
measured resistance and the color code resistance should agree within
the tolerance range of the resistor.
NOTE: Do not touch both resistor leads or both metal probe tips while
making the measurement. If you do, a measurement error may
result since the meter will be measuring your body resistance as
well as the resistor.

3.

Measure and record the resistance of a small piece of hookup wire.


_____

4.

Hold both the meter probe tips, and measure your body resistance. Note
that the harder you squeeze the tips, the less resistance you have. Also,
note that if your fingers are wet or damp, better contact will be made
and less resistance results. What was your lowest body resistance?
______
23

Khalil Ismailov

5.

a. Measure and record the value of one of the resistors. ______


b. Connect the hookup wire across this resistor. See Fig. 1.2.4. Be sure
the wire has no insulation on it some insulation is a clear varnish,
so look carefully. If there is insulation on the wire, carefully scrape it
away so the wire will make contact with the resistor leads.
c. Measure and record the resistance of this combination. ______

Fig. 1.2.4. This resistor is shorted by a piece of hookup wire


Resistor Number

Color Coded
Value

Color Coded
Tolerance

Measured Value

1
2
3
4
5
Table 1.2.1. Resistor Codes and Measurements

Questions
1. From procedure 4, what do you think causes people to be more likely to
be shocked if they are standing in water?
2. Do you think an accurate reading could be made if you touched both
probe tips while measuring a resistance and wearing rubber gloves? Why
or why not?
3. How did the measured values of Table 1.2.1 and the color-coded values
compare?
Color
Black
Brown
Red
Orange
Yellow
Green
Blue
Violet

24

Significant
Figures
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Number of
Zeros to Add
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Multiply by
1
10
100
1000
10 000
100 000
106
107

Tolerance
1%
2%

Circuit Theory
Grey
Wbite
Gold
Silver
No color

8
9

8
9

108
109
0.1
0.01

5%
10%
20%

Table 1.2.2. EIA Color Code

Answers to Self-Test
1. Multimeter
2. Opposition to current flow
3. (a) 0.27
(b) 2.2
(c) 560
(d) 470 000
4. (a) orange, white, black
(b) blue, gray, orange
5. 10%
6. 20
7. 2.22 at 2%, maximum value = 2.2644 , minimum value = 2.1756 .
8. ZERO

25

EXPERIMENT

CT-2

SERIES AND
PARALLEL
RESISTANCE
CIRCUITS

E X P E R I M E N T 2.1
SERIES-CONNECTED RESISTANCES
Objectives
1.

To show that a series circuit has only one path for current flow

2.

To show that the total resistance of resistors connected in series is the


sum of the individual resistances

3.

To learn to determine total resistance of series-connected resistors by


calculation and experiment

Basic Information
Series Circuit Connection
An electronic circuit is a complete path for current flow. Fig. 2.1.1 shows
a complete path. Fig. 2.1.2 shows an incomplete, or open, circuit in which
current cannot flow.
In electronic circuits there may be one or more devices in a series
arrangement. Since this experiment concerns resistors, our discussion is
limited to series resistance circuits. However, the basic idea of the series
circuit is the same no matter which devices are used. The fundamental idea
of the series circuit is that there is only one path for current flow. Fig. 2.1.1
shows a single resistor in series with a battery power source. Fig. 2.1.3
26

Circuit Theory

shows three resistors in series with a power source. Note that in this circuit
there is a single current path. The current coming from the battery must go
through each resistor. It has no other path. If either resistor is removed or if
the wires are disconnected, no current will flow. This is characteristic of a
series circuit. When a component is removed, the circuit is open and no
current flows. It may help you to understand if you draw Fig. 2.1.3 on paper
with a pencil. Now erase one of the resistors; note that the path (wires and
resistors) for electric current is broken, leaving no way for current to flow.
Total Resistance of Series-Connected Resistors
Since the electric current flowing in a series circuit must pass through
each resistance in its path, two series resistors would seem to offer more
opposition to current than either of the resistors individually. Three resistors
would offer more opposition to current than any series combination of any
two of the same resistors, and so on. This is a fact because the total
resistance RT of a series circuit equals the sum of all the resistances in the
circuit. The mathematical formula is
RT = R1 + R2 + R3 + . . .
For example, for three 500 resistors connected in series, RT = 1500 .
Or if R1 = 220 and R2 = 330 , then RT= 550 .
R1

R1
OPEN
V

V
Fig. 2.1.1. A simple resistor circuit

Fig. 2.1.2. An incomplete (open) circuit

R1

R2

R3

Fig. 2.1.3. A three-resistor series circuit

27

Khalil Ismailov

Summary
1.

An electronic circuit is a complete path for current flow.

2.

There is only one path for current flow in the series circuit.

3.

When a component is removed from a series circuit, current ceases to


flow. The circuit is open.

4.

Total series circuit resistance is equal to the sum of all the series
resistances.
Self-Test

Check your understanding of the introductory information by answering


the following questions:
1.

Two l k resistors connected in series would have a total resistance of


______ k.

2.

Five resistors wired in series have a total resistance that is greater than
that of only four of the same resistors (true/false).

3.

Define a series circuit.

4.

What is the mathematical formula for RT of a series resistive circuit?

5.

What happens to circuit current if a series component becomes open?


Materials Required

DMM
Resistors of 330, 470, 1200, 2200, 3300, and 4700
Procedure

1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
28

Measure the resistance of each resistor, and record its measured value
in Table 2.1.1.
Connect series arrangement 1 shown in Fig. 2.1.4 by connecting resistors
R1 and R4 in series.
Using the measured values of the individual resistors in the circuit,
compute RT. Record this value in Table 2.1.1
Measure RT with the ohmmeter, and record the measured value in Table
2.1.1 To measure total resistance, it is necessary to measure across the
entire circuit from point A to point B.
Remove one of the resistors (do not reconnect the circuit) while measuring
RT, and record the results of your measurement in Table 2.1.1.
Repeat steps 2, 3, 4, and 5 for resistor combinations 2 and 3 in Fig. 2.1.4.

Circuit Theory
R1

R4

330

2200

B
Combination 1

R1

R3

R4

R6

330

1200

2200

4700

B
Combination 2

R1

R2

R3

R4

R5

R6

330

470

1200

2200

3300

4700

B
Combination 3
Fig. 2.1.4. Experimental circuits

Resistor
Combination

Measured Resistances
R1

R2

R3

R4

R5

R6

Calculated Measured
RT
RT

Measured
RT with a
Resistor
Removed

1
2
3
Table 2.1.1. Series Resistor Measurements

Questions
1.

Why did you use the measured values of the resistors in calculating RT?
Why not use the color-coded value?

2.

Did your calculated values for RT equal your measured RT values?


Explain any differences.

3.

Would there be any difference in RT if the position of any of the resistors


were changed in the circuit?

4.

What was the result of the measurement taken with one of the resistors
removed? Was the result the same for all the series combinations?

5.

When one of the series resistors was removed, the series circuit became
a(n) _________ circuit.
29

Khalil Ismailov

Answers to Self-Test
1. 2 k
2. True
3. A circuit with only one path for current flow
4. RT = R1 + R2 + R3 + . . .
5. Current flow ceases.

E X P E R I M E N T 2.2
PARALLEL-CONNECTED RESISTANCES
Objectives
1.

To show that a parallel circuit may have many paths for current flow

2.

To show that the total resistance of a parallel circuit is less than the
resistance of the smallest parallel resistor

3.

To learn to determine total resistance of parallel-connected resistors by


calculation and experiment

Basic Information
Parallel-Connected Resistors
In a parallel circuit, there are two or more paths for electric current
flow. Fig. 2.2.1 shows such a circuit. Note that if any of the resistors is
removed from the circuit, paths for current flow still exist through the
remaining resistors. Therefore, in a parallel circuit there must be a complete
circuit, or path, for current flow through each individual resistance. Each
individual circuit is called a branch circuit. The total resistance of these
parallel-connected resistors would be measured between points A and B
(Fig. 2.2.1). But when you are making resistance measurements, remember
that all power must be removed from the circuit.
Total Resistance of Parallel Resistances
It is reasonable to assume that more current can flow from the battery
when there are several paths than when there is only one path. Now, if
more current is allowed to flow from the power source with each additional
branch circuit added, clearly the total opposition (resistance) to current flow
is becoming smaller. The total resistance to current flow from the source
30

Circuit Theory

does indeed decrease as more branch circuits are added. In fact, RT is less
than the resistance of the smallest branch resistor. We prove this with the
ohmmeter later in this experiment.
Mathematically, the formula for calculating RT of the parallel circuit is

1
1
1
1
=
+
+
+ ...
R T R1 R 2 R 3
R1

R2

R3

Fig. 2.2.1. A three-resistor parallel circuit

If only two resistors are connected in parallel the formula

RT =

R1 R 2
R1 + R 2

may be used. The mathematics involved is made simple by the use of the 1/x
(reciprocal) button on most electronic calculators. Refer to the
manufacturers instructions for directions on using the 1/x function on your
calculator.
Summary
1.

A parallel circuit has more than one path for current flow.

2.

One branch circuit of a parallel circuit may be removed without any


effect on the other branch currents and voltages.

3.

The total resistance of a parallel circuit is less than the resistance of the
smallest branch.

4.

The total resistance of a parallel circuit is calculated by

1
1
1
1
=
+
+
+ ...
R T R1 R 2 R 3

or

RT =

R1 R 2
R1 + R 2
31

Khalil Ismailov

Self-Test
Check your understanding of the introductory information by answering
the following questions.
1.

How is the parallel circuit different from the series circuit?

2.

How does the removal of an individual branch circuit

3.

A single, individual path for current within a parallel circuit is called


a(n) __________ circuit.

4.

The more individual resistors connected in parallel, the __________


(greater/smaller) will be the RT.

5.

What relationship does the total resistance have to the smallest resistor
in a parallel circuit?
Materials Required

DMM
Resistors of 330 , 470 , and two of 1200
Procedure

1.

Calculate the value of RT for the parallel circuits in Fig. 2.2.2. Use colorcoded values. Record your calculated values in Table 2.2.1.

2.

Measure the resistance of the individual resistors for circuit 1 in Fig.


2.2.2. Record these values in Table 2.2.1.

3.

Calculate RT of circuit 1, using the measured values of the individual


resistors. Record this value in Table 2.2.1.

4.

Measure RT of circuit 1. Record this measured value in Table 2.2.1

5.

Repeat steps 2, 3, and 4 for circuits 2 and 3 in Fig. 2.2.2.

Parallel
Circuit

Calculated RT
(from ColorCoded Values)

Measured
Values
R1

R2

R3

Calculated RT
(from Measured
R Values)

1
2
3
Table 2.2.1. Parallel Resistance Measurement

32

Measured
RT

Circuit Theory

Questions
1.

How did the two calculated values of RT and the measured RT compare?
Explain any differences. Which RT is most accurate and why?

2.

What relationship did RT have to the smallest parallel resistor in each


experimental circuit?

3.

Circuit 3 placed two resistors of equal value in parallel. The results of


your measurements should suggest a general rule for RT of any two
parallel-connected resistors of the same value. What is this rule?

4.

The rule in question 3 can be expanded to include any number of


resistors of the same value when they are wired in parallel. What do you
think RT would be if there were three 330 resistors in parallel?
NOTE. If you have no idea of the answer, connect three 330 resistors
in parallel and measure RT. Do this with other resistors (all with the
same value) until the law is clear to you.

R1
330

R1
1200

R2
1200

R2
1200

CIRCUIT 1

CIRCUIT 3
R1
330
R2
470
R3
1200
CIRCUIT 2
Fig. 2.2.2. Experimental circuits

33

Khalil Ismailov

5.

How can you measure the resistance of an individual resistor in a


parallel circuit?

6.

What is the least number of resistances that can be used to create a


parallel circuit?

7.

If the lights on your Christmas tree are wired in series, what will happen
when one bulb bums out? What will happen if the bulbs are wired in
parallel?
Answers to Self-Test

1.

The parallel circuit has more than one current path. The series circuit
has only one current path.

2.

The total resistance increases.

3.

Branch

4.

Smaller

5.

Smaller

E X P E R I M E N T 2.3
VARIABLE RESISTORS
Objectives
1.

To learn how to measure the resistance of variable resistors

2.

To learn how the variable resistor operates

3.

To learn how to test variable resistors

Basic Information
Variable Resistors
In addition to fixed-value resistors, variable resistors are used
extensively in electronics. There are two types of variable resistors: the
rheostat and the potentiometer. Rheostats are rarely found in todays
circuitry. The potentiometer (most often shortened to pot), however, is
extensively used. Pots are used for volume and tone controls in radios and
color, contrast, brightness, and other controls in the TV.
A true rheostat is a two-terminal device whose circuit symbol is shown
in Fig. 2.3.1. Points A and B connect to the circuit. The rheostat has a
34

Circuit Theory

maximum value of resistance, specified by the manufacturer, and a minimum


value, usually zero. The arrowhead in Fig. 2.3.1 indicates a mechanical means
of adjusting the rheostat so that the resistance, measured between A and B,
can be set to any value between the minimum and maximum values. Because
of its possible range of resistance settings, the rheostat can, if necessary, be
used as a fixed-value resistance of almost any value. Often you will need a
test resistor of some particular value, and it may not be available. The rheostat
can be adjusted to the required value and used for the test.

Fig. 2.3.1. Schematic symbol for a rheostat

The schematic symbol for a potentiometer in Fig. 2.3.2 shows that it is a


three-terminal device. The resistance between terminals A and B is fixed.
Point C is the variable arm of the potentiometer. The arm is a metal contact
which slides along the surface of the resistance element. The resistance
element may be a deposited carbon or other resistance mixture or special
resistance wire wound around an insulating form. Fig. 2.3.3 shows a
cutaway view of the typical pot. As the slider is moved closer to an end
terminal, the amount of resistance element between the two terminals is
less, making the resistance smaller. At the same time, the distance between
the other end terminal and the slider has lengthened and that resistance is
increased. Adding the resistance measured from A to C with that measured
from C to B gives the total resistance of the device. This is the same as
measuring from A to B, the two outside terminals.

A
C
B
Fig. 2.3.2. Schematic symbol for a potentiometer

You can see that the action of the slider is to increase the resistance
between itself (terminal C) and one of the end terminals and, at the same
time, to decrease the resistance between itself and the other end terminal.
The sum of the two resistances always remains constant.
35

Khalil Ismailov

SLIDER RIDING
ATOP
RESISTANCE
ELEMENT

SLOT ALLOWS
TRAVEL OF
CONTROL
CONTROL
SHAFT
KNOB

RESISTANCE
ELEMENT

RESISTANCE
ELEMENT
RESISTANCE
CONTACT BAR

(b)

(a)

SLIDING SPRING
CONTACT MAKES
CONNECTION FROM
RESISTANCE ELEMENT
TO NONRESISTIVE
CONTACT BAR
Fig. 2.3.3. Cutaway views of the potentiometer

Earlier we stated that rheostats are rarely found in todays circuitry and
that a true rheostat is a two-terminal device. By a true rheostat, we mean
one manufactured with only two terminals, specifically as a rheostat. Instead,
where a rheostat is needed, you will find the potentiometer is used. Fig. 2.3.4
shows how this is accomplished. It is necessary to use only two of the three
pot terminals or to short-circuit the center terminal to one of the end terminals.
A

RHEOSTAT
TERMINALS
A AND C

(b)

(a)
Fig. 2.3.4. Using a pot as a rheostat

36

RHEOSTAT
TERMINALS
B AND C

Circuit Theory

Testing Variable Resistors


Variable resistors usually become defective in one of two ways. First, too
much current is applied, and the resistance element burns apart, creating an
open circuit. Second, dirt, dust, grease, or other foreign matter gets into the
case and does not allow good contact between the element and the slider.
When the volume of a radio or TV becomes erratic, perhaps becoming
inaudible or blasting, the pot is probably dirty. The same is true if the
contrast or brightness of the TV is erratic as the control is touched. Special
control cleaners can be sprayed into the pot to aid in the dissolving of grease
and to wash away dust. It is most effective to turn the control back and
forth briskly while the cleaning solution is applied. When a pot appears to
cause erratic control, connect the ohmmeter to the center and one end
terminal, and watch the meter while you adjust the pot. If the meter does
not show a smooth change in resistance, the pot is indeed dirty or otherwise
faulty.
When the resistance element is open the resistance reading between the
two end terminals will be infinite. If this is the case the solution is to
purchase a new control.
Another instance of failure occurs when the pot has been used until it is
worn out. This is rare but does occur, especially on deposited elements.
When the resistance element is worn thin there may be erratic behavior
similar to a dirty pot. If cleaners do not correct the problem the pot is
probably worn out and must be replaced.
Summary
1.

Two types of variable resistors are the rheostat and potentiometer.

2.

A rheostat is a two-terminal device; a potentiometer has three terminals.

3.

A rheostat is made by using only two of the potentiometer terminals.

4.

The resistance element is usually wire or a carbon composition.

5.

The total resistance of the potentiometer is the addition of the resistances


from the center tap to each end.

6.

Variable resistors become erratic when dust gets between the element
and the slider contact. A cleaner is used to wash out the foreign material.
Self- Test

Check your understanding of the introductory information by answering


the following questions.
37

Khalil Ismailov

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

How is the pot different from the rheostat?


The formula AC + BC describes what?
Variable-resistor resistance elements can be made of wire (true/false).
The ___________ can be used as both a pot and a rheostat.
The two usual failure modes of the variable resistor are _________ and
___________ .
The best way to measure the total resistance of the pot is to __________.
How does the ohmmeter show a defective resistance element?
Does the rheostat have a fixed value?
Materials Required

DMM
One 10 000- pot
Procedure

1. Place the 10-k pot so that its shaft points toward you. Name the
terminals A, B, and C as in Fig. 2.3.4. Measure the resistance between
terminals A and B. Record this measurement in Table 2.3.1.
2. Rotate the shaft to any position, and measure the resistance between
terminals A and C. Record this in Table 2.3.1 as RAC.
3. Without moving the shaft, measure the resistance between terminals B
and C. Record this in Table 2.3.1 as RBC.
4. Add the measurements from steps 2 and 3. Record this value in Table
2.3.1 as RT (resistance total). This sum should be the same as that
measured in step 1.
NOTE. Because of measurement errors and tolerances the two figures
may not be exactly the same, but they should be very close.
5. Repeat steps 2, 3, and 4 for other settings of the pot shaft. For two of
these settings turn the shaft maximum left (counterclockwise) and
maximum right (clockwise). Record the results in Table 2.3.1 as shaft
settings 2, 3, 4, etc.
Shaft Setting
1
2 (Max.ccw)
3 (Max.cw)
4
5

RAB

RAC

RBC

Table 2.3.1. Measuring Variable Resistances

38

RT

Circuit Theory

Questions
1.

In your tests, what was the relationship between the center terminal
and each of the end terminals? Does this agree with the theory
explained in the introductory information?

2.

With the resistance held so the shaft is pointing toward you and turned
maximum counterclockwise, what is the resistance RAC?

3.

You want the resistance to decrease as the control shaft is turned


clockwise. Which two terminals of the pot would you use?

4.

In a pot what is fixed in value?


Answers to Self-Test

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

It has three terminals.


The total resistance RT of a pot
True
Potentiometer
Dirty element; open element
Measure R between the two outside terminals
Reading of infinity or an erratic reading
No; because it has only one fixed terminal it cannot have a fixed value.

39

EXPERIMENT

CT-3

VOLTAGE AND
CURRENT
MEASUREMENTS

E X P E R I M E N T 3.1
MEASURING VOLTAGE
Objectives
1.

To show that voltage is an electrical pressure

2.

To learn to use a variable voltage power supply

3.

To learn to accurately measure voltages with the voltmeter


Basic Information
Measuring DC Voltage

Voltage is defined as electrical pressure. It is the difference in electrical


pressure between two points. The voltage across two points is measured with
a voltmeter. A DMM combines the jobs of the voltmeter, the current meter,
and the ohmmeter. In this experiment you use the voltmeter function only.
Measurement of de voltage is basic to all electronics work. In this
experiment you are concerned with learning how to measure the voltage of
a battery and a variable voltage power supply. These are practice measurements. The real-world measurements of voltage would be in a power panel,
radio, TV, computer, automobile, or almost any other product made today.
Repair of any device using electronic circuits will require voltage measurements.
As with any equipment, how the voltmeter is used determines the
accuracy of its measurement. If the correct procedures are used, greater
40

Circuit Theory

measurement accuracy will result. The following rules apply to the use of
the voltmeter regardless of the make:
1.

The black test lead should be plugged into the common, or meter,
jack. The red lead goes into the + jack.

2.

Set the range switch to a range sufficient to measure voltages in the


circuit under test. If the voltages are unknown, set the meter to its
highest range.

3.

Connect the lead to the circuit common. Connect the + lead to the
point where the voltage is to be measured. If correct lead polarity is
not maintained, some meters may be destroyed. Analog meter pointers
will try to deflect backward if the lead polarities are reversed. Most
digital meters will not be harmed but will display a sign to show that
the leads are reversed.

4.

Read the voltage from the proper scale. Voltage scales are marked at the
end of the arc as alternating or direct current.
DC Voltage Sources

There are many types of voltage sources. The most used are the dry-cell
battery and the electronic supply.
Dry batteries consist of arrangements of primary cells, called dry cells.
The familiar flashlight battery is actually a single dry cell. Individual dry
cells produce a low voltage. A battery is a combination of cells connected in
a single package. Dry cells may be made from a variety of materials. Most
are not rechargeable. Attempting to recharge some dry cells can result in
injury, because they may explode. The majority of these cells are made from
carbon and zinc. Others such as the nickel-cadmium (commonly called nicad) are rechargeable, but the proper charger should be used.
Electronic power supplies derive their primary power from the wall
outlet. This 220-V ac voltage is changed inside the supply to the desired
output voltage. It is also changed from alternating to direct current. All
radios, TVs, home computers, games, etc. that do not operate strictly off
batteries will have this type of supply built in. You will be working with
such a supply in this experiment.
Your supply will probably be a little more sophisticated than those just
described. The typical school power supply will have an adjustable output. It
will also be regulated. A supply is regulated when its output voltage stays
constant regardless of how much current you pull from it (within specified
limits, of course). If the supply is rated as a 12-V 1-ampere (A) supply, its
41

Khalil Ismailov

output should remain very close to 12 V until more-than 1 A is drawn from


it. As the current goes beyond its rating, the voltage output will begin to drop.
The power supply shown in Fig. 3.1.1 is a variable voltage-regulated
supply. The controls on such supplies may be VOLTAGE OUTPUT, CURRENT
LIMIT (allows the user to adjust the current output allowed), METER
SWITCH (allows measuring of various supply outputs on a single meter),
and TRACKING (allows two supplies to be adjusted together). Most supplies
will have their own output meter, but they are often inaccurate. The supply
output should always be measured with the voltmeter for accuracy. Some of
these supplies will supply alternating as well as direct current. The
alternating current is usually not adjustable or regulated.

Fig. 3.1.1. DC power supply (Model GP-4303TP)

CAUTION. The output terminals of power supplies should not be


short-circuited (connected directly together). Some supplies are shortcircuit-protected and will not be damaged; but if they are not protected,
they can be destroyed. It is best to be safe and never short-circuit power
supply outputs.
Measuring High Voltage
Sometimes it is necessary to measure voltages which are higher than
the highest voltmeter range. Special voltmeters are available for this
purpose. They typically measure up to 50 000 V. Also many manufacturers
make special high-voltage probes to be used with their standard
multimeters. These probes extend the multimeter range to around 50 kV. As
an example see high-voltage meter shown in Fig. 3.1.2.
42

Circuit Theory

Fig. 3.1.2. A high-voltage meter typically used to measure high voltage in


TVs and computer monitors (Model HV 44A)

Such meters and probes are used by technicians to service TVs,


oscilloscopes, and computer monitors. You must be capable of using this
equipment accurately and safely.
Summary
1.

Voltage is defined as electrical pressure.

2.

Measurement of voltages is basic to all electrical work.

3.

For accurate and safe measurements, the following rules apply:


a. Leads must be plugged into the proper jack so polarity is correct.
b. Connect to the circuit for proper polarity
c. Set range switch for a voltage greater than expected in the circuit.
d. Read voltage from the proper scale.
Many meters use batteries for power. They must be replaced with the
correct type. Some should not be recharged.
Electronic power supplies derive their power from the 220-V ac outlet.
Some electronic supplies are voltage- and current regulated and have
variable outputs.
Never short-circuit the output terminals of a power supply.
Special voltmeters are available for measuring high voltages such as
found in TVs, computer monitors, and oscilloscopes.

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Self-Test
Check your understanding of the introductory information by answering
the following questions.
1.

What is voltage?

2.

A battery is an arrangement of __________ .


43

Khalil Ismailov

3.

Where do electronic power supplies get their power?

4.

The voltmeter reads the electrical pressure ____________ two points.

5.

The red lead is __________ .

6.

The voltage of a regulated 15-V 0.5-A supply will begin to drop when
the current taken from the supply exceeds ________ A.

7.

The typical flashlight battery can be recharged if you know how


(true/false).

8.

The range switch on the voltmeter should be set to _________ if the


voltage to be measured is an unknown amount.
Materials Required

DMM
Power supply: variable, voltage-regulated
3 Dry cells
Procedure

1.

Read the instructions for using your voltmeter if you have not already
done so. Do not proceed until you know how to use each control, how
to read the scales, and how the leads are connected.

2.

Measure and record in Table 3.1.1 the voltage of each dry cell. Use the
range of the voltmeter where you get maximum reading without
exceeding the range.

3.

Read the instructions for your power supply. Make sure you understand
the use of each control before you proceed.

4.

Turn on the power supply. Set the voltage control for maximum voltage
but not more than 50 V.

5.

Set your voltmeter to the 50-V (or next greater) range. Connect its
negative lead to the power supply negative output. Connect the positive
lead to the positive. What does the meter read? ______ V. If your power
supply has a built-in meter, what is its reading? ______ V.

6.

Gradually reduce the supply output voltage while measuring it with the
voltmeter. Reduce the voltmeter range when necessary to produce a
better reading. Record the power supply meter reading at each
measurement.

44

Circuit Theory

Battery No.
2

Measured V
Expected V*
Table 3.1.1. Measuring Dry Cells with the Voltmeter
* Typical voltages: carbon zinc, 1.55 V; alkaline, 1.5 V; mercury, 1.35 V; ni-cad, 1.25 V;
silver oxide, 1.5 V.

Questions
1.

What precautions did you use in connecting the power supply and
voltmeter?

2.

What is the maximum output of your power supply?

3.

Is your power supply short-circuit-protected?

4.

What do you think would happen if the + and battery terminals were
short-circuited?

5.

Did your voltmeter readings agree with the power supply meter readings?
Explain any differences.

6.

List the voltage ranges of your voltmeter.

7.

What would happen if the leads of your voltmeter were connected


backward? (Answer may vary depending on type of meter.)
Answers to Self-Test

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Electrical pressure
Cells
Wall outlet
Across
Positive
0.5 A
False
Its highest range

45

Khalil Ismailov

E X P E R I M E N T 3.2
MEASURING CURRENT
Objectives
1.

To learn how to connect a current meter into a circuit

2.

To learn how to measure current with the current meter

Basic Information
Current and the Ampere
Electric current has been mentioned previously, and by now you probably
have a good idea what it is. Electric current is the movement of charges, or
electrons, in a circuit.
In electronics it is often necessary to measure current, that is, to
determine how much current there is in a circuit. To measure current, an
ammeter, a milliammeter, or a microammeter is used.
The basic unit of measure for electric current is the ampere, represented
by the capital letter A. The ampere is a large quantity of current not often
found in low-power electronic circuits. The most frequently used measure of
current in electronics is the milliampere (mA) which is one-thousandth
(1/1000) of an ampere. In decimals, 0.001 A stands for 1 mA, 0.002 A means
2 mA, 0.013 A means 13 mA, etc. The small letter m stands for milli, which
means one-thousandth (0.001). The other unit employed in the measure of
current is the microampere (A). The microampere is one-millionth of an
ampere. In decimals 1 A is written as 0.000 001 A. In decimals 0.000010 A
equals 10 A, 0.000 016 A equals 16 A, etc. The Greek letter represents
one-millionth, or 0.000 001.
Current Exists Only in a Complete Circuit
In earlier experiments the uses of the ohmmeter and voltmeter were
studied. From the nature of the experiments, it was apparent that resistors
have resistance that can be measured directly with an ohmmeter. The quantity of ohms of resistance is not dependent on the connection of that resistor
into a circuit. The characteristic of resistance is associated with the
component itself.
Similarly, in the measurement of voltage, we saw that voltage is a
characteristic of some voltage source, and voltage can exist independently
without the need for a circuit.
46

Circuit Theory

Electric current differs from voltage and resistance. It cannot exist by itself.
A source of electrical pressure, voltage, is required to cause electric current
flow. Yet a voltage source by itself is insufficient to create current. A voltage source
and a closed (complete) circuit are required for the flow of current.
Connecting the Ammeter
Current in an electric circuit can be compared with water flow in a pipe.
If you wish to measure the amount of water flowing per second (rate), you
have to insert a flowmeter inside the pipe. In this way all the water flowing
in the pipe must pass through the flowmeter, which can then measure the
rate of water flow. So it is with the measurement of electric current. Since
current is the movement of electric charges, the circuit must be broken and
an ammeter inserted in series in the circuit. All the electric charges then
move through the ammeter, which indicates the rate of electron movement.
Fig. 3.2.1 shows the placement of the ammeter in the electric circuit.

+
A

Fig. 3.2.1. The ammeter is placed in series with the circuit

When the ammeter is placed in series with the circuit, polarity must be
observed. The common (negative) meter lead must be connected to the
more negative point (closer to the negative source) in the circuit. The hot
lead (positive) is connected to the more positive (farther from the negative/
closer to the positive) point in the circuit.
If a DMM is used, either a + or sign will appear with me readout. If it
is , the meter lead polarity is reversed. This is of no consequence because
usually the DMM can be connected either way. It does, however, tell you
which point is negative in the circuit.
CAUTION. The current meter must never be connected across (in
parallel with) any component. It must always be connected in series with the
component to measure the current moving through the device. Since there
is only one path for current in a series circuit, current is the same
everywhere in that circuit. So it does not matter where the series circuit is
broken and the ammeter inserted. Refer to Fig. 3.2.2. Failure to observe this
rule may result in serious damage to the meter. Never connect an ammeter
directly to a voltage source.
47

Khalil Ismailov

Fig. 3.2.2. The circuit is broken (between points A and B) to


insert the ammeter

When the ammeter is placed in the circuit, it should always be set to its
highest range and then switched to lower ranges, as necessary, for an
accurate reading. This will protect the meter from damages which can occur
if the meter is set to a low range and placed into a high-current circuit.
Summary
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Current is the movement of electric charges (electrons).


The basic unit of measure for current is the ampere.
A milliampere is 1/1000 (0.001) of an ampere. A microampere is 1/1000
000 (0.000 001) of an ampere.
A completed, or closed, circuit must exist before current can flow.
The current meter must be connected in series.
Always set the current meter to its highest range when you are making
measurements in an unknown circuit.
Never connect an ammeter across a power source.
Self-Test

Check your understanding of the introductory information by answering


the following questions.
1. What is current?
2. How can current exist by itself?
3. What is the symbol for ampere?
4. How many milliamperes does it take to make an ampere?
5. How is the ammeter connected to a circuit?
6. What can happen to the current meter set to a low current range if it is
placed into a high-current circuit?
Materials Required

48

DMM
Variable, low-voltage dc source
1000- resistor

Circuit Theory

Procedure
1.
2.

3.
4.

5.
6.

Draw a schematic diagram of the variable voltage source, one 1000-


resistor, and the ammeter connected in series. Mark all polarities.
Have your instructor approve the circuit drawn in step 1. Connect the
circuit, making sure the power supply is off. When you are connecting
all circuits, either leave the power supply unplugged or make sure it is
turned off until the measurements are to be made.
Make sure the current meter is set to its highest range. Turn on the
supply, and adjust the supply output to 15 V.
Measure the circuit current and record it in Table 3.2.1. Note: You will
probably have to lower the current range of your meter to make an
accurate reading. Always record the units of measure (volts, ohms, amperes,
milliamperes, etc.).
Adjust the output of the power supply to 10 V. Measure the circuit
current and record it in Table 3.2.1.
Adjust the output of the power supply to 5 V. Measure the circuit
current and record it in Table 3.2.1
Output of DC Supply
Measured circuit current

15 V

10 V

5V

Table 3.2.1. Connecting an Ammeter to Measure Current

Questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

What is the maximum amount of current your meter will measure?


The measurements in this exercise were made in what units?
Explain why you should never place a current meter across a power
supply.
Convert each of the measurements made in the exercise to amperes and
to microamperes.
Explain in detail the procedure used to connect the current meter and
to measure current.

Answers to Self-Test
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Movement of electric charges


It cannot. Voltage and a completed circuit are required.
A
1000 mA
Series
It can be damaged.
49

E X P E R I M E N T 3.3
CONTROL OF CURRENT BY RESISTANCE
Objectives
1.

To show that resistance is a means of limiting the amount of current flow

2.

To show by experiment the effect of resistance in controlling current in


a dc circuit

Basic Information
In Exp. 3.2 you studied how to measure current. You will recall that
voltage is the electrical pressure sometimes called electromotive force, or emf
which pushes or causes current in a circuit to flow. Resistance is the
opposition to this current movement. In electronic circuits, one of the
primary functions of electronic devices and components is to control circuit
current. This control may be the limiting of current flow, the switching of
current on and off, or some other type of current control. So the technician
must have a thorough knowledge of how current is controlled and must
know that direct current can be controlled by the voltage or the resistance of
a circuit. This experiment is concerned with the control of current by
resistance.

Inverse Relationships
There are many forces in nature which affect the movement of objects.
It is a natural law, for example, that dictates how valve closure in a water
line decreases water flow. Observe that if the opposition to the water flow
doubles, the water flow is cut in half. If the opposition triples (valve is
closed more), the water flow is cut to one-third. What is this relationship
between the water flow and the opposition of the valve? It is called an inverse relationship, and it deals with cause and effect, which are opposite. In
this case the cause is the increase in opposition to water flow (closing of
valve). The effect is the decrease in water flow.

Control of Current by Resistance


The same type of natural law as discussed above in relation to water
controls the behavior of current. Since resistance acts to oppose electric
current, it can be used to control current in the same way as a valve controls
water. So, you can see that if the resistance in a circuit increases, the current
decreases in proportion. For example, if the resistance doubles, the current
50

Circuit Theory

halves. If the resistance triples, the current decreases to one-third. Likewise,


if the resistance halves, the current doubles. If it is cut to one-third, current
triples.
The capital letter I (for intensity) is used to designate electric current,
just as V stands for voltage and R for resistance. There is a formula which
shows the relationship among current I, voltage V, and resistance R. It shows
the inverse relationship between I and R with a constant electrical pressure V:

I=

V
R

Summary
1.

Voltage is sometimes called electromotive force.

2.

Current can be controlled by the circuit voltage or resistance.

3.

The relationship between resistance and current is an inverse relationship.

4.

The letter I is used to designate current in electrical formula.

5.

The formula for determining current in a circuit when voltage and


resistance are known is

I=

V
R

Self-Test
Check your understanding of the introductory information by answering
the following questions.
1.

Resistance is a(n) _________ to current.

2.

When an action and a reaction are opposite, they are said to have a(n)
________ relationship.

3.

Current has what type of relationship to resistance?

4.

What are two ways to control circuit current?

5.

Give an everyday example of something which demonstrates the same


natural law that is exhibited by R and I.

Materials Required

DMM

Low-voltage, variable dc supply

Resistors: three of 1000- and one 5000- pot


51

Khalil Ismailov

Procedure
1.

Measure each resistor to be sure it is within its rated tolerance.

2.

Connect the circuit in Fig. 3.3.1. Set the power supply output to 0 V
before you turn it on. This is a good habit to acquire. You will not always be told
these things. Set the ammeter to its highest range (something else you will
not always be told), and use the meter properly, as learned earlier.

R1
15 V

1 k
A +

Fig. 3.3.1. Current measurement in a simple series circuit

3.

Turn on the power supply and adjust its output to 15 V. Measure the
circuit current and record it in Table 3.3.1.

4.

Add another 1000- resistor in series with the original resistor. Another
good habit is to turn off the power any time a change is made in a circuit. This
circuit has a voltage that is harmless, but not all circuits may be so
harmless. Form good work habits now and save yourself the shock of
having to do it later.

5.

Measure the circuit current and record it in Table 3.3.1.

6.

Add another 1000- resistor in series with the first two. Make sure the
power supply output is still 15 V. Measure the circuit current and record
it in Table 3.3.1.

7.

Place the potentiometer in series with one 1000- resistor, as shown in


Fig. 3.3.2. Note that the pot is connected as a rheostat. You may recall
that earlier we stated the purpose of a rheostat as a current limiter.

8.

Adjust the variable resistor and observe the meter. What is the effect of
changing the shaft position of the pot? Explain.

9.

Remove one end of the 1000- resistor from the circuit. Do not reconnect
the circuit. What is the circuit current with this resistor removed?
________ . Explain.

52

Circuit Theory

1 k
15 V

R1

5 k

A +

Fig. 3.3.2. variable resistor used for current control

15 V dc

Power Supply Voltage


Circuit Resistance

1 k

2 k

3 k

Measured circuit current I, mA


Table 3.3.1.Effect of Resistance on Controlling Circuit Current

Questions
1.

Adding a second resistor to the original circuit increases the circuit


resistance by _________ times. What effect did this have on the circuit
current?

2.

Explain the relationship between the amount of change in resistance


and in current between a one-resistor circuit and a three-resistor circuit.

3.

Based on the amount of current measured in the single-resistor circuit,


calculate the amount of current you should have measured in the threeresistor circuit. How do the calculated and measured values compare?
Explain any differences.

4.

What type of circuit was created by the removal of the resistor in step 9?

5.

Using the measurements of this experiment, explain what is meant by


the term inverse relationship.

Answers to Self-Test
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Opposition
Inverse
Inverse
Voltage and resistance
An airplane flying against the wind

53

Khalil Ismailov

E X P E R I M E N T 3.4
CONTROL OF CURRENT BY VOLTAGE
Objectives
1. To observe the effect of changing source voltage on circuit current
2. To measure the effect of changing source voltage on circuit current

Basic Information
The importance of controlling current by varying the resistance in an
electric circuit was discussed earlier. This experiment deals with controlling
current by changing the source voltage.

Control of Current by Voltage


Voltage is the electrical pressure which causes current to flow. If the
pressure increases, the flow increases. If the pressure is decreased, the flow
decreases. Read these last statements again, but this time think of them as
explaining the movement of water in a pipe.
Again, we see that a natural law governs the behavior of electric current
flow, just as it does other natural behaviors. This time the relationship is
direct. If we push more, we move more. Or, if we push less, we move less...
assuming the opposition (resistance) does not change. Here, voltage is
considered to be a push, since it is electrical pressure. The movement, of
course, is the flow of electric current in the circuit.
Since the relationship between voltage and current is a direct one, we
can see that if the voltage doubles, the current doubles. Or if the voltage is
cut in half, the current is cut in half. This relationship (law) and other circuit relationships are often used in analyzing circuit performance to
troubleshoot defective equipment.

Summary
1.
2.
3.

The relationship between voltage and current is a direct one.


Increasing voltage causes increasing current.
Decreasing voltage causes decreasing current.

Self-Test
Check your understanding of the introductory information by answering
the following questions.
1. Name two ways of controlling current.
2. Circuit current flow is caused by the push provided by the ____________.
54

Circuit Theory

3.
4.

The relationship between V and I is __________ .


Doubling the source voltage causes what effect?
Materials Required

DMM
Low-voltage, variable power supply
Resistor of 1000-
Procedure

1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Draw the schematic diagram of a series circuit containing a single 1000 resistor, a power supply, and a current meter. Have your instructor
check the drawing.
Connect the circuit drawn in step 1.
Adjust the power supply to 5 V. Measure the circuit current and record
it in Table 3.4.1.
Increase the voltage to 10 V. Measure the circuit current and record it in
Table 3.4.1.
Increase the voltage to 15 V. Measure the circuit current and record it in
Table 3.4.1.
The voltage in step 4 is double the voltage in step 3. What should the
current be in the step 4 circuit? ________ mA
The voltage in step 5 is triple the voltage in step 3. What should the
current be in the step 5 circuit? ________ mA
5V

Source Voltage

10 V

15 V

Measured circuit current I, mA


Table 3.4.1. Effect of Voltage on Controlling Current

Questions
1.
2.
3.

1.
2.

Were your measurements in steps 4 and 5 the same as the step 6 and 7
calculations? Explain.
What kind of relationship did the experiment prove to exist between V
and I?
From what you have learned in this exercise, explain why 240 V applied
to a 220-V light bulb will cause it to have a shorter life.
Answers to Self-Test
Resistance and voltage
Source voltage

3.
4.

Direct
The current will also double.
55

EXPERIMENT

CT-4

OHMS LAW
AND THE SERIES
CIRCUITS

E X P E R I M E N T 4.1
OHMS LAW
Objectives
1.
2.

To learn the relationship among R, V, and I.


To experimentally prove the mathematical relationship among V, I, and R.

Basic Information
We have established that there is a relationship among resistance,
current, and voltage. The relationship between resistance and current is an
inverse one. If the resistance increases, the current decreases. The relationship
between voltage and current is direct. If the voltage increases, the current
increases also.
In a closed DC circuit containing a resistance R and a voltage source V
(Fig. 4.1.1), the current will increase if the voltage is increased or decrease if the
voltage is decreased as long as the resistance does not change. Also, in a
closed DC circuit with R and V, we know I will decrease if R is increased or I
will increase if R is decreased as long as V does not change.

Ohms Law
These relationships are important, but up to this point they have been
explained in a very general manner. Frequently we need to know specifically
the number of ohms, amperes, or volts in a circuit. Of course, we can use a
meter. But suppose we do not know what amount is correct for the circuit. The
56

Circuit Theory

correct amounts can be computed so we can know whether the amount


measured is correct or whether there is a fault in the circuit. It is possible to
make these calculations because a quantitative relationship exists among V, R,
and I. A quantitative relationship is one in which specific numbers are used
instead of words, such as increase and decrease. A quantitative statement of a
relationship not only states what changes occur but also tells us by how much.
Developed by George Simon Ohm, the quantitative relationship among V, R,
and I is called Ohms law:

I=

V
R

This formula states that the current, in amperes, in a resistive circuit


equals the applied voltage, in volts, divided by the circuit resistance, in ohms.
Ohms law is simple, requiring only division or multiplication to calculate the
unknown quantity.
Ohms law can be written in any one of three ways depending on which
of the quantities is unknown:

I=

V
R

R=

V
I

V = IR

Ohms law allows us to find an unknown value if any two of the elements
of the law are known. We just found an unknown current. Similarly, if the
voltage is not known but R and I are known, then V can be calculated. For this
we would use the formula V = I R. Again refer to Fig. 4.1.1. Assume that the
voltage is unknown, but I = 1 A and R = 10 . Then V= 1 A 10 = 10 V.

R1

I
V

Fig. 4.1.1. A simple closed DC circuit

R2
R3

A +

R4

Fig. 4.1.2. Four resistors in series

When formulas for Ohms law are used, all values must be expressed in
volts, ohms, and amperes. Your measurements will probably be in volts, ohms,
and milliamperes. Thus the milliampere measurements must be changed to
amperes before they are used in the formula.
57

Khalil Ismailov

Verifying RT of Series-Connected Resistors by Ohms Law


Assume a measured amount of voltage V is applied to series-connected
resistors R1, R2, R3, and R4, as shown in Fig. 4.1.2. By measuring the circuit
current I with the ammeter A and substituting the values for V and I in
Ohms law, we find RT:

RT =

V
I

Now, by adding the values of R1, R2, etc., we can show that the computed
value of RT, using Ohms law, is the same as adding the individual resistors:

RT = R 1 + R 2 + R 3 +
Self-Test
Check your understanding of the introductory information by answering
the following questions.
1.

The formula for finding an unknown V in a closed circuit when R and I


are known is V = ____.

2.

In a circuit with a 15 V source and three 1000 resistors in series, the


current is ______ A.

3.

What is the RT of a circuit with a 15 V source and 7.5 mA of current?

4.

_________ is a statement of the relationship among V, R, and I in a


closed DC circuit.

5.

What units of measure are used in the Ohms law formulas?

Materials Required

DMM
Power supply: variable, voltage-regulated

Resistors: two of 1000

Procedure
1.

Measure the resistance of the 1000 resistor. Record this value in Table
4.1.1.

2.

Connect the circuit shown in Fig. 4.1.3.

3.

Adjust the power supply for a 15 V output as measured by the DMM.


Record this value in Table 4.1.1.

4.

Measure the circuit current and record it in Table 4.1.1.

58

Circuit Theory

5.

Using the measured values for V, R, and I, calculate V, R, and I by


Ohms law. Record the calculated values in Table 4.1.1.
Example. To calculate V, use the measured values of R and I and the
formula V = IR.

6.

Repeat steps 1 through 5 with the power supply set to 30 V. Record all
measurements and calculations in Table 4.1.2.

7.

Repeat steps 1 through 5 for the circuit of Fig. 4.1.4. Record all measurements and calculations in Table 4.1.3. When you are measuring V,
measure across both resistors.

15 V

R
1 k

15 V

A +

A +

Fig. 4.1.3 A simple DC series circuit


with R and V given

Measured Values
V

R1
1 k

R2
1 k

Fig. 4.1.4. A DC series circuit with


two resistors

Calculated Values
I

I=

V
R

V=IR

R=

V
I

R=

V
I

R=

V
I

Table 4.1.1. Verifying Ohms Law: Steps 1 to 5


Measured Values
V

Calculated Values
I

I=

V
R

V=IR

Table 4.1.2. Verifying Ohms Law: Step 6


Measured Values
V

Calculated Values
I

I=

V
R

V=IR

Table 4.1.3. Verifying Ohms Law: Step 7

59

Khalil Ismailov

Questions
1.

How do the measured and calculated values compare? Are they within
meter tolerances?
Is the voltage across a resistor directly or indirectly proportional to the
current through it?
In step 6 the voltage was increased from 15 to 30 V. The resistance
remained unchanged. Did the results of your measurements and
calculations for this step confirm Ohms law? Explain.
In step 7, two resistors were used. Did your calculation of RT equal the
sum of the two resistors?
Explain Ohms law in your own words

2.
3.

4.
5.

Answers to Self-Test
1. IR
2. 0.005 A
3. 2000

4. Ohms law
5. Volts, amperes, ohms.

E X P E R I M E N T 4.2
SERIES RESISTIVE VOLTAGE DIVIDER (UNLOADED)
Objectives
1.

To prove, by experiment, that the voltage across a resistor in a series


circuit is

VR1 =

R1
V
RT

2.

To prove that the voltage across a series resistance is directly


proportional to the resistance.

3.

To prove that a potentiometer performs the function of a variable


voltage divider

Basic Information
Voltage Drops Across Series-Connected Resistors
When resistors are connected in series and a voltage source is applied
across the resistors, the total voltage of the source is divided among the
60

Circuit Theory

resistors. No matter how many resistors are in series, each resistor will have
a voltage drop across it that is in direct proportion to its resistance.

Ratio Method for Determining Voltage


Perhaps the simplest method of calculating the voltage drop across a
resistor is the ratio method. In this method a ratio is set up between one
resistor of the series circuit and the total resistance of the circuit. As an
example, in Fig. 4.2.1 the total resistance is 10 000 and R1 is 2000 . The
ratio of R1 to RT is 2000 to 10 000. Put as a fraction, this means that R1 is
2000/10 000 of the total resistance RT. If this is simplified, RT is two-tenths,
or 0.2, of the total resistance. Since resistance and voltage in a series circuit
are directly proportional, 0.2 of the applied voltage will appear across R1. In
this case, 0.2 30 V = 6 V, and this is the voltage across Rl.
Resistor R2 is 0.3 of RT, so 0.3 of the applied voltage, or 9 V, will appear
across R2. How much voltage should be measured across R3?
The formula used in the ratio method of calculating series voltage drops is

VR1 =

R1
VT
RT

In some instances the formula is not needed since it is often a simple matter
to do the calculations mentally.

R1
2000

30 V

R2
3000

R3
5000

Fig. 4.2.1. A series-resistive voltage divider

The formula used in the ratio method of calculating series voltage drops is

VR1 =

R1
VT
RT

In some instances the formula is not needed since it is often a simple


matter to do the calculations mentally.
61

Khalil Ismailov

Sum of the Voltage Drops in a Series Circuit


Another method for determining the voltage drop across a series resistor
was explained earlier. This was V1 = I R1. Here, the current through the
resistor in amperes is multiplied by the resistance in ohms to give the
voltage drop across the resistor. If this were done for each resistor in a series
circuit and the voltages were added, then the sum would be the same as the
applied voltage. The sum of all the voltage drops of a series circuit must
equal the applied voltage. It could not add to a value less than the source
voltage, for this would mean that some of the source voltage was not being
used.
By the same reasoning, the sum of the individual voltage drops cannot
exceed the source voltage. If it did, it would mean that some extra voltage
was acquired somewhere. This is not possible unless another source is
placed in the circuit.
Regardless of the method used to calculate voltage drops in the series
circuit, the addition of the individual voltage drops equals the source
voltage. For this reason a series of resistors is often called a voltage divider.
The source voltage is divided among the resistors of the circuit.
Sometimes the voltage divider is used to supply a particular voltage to a
component or circuit; if so, it is called a loaded voltage divider. A loaded
voltage divider is shown in Fig. 4.2.2. If the voltage divider is not used to
supply voltage for the operation of a component or circuit, it is referred to as
an unloaded voltage divider. This experiment deals with the unloaded circuit
shown in Fig. 4.2.3.

100 V

91 V
100 V
9V

Transistor
radio

Fig. 4.2.2. A loaded voltage divider.


The transistor radio is the load

R1
91 V
R2
9V

Fig. 4.2.3. An unloaded


voltage divider

Potentiometer as a Voltage Divider


A potentiometer is often used as a voltage divider. In fact, the volume
control of most radios is such a circuit.
62

Circuit Theory

To understand how the pot works as a voltage divider, assume it to be


two separate resistors connected in series, as in Fig. 4.2.3. The variable arm
of the pot is actually the point where R1 and R2 are connected. Why use a
potentiometer? Because by using the pot, the ratio of the resistances to each
other and to the total resistance can be changed. This makes it very useful
for dividing the supply voltage and for making the voltage division variable.

Self-Test
Check your understanding of the introductory information by
answering the following questions.
1. If the resistors in Fig. 4.2.1 had their positions exchanged, would their
voltage drops change?
2. A voltage divider can be made variable by adding a(n) _________ to the
circuit.
3. In a circuit with three 1000 resistors in series across a 30 V source,
what is the voltage across each resistor?
4. In a circuit with one 1500 resistor and one 1000 resistor in series
across a 25 V source, the voltage across the 1500 resistor is ________ V.

Materials Required

DMM
Power supply: variable, low voltage, regulated
Resistors, one each, 2200, 3300 and 4700 ; 10 k pot.

Procedure
Connect the circuit shown in Fig. 4.2.4. Set the power supply output to
10 V. Measure this voltage with the DMM and record it in Table 4.2.1.
1. Measure the voltage across each resistor and record the values in Table
4.2.1.
2. Calculate the voltage drops, using the ratio method. Record them in
Table 4.2.1.
3. Add the measured voltage drops to find the total volt age. Record it in
Table 4.2.1.
4. Exchange the positions of R1 and R3. Measure the voltage drop across R1
and R3. Did changing their position in the circuit change their voltage
drops?
63

Khalil Ismailov
R1
2200

10 V

R3
4700

R2
3300

Fig. 4.2.4. A series voltage


divider (unloaded)

Power
Supply
V

Voltage
Calculated
Across:
R2
R3
R1

10 V

V2
10 k
V1

Fig. 4.2.5. A potentiometer voltage


divider (unloaded)

Voltage
Measured
Across:
R1
R2
R3

Sum of
Measured
Voltage
Drops VT

Table 4.2.1. Unloaded Series Voltage Divider

Variable Resistor Voltage Divider


5.

Connect the circuit in Fig. 4.2.5. Adjust the power supply for a 10 V
output as measured with a DMM.

6.

Attach one voltmeter lead to the negative end terminal of the pot and
the other to the center terminal. Be sure to observe correct lead polarity.

7.

Adjust the pot until the voltmeter reads 3 V. This is voltage V1. Now,
move the voltmeter leads to read the voltage V2: V2 =______ V.

8.

Add the measured voltage drops across the pot. VT = __________ V. Is


this equal to the supply voltage? ___________

9.

Repeat steps 7 to 9 with other settings of the pot and with other source
voltage until you understand how the potentiometer is used as a voltage
divider.

Questions
1.
2.
3.
64

Were your calculated and measured values equal? Explain any difference.
Give a law explaining the behavior of voltage across the pot regardless of
its setting.
What is meant by a loaded voltage divider?

Circuit Theory

4.

Refer to Fig. 4.2.5. Explain the effect on circuit current as the pot arm is
moved.

5.

In your own words, explain why the voltage drops in a series circuit
equal the source voltage.

6.

Using Ohm's law, calculate the voltage drops across each resistor in Fig.
4.2.4. Show your work.

7.

Are the voltages calculated in question 6 the same as those calculated by


the ratio method in Table 4.2.1. Explain any differences.

Answers to Self-Test
1. No
2. Variable resistor

3. 10 V
4. 15 V.

65

EXPERIMENT

CT-5

THE PARALLEL
CIRCUITS

E X P E R I M E N T 5.1
CURRENT IN THE PARALLEL CIRCUIT
Objectives
1.

To prove by experiment that the total current of the parallel circuit is


equal to the sum of the branch currents

2.

To prove by experiment that the total current of a parallel circuit is


greater than the current in any branch circuit

Basic Information
Branch Currents
You have previously learned the following facts about series circuits:
1.

Current flow stops when the circuit is opened.

2.

Current is the same throughout the circuit.

3.

Voltage drops add to equal the source voltage.

4.

The sum of all the resistors in the circuit is RT.


The characteristics of the parallel circuit are very much different.

Fig. 5.1.1 shows three resistors connected in parallel. If the line


connecting the battery to the resistors is broken and an ammeter is connected
as seen in Fig. 5.1.2. IT will be measured. This is the total, or line, current
drawn by all three resistors.
66

Circuit Theory

R1

R2

R3

R1

R2

R3

A
Fig. 5.1.1. Parallel resistive circuit
Fig. 5.1.2. Measurement of IT

A simple experiment will show an important characteristic of the


parallel circuit. In Fig. 5.1.2, if R1 is removed from the circuit, the line
current measured by the ammeter will decrease. If R2 is also removed, the
line current decreases further. What remains is a simple series circuit of R3,
V, and the ammeter. The line current is now the current drawn by R3. This
current may be computed directly by Ohms law.
The results of this experiment prove that in Figs. 5.1.1 and 5.1.2 there
are, indeed, three complete paths for current flow: Rl, R2, and R3. Each of
these individual paths is called a branch, or leg, of the parallel circuit.
One characteristic of a parallel resistive circuit is that the total current IT
in the circuit is greater than the current in any branch. This also means that
each branch current is less than the total, or line, current.

Total Current in the Parallel Circuit


The total current in a parallel circuit can be calculated in two ways. One
method is to calculate the current in each branch by Ohms law and add
these currents. Because the resistors are connected at each end, they will all
have the same voltage drop. Therefore, for the current in a branch circuit, the
Ohms law formula I = V/R uses the circuit voltage and the branch
resistance.
The second method of calculating current in a parallel circuit is to
measure or calculate the total resistance and then use Ohms law. For this
problem, Ohms law takes the form

IT =

VT
RT
67

Khalil Ismailov

A simple experiment can prove that the sum of the branch currents is
the total current. A circuit such as the one in Fig. 5.1.3 can be connected
and the total current measured at point A. The branch currents can be measured at points B, C, and D. Add the measured values of the branch
currents. The sum of these branch currents should be the same as the total
current measured at point A.

R1
B

R2
C

R3
D

A
Fig. 5.1.3. Branch current measurements in the parallel resistive circuit

Summary
1.
2.
3.

If a branch leg of a parallel circuit is opened, only the branch current


will cease.
The total current in the parallel circuit is the sum of all the branch
currents.
All branch legs of a parallel circuit have the same voltage drop.
Self-Test

Check your understanding of the introductory information by answering


the following questions.
1. In a parallel resistive circuit each of the individual branch currents is
________ (more, less) than the total current.
2. In Fig. 5.1.1 the currents are 2, 3, and 4 A. What is the total line
current?
3. The voltage across each branch of the parallel circuit must be _________.
4. A parallel circuit represents _________ more than one) current path.
Materials Required

68

DMM
Power supply: low-voltage, variable, regulated
Resistors, one each, 2200, 3300, and 4700

Circuit Theory

Procedure
1.

Measure the resistance of each resistor in Fig. 5.1.4. Record the values
in Table 5.1.1. Connect the resistors in parallel and measure RT. Record
it in Table 5.1.1.

2.

Connect the circuit of Fig. 5.1.4. Adjust the power supply output for 15 V.

3.

Measure IT and record it in Table 5.1.1.

4.

Now measure and record in Table 5.1.1 the current in each branch
circuit.

5.

Use Ohms law to calculate IT, Use the measured values of RT and the
source voltage. Record the result of your calculation in Table 5.1.1.

6.

Use Ohms law to calculate the current in each branch circuit. Use the
measured values of R and the source voltage. Record the results in Table
5.1.1.

7.

Calculate IT by adding the individually calculated branch currents.


Record IT in Table 5.1.1.

15 V

R1

R2

R3

Fig. 5.1.4. Experimental circuit

Resistors
Measured
resistances,
Measured
currents, mA

R1, 2200

R2, 3300

R3, 4700

RT

IT =
IT = I1+I2+I3

Calculated
currents, mA

IT=V/RT
Table 5.1.1. Parallel-Circuit Measurements

69

Khalil Ismailov

Questions
1. How do the measured branch currents compare with the calculated
branch currents?
2.

How does the total measured current compare with the total calculated
current?

3.

What is the effect on total current in parallel circuits of (a) increasing


the number of resistors in parallel, (b) decreasing the number of
resistors in parallel?

4.

What is the result of opening one of the parallel branches?

5.

Contrast series-circuit rules with parallel-circuit rules.

Answers to Self-Test
1. Less
2. 9 A

3. The same voltage


4. More than one

E X P E R I M E N T 5.2
TOTAL RESISTANCE OF
PARALLEL-CONNECTED RESISTORS
Objectives
1.

To verify by experiment that RT of parallel circuits is RT = VT/IT

2.

To verify by experiment that RT of parallel circuits equals


1
1
1
1
=
+
+
+ and that in a circuit containing two parallel
R T R1 R 2 R 3
resistors R1 and R2, R T =

R1 R 2
R1 + R 2

Basic Information
Earlier you measured parallel resistances with the ohmmeter. Therefore,
parts of this unit will be a review. In this experiment, however, you will see
the relationship among parallel resistors, circuit voltage, and circuit current.
You will use Ohms law for parallel circuit calculations, as you have in series
circuits.
70

Circuit Theory

Total Resistance in a Parallel Circuit


If a voltage source such as a battery is connected to a circuit, it sees
the total resistance of the circuit. It is this total resistance, or opposition,
which limits the current in the circuit. This is true whether the currents
split into parallel branches or are held in one series path inside the circuit.
Since the total resistance RT limits the current in the circuit, a single
resistor with the value of RT can be used to replace all the resistors in the
circuit. If this replacement resistor has the same value as the RT of the
previous circuit, it will hold the circuit current to the same value. We say
that the single resistor is the equivalent of the resistive network it replaces.
Fig. 5.2.1 shows three resistors connected in parallel with an applied voltage
V. Fig. 5.2.2 shows the equivalent circuit of a single resistor connected to the
voltage source.

IT
10 mA

IT
10 mA
Y
Fig. 5.2.1. A parallel resistive circuit

Fig. 5.2.2. Resistive circuit equivalent


to the circuit in Fig. 5.2.1

Measuring RT of Parallel Resistors


The value of RT for any parallel resistive network may be measured by
placing an ohmmeter across the network (points X and Y, Fig. 5.2.1).
NOTE: Remember to use the rules for proper use of the ohmmeter.
Remove any power source and other circuits which might cause an incorrect
reading or meter damage before you connect the meter.

Calculating RT by Ohms Law


Now RT may be calculated by measuring IT, measuring VT applied to the
circuit, and using Ohms law. The formula is the same as for finding a single
resistance except total current and total voltage are used:

RT =

VT
IT
71

Khalil Ismailov

RT Smaller Than the Smallest Branch Resistance


In a previous experiment we found that the total current IT in a parallel
circuit was greater than any individual branch current. Also current and
resistance have an inverse relationship. That is, the smaller the resistance,
the greater the current. So we can conclude that since the total current in a
parallel circuit is greater than any branch current, the total resistance must
be smaller than the smallest branch resistance.
The fact that the RT of a parallel circuit is smaller than the resistance of
the smallest branch circuit can be shown by experiment. Suppose a circuit is
connected which consists of a source of 10 V and a resistor of 10 . According to Ohms law, the circuit current is 1 A. Now suppose another
resistor of 5 is placed in the circuit in parallel with the 10 resistor. The
circuit will now look like the one in Fig. 5.2.3. Remember that the voltage
across the parallel circuit is the same voltage. Now, according to Ohms law,
the current through this resistor is 2 A. Now IT is 3 A because the 10-V
source must supply each branch circuit with the amount of current permitted by the branch resistance. Since more current is now coming from the
source, it would seem reasonable that the total resistance has decreased. The
formula for finding the total resistance, RT = VT/IT proves that RT is less than
the smallest branch resistance. Substitute 10 for VT (the source voltage) in
the formula and 3 for IT, The result is 3.3 , which is less than the smallest
branch resistance of 5 . The equivalent of this circuit would be one 3.3
resistor connected to a 10 V source. According to Ohms law, the current in
this equivalent circuit would be 3 A, the same as that in the parallel circuit.
+
10 V

1A
10

2A
5

IT=3 A
Fig. 5.2.3. A simple parallel circuit

Calculating RT by Parallel Resistance Formula


A third method for finding the RT of parallel-connected resistors
requires knowing the value of each resistor in the circuit. Nothing else is
needed; that is, we do not need to know the voltage source or circuit
current. We calculate RT just from the values of the resistors, using the
formula
72

Circuit Theory

1
1
1
1
=
+
+
+
R T R1 R 2 R 3
A second formula

RT =

R1 R 2
R1 + R 2

can be used if there are only two parallel resistors. This formula is sometimes
easier to use than the reciprocal formula. If more than two resistors are in
parallel, calculate the RT of the first two resistors. Then use this RT as R1 and
the value of another resistor in the circuit as R2. The new value of RT will be
the value of the three resistors. The process can be continued until all
resistance pairs have been calculated and the true total resistance is known.

Measuring Individual Resistances in a Parallel Circuit


Since measuring across a parallel network will result in RT of the network,
individual resistances cannot be measured by placing the ohmmeter across
the circuit. We can measure an individual resistor in a parallel circuit only by
disconnecting it from the circuit. The resistor does not have to be totally
removed from the circuit. It is necessary to remove only one end from the
circuit, since this keeps one ohmmeter lead from making a connection with
the other resistors. It thus prevents measuring their combined resistances.

Using Parallel Circuits as a Single Resistor


Often we are making tests on faulty equipment, a resistor will be
needed which is not readily available. To complete the test, often we will
make the required resistance by using a potentiometer, by connecting
resistors in series, or by paralleling resistors. It is a simple matter to make
some resistances in this way. For example, if a 500 resistor is required,
two 1000 resistors may be connected in parallel. But some values are
more difficult to make. For those, a formula is used:

Ru =

Rk Re
Rk Re

Here Ru is the unknown resistance needed to be placed in parallel with


an available resistance to make the desired value. Rk is the available value,
and Re is the value to be made by the combination.
For example, assume a 10 k resistor is available and a resistance of 8
k is needed. Using our formula, we can calculate the resistor needed to
create an RT of 8 k when it is in parallel with the available 10 k resistor:
73

Khalil Ismailov

Ru =

R k R e 10 8 80
=
=
= 40 k
R k R e 10 8 2

We can see that a 40 k resistor must be connected in parallel with the


available 10 k resistor. Now, since 40 k is not a standard value, it must
be made also. Do this by wiring four 10 k resistors in series.
Although the proper resistance can be made by the above method, this
type of wiring procedure is not recommended except as a short-term
solution to a problem. Once the fabricated resistor is used to complete the
tests and the circuit using it is found to be working again, the proper resistor
should be located and used.

Summary
1. The total resistance of a parallel circuit is less than the smallest parallel
branch resistance.
2. The total resistance of a parallel circuit can be found with the ohmmeter
or by use of Ohms law calculations.
3. The total parallel circuit resistance can be calculated by use of resistances
only, by using the formula

1
1
1
1
=
+
+
+
R T R1 R 2 R 3
or

RT =

R1 R 2
R1 + R 2

4. The total parallel circuit resistance can be found by using the total circuit
current and voltage:

RT =

VT
IT

5. To measure resistance in the parallel circuit, the resistor being measured


must have one end removed from the circuit.
6. Resistors can be connected in parallel to create a needed resistance
value. A formula used to find the value of resistance to parallel with
another to create a specific resistance value is

Ru =
74

Rk Re
Rk Re

Circuit Theory

Self-Test
Check your understanding of the introductory information by answering
the following questions.
1. In Fig. 5.2.1, with IT = 0.02 A and V = 50 V, what is RT? __________
2. For the conditions in question 1, the voltage across each resistor in the
circuit is ______ V. Explain how you arrived at the solution.
3. What resistance would be placed in parallel with a 1-k resistor to give
an RT of 500 ? _______ .
4. What is the RT of a parallel circuit containing three resistors of 2200,
1000, and 4700 ? RT= _______ .
5. Explain the procedure for measuring a single resistor in a parallel circuit.
6. What are three ways to find RT?

Materials Required

DMM
Power supply: variable, low-voltage, regulated
Resistors, one each, 2200, 3300, and 4700

Procedure
1.
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Measure the resistance of each of the resistors, and record their values
in Table 5.2.1.
In Table 5.2.2 the resistors are to be arranged in two combinations.
Combination 1 requires that the 2200 and 3300 resistors be
connected in parallel. Combination 2 has all three resistors connected in
parallel. Connect each combination, measure RT, and record each value
in Table 5.2.2.
Compute RT by the parallel resistance formula, and record the value in
Table 5.2.2.
Connect the circuit in Fig. 5.2.4.
Measure IT and record the value in Table 5.2.3.
Measure the voltage across the parallel circuit, and record the value in
Table 5.2.3.
Use Ohms law to compute RT, and record the value in Table 5.4.
Rate Value,
Measured Value

2200

3300

4700

Table 5.2.1. Resistor Values

75

Khalil Ismailov
Parallel
Combination
1
2

Rated Value,
R2
R3
R1
2200
3300
2200
3300
4700

Measured
Value RT

Computed
Value RT

Table 5.2.2. RT of Parallel Resistors

Measured V

Measured IT

Computed RT

Table 5.2.3. RT by Ohms Law

10 V

R1
2200

R2
3300

Fig. 5.2.4. Experimental circuit

Questions
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.

What is the effect on the RT of a parallel circuit of (a) increasing the


number of parallel resistors and (b) decreasing the number of parallel
resistors?
Justify your answer to question 1 by referring specifically to the
measurements recorded in Table 5.2.2.
Do your measured values of RT equal all the computed values? Explain
any differences.
Do the results of the experiment prove the formulas used to calculate RT?
What three methods did you use to find RT in this exercise?

Answers to Self-Test
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
76

2500
Source voltage of 50 V. It is not necessary to calculate this voltage since
each parallel resistor is connected directly to the source.
1000
600
Disconnect one end of the resistor, and use the ohmmeter in the normal
manner.

1
1
1
1
R R2
V
=
+
+
+ ; R T = 1
; RT = T
R1 + R 2
IT
R T R1 R 2 R 3

EXPERIMENT

SERIESPARALLEL
CIRCUITS

CT-6

E X P E R I M E N T 6.1
CHARACTERISTICS OF
SERIES-PARALLEL CIRCUITS, I
Objectives
1.
2.

To calculate the total resistance of a series-parallel circuit


To experimentally prove the law for RT of the series parallel circuit

Basic Information
Finding RT of a Series-Parallel Network
Fig. 6.1.1 shows a series-parallel, or combination, circuit consisting of
two series resistors and two parallel resistors. All current entering the circuit
must pass through R1. Resistor R1 is in series. Likewise, all current leaving
the circuit must pass through R4. It, too, is a series resistor. But when the
current comes to point B, it splits with a portion going through R2 and the
rest going through R3. Because there is more than one path for current flow
between points B and C, that part of the circuit is parallel.
R2
A

R1

R4

R3
Fig. 6.1.1. A series-parallel circuit

77

Khalil Ismailov

What is the RT between points A and D? Obviously we can measure RT


with an ohmmeter, or RT can be found by Ohms law, RT = V/IT.

Finding RT by Use of Series and Parallel Resistor Formulas


It is also possible to calculate the total resistance of a combination
circuit by using both series and parallel resistor formulas. As an example,
see Fig. 6.1.2. Step 1 in solving for RT is to combine all resistors which are in
series with each other by using the series formula RT = R1 + R2 + R3 +
to give the equivalent resistance of the series components. In Fig. 6.1.2,
resistors R6 and R7 are in series. They are added to give the equivalent
resistance R6-7, which replaces R6 and R7, as seen in Fig. 6.1.3. The only
difference in Figs. 6.1.2 and 6.1.3 is that in Fig. 6.1.3 R6 and R7 have been
replaced by their equivalent resistance.
Step 2 is to combine all resistors which are in parallel with each other.
Here the parallel formulas are used to give the equivalent resistance of each
parallel network. For example, in Fig. 6.1.4 let R2-3 be a resistor equal to the
equivalent resistance of parallel resistors R2 and R3. Similarly, R5-6-7 is the
equivalent resistance of parallel resistors R5 and R6-7.
R2

R5

R1

R4

R8

R3

R6

R7

Fig. 6.1.2. A complex series-parallel circuit

Step 3 is to redraw Fig. 6.1.3 and replace each parallel network with its
equivalent resistance. When this is done, a simple series circuit results, as
shown in Fig. 6.1.4.
Step 4 is to add all the series resistances in Fig. 6.1.4 to get RT. The
result is a single equivalent resistance attached to a power source, illustrated
in Fig. 6.1.5. The total resistances of the circuits in Figs. 6.1.2 and 6.1.5 are
the same. The circuit currents are also the same.
R2
R1

R5
R4

R3

R8

R6,7

Fig. 6.1.3. Step 1 in the simplification of Fig. 6.1,2

78

Circuit Theory

R1

R2,3

R4

R5,6,7

R8

Fig. 6.1.4. Steps 2 and 3 in the simplification of Fig. 6.1.2

R4
Fig. 6.1.5. Final equivalent circuit of Fig. 6.1.2

Summary
1.
2.

3.

Combination circuits have both series and parallel components.


To find the total resistance of a combination circuit, it is necessary to
change series resistors to a single equivalent resistance and parallel
resistances to a single equivalent resistance.
When series and parallel resistances have been changed to equivalent
resistances, these equivalent resistors will be in series. Then the total
resistance is found by adding the series equivalent resistors.

Self-Test
Check your understanding of the introductory information by answering
the following questions.
1. In Fig. 6.1.1, R1 = 120 , R2 = 270 , R3 = 330 , and R4 = 470 .
What is RT? _______ .
2. Which formula is used to find the equivalent resistance between points
B and C in Fig. 6.1.1?
3. Another name for a series-parallel circuit is a(n) __________ circuit.
4. Define equivalent resistance.

Materials Required

DMM

Resistors, one each, 330, 470, 560, 1200, 2200, 3300, and 4700 and 10 k

Procedure
1.
2.

Measure the resistance of each of the resistors and record its value in
Table 6.1.1.
Connect the circuit of Fig. 6.1.6, using the resistance values shown in
Table 6.1.1.
79

Khalil Ismailov

3.
4.
5.
6.

Calculate the equivalent resistance of the parallel networks between


points A and B and points C and D. Record your answers in Table 6.1.2.
Measure the resistance of the same parallel networks, and record your
measured values in Table 6.1.2.
Calculate RT and record the value in Table 6.1.2.
Measure RT and record the value in Table 6.1.2.
R2
R1

R5
B

R3

R4

D
R6

R8

R7

Fig. 6.1.6. Experimental circuit

Rated
Value
Measured
Value

R1
330

R2
470

R3
R4
R5
R6
R7
R8
560 1200 2200 3300 4700 10 k

Table 6.1.1. Measured Resistor Values

Network
A-B
C-D
RT

Computed Value

Measured Value

TABLE 6.1.2. Experimental Measurements and Calculations

Questions
1. To measure the resistance between points C and D, is it necessary to
2.
3.

break the circuit? Explain.


Were the measured and computed values in Table 6.1.2 equal? Explain
why or why not.
Is there a single law for finding RT of a combination circuit? Explain
your answer.

Answers to Self-Test
1.
2.
3.
4.
80

738.5
Either I/RT = 1/R1 + 1/R2 or RT = R1 R2/(R1 + R2)
Combination
That resistance which can be substituted for an entire resistor network

Circuit Theory

E X P E R I M E N T 6.2
CHARACTERISTICS OF
SERIES-PARALLEL CIRCUITS, II
Objectives
1.
2.

To prove by experiment that the same voltage is dropped across each


branch of a parallel circuit
To prove by experiment that the voltage drop across a parallel circuit is
the same as that across its equivalent resistance

Basic Information
Voltage Across Each Leg of a Parallel Circuit
It has been pointed out earlier that the same voltage is measured across
parallel branch circuits. We prove this point in the following experiment.
Consider the circuit of Fig. 6.2.1. Between points B and D, R2 is in
parallel with the series-connected combination of R4 and R5. To find the
voltage across R2, we measure across it, or we measure between points B
and D. To determine the voltage across the series combination of R4 and R5,
we also measure across them or, again, between points B and D. Moreover,
if we wished to measure the voltage across the parallel circuit consisting of
R2, R4, and R5, we would again measure between points B and D. Because
the legs of the parallel circuit are joined by common connections at points B
and D, the voltage across the two legs, or branches, is the same.
The voltage drop across a parallel circuit may be calculated by multiplying
the total current in the parallel circuit by its equivalent resistance. The
formula is

V = IT R e
R2
R1

D
R4

R3

R5

Fig. 6.2.1. Series-parallel resistive network

Also, given that the voltage across each branch circuit is the same, if a
branch voltage is found, the parallel circuit voltage is found as well. The
81

Khalil Ismailov

branch current and the resistance of the branch can be used to find the
branch voltage drop. The formula is

VB = IBRB
Summary
1.

Combination circuits are a combination of series and parallel components.

2.

Series circuit components are treated as any series circuit. Voltage,


current, and resistance behavior is the same as for a simple series circuit.

3.

Parallel circuit components are treated as any parallel circuit. Voltage,


current, and resistance behavior is the same as for a simple parallel
circuit.

Self Test
Check your understanding of the introductory information by answering
the following questions.
1. Measuring the voltage across a branch circuit is the same as measuring
the voltage across ____________________ .
2. In a parallel circuit, the voltage across each branch circuit is __________.
3. In Fig. 6.2.2, the voltage across R2 is ________ V.
4. Resistors R3 and R4 in Fig. 6.2.2 have equal voltage drops because they
are in a parallel branch circuit (true/false).
5. Explain your answer to question 4.

Materials Required

DMM
Power supply: variable, low-voltage, regulated
Resistors, one each, 330, 470, 1200, 2200, and 3300

Procedure
1.
2.

3.
4.

82

Connect the circuit of Fig. 6.2,3.


Measure the voltage across R1, R2, R5, and the series combination of R3
and R4. Also measure the voltage across points B and D. Record your
measurements in Table 6.2.1.
Measure and record the current through R2:________ mA. Use this
current value to calculate the voltage drop across R2: ________ V.
Measure and record the total circuit current: ________ mA. Use this
current value to calculate the voltage across B and D: ________ V.

Circuit Theory

R2
10 k

R1
1 k

R4
R5
5 k 5 k
Vs
25 V

+
Re =

R 2 (R 3 + R 4 ) 10 k 10 k
=
= 5 k
R 2 + (R 3 + R 4 ) 10 k + 10 k

RT = R1 + Re = 1 k + 5 k = 6 k
R1
1k
25
. VR =
Vs =
25 =
= 4.167 V
1
6
R1 + R e
1k+5 k
VR3,4 = Vs VR1 = 25 4.167 = 20.83 V
VR 3, 4
20.83
I R 3, 4 =
=
= 2 mA
R 3 + R 4 10 k
IR3 = IR4 (They are in series)
Fig. 6.2.2. Series-parallel calculations

R1
320

R2
10 k

R4
5 k

R1
1 k

R5
5 k

Vs
25 V

+
Fig. 6.2.3. Experimental circuit

83

Khalil Ismailov

5.

Calculate the equivalent resistance of the circuit between points B and D:


________ .

6.

Replace the network between B and D with a resistance equal to Re


calculated in step 5.

7.

Measure the voltage across Re: ________ V.


Vapplied

VR 1

VR 2

VR 3, 4

VR 5

VB D

VR e

Table 6.2.1. Voltage Measurement in the Series-Parallel Circuit

Questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Refer to your calculations in steps 3 and 4. What do they tell you about
the voltage drops across parallel branch circuits?
Without making any further measurements, calculate the current
through R3 and R4: ________ mA.
Without making any further measurements, calculate the voltage drops
across R3 and R4: VR 3 = ________ V; VR 4 = ________ V.
Did your measured voltage drops across R2 and points B and D equal
your calculated voltages for these points? Explain any differences.
What information do you need to calculate the voltage drop across a
parallel network?
What was the relationship between the voltage measured in step 7 and
in the voltage measured across points B and D in step 2? Explain.

Answers to Self-Test
1. The entire circuit
2.
3.
4.
5.

84

The same
20.83 V
False
The voltage drops are the same because their resistances are the same.
Resistors R3 and R4 are in series, so their voltages will be strictly
dependent on their resistances not because they are part of a parallel circuit. The sum of the voltage drops across the resistors will be the parallel
circuit voltage.

EXPERIMENT

CT-7

KIRCHHOFFS
LAWS

E X P E R I M E N T 7.1
KIRCHHOFFS VOLTAGE LAW
Objectives
1.
2.

To prove Kirchhoffs voltage law by experiment.


To show the application of Kirchhoffs voltage law to series, parallel,
and combination circuits.

Basic Information
The solution of complex electric circuits is simplified by the application
of Kirchhoff's laws. They were formulated and published by the physicist
Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (1824-1887). His laws established the basis for
modern network analysis and are applicable to circuits with one or more
voltage sources.

Vortage Law
Kirchhoffs voltage law states that around any closed circut, the sum of
the applied voltage(s) must equal the sum of the voltage drops within the
circuit. We explored this idea earlier where we found that the applied
voltage was always completely used. None is ever left over, nor can more be
used than is supplied by the source. If the voltage drops of a series circuit
are added, the sum is the same as the applied voltage. This is Kirchhoff's
voltage law.
85

Khalil Ismailov

Kirchhoffs Law in the Series Circuit


Consider the circuit in Fig. 7.1.1. The total resistance of the circuit is R1
+ R2 + R3, or 10 200 . The current in the circuit is controlled by this
lump-sum resistance, so IR1, IR2, and IR3 are the same as IT. This is seriescircuit theory you learned in an earlier experiment. Using this current and
Ohms law, we can prove that Kirchhoff's voltage law for series circuits is
this: The sum of the applied voltages equals the sum of the voltage drops in the closed
series circuit.
In Fig. 7.1.1, IT = 0.0024509 A. Therefore, VR1 = 0.00245092200 =
5.39198 V. And VR2 = 0.00245093300 = 8.08797 V. Also VR3 = 0.0024509
4700 = 11.51923 V. If these voltage drops are added, the sum is 24.9998 V,
the same as the source voltage (the 0.0002 V difference is due to roundoff
error). Thus we can see that the voltage drops do equal the source voltage.
There is no voltage gained, nor is any voltage lost.
When analyzing circuits, you should keep this law in mind at all times.
It allows you to find misplaced voltages and circuit faults which cause
incorrect voltage distribution.

Vs

R1

R2

R3

2.2 k

3.3 k

4.7 k

25 V
RT = R 1 + R 2 + R3
RT = 10.2 k
IT = Vs/RT = 25/10.200
IT = 0.0024 A

VR1 = I R1 = 0.002 2200


VR1 = 5.39 V
VR2 = 8.08 V
VR3= 11.5 V
VR1 + VR2 + VR3 = 24.99 V

Fig. 7.1.1. Applying Krchhoffs law to the series circuit

Kirchhoff's Law in Series Circuits with Two Sources


The circuit in Fig. 7.1.2 has two power sources. When two or more
power sources are series-connected, they are said to be aiding or opposing. If
they are series-aiding, the voltage of one adds with the other, and the total
voltage is the sum of the two sources. In the series-aiding arrangement, the
sources are hooked negative to positive, as seen in Fig. 7.1.2b. Figure 7.1.2c
86

Circuit Theory

shows two sources connected series-opposing. Note that they are connected
such that each is trying to force current into the other, so each is opposing
current flow from the other. Our test circuit in Fig. 7.1.2a has seriesopposing sources. If the two sources had identical voltages, there would be
no current flow since they would perfectly oppose each other. However, one
of the sources is 12 V, and the other is 2 V. Since the sources are opposing,
the net voltage is 12 2 = 10 V. We can neglect the 2 V source and assume
the 12 V source to be 10 V. Now, the equivalent circuit, as seen in Fig.
7.1.2d, has a single source. And the current and voltage drops are calculated
in the current in the same manner as the previous single-source circuit.
R1

2V
+

4.5 V
+V

R2

12 V
+

3 V 1.5 V
+ +

(a)

(b)

1.5 V
+V

R1

3V
1.5 V
+ +
(c)

R2
10 V
+
(d)

Fig. 7.1.2. Applying Kirchhoffs law to a circuit with two sources

Kirchhoffs Law in Parallel Circuits


The only difference in treatment of Kirchhoffs law in the parallel
circuit is that one must always remember that parallel resistances have the
same voltage across them. Refer to Fig. 7.1.3. Here there are two parallel
circuits connected in series with each other. Note that V1, is the voltage
appearing across the parallel combination of R1 and R2. Also, V2 is the
voltage across the parallel combination of R3 and R4.
It will help to visualize the circuit of Fig. 7.1.3 as it would look if the
parallel sections of the circuit were replaced by their equivalent resistances,
as shown in Fig. 7.1.4. Now the circuit is treated just like the earlier series
circuit.
87

Khalil Ismailov

R1

R3

V1=8 V

V2=4 V

R2

12 V

R4

V T = V1 + V 2
12 = 8 + 4

Fig. 7.1.3. Kirchhoffs law applied to a combination circuit

8V

4V

V1

V2
12 V
+

Fig. 7.1.4. Equivalent circuit of Fig. 7.1.3

To use Kirchhoffs law in a series-parallel circuit, the circuit is simplified


to its equivalent series circuit. Kirchhoffs law is then applied as in a simple
series circuit.

Self-Test
Check your understanding of the introductory information by answering
the following questions.
1. In a circuit with four series-connected resistances, V1 = 12 V, V2 = 18 V,
V3 = 15 V, and V4 = 3.5 V. What is the applied voltage? _________ V.
2. In order for Kirchhoff's law to be true, a(n) ____________ circuit is
necessary.

Materials Required

DMM
Power supply: low-voltage, regulated, variable
Resistors, one each, 330, 470, 1200, 2200, 3300, and 4700

Procedure
1.
2.
3.
88

Connect the circuit of Fig. 7.1.5.


Measure the source voltage:________ V.
Measure the voltages across each resistor: VRl = ______ V, VR2 =______ V,
VR3 = ______ V, VR4 = ______ V.

Circuit Theory

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Add the individual voltage drops (from step 3): VT = _____ V.


Connect the circuit in Fig. 7.1.6.
Measure the source voltage: _____ V.
Measure the voltage drops across series resistances and parallel circuits:
VRl = ______ V, VR2,3 = _____ V, VR4 = ______ V. VR5,6 = _____ V.
Add the voltages from step 7: VT = ______ V.
R1

R2

R3

R4

330

470

1200

2200

25 V

+
Fig. 7.1.5. Experimental circuit

R5

R2
R1
330

470
1200
R3

R4
2200

3300
4700

25 V

R6

Fig. 7.1.6. Experimental circuit

Questions
1.
2.
3.
4.

How does the sum of voltage drops in step 4 compare to the source
measurement in step 2? Explain any dfferences.
How does the sum of voltage drops in step 8 compare to the source
measurement in step 6? Explain any differences.
In your own words explain Kirchhoff's voltage law.
Write the equation for Kirchhoff's voltage law.

Answers to Self-Test
1.
2.

48.5 V
Closed or complete
89

Khalil Ismailov

E X P E R I M E N T 7.2
KIRCHHOFF'S CURRENT LAW
Objectives
1. To verify experimentally that the sum of the currents entering a junction is
equal to the current leaving the junction.
2. To identify previously learned current behavior conforming to Kirchhoff's law.

Basic Information
Earlier you found that the total current in a parallel arcuit was equal to
the sum of the branch currents. This was a demonstration of Kirchhoff's
current law lmited to a parallel network. Kirchhoff's current law,
however, is a general law. It applies to all circuits. It states that the current
entering anyjunction ofan electric circuit is equal to the current leaving that junction.
In Fig. 7.2.1, total current IT enters junction A, as shown by the arrow.
At junction A the current divides, as required by the resistances of the
individual branch circuits. At junction B, these currents come together again
and leave that junction, as shown by the arrow labeled IT. This relationship
is stated mathematically by Kirchhoff's current law:
IT = I1 + I2 + I3 + ...
This means that whatever current enters a junction, such as point A in
Fig. 7.2.1, will leave that junction. It makes no difference whether the
current splits at the junction, as in Fig. 7.2.2, or whether the currents come
together at thejunction, as in Fig. 7.2/3.
Again, this principle is important to electronic troubleshooting. It helps
the technician to evaluate normal circuit conditions and to determine
normal circuit voltages in order to compare them with measured voltages in
a suspected faulty circuit. Abnormal voltages point to a defective circuit. Once
the defective circuit is localized, the defective component can be found.
I1
R1

IT

R2

I1

R3

I2
I3

I2

R4

IT

I3

Fig. 7.2.1. Currents in a combination circuit

90

R5

Circuit Theory
I1
IT

IT = I 1 + I 2
I2

Fig. 7.2.2. Current entering and splitting at a junction

I1
IT

IT = I 1 + I 2

I2
Fig. 7.2.3. Currents combining at a junction

Self-Test
Check your understanding of the introductory informa-tion by answering
the following questions.
1. The current entering any junction is _____________ to the current
leaving the junction.
2. In Fig. 7.2.2, IT = 0.5 A,and I1 = 0.27 A. What is I2? I2 = _______ A.
3. In Fig. 7.2.3, I1 = 0.41 A, and I2 = 0.17 A. What is IT? IT =________ A.
4. What formula describes the current behavior in Fig. 7.2.2?

Materials Required

Power supply: low-voltage, variable, regulated


DMM
Resistors, one each, 330, 470, 2200, 3300, and 4700

Procedure
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Connect the circuit of Fig. 7.2.4.


Measure and record in Table 7.2.1 the following currents: IT at point A,
I1 through R2,12 through R3, IT at point B, I3 through R4, I4 through R5.
Add I1and I2: I1 + I2 = _______ mA.
Add I3and I4: I3 + I4 = _______ mA.
Calculate IT: IT = _______mA.
91

Khalil Ismailov

R1

330

I1
I2

R2
470
2200

R3
+

I3
I4

R5
3300
4700
R6

25 V

Fig. 7.2.4. Experimental circuit

Measured
current, mA

IT at A

I1

I2

IT at B

I3

I4

Table 7.2.1. Kirchhoffs current measurements

Questions
1.

2.

3.
4.
5.

Where there any measurements from Table 7.2.1 that were the same
(approximately) as the calculated values in step 3? Which one(s)?
Explain why it was the same.
Were there any measurements frorn Table 7.2.1 that were the same
(approximately) as the calculated values in step 4? Which one(s)?
Explain why it was the same.
How does this experiment confirm Kirchhoff's current law?
State Kirchhoff's current law in your own words.
Write the equation for Kirchhoff's current law.

Answers to Self-Test
1.
2.
3.
4.

92

Equal
0.23
0.58
IT = I1 + I2 (The current leaving a junction is equal to the current
entering that junction.)

EXPERIMENT

CT-8

THEVENINS
THEOREM

E X P E R I M E N T 8.1
Objectives
1.
2.

To show the use of Thevenins theorem in solving problems too complex


for Ohms law.
To prove Thevenins theorem by experiment.

Basic Information
Thevenins theorem is an aid in simplifying complex resistive networks.
It is often referred to as a network theorem. By use of Thevenins theorem many
sources and components can be represented by a single resistance in series
with a single voltage source. It is especially useful for simplifying circuits
with more than one power source to find the voltage drop across the load.

Thevenin Simplification
Thevenins theorem is shown in circuit form in Fig. 8.1.1. In this singlesource circuit, we determine the voltage which will appear across the load.
Notice that the source voltage is divided by a voltage divider consisting of R1,
and R2. The load RL is in parallel with R2, so the voltage across R2 is also the load
voltage. To make this a Thevenin circuit, the following steps are necessary:
1. See Fig. 8.1.1b. Remove the load resistor RL and calculate the voltage
across R2. The result is called the Thevenin equivalent voltage VTH.
93

Khalil Ismailov

2.

3.
4.

See Fig. 8.1.1c. Remove the source and replace it with a short circuit.
Now, looking back into the circuit from the load resistor RL, calculate
the resistance between terminals A and B. Note that, in this circuit,
when you do this, R1, and R2 are in parallel and must be calculated as
such (Fig. 8.1.1d). This is the Thevenin equivalent resistance RTH.
With both VTH and RTH calculated, redraw the circuit showing RTH and
VTH to be in series (Fig. 8.1.1e). This is the Thevenin equivalent circuit.
Put the load resistance back into the circuit (Fig. 8.1.1f), and calculate
the voltage drops across the two resistors. Note that the 6-V source
divides equally between the resistors in this example. You can also see
that calculating load current is a matter of simple Ohms law:

I=
R1
1 k

R2
1 k
RL
500

12 V

V
3
=
= 6 mA
R 500

1000
12
2000
=6V

VTH =
VTH

(b)

R1

RTH
500

6V
(e)

R2

1
1
1
=
+
R TH R 1 R 2
R TH = 500

(d)

(c)

RTH
500

VTH
6V

RL
500
(f)

VL =

RL
VTH
R L + R TH

500
6
1000
VL = V
VL =

Fig. 8.1.1. Theveninizing a single-source circuit

94

R2
Vs
R1 + R 2

R2

R1

VTH =

A
B

(a)

R2

R1

Circuit Theory

An example of a circuit with two sources is seen in Fig. 8.1.2. To make


such a circuit a Thevenin circuit, the following steps are necessary:
1. Remove the load RL, as illustrated in Fig. 8.1.2b.
R1
1 k

V1
16 V +

RL
500

V1
16 V +

V
2
+8 V

(a)
R2
1 k
A

VR 2 =

V2

VR 2

V1

1000
16
2000
= 8 V

(Voltage is negative at A)

R2
1 k
A

R2
V1
R1 + R 2

VR 2 =

(c)

R1
1 k

V2
+8 V

(b)

R1
1 k
V1
16 V +

R2
1 k

R1
1 k

R2
1 k

VR1 =

R1
V2
R1 + R2

VTH = VR1 + VR 2

V2
+ 8 V V = 1000 (8 V ) V = ( 4) + ( 8)
R1
TH

(d)

VR1

2000
= 4 V

R1
1 k
V1

VTH = 12 V

R2
1 k
A
B

V2

(e)
Fig. 8.1.2. Theveninizing a dual-source circuit

95

Khalil Ismailov

2.
3.

4.

5.
6.

Remove source V2 and replace it with a short circuit, as seen in Fig. 8.1.2c.
Calculate the voltage drop across R2 (this is the same as the voltage
across RL). With V2 replaced by a short circuit and RL removed, R1 and R2
make a simple series circuit with source V1.
Repeat the above procedures:
a. Keep RL out of the circuit.
b. Remove V1 and replace it with a short circuit. Replace V2. See Fig.
8.1.2d.
c. Calculate the voltage drop across R1 (same as VRL).
Combine the two voltage drops to find VTH. Special attention must be
paid to polarities.
Find RTH. To do this, remove both V1 and V2 and replace them with short
circuits (Fig. 8.1.2e); then look back into the A-B connections see that
R1, and R2 are in parallel:

1
1
1
=
+
R TH R 1 R 2
7.

With VTH and RTH, IRL can be found:

I RL =

VTH
R L + R TH

Summary
1.
2.
3.
4.

Thevenins theorem is an aid in simplifying complex resistive networks


with one or two sources.
Thevenins theorem is often referred to as a network theorem.
To make a circuit a Thevenin circuit is no different from using Ohms
law except for how the circuit is depicted during calculations.
When a circuit is made a Thevenin circuit, the source is thought of as
being short-circuited and the load is removed.

Self-Test
Check your understanding of the introductory information by answering
the following questions.
1. Why use Thevenins theorem?
2. When you are working with Thevenins theorem, is the source shortcircuited or opened?
3. When you are working with Thevenins theorem, is the load shortcircuited or opened?
96

Circuit Theory

Materials Required

DMM
Power supply: low-voltage, variable, regulated
Resistors, one each, 500 ; two each, 1 k.

Procedure
1.

Connect the circuit of Fig. 8.1.3. Leave RL out of the circuit. Calculate
the VTH, RTH and the voltage across the load: RTH = ______ , VTH =
______ V, VRL = ______ V.

2.

Measure the voltage across points A and B: ______ V.

3.

Remove the power source connections, and rewire the circuit as shown
in Fig. 8.1.4.

4.

Measure the Thevenin resistance between points A and B: ______ .

5. Replace the power supply and the load resistor as seen in Fig. 8.1.5.
Measure the load voltage from point A to B: ______ V.
R1
1 k

A
RL
B

A
RL
B

V1
12 V +

R2
1 k

R1
1 k

R2
1 k

Fig. 8.1.4. Experimental circuit

Fig. 8.1.3. Experimental circuit

R1
1 k

V1
12 V +

R2
1 k
RL
500

Fig. 8.1.5. Experimental circuit

Questions
1.

Do the values obtained by your measurements match those obtained in


the calculations? Explain any differences.
97

Khalil Ismailov

2.
3.

What effect would increasing RL have on VL? If you are unsure of the
answer, make this change in the experimental circuit to find the answer.
What effect would increasing RL have on VR1 and VR2?

Answers to Self-Test
1.
2.
3.

98

It is used in complex circuits to simplify computations.


Short-circuited
Opened

EXPERIMENT

CT-9

POWER

E X P E R I M E N T 9.1
POWER AND ITS MEASUREMENT
Objectives
1.
2.
3.

To calculate power used by individual components


To calculate power used by circuits
To prove the power calculations by experimental circuit measurements

Basic Information
Nature of Power
When current flows through a resistance, heat is produced. This heat is
proof of power being used in the process of pushing current through the
resistor. In some circuits, power may be manifested by some other means
such as light or movement. Yet most circuits produce some heat in addition
to any other power output. For example, the prime purpose of a light bulb is
to produce light, but it also produces heat. Electric motors are made to
produce a rotating movement, but they also produce heat. A fuse works as a
fuse because it heats and its element melts when excessive current flows
through it.

Calculating Power
Because heat is produced in a resistance by a voltage pushing a current
through it, power is calculated by

P=IV
99

Khalil Ismailov

Suppose we have the current and resistance, but the voltage is


unknown. Now V = I R, so I R can be substituted for V in the formula:
P = I (I R)
Now, since I I in the above formula is equal to I2, the new formula is
P = I2 R
Likewise, if the current measurement is not available, the formula can
be changed to
P = V (V/R)
Since I = V/R, that term can be substituted for I. Because V V = V2,
the new formula is
P = V2/R
Power is measured in watts. Multiplying volts by amperes results in
power in watts. Until you become more proficient in converting from one
unit to another, we suggest that volts and amperes be used in doing power
calculations. In many instances this will mean converting milliampere
readings to amperes before power calculations are begun.
Total circuit power is always calculated by adding the individual
component power figures. This is true for all circuits series, parallel and
combination.
The ability to calculate power can be important. In some cases the
dissipation of heat is desirable. An example of such a device is the electric
space heater. In other cases it is not desirable, such as in a TV or a computer.
Heat in either system is unnecessary because it does not add to their ability to
produce picture, sound, or accurate calculations. In fact, heat can be damaging
to many systems which use transistors and integrated circuits (ICs).
Components which produce a large amount of heat must, by necessity,
be physically large. Heat is dissipated into surrounding air or into large
pieces of metal, called heat sinks. If air is used to absorb the heat, the
component must be in contact with a lot of air; so it must be large. If metal
heat sinks are to absorb the heat, the size may not be as large.

Measuring Power
Power can be measured directly by a wattmeter. The wattmeter requires
connections to the circuit to measure both voltage and current. Power can
also be found by measuring the voltage across the component or circuit with
the voltmeter and the current in the component or circuit with the current
meter and then calculating.
100

Circuit Theory

SUMMARY
1.
2.
3.

Power is defined as the rate at which work is done.


We know work is being done when heat, movement, or light is produced.
Work is produced by a voltage source pushing current through an
opposition. Thus power is calculated by
P=IV
or some derivatives of this formula.

4.
5.

Power is measured in watts.


Components, which dissipate a large amount of heat, must be physically
large.
Power can be measured directly by the wattmeter.
Power can be found by taking measurements with an ammeter and a
voltmeter and then using Ohms law: P = I V.

6.
7.

Self-Test
Check your understanding of the introductory information by answering
the following questions.
1. From the formula P = I V, if P = 0.1 W and V = 10 V, what is the
circuit current? _______ mA
2. What is the evidence that a speaker is using power to operate?
3. What is a safety component that uses heat to operate?
4. Draw a diagram of how the voltmeter and current meter would be
connected to make measurements and calculations for circuit power
dissipation.

Materials Required

DMM

Power supply: low-voltage, variable

Resistors, one each, 680 and 470

Procedure
1.
2.

Connect the circuit shown in Fig. 9.1.1.


If a wattmeter is available, measure the power dissipation for each
resistor: PR1 = _______ W; PR2 = _______ W.
101

Khalil Ismailov

R1
680
20 V
R2
470
Fig. 9.1.1. Experimental circuit

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Measure the circuit current: IT = ________ mA.


Measure the voltage drop across each resistor: VR1 = ______ V; VR2 =
______ V.
With the measurements obtained in steps 3 and 4, calculate the power
dissipated by each resistor: PR1 = ______ W; PR2 = ______ W.
With the values from step 5 calculate the total circuit power dissipation:
PT = ______ W.
Using the power supply voltage and resistances of R1 and R2, calculate
the circuit current and voltage drops. From these figures, calculate the
power dissipated by R1 and R2: PR1 = ______ W; PR2 = ______ W;

Questions
1.
2.
3.
4.

If you used a wattmeter, did its measurement agree with the calculated
measurements in step 5?
Did the calculations in step 7 agree with the measurement or
calculations in step 6? Explain any differences.
If the circuit had been a parallel circuit, the total power dissipation
would have been (a) the same, (b) greater, (c) less.
Write the formula for finding total circuit power when the power
dissipation of individual components is known.

Answers to Self-test
1.
2.
3.
4.

0.01 A
Movement is created (and sometimes heat)
Fuse
See Fig. 9.1.2

V
Fig. 9.1.2

102

Circuit Theory

E X P E R I M E N T 9.2
POWER TRANSFER
Objective
1.

To show that maximum power is transferred from one circuit to another


when the output resistance of the source circuit is equal to the input
resistance of the load circuit

Basic Information
Although the idea of power transfer is used mainly in ac circuits, it can
be shown quite clearly in dc circuits. Power transfer is usually related to the
transfer of signal power from one circuit or system to another. If there is a
signal loss, additional amplifiers must be used to maintain the proper signal
level. We can see that it is more efficient not to lose signal when it is coupled
from one amplifier or system to another. To pass along the maximum signal
power, it is necessary for the output opposition of the source circuit to
equal the input opposition of the load circuit. This is illustrated in Fig.
9.2.1.
Rout
RL
Source
circuit

Load
circuit

Fig. 9.2.1. Maximum power transfer occurs when RL = Rout

Just how the loss of signal power occurs can be best illustrated by
experiment. In the following experiment you use dc rather than ac signals.
The concept is the same.

Summary
1.

Power transfer is usually related to the transfer of signal power from


one circuit or system to another.

2.

Maximum power transfer from circuit to circuit occurs when the output
resistance of the source circuit equals the input resistance of the load
circuit.
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Khalil Ismailov

Self-Test
Check your understanding of the introductory information by answering
the following questions.
1. Why would you want to transfer maximum power from one circuit to
another?
2. What is the result of connecting a low R output to a high R input?
3. The need for maximum power transfer is most often related to _______
(ac, dc) circuits.

Materials Required

DMM
Power supply: low-voltage, variable
Resistors, one each, 1 k and 2200, 3900, and 4700 ; two each, 3300

Procedure
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Connect the circuit in Fig. 9.2.2.


Measure the circuit current. Record this measurement in Table 9.2.1.
Measure the voltage across RL. Record this measurement in Table 9.2.1.
Calculate the power dissipated by RL. Record this value in Table 9.2.1.
Change R1 to 2200 ohm, and repeat steps 2, 3, and 4.
Change R1 to 3300 ohm; repeat steps 2, 3, and 4.
Change R1 to 3900 ohm; repeat steps 2, 3, and 4.
Change R1 to 4700 ohm; repeat steps 2, 3, and 4.
R1
1 k
RL
3300

20 V

Fig. 9.2.2. Experimental circuit

Value of R1
1 k
2200
3300
3900
4700

VRL

Table 9.2.1. Power Transfer Measurements

104

Power RL I V

Circuit Theory

Questions
1.

What value of R1 caused the most power to be transferred to RL?

2.

Did your answer to question 1 verify the theory found in the


introductory information? Explain.

3.

What was the effect on power transfer when R1 was less than RL?

4.

What was the effect on power transfer when R1 was greater than RL?

5.

State a general law for maximum power transfer.

Answers to Self-Test
1. So that more power can be transferred. Less power transferred means
more amplification will be required to bring the signal to the desired.
Power transfer loss.

2.
3. ac

105

EXPERIMENT

CT-10

ALTERNATING
CURRENT
MEASUREMENTS

E X P E R I M E N T 10.1

MEASURING ALTERNATING CURRENT


WITH THE OSCILLOSCOPE
Objectives
1.
2.
3.
4.

To understand the operation and use of an oscilloscope


To learn to measure DC and AC voltages with the oscilloscope
To use an oscilloscope to observe repetitive time varying waveforms
To use a function generator to create repetitive waveforms

Basic Information
The Oscilloscope
The oscilloscope or scope as it is better known is one of the most
versatile pieces of laboratory test equipment. It is really a type of analog
voltmeter with an arbitrary zero. It can read DC voltages as an offset voltage
and as well as AC voltages by displaying the true wave form. Most modern
oscilloscopes are capable of measuring AC signals over a wide range of
frequencies.
The heart of the oscilloscope is the cathode ray tube, which generates
the electron beam, accelerates the beam to a high velocity, deflects the beam
to create the image, and contains the phosphor screen where the electron
beam eventually becomes visible. The electrons are called cathode rays
because they are emitted by the cathode and this gives the oscilloscope its
106

Circuit Theory

full name of cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO) or cathode ray tube (CRT)
oscilloscope (Fig. 10.1.1).
Although the oscilloscope can eventually be used to display practically
any parameter, the input to the oscilloscope is voltage. The general
laboratory oscilloscope can accept as low as a few millivolts per centimetre
of deflection up to hundred of volts using the built-in attenuator and
external probes. The input impedance of an oscilloscope is rather high, being
on the order of 1 M, which is desirable for measuring voltages in high
impedance circuits. The attenuator sets the sensitivity of the oscilloscope in
the common 1-2-5 sequence. As an example, the input attenuator could
provide for 10, 20, 50, 100, 200 mV, etc., per centimeter. The input attenuator
must provide the correct 1-2-5 sequence attenuation while maintaining a
constant input impedance, as well as maintaining both the input impedance
and attenuation over the frequency range for which the oscilloscope was
designed.
A dual trace oscilloscope can display two traces on the screen, allowing
you to easily compare the input and output of an amplifier for example. The
dual trace oscilloscope provides for amplification and display of two signals
at the same time, thereby permitting direct comparison of the signals on the
CRT screen (measure the phase displacement of two waveforms, and so on).

Fig. 10.1.1. Cathode Ray Oscilloscope

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Khalil Ismailov

An oscilloscope is a test instrument which allows you to look at the


shape of electrical signals by displaying a graph of voltage against time on
its screen. It is like a voltmeter with the valuable extra function of showing
how the voltage varies with time. A screen is divided into centimetre
divisions in the vertical and horizontal directions. The vertical sensitivity is
provided (or set) in volts/cm, while the horizontal sensitivity is provided (or
set) in time (s/cm). The magnitude of the signal can be determined from the
following equation:
Signal voltage Vs (unknown) = voltage sensitivity (V/cm) x deflection (cm)
If a particular signal occupies 6 vertical centimetres and the vertical
sensitivity is 5 mV/cm, signal voltage Vs = (5 mV/cm) (6 cm) = 30 mV
In addition to the display of a signal, it can also be used to measure the
average value, rms value, frequency and period of a sinusoidal or nonsinusoidal signals.
Sometimes an attenuator probe is used to expand the range of the
scope. This probe has a high-value resistor in it which acts as a voltage
divider with the scope input resistance. As a result, whatever voltage is read
on the scope graticule must be multiplied by 10. Such a probe is called a
times 10, or 10, probe.
The vertical input also will have a switch for AC or DC input signals.
When the switch is in the DC position, the probe is connected directly to the
internal amplifiers. When the switch is in the AC position, there is a
coupling capacitor between the probe and the amplifiers. The reason to
allow the measurement of low-level AC signals which may be on the same
wire as a high-level DC voltage. If the probe is connected directly to the
amplifiers, the scope trace moves on the scale an amount equal to the
voltage applied. If this voltage is a high voltage, say 100 V the vertical
attenuator must be set to an insensitive position in order for the trace not to
be deflected beyond the viewable portion of the screen. With the vertical
sensitivity thus set, a small AC signal on the same wire could not be
measured, when the vertical input switch is in the AC position, a capacitor
blocks the direct current from reaching the amplifiers. With the direct
current blocked, the vertical sensitivity can be set so the AC signal can be
easily seen and measured.
The simplest AC signal is the sine wave and you should use this
function as your first AC source. When this signal is connected to the
oscilloscope, you can see that you can easily measure the peak AC voltage,
Vp, which is defined as the voltage measured from the center or zero
108

Circuit Theory

position to the peak (see Fig. 10.1.2). There are several other voltages that
can also be measured. The peak-to-peak voltage, Vp-p, is the voltage
measured from the crest of one cycle to the bottom trough of the cycle or
peak-to-peak. Finally, the most common voltage is the rms or root-meansquare voltage, Vrms. It is equal to the peak-to-peak value divided by
(21.414). For the sine wave only:

Vp = Vp p / 2 = 2Vrms
A one volt rms waveform has the same heating value as a one volt DC signal.
v
Vp

Vrms

Vp-p

T
Fig. 10.1.2. Measurement of voltages on an oscilloscope

Front Panel Controls


Front panel controls permit you to control the operation of the oscilloscope. They may be grouped functionally as:
Main Oscilloscope Controls According to Function
Display
Intensity
Focus
Beam Finder

Vertical
Coupling (AC-Ground-DC)
Volts/Div
Y-position
Channel Select
Magnification
Cal (Calibrated)

Horizontal
Time base (Sec/Div)
X-position
Magnification
Cal (Calibrated)

Triggering
Coupling
Source
Level
Slope
Mode

The above function set is summarized for a typical oscilloscope only.


The oscilloscope in the laboratory that you will be using may have more
functions.
For detail operation of the oscilloscope, you should refer to the users
manual of the oscilloscope.
109

Khalil Ismailov

Functional descriptions of an oscilloscope OS-5020:


Coupling (AC-GND-DC): Permits selection of coupling of the input
channel.
When set to DC, the entire signal (AC plus any DC components) is
displayed.
When set to AC, DC signals are blocked by a capacitor and only AC is
displayed.
When set to ground, the input channel is isolated from the input
source and is grounded internally.
VOLTS/DIV: This is the scopes vertical sensitivity control. It is a calibrated
control that establishes how many volts each major vertical scale division
represents. For example, when it is set for 1 V/Div, each grid line represents 1
volt. Each channel has its own independent VOLTS/DIV control.
CAL.: This is the fine adjust control, usually located in the inner of the
VOLTS/DIV knob. When this knob is turned to the fully clockwise direction,
it is at the calibrated location (the normal position of this knob) for the outer
knob setting, i.e., the vertical scale of the scope is defined by the VOLTS/DIV
knob. When the CAL. knob is turned away from the calibrated position, the
waveform displayed in the scope will start to be attenuated. For most
oscilloscopes, when the CAL. knob is turned to the fully anti-clockwise
direction, the waveform displayed in the scope will be attenuated 2 2 times.
Vertical POSITIUON: This is the vertical position control. Each channel has
its own control. It moves the trace up or down for easier observation. It is
not calibrated.
Channel Select: Permits displaying CH1, CH2, both channels, their sum or
difference.
Time base (V MODE): This is a calibrated control that selects how many
seconds each major horizontal division represents. It is calibrated in s, ms,
and s. One control handles all channels. There is also CAL. knob for the
time base. The CAL. knob is located at the inner of the TIME/DIV knob. Its
operation is similar to that of the previous one for the VOLTS/DIV.
Magnification: For both CAL. knobs of the VOLTS/DIV and TIME/DIV, the
CAL. Knob also acts as the magnification switch. The magnification is 5 or
10 with the knob pulled out.
Horizontal POZITION: Positions the trace horizontally. One control
handles all channels.
110

Circuit Theory

Trigger Source: Selects the trigger source, e.g., CH1, CH2, an external
trigger, or the AC power line.
Trigger Level: Permits you to adjust the point on the trigger source
waveform where you like the triggering to start.
Trigger Slope: Selects whether the scope is to trigger on the positive or
negative slope of the trigger source waveform.
Trigger Mode: Modes include
AUTO the sweep always occurs, even with no trigger present,
NORMAL a trigger must be present, and
SINGLE SWEEP a trigger is required but only one sweep results.
Other modes may be provided in various oscilloscope models.
INTENSITY: Adjusts the intensity of the displayed beam
FOCUS: Adjusts the sharpness of the displayed beam
AUTO: Some oscilloscopes with electronic control are fitted with a button
which automatically selects an appropriate timebase, triggering mode and
hoizontal gain.

Connecting the oscilloscope to the circuit under test


The oscilloscope is connected to the circuit under test by means of a
probe (or set of probes) as illustrated in Fig. 10.1.3. The probe includes a
measurement tip and a ground clip and connects to the oscilloscope by a
BNC connector via a flexible, shielded cable which is grounded at the
oscilloscope. This ground serves as the reference point with respect to
which all signals are measured. The shield helps guard electrical noise pick
up.

Fig. 10.1.3. Connection of the oscilloscope to the circuit under test

111

Khalil Ismailov

Function Generator
The function generator is a supply that typically provides a sinusoidal,
square-wave, and triangular waveforms for a range of frequencies and
amplitudes. Although the frequency of the function generator can be set by
the dial position and appropriate multiplier, the oscilloscope can be used to
precisely set the output frequency. The scope can also be used to set the
amplitude of the function generator since most function generators simply
have an amplitude control with no level indicators.
The model FG-8002 (Fig. 10.1.4) is an advanced function generator
which provides functions of function generator, pulse generator and sweep
oscillator including following versatile features:

Fig. 10.1.4. Function Generator

- Wide frequency range from 0.02 Hz to 2 MHz


- Versatile waveforms are selectable in sine wave, square wave.
Triangle wave and pulse wave, etc.
- TTL level square wave output is available for signal source for digital
circuit experiments
- Variable symmetry to generate sawtooth and pulse waveform
- Frequency of output signal can be controlled by applying voltage
from 0 to +10 V to VCF IN connector
- The linear sweep function provides SWEEP FUNCTION CONTROL
from 1:1 to 100:1
112

Circuit Theory

- DC voltage from 0 to +10 V can be overload upon output waveform


- Maximum attenuation over 40 dB.

Procedure
Setting up an oscilloscope
Oscilloscopes are complex instruments with many controls and they
require some care to set up and use successfully. It is quite easy to lose the
trace off the screen if controls are set wrongly!
There is some variation in the arrangement and labeling of the many
controls so the following instructions may need to be adapted for your
instrument.
Precautions:
An oscilloscope should be handled gently to protect its fragile (and
expensive) vacuum tube.
Oscilloscopes use high voltages to create the electron beam and these
remain for some time after switching off - for your own safety do not
attempt to examine the inside of an oscilloscope!
Preliminary Control Settings and Adjustments
Before placing the instrument in use, set up and check the instrument
as follows:
1. Set the following controls as indicated.
POWER Switch
INTEN Control
FOCUS Control
AC/GND/DC Switch
VOLTS/DIV Switch
5MAG Switch
Vertical POSITION Controls
INV Switch
VARIABLE Controls
V MODE Switch
TIME/DIV Switch
VARIABLE Control
Horizontal POSITION Control
10MAG Switch
Trigger MODE Switch
Trigger SOURCE Switch
Trigger LEVEL Control
SLOPE Switch

OFF (released)
Mid rotation
Mid rotation
DC
10 mV
1
Mid rotation
Norm
Fully CCW
CH1
1 ms
CAL
Mid rotation
1
AUTO
VERT
Mid rotation
Button out

113

Khalil Ismailov

2. Press the POWER Switch.


The POWER lamp should light immediately. About 30 seconds later,
rotate the INTEN. Control clockwise until the trace appears on the CRT
screen. Adjust brightness to your liking.
<CAUTION>
A burn-resistant material is used in the CRT. However if the CRT is left
with an extremely bright dot or trace for a very long time, the screen
may be damaged. Therefore, if a measurement requires high brightness,
be certain to turn down the INTEN. Control immediately afterward.
Also, get in the habit of turning the brightness way down if the scope is
left unattended for any period of time.
3. Turn the FOCUS Control for a sharp trace.
4. Turn the CH1 Vertical POSITION Control to move the CH1 trace to
the center horizontal graticule line.
5. See if the trace is precisely parallel with the graticule line.
6. Turn the Horizontal POSITION Control to align the left edge of the
trace with the left most graticule line.
7. Set one of the supplied probes (Fig. 10.1.5) for 10 attenuation.
Then, connect its BNC end to the CH1 or X IN Connector.

Fig. 10.1.5. Probe

Signal Connections
There are methods of connecting an oscilloscope to the signal you wish
to observe. They are a simple wire lead, coaxial cable, and scope probes.
Scope probes are the most popular method of connecting the oscilloscope
to circuitry. These probes are available with 1 attenuation (direct connection) and 10 attenuation. The 10 attenuator probes increase the effective
114

Circuit Theory

input impedance of the probe/scope combination to 10 megohms shunted by


a few picofarads, the reduction in input capacitance is the most important
reason for using attenuator probes at high frequencies, where capacitance is
the major factor in loading down a circuit and distorting the signal. When
10 attenuator probes are used, the scale factor (VOLTS/DIV switch setting)
must be multiplied by ten.

Single-trace Operation
Single-trace operation with single time base and internal triggering is
the most elementary operating mode of the OS-5020. Use this mode when
you wish to observe only a single signal, and not be disturbed by other
traces on the CRT. Since this is fundamentally a two channel instrument,
you have a choice from your single channel.
The OS-5020 is set up for single-trace operation as follows:
1. Set the following controls as indicated below. Note that the trigger
source selected (CH1 or CH2 SOURCE) must match the single channel
selected. (CH1 or CH2 V-MODE)
POWER switch
AC/GND/DC switches
Vertical POSITION controls
VARIABLE controls
V MODE switch
VARIABLE control
Trigger MODE switch
Trigger SOURCE switch
Trigger LEVEL control

2.
3.

4.

5.

ON (pushed in)
AC
Mid rotation
Fully CW
CH1 (CH2)
CAL
AUTO
VERT
Mid rotation

Use the corresponding Vertical POSITION control or to set the trace near
mid screen.
Connect the signal to be observed to the corresponding IN connector and
adjust the corresponding VOLTS/DIV switch or so the displayed signal is
totally on screen.
<CAUTION>
Do not apply a signal greater than 400 V (DC + peak AC)
Set the TIME/DIV switch so the desired number of signal cycles are
displayed. Adjust the Trigger LEVEL control if necessary for a stable
display.
If the signal you wish to observe is either DC or low enough in frequency,
the AC coupling will attenuate or distort the signal. So, flip the AC/GND/DC
switch or to DC.
115

Khalil Ismailov

<CAUTION>
If the observed waveform is low level AC, make sure it is not riding on
a high amplitude DC voltage.
You will also have to reset the Trigger MODE switch to NORM if the
signal frequency is below 25 Hz, and possibly readjust the Trigger LEVEL
control.

Dual trace Operation


Dual trace operation is the major operating mode of the OS-5020. The
setup for dual trace operation is identical to that of single trace operation
with the following exceptions:
1.

Set the V MODE switch to either DUAL. Select ALT for relatively high
frequency signals (TIME/DIV switch set to 0.5 ms or faster). Select
CHOP for relatively low frequency signals (TIME/DIV switch set to 1 ms
or slower)

2.

If both channels are displayed in signals of the same frequency, set the
Trigger SOURCE switch to the channel having the steepest-slope
waveform. If the signals are different but harmonically related, trigger
from the channel carrying the lowest frequency. Also, remember that if
you disconnect the channel serving as the trigger source, the entire
display will free run.

Setting up a function generator


1.
2.

3.
4.

5.

116

Pressing POWER Switch turns on power. POWER Lamp light up when


power is on.
Connect BNC end of the clip probe to the OUTPUT 50 BNC socket. The
lead is connected with a push and twist action, to disconnect you need
to twist and pull.
Push on of three knobs of FUNCTION Selector to get a desired
waveform out of sine wave, triangle wave and square wave.
Amplitude of output signal can be controlled by AMPLITUDE/PULL
20dB knob. Maximum attenuation is more than 20 dB when the knob is
rotated fully counterclockwise. Pulling this knob makes attenuation of
20 dB, so the output signal can be attenuated by 40 dB when this is
pulled and rotated fully counterclockwise.
Frequency range (Seven ranges: 1 0.02 Hz to 2 Hz, 10 2 Hz to 20 Hz,
100 20 Hz to 200 Hz, 1k 200 Hz to 2 kHz, 10k 2 kHz to 20 kHz,
100k 20 kHz to 200 kHz, 1M 200 kHz to 2 MHz,) is selected by

Circuit Theory

FREQUENCY RANGE Selector. Output frequency within the selected


range is varied by the Frequency Dial potentiometer.
6.

Sweep width is controlled by SWEEP WIDTH/PULL ON Control. Pulling


the knob selects internal sweep and rotating it controls sweep width.
Rotate it counterclockwise to get a minimum sweep width (1:1) and
rotate it clockwise to get a maximum sweep width (100:1). To get a
maximum sweep width, set the frequency dial to minimum scale (below
0.2 scale).

7.

Sweep rate (sweep frequency) of internal sweep oscillator is controlled


by SWEEP RATE Control.

8.

Symmetry (duty cycle) of output signal waveform within range of 10:1


to 1:10 is controlled by SYMMETRY Control.

9.

The DC OFFSET control knob may be used to offset the waveform above
or below ground (0 volts) by a DC voltage in the range 10 volts. To
adjust the DC level pull out the OFFSET control knob then turn slowly
CW (positive volts) or CCW (negative volts). If the OFFSET knob is
pushed in, there is no DC level, but only AC voltage exists in the output
signal.

Summary
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

The most common scope in use today is the triggered-sweep scope.


Older scopes were the recurrent sweep type.
The typical scope has four sections: vertical; horizontal; trigger, or sync;
and display.
The vertical section of the scope conditions the input and causes the
beam in the CRT to be deflected vertically.
The horizontal section of the scope controls the horizontal sweep of the
CRT electron beam. It causes the beam to sweep at an accurate rate, so
frequency can be calculated from the sweep time.
The trigger section of the scope controls how the beam is synchronized
with the incoming signal to cause the waveform to be stable.
The display section of the scope controls brightness, focus, etc.
The scope has controls to allow adjustment of vertical sensitivity,
vertical and horizontal beam position, etc.
The AC-DC switch allows the display of either AC or DC signals.
The function generator typically provides a sinusoidal, square-wave, and
triangular waveform for a range of frequencies and amplitudes.
117

Khalil Ismailov

10. Advanced function generator provides functions of function generator,


pulse generator and sweep oscillator.

Self-Test
Check your understanding of the introductory information by answering
the following questions.
1. What is the purpose of the sync section?
2. What is the purpose of the horizontal time-base section?
3. Why is the AC-DC switch setting important when you are making lowlevel AC measurements?
4. The term attenuate means what?
5. What are the four sections of the scope?
6. What kind of waveforms is provided by the function generator?
7. What are the functions of the advanced function generators?

Materials Required

Oscilloscope (OS-5020)
Variable DC power supply (GP-4303TP)
Function generator (FG-8002)\
Digital multimeter (DMM)

Procedure
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

118

Plug the power cable of the oscilloscope into the socket outlet in the bench.
Practice setting up the scope to get a trace on the screen. Move the trace
around. Work with all the controls until you understand their functions.
Rotate the focus and intensity controls to get a sharply focused trace at a
comfortable viewing level.
Connect a probe to CH1 and set the channel selector to CH1 and use a
1 probe. Set the Trigger to AUTO.
Flip the AC-GND-DC coupling switch to GND (ground) and center the
trace.
Connect the output of the variable DC power supply to the input of the
oscilloscope as shown in Fig. 10.1.6.
Set the vertical attenuator to measure 0.5 V/cm. Make sure the vertical
attenuator vernier (fine-adjust) control is in the CAL. position. The ACDC switch should be set to DC. Measure the voltage of a 1-, 1.5-, and 2V source (obtained from the variable power supply).

Circuit Theory

8.

Connect the probe as in Fig. 10.1.6 and set VIOLTS/DIV to 1 V. Set the
DMM to DC voltage measurement. With the voltmeter, set the output of
the variable DC power supply to 2 V and note the beam deflection on the
screen. From the deflection, compute the measured voltage. Fill in the
table after doing step 9.
Trace

+V
Variable DC
power supply

DMM
CH1
V

Ground
clip

Probe

Fig. 10.1.6. Measuring DC voltage

9.

Change VOLTS/DIV to 2 V, set the output of the variable DC power supply


to 5 V and note the position of the trace. Make similar adjustments and
fill in the following table.
Probe
1
1
1
10
10
10

Input
Voltage
2V
5V
15 V

Volts/Div
Setting
1V
2V
5V

Deflection

Oscilloscope
Voltage Value

10 V
15 V
22.5 V

10. Replace the variable DC power supply with a function generator as


shown in Fig. 10.1.7. Set the DMM to AC voltage measurement. Be sure
to connect the ground of the oscilloscope to the ground of the generator.
Set input coupling on the oscilloscope to ground and center the trace.
Change the input coupling to AC.
11. Set the function generator to 100 Hz. Now adjust it to display one, then
two, and then four cycles of signal. What were your horizontal timebase settings? ___________________ .
Use the trigger controls to cause the waveforms to move and then to be
stationary (synchronized).
119

Khalil Ismailov

12. Set signal generator to any frequency. Set the vertical attenuator to 0.5
V/cm. Be sure the vertical attenuator vernier control is in the CAL. position.
Measure the voltage of a 1-, 1.5-, and 2-V peak-to-peak (p-p) signal.
Trace

Oscilloscope

DMM
Output
Function
Generator
Ground

CH1
V
Ground
clip

Probe

Fig. 10.1.7. Measuring AC voltage

13. Connect the function generator to one of the inputs of the oscilloscope.
Set the vertical attenuator to 10 V/cm and AC-DC switch to DC position.
Switch the function generator on and pull out its DC OFFSET control
knob then turn slowly CW (positive volts) or CCW (negative volts).
What do you observe? ___________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
14. Flip the AC-DC switch to AC. What happens? ____________________
_______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________.
15. Set the function generator to a 2 kHz sine wave. On the oscilloscope, set
the VOLTS/DIV switch to 1 V, the Trigger to positive slope, and the time
base to 0.1 ms/Div.

120

Circuit Theory

16. Adjust the output voltage of the generator until you get a nicely sized
sine wave on the screen. Record the waveform in Fig. 10.1.8. Set the
Trigger to negative slope and record the waveform in Fig. 10.1.9. The
peak to peak voltage is: ________ V.

Volts/Div =

Time base =

Volts/Div =

Fig. 10.1.8. Positive trigger

Time base =

Fig. 10.1.9. Negative trigger

17. Set the frequency of the generator to 500 Hz and change the time base
to get 2 cycles on the screen (actually a bit more than two). Record the
waveform and the time base setting in Fig. 10.1.10.

Volts/Div =

Time base =
Fig. 10.1.10

121

Khalil Ismailov

18. Set the waveform of the generator to square wave and complete Figs.
10.1.11 and 10.1.12.

Volts/Div =

Time base =

Fig. 10.1.11. Positive trigger

Volts/Div =

Time base =

Fig. 10.1.12. Negative trigger

19. Set the waveform of the generator to triangular wave and complete
Figure 10.1.13 and 10.1.14.

Volts/Div =

Time base =

Fig. 10.1.13. SECOND DIGIT violet ger

Volts/Div =

Time base =

Fig. 10.1.14. Negative trigger

Questions
1.
2.
3.
122

Is the time-base setting important when you are measuring direct


current? Explain.
How the magnitude of the signal is determined when you take measurements of voltage from the screen?
If the vertical sensitivity is increased, it takes more signal to deflect the
beam (true/false).

Circuit Theory

Answers to Self-Test
1.

To cause the trace to be stationary

2.

To make the beam sweep across the CRT at a regular, predictable rate.
This, in turn, allows for accurate frequency measurements

3.

If there is any direct current on the same line with the low-level
alternating current and the scope is set in the DC position, the trace
may be detected off the screen. To keep the trace on the screen, the
vertical attenuator must be set so insensitively as to make the low-level
alternating current unmeasurable

4.

To make smaller

5.

Vertical, horizontal, sync, and display

6.

Sinusoidal, square-wave, and triangular waveforms for a range of


frequencies and amplitudes.

7.

Function generator, pulse generator and sweep oscillator

E X P E R I M E N T 10.2
AC VOLTAGE MEASUREMENT
1.

To learn the different AC voltage measurement methods

2.

To learn to convert from one AC measurement to another

Basic Information
Alternating current alternates, or changes, directions. It may do this
irregularly or in a regular time and pattern. Direct current never changes
direction of flow but may vary in amplitude (strength). Fig. 10.2.1 shows a
few possible AC and DC waveforms.
Since AC voltage is constantly changing between positive and negative
polarities, its ability to do work is not as great as that of steady, nonvarying
direct current. In fact, as alternating current changes from one polarity to
the other, there is an instant when no current flows. When no current flows,
no power is produced. Because of this characteristic of alternating current, it
must be measured differently from direct current.
123

Amplitude

Khalil Ismailov

+
Time

(b)

(a)

0
(c)
Fig. 10.2.1. Some samplle waveshapes

RMS Voltage
The most common method of measuring AC voltage is to use a meter to
measure root-mean-square (rms) voltage. The term rms comes from the
mathematical means of determining the effective value of voltage. The
effective value is that voltage which will do the same amount of work as a
like amount of direct current. Technically, the rms value is found by finding
the square root of the average (mean) of the squares of instantaneous
voltages taken over the period of an AC cycle. It always ends up being 0.707
of the peak voltage of a sine wave AC signal. This is illustrated in Fig. 10.2.2.
The rms voltage is specified in terms of the maximum, or peak, voltage as
Vrms = 0.707Vmax
Likewise,
Vmax = 1.414 Vrms
We have seen that alternating current is not as efficient as direct current.
Because AC voltage is constantly changing, a greater peak voltage is required
to do the same work as a lower-voltage direct current. For example, 120 V
DC will light a standard light bulb to full brightness, but it requires
approximately 170 V peak of sinusoidal alternating current to produce the
same light. If we convert the 170 V peak to rms voltage (Vms = 0.707 Vmax),
the answer is 120 V. Remember that any time you measure a sinusoidal
voltage with the typical AC voltmeter, the measurement is in rms voltage,
and the actual peak voltage is 1.414 times that reading.
124

Circuit Theory

0.707
Vrms

0.636

+Vmax (peak)

Vav

Vp-p

0
Vmax

T
Fig. 10.2.2. Voltage measurements

Peak and Average AC Measurements


Alternating current is also measured in peak volts. Fig.10.2.2 shows both
peak and peak-to-peak voltages. Because the oscilloscope draws a graph of
voltage behavior, measurements are in peak-to-peak volts or sometimes peak
volts. Some meters are available with peak and peak-to-peak scales, but most
read rms voltage. In any case, the voltages must be sinusoidal (sine waves), or
else the measurements will be inaccurate. This makes the perfect argument
for using the oscilloscope for voltage measurements since it makes accurate
measurements no matter the waveshape.
It is easy to convert from one measurement to the other. Peak-to-peak
volts is equal to
Vpp = 2peak
Peak volts is equal to
Vp =

Vp p
2

The other method is to measure the average value of the peak waveform.
The average voltage can be determined from
Vav = 0.636Vmax
Vav = 0.899Vrms
Peak voltage can also be specified in terms of Vav and Vrms as follows:
Vmax = 1.414Vrms
Vmax= 1.572Vav
125

Khalil Ismailov

It is important to understand that alternating current is also identified


as peak (Imax), rms (Irms), and average (Iav). The formulas for current are the
same as those for voltage except that I replaces V.

Frequency
Frequency is the term used to describe repetitive changes, in particular,
the number of times an occurrence happens per second. Both alternating
and direct current may have changes in amplitude occurring at a regular or
irregular rate. The number of times the change occurs per second is called
the frequency. The direct current may be caused to change amplitude or turn
on and off many times per second. Alternating current changes from
positive to negative many times each second. The number of times these
changes occur is called the frequency. The oscilloscope and frequency counter
both measure frequency.
The unit of measure for frequency used to be the cycle and was
expressed as cycles per second. This was descriptive because it indicated that
some function went through a cycle, such as alternating current going from
positive to negative. In recent years the term cycle has been replaced by the
term hertz in honor of Heinrich Hertz, a pioneer in the study of electromagnetic wave behavior.
If one cycle of the same signal occupies 8 cm on the horizontal scale
with a horizontal sensitivity of 5 s/cm, the period and frequency of the
signal can be determined using the following equations:
Period of waveform = horizontal sensitivity (s/cm) deflection (cm)
T = (5 s/cm) (8 cm) = 40 s

Summary
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

126

Alternating current alternates, or changes, directions.


Alternating current is not as efficient as direct current.
The AC voltage can be measured in peak-to-peak volts, peak volts, and
average, or rms, volts.
Most AC measurements are in rms volts. The rms voltage is the
effective voltage the amount that produces the same amount of power
as direct current. The rms voltage is 0.707peak voltage.
Because the scope graphs the voltage waveshape, it is the perfect device
for making ac voltage measurements. Meters may not be accurate when
they are used to measure other than sine wave alternating current.

Circuit Theory

6.

Frequency is the term used to describe the number of times an occurrence


happens per second. In AC measurement, frequency refers specifically
to the number of AC cycles occurring per second.

Self-Test
Check your understanding of the introductory information by answering
the following questions.
1.

The 135 V peak alternating current ________ (is, is not) as efficient as


135 V direct current in performing work.

2.

The _____________(rms, average, peak-to-peak) voltage is the most used


voltage measurement.

3.

Which measurement rms, average, or peak-to-peak is taken on the


oscilloscope?

4.

Convert 186 V p-p to rms, peak, and average voltage.

Materials Required

Oscilloscope (OS-5020)

DMM

Signal generator with sine wave output (FG-8002)

Resistor, one each, 4700 , 6800 , 10 k.

Procedure
1.

Connect the circuit in Fig. 10.2.3. With the meter adjust the generator
output for 10 V.

2.

Measure the voltage across each resistor with the meter. Record the
measurements in Table 10.2.1.

3.

Measure the voltage across each resistor with the scope. Record the
measurements in Table 10.2.1.

4.

From the scope measurements compute the rms voltage across each
resistor. Record these values in Table 10.2.1.

5.

From the scope measurements, calculate the peak and rms currents in
the circuit: Imax = ______, Irms = ______?

6.

Measure the rms current with the DMM: Irms = ______.

7.

Using the Irms figure from step 6, calculate Imax: Imax = _______.

127

Khalil Ismailov

R1
4700

SINE
WAVE
SOURCE
100 Hz

R2

6800

R3
10 k
Fig. 10.2.3. Experimental circuit

VR1

VR2

VR3

Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Table 10.2.1. Voltage Measurements

Questions
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

What was the relationship of the calculations in step 4 to the


measurements in step 2? Explain.
What was the relationship of the Irms calculation in step 5 to the Irms
measurement in step 6? Explain.
What is the mathematical relationship of the calculated Imax in step 7 to
the Irms measurement in step 6? Does this in any way relate to the Vrms
and Vmax voltages? Explain.
What was the mathematical relationship between the measurements in
steps 2 and 3? Explain.
Did the calculations and measurements in steps 5 and 6 prove that
Ohm's law works in AC circuits? Explain.

Answers to Self-Test
1.
2.
3.
4.

128

Is not
rms
Peak-to-peak
65.751 V rms, 93 V peak, 59.148 V average

EXPERIMENT

CT-11

CAPACITORS
CHARGE AND
DISCHARGE

E X P E R I M E N T 11.1
CAPACITOR CHARGE
(RC TIME CONSTANTS)
Objectives
1. To prove by experiment that the time required for capacitor charge is
directly proportional to circuit resistance and capacitance, or t = RC.

Basic Information
A capacitor is a device which stores a charge. It can be connected to a
power source and charged. When disconnected from the source, the
capacitor maintains its charge. The charge can be stored in the capacitor for
days or even weeks, depending on the type of capacitor. When the capacitor
leads are connected to a resistance or short-circuited, the stored charge
results in current flow. When all the stored charge is removed, the capacitor
is said to be discharged.
Charged capacitors can be dangerous. Sometimes capacitors in electronic
equipment maintain their charge even after the system is unplugged from
the power source. Before handling any capacitor or any circuit containing
large capacitors, you must use a voltmeter to check for stored voltages.
There are two basic types of capacitors: electrolytic and nonelectrolytic.
The electrolytic capacitor uses an insulation (dielectric) which is chemically
active. The capacitor is marked with a positive and negative lead polarity.
Because of the nature of he dielectric, the capacitor may explode if connected
129

Khalil Ismailov

to the incorrect polarity. Be sure to connect any capacitor with marked + and
leads to the correct polarity. Nonelectrolytic capacitors may be connected to the
circuit with any polarity. They have no polarity markings.
Capacitors are used to store energy, to pass alternating current, and to
block direct current. They act as filter elements, as components in tuned,
or resonant, circuits, and they are used in timing circuits.
Capacitors carry out their functions by charging and discharging. A
capacitor can store and hold an electric charge, a process called charging. The
typical technician-level explanation of charging is that if electrons are forced
onto one plate of the capacitor (Fig. 11.1.1), electrons are forced off the
other plate. This leaves an imbalance in the number of electrons, producing
a potential difference (voltage) between the two plates. Although this idea
is easily understood and seems a reasonable explanation, it is not correct.
Science has recently learned that, in reality, the charge is stored in the
capacitor dielectric (insulation between the two plates).
The capacitor continues to hold its charge as long as there is no
complete path through which it can discharge. The relationship among the
charge Q on a capacitor, the size C of capacitance, and the voltage V across C
is expressed by
Q=CV
In this formula Q is in farads, and V in volts. You can see that the larger
the C, the more coulombs the capacitor will store when it is fully charged
from a given voltage source V.
DIELECTRIC
+
+
+
+
+
+
PLATE

PLATE

Fig. 11.1.1. Early explanation of how the capacitor charges

A capacitor reaches full charge instantly when it is placed directly across


a power source. The term full charge indicates that the capacitor has charged
to the same potential as the charging source. Fig. 11.1.2a shows that the
capacitor charge polarity and the source polarity are opposing. Naturally,
when the capacitor charge potential equals that of the charging source,
130

Circuit Theory

there is no more charging current flow; a full-charge state has been


achieved. However, if a resistance is placed in series with the capacitor, a
definite, specific time is required for capacitor charge.
CAPACITOR CHARGE
+
+
+
+
+
+

SOURCE CURRENT

(a)
R
+
12 V

S2

12 V
+

WAVEFORM VR

12 V

S1
S1 AND S2 MUST NEVER BE
CLOSED AT THE SAME TIME
S2 IS FOR DISCHARCED C,
WITH S1 OPEN

WAVEFORM VC
0
S1 CLOSED
(b)

Fig. 11.1.2. (a) Capacitor charge at point A is negative. This negative charge opposes the
negative charging current. (b) Charging a capacitor

In the circuit of Fig. 11.1.2b we see a series RC circuit. Assume the


capacitor has no charge on it. Now close S1, leaving S2 open. Closing S1
provides a complete circuit for charging current. If a voltmeter were placed
across C, it would read 0 the instant S1 were closed. As C charges, the meter
reads an increasing voltage. This experiment shows that a capacitor does not
charge instantly but does indeed take time. Make careful note of the voltage
waveforms given for Vc and Vr. They are simple, but important. They usually
consist of a resistor and capacitor, as in Fig. 11.1.2b. Simply put, if the
output is taken from across the capacitor, the circuit is an integrator. If it is
taken from the resistor, the circuit is a differentiator. The integrator
integrates, or puts together, short-duration pulses into a longer one. The
differentiation takes a long duration-pulse and makes a short one.
131

Khalil Ismailov

The charge time can be calculated by the simple formula


t = RC
where R is in megohms, C in microfarads, and t in seconds. This is the
standard textbook formula, but there is a problem. The answer in seconds is
the time required for the capacitor to charge to only 63.2 percent of full
charge. If fact, with each time t the capacitor charges to 63.2 percent of the
source across it. Fig. 11.1.3 shows that after time t the capacitor in the
example circuit is charged to 63.2 V. Given that the capacitor charge and the
source charge are opposing, after time t only 36.8 V remains to continue the
charging of the capacitor. So during the second time t an additional 23.26 V
(63.2 36.8 = 23.26) of charge is added to the 63.2 V charge of the
capacitor. After 2t the charge across the capacitor is 63.2 + 23.26 = 86.46 V.
This continues until the capacitor is considered to be fully charged after five
time constants, or 5t.

% OF FULL CHARGE

CALCULATIONS ASSUME A 100 V SOURCE


V at 3t = 95 V
V at 2t = 86.5 V
(86.5 V + 63.2% of
(63.2 V + 63.2% of
remaining 13.5 V = 8.5 V
remaining 36.8 V = 23.3 V
V at 4t = 98.2 V
V at 1t = 63.2 V
(95 V + 63.2% of
(63.2 % of 100 V)
remaining 5 = 3.2 V
source
5T = 100 V
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
1t
2t
3t
4t
5t
6t
Fig. 11.1.3. Capacitor charge curve

The capacitor time constant is very useful in all areas of electronics


computers, consumer, industrial, and military electronics. Since the charge
time of a capacitor circuit can be accurately calculated, precision timing can
132

Circuit Theory

be generated for such uses as controlling the amount of time an industrial


spot welder is on. Accuracy is required since an excessive on time would
cause the welder to burn a hole in the material. Too little on time would not
allow the metal to reach welding temperature. Also, the welder must
accurately adjust for different thickness of metal to be welded. Another
more familiar use is to vary the cycle time of automobile windshield wipers
for driving in mist, fog, or snow. The uses are endless, so learn this lesson
well!

Summary
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

6.
7.

Capacitors are used to store a charge, to pass alternating current, and to


block direct current.
A capacitor can store and hold an electric charge by a process known as
charging.
The capacitor stores its charge in its dielectric.
The relationship among the charge Q on a capacitor, the size C of
capacitance, and the voltage V across C is
Q=CV
Placing a resistance in series with the capacitor slows down the charging
process. The time necessary (known as a time constant) for capacitor
charge to 63 percent of full charge is found by
t = RC
Five time constants are necessary for the capacitor to reach full charge.
The time constant is useful for generating accurate timing pulses for
electronic control circuits.

Self-Test
Check your understanding of the introductory information by answering
the following questions.
1.

In the capacitor, where is the charge stored?

2.

With a 45 V source, a 1 M resistor, and a 10 F capacitor, what is the


charge across the capacitor after 3t?

3.

How many time constants are required before the capacitor is considered
to be fully charged?

4.

What is the time constant of a 470 k resistor in series with a 0.001 F


capacitor?
133

Khalil Ismailov

Materials Required

Square wave generator


Scope
Capacitor, 0.01 F
Resistor, 100 k

Procedure
1.

Connect the circuit shown in Fig. 11.1.4a. The capacitor is charged and
discharged with a square wave. By observing the waveform across C,
you can determine charge characteristics. The waveform is shown in
Fig. 11.1.4b.
5 Vp-p
SQUARE
WAVE
f = SEE
STEP 2

100 k
0.01 F
GND
(a)
CYCLE
TIME

INPUT
WAVEFORM

tp
DISCHARGE
TIME

CAPACITOR
WAVEFORM
CHARGE
TIME

(b)

2t 4t
t 3t 5t

Fig. 11.1.4. Experimental circuit

2. Calculate the time constant of the experimental circuit: t =_______ s.


Adjust the square wave generator for an output with a pulse time equal
to 6t. For example, if t = 2 ms, the pulse time tp in Fig. 11.1.4 is 6 2 =
12 ms. The generator frequency is calculated from
2 12 ms = 24 ms (2 tp = cycle time)
134

Circuit Theory

and the generator frequency can be determined by

f =

1
1
=
= 41.6 Hz
2 t p 0.024

3.

Adjust the scope horizontal sweep rate to 1 ms/cm, and position the
trace so the capacitor charge time begins at a vertical graticule line.

4.

Adjust the vertical position control so the bottom of the waveform sits
on a horizontal line near the bottom of the screen. Adjust the vertical
attenuator so the trace fills the screen.

5.

Read the scope as you would read the graph in Fig. 11.1.4. Determine
the capacitor charge after t, 2t, 3t, 4t, and 5t.

6.

For the experimental circuit, calculate the capacitor charge after t, 2t, 3t,
4t, and 5t.

Questions
1.
2.
3.

Compare the results of steps 5 and 6.


Graph the results of step 5.
Graph the results of step 6. Superimpose this graph over the graph
drawn in question 2. Label or color the graphs so you can tell them
apart.

Answers to Self-test
1.
2.
3.
4.

Dielectric
42.76
5t
0.47 ms, or 470 s

135

Khalil Ismailov

E X P E R I M E N T 11.2
CAPACITOR DISCHARGE TIME CONSTANTS
Objective
1. To prove that capacitor discharge follows the same time-constant patterns
as capacitor charge

Basic Information
We have seen how the capacitor charges. We know that the time
necessary for a capacitor to reach full charge depends on the circuit resistance
and the capacitance. In this experiment you will see that the law which
governs capacitor discharge is the same one which governs capacitor charge.
A capacitor discharges instantly if zero resistance is in the discharge
path, as shown in Fig. 11.2.1. When a capacitor is charged and the leads are
short-circuited, all the capacitor charge is conducted across the short circuit,
resulting in an arc. If the capacitor is large enough, the leads may be welded
together as the arc occurs. If a resistance is placed between the capacitor
leads, the discharge current is limited and a specific amount of time is required to discharge the capacitor.

Fig. 11.2.1. A spark sometimes occurs as the leads of a charged


capacitor are short-circuited
CAUTION. Do

not play with capacitors in order to watch the sparks or to


shock others. Charged capacitors can be dangerous.
Fig. 11.2.2 shows a capacitor discharge curve. Does it look familiar? It
should, because it is the capacitor charge curve turned upside down. In the
first time constant t, the capacitor loses 63.2 percent of its charge. With a
100 V original charge the capacitor will lose 63.2 V of charge in t it will
retain 36.8 V of charge. During time 2t it loses 63.2 percent of the remaining
charge (0.63.236.8 = 23.3 V). This means that at time 2t capacitor has lost
63.2 + 23.3 = 86.5 V. The remaining charge is 13.5 V. This pattern
continues until the capacitor is considered fully discharged after 5t.
136

Circuit Theory
1t

2t

3t

4t

5t

6t

% OF FULL CHARGE

100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
V at 1t =100 V
63.2 V = 36.8 V

V at 5t = 0 V
V at 4t=4.97 V3.14 V=1.83 V

V at 2t =36.8 V
23.3 V = 13.5 V

V at 3t = 13.5 V 8.53 V = 4.97 V


Fig. 11.2.2. Capacitor discharge curve

Summary
1.
2.
3.

A capacitor discharges instantly when its leads are short-circuited.


Discharge is slowed down if a resistance is placed in series with the
capacitor.
Capacitor discharge follows the same laws as capacitor charge. The
discharge time constant is calculated by t=RC. In one time t the capacitor
charge falls by 63 percent.

Self-Test
Check your understanding of the introductory information by answering
the following questions.
1.
2.
3.
4.

To what law does capacitor discharge adhere?


After 2t, how much charge remains on a capacitor in a circuit with 1
M, 0.033 F, and a 36 V original charge?
Why are charged capacitors dangerous?
How long will it take for a 0.0047 F capacitor in series with a 100 k
resistor to be considered fully discharged?

Materials Required

Square wave generator with 0- to + 5 V square wave output


Oscilloscope
137

Khalil Ismailov

Capacitor, 0.01 F
Resistor, 100 k

Procedure
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.

Connect the circuit of Fig. 11.2.3.


Calculate the time constant of the experimental circuit: t =________ s.
Adjust the square wave generator for an output pulse time equal to 6t.
Adjust the scope horizontal sweep rate to 1 ms/cm, and position the
trace so the capacitor discharge time begins at a vertical graticule line.
Adjust the vertical position control so the top of the waveform rests on a
horizontal line near the top of the screen. Adjust the vertical attenuator
so the trace fills the screen.
Read the scope as you would the graph in Fig. 11.2.2. Determine the
capacitor charge after t, 2t, 3t, 4t, and 5t.
Calculate the capacitor charge for the experimental circuit after t, 2t, 3t,
4t, and 5t.
If you have a dual-trace scope, superimpose the source square wave
signal over the capacitor discharge curve and vary the source frequency.
What do you observe as the frequency is increased? As the frequency is
decreased?
0 to +5 V
SQUARE
WAVE

100 k
0.01 F
GND
Fig. 11.2.3. Experimental circuit

Questions
1.

Did your calculated C1 charge agree with the measured charge voltages?
Explain.

2.

If R in the experimental circuit were changed to a lower value and later


to a higher value (with the frequency left constant), what would happen?
Compare your answer to your findings in step 7.

138

Circuit Theory

Answers to Self-test
1.
2.
3.

4.

t = RC, the same as charging


4.9 V
A charged capacitor is a power source and so can be dangerous. The
amount of shock which can be received depends on the voltage to
which the capacitor is charged and the capacitance of the capacitor.
0.00235 s, or 2.35 ms

139

EXPERIMENT

CT-12

FILTER
CIRCUITS

E X P E R I M E N T 12.1
HIGH-PASS FILTERS
Objective
1.

To determine by experiment the frequency response of a high-pass filter

Basic Information
Frequency Filters
Frequently, electronic signals consist of more than one frequency
component. A good example is the amplitude modulation (AM) radio
broadcast signal. The AM broadcast signal begins as a high-frequency
(between 540 and 1620 kHz) radio frequency signal called a carrier wave. It
is then made to change amplitude at an audio rate by modulating it with
voice, music, etc. This modulating process is called amplitude modulation
because the carrier wave is made to change amplitude at the audio rate. As a
result of modulation, the broadcast signal is composed of a high-frequency
carrier and many audio frequencies. In the receiver, there comes the time
when the high-frequency carrier has served its purpose. It has carried the
low-frequency intelligence from the station to the home receiver low
frequencies do not travel as well as high frequencies, so a carrier is used.
At this point the carrier is removed to allow the receiver circuits to put all
their energy into amplifying only the audio. There are numerous other
examples of complex frequency mixes in electronic communications. In all
cases, frequency-selective filters are used to separate the unwanted and
wanted signals. Once they are separated, the wanted signals are passed on
to their processing circuits.
140

Circuit Theory

There are different types of filters. Some are active, using transistors and
integrated circuits (ICs). Others are passive, using coils and capacitors. In
each type there are two other categories. The narrowband filter allows a
single frequency or a very narrow band of frequencies to pass. The wideband,
or broadband, filter allows a wide band of signals to pass. Now, within these
two categories there are two others: the high-pass and the low-pass filters. The
high-pass filter allows high frequencies to pass while the low-pass filter
allows the lower frequencies to pass.

High-Pass Filters
You have seen the characteristics of circuits containing coils, capacitors,
and resistors. Both series and parallel LC circuits are used as filters. The
resistive element determines the bandwidth.
Theoretically, a capacitor offers an infinite reactance to a zero-frequency
(dc) signal. So, if a capacitor is placed in series with the signal containing
both a dc and an ac component, the dc component will not pass it will be
blocked. Fig. 12.1.1 illustrates this action. We also know that XC varies
inversely with frequency. Engineers use this characteristic of capacitors to
produce filters which pass some frequencies but not others. An example is
shown in the circuit of Fig. 12.1.2. The amount of ac signal voltage
coupled from the source to the resistive load RL is
VR = Vcos = V (R/Z)
where
= arctan(XC/R)
+3

+1

A
C

+2
+1
(a)

RL

0
0

1
(b)

(c)

Fig. 12.1.1. Capacitors offer infinite Z to direct current;


(a) A +2 V dc source with 2 V p-p superimposed on it the result is a signal
varying from +1 to +3 V.
(b) If the signal in (a) is applied at points A and B, capacitor C blocks the dc
but allows the ac power to pass.
(c) The output signal across RL is minus its original dc component and is a
pure ac voltage.

141

Khalil Ismailov

Naturally, the angle depends on the values of R and C and the applied
frequency. If we assume three frequencies are being applied from the source
at 200, 2000, and 20 000 Hz, we can see that the values of XC at the respective frequencies are 79 617.8, 7961.78, and 796.178 . If we look at the XC as
being an opposition in series with RL, at 200 Hz the signal across RL is about
1 percent of the applied signal. At 2000 Hz the signal across RL is about 12
percent of the applied signal. And at 20 kHz the signal across RL is 78
percent. The amount of signal passed to RL through C increases as the source
frequency increases. This is a very simple high-pass filter.

0.1

C
R

100

OUTPUT

OUTPUT

Fig. 12.1.2. A simple high-pass filter circuit

The circuit of Fig. 12.1.2(a) can be made into a better filter by adding an
inductor in parallel with RL. The inductor has a low Z at the low frequencies.
So it reduces the signal output voltage across RL at frequencies for which XL
is less than 0.1RL. This is an approximate figure which uses a rule of
thumb of one-tenth (0.1). When one parallel component has an opposition
less than one-tenth that of the larger, the circuit Z is so close to that of the
smaller opposition that the higher-value opposition is considered infinite.
This rule is used in many places in electronic circuits. At higher frequencies
where XL is greater than 0.1RL, the Z of the parallel circuit consisting of RL
and L approaches R. Thus the load value will go no higher than R. The result
of the inclusion of L is that at lower frequencies the load circuit consisting of
RL and L has a very low Z. With a low Z, there is little signal voltage drop
across the RLL circuit. The output of the filter is very low. At higher
frequencies, which the capacitor passes easily, the XL increases but the
combination of RL and L never exhibits more Z than the value of R. So the
high frequencies are dropped across the RLL circuit where they can be
taken for the input of a following circuit. The result of the added coil is a
more efficient high-pass filter.
Figure 12.1.3 illustrates the response curve of a high-pass filter. The
filter cutoff point is the frequency where Vout is less than 70.7 percent of the
maximum output. Note that this is the frequency which causes XC to equal
R. You might think this a little strange equal oppositions, yet approximately
142

Circuit Theory

70 percent of the input signal is dropped across the resistor. But remember
the phase relationship between the inductor and the resistor. When XC = R,
= tanXC/R, and VR = Vcos. Actually 70.7 percent of the input signal also
appears across C. When vectorially summed VC and VR equal 100 percent of
the input signal.
Vout
100%
70.7%

Cut-off
frequency

Frequency

Fig. 12.1.3. A high-pass filter response curve

Summary
1.
2.

Frequently signals consist of more than one frequency.


As a result of amplitude modulation, the broadcast signal is composed
of the carrier and many other frequencies.
3. An active filter uses transistors and ICs.
4. A passive filter uses coils and capacitors.
5. A low-pass filter passes the low frequencies while stopping the high
frequencies.
6. A high-pass filter is the opposite of the low-pass filter.
7. Both series and parallel LC circuits are used as filters.
8. When one parallel component has an opposition less than one-tenth
that of the larger, the circuit Z is so close to that of the smaller
opposition that the higher opposition is considered infinite.
9. A filter cutoff point is the frequency where Vout is less than 70.7 percent
of the maximum output.
10. The cutoff point of the high-pass filter can be sharpened with the
addition of a parallel inductor.

Self-Test
Check your understanding of the introductory information by answering
the following questions.
143

Khalil Ismailov

1.

What are the two major categories of filters?

2.

A filter used to suppress high frequencies and pass low frequencies is a


_____-pass filter.

3.

A filter used to pass the entire TV broadcast band but exclude all other
frequencies is called a ______________ filter.

4.

Passive filter circuits are made of what components?

5.

Which is a high-pass filter by itself the series capacitor or the series


coil?

Materials Required

DMM
Audio signal generator
Resistor, 10 k
Capacitor, 0.1 F
Inductor, 7 to 8 H

Procedure
1. Connect the circuit shown in Fig. 12.1.4.
2. Measure the source voltage Vs: _______ V.
3. Measure the output voltage V0 across RL, and record V0 at each frequency
listed in Table 12.1.1.
NOTE: Because the filter circuit changes impedance with the change in
input frequencies, the generator will see a varying load. This causes its
output voltage to vary. At each V0 measurement, check Vs and, if
necessary, adjust it to maintain a constant 7-V rms output.
4. Connect an inductor of 7 to 8 H across RL and repeat steps 2 and 3.
5. Draw a graph of frequency versus V0 for both circuits. Label the graphs
without L and with L.
C
50 V
~
7 Vrms

0.1 F

RL
10 000

Fig. 12.1.4. Experimental circuit

144

Vout

Circuit Theory
Frequency, Hz

V0 rms
Without L
With L

50
120
180
240
360
540
780
1140
1680
2460
3600
Table 12.1.1. High-Pass Filter Measurements

Questions
1.

In filters we consider the frequency at which the output falls to 70.7


percent of the maximum output, to be the cutoff point. What was the
cutoff frequency of both experimental circuits? Without L: ______ Hz;
with L: ______ Hz.

2.

What was XC at the cutoff frequency?

3.

Explain the effect of adding the inductor to the filter circuit.

Answers to self test


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Active and passive


Low
Broadband
Reactive components (capacitors and coils)
Capacitor

145

Khalil Ismailov

E X P E R I M E N T 12.2
LOW-PASS FILTERS
Objective
1.

To determine experimentally the frequency response of a low-pass filter

Basic Information
In Exp. 12.2.1 we saw a simple high-pass filter with the characteristic
series capacitor. We also saw that the cutoff point of the filter could be
sharpened with the addition of a parallel inductor.
The low-pass filter has opposite characteristics from the high-pass filter.
Because XC and XL are opposite in nature, you will recognize the low-pass
filter as having a series inductor and perhaps an additional parallel
capacitor. Examples of these circuits are seen in Figs. 12.2.1 and 12.2.2.
The inductor in Fig. 12.2.1 is used to pass low frequencies, but its
reactance causes it to have a high Z to high frequencies, thus blocking them.
As in the case of the RC high-pass circuit, the RL low-pass circuit is an ac
voltage divider. The amplitude of signal voltage applied to RL depends on XL,
R, and f. As f increases, XL increases and the voltage across R decreases. As f
decreases, XL decreases and the voltage across R increases. This is the
desired behavior of a low-pass filter.

RL

Vout

Fig. 12.2.1. The low-pass filter

With the addition of C as illustrated in Fig. 12.2.2, the sharpness of


response rolloff is enhanced. With XC decreasing as f increases, the Z of the
parallel combination of C and RL decreases. The result is an even lower highfrequency output than before, because of the lowered circuit output Z.

Summary
1.
2.
146

The RL low-pass circuit is an ac voltage divider.


The low-pass filter has a series inductor and perhaps an additional
parallel capacitor.

Circuit Theory

3.

Additional capacitance can be added to the low-pass filter to increase


the sharpness of the rolloff.
Roll-off
Without C
L
4H
Roll-off
~

C
0.01

RL
Vout
10 k

(a)

With C
(b)

Fig. 12.2.2. (a) Enhanced low-pass filter;


(b) The parallel capacitor creates a sharper response curve rolloff

Self-Test
Check your understanding of the introductory information by answering
the following questions.
1. In a low-pass filter, is the inductor in series or parallel?
2. If the filter circuit were placed in parallel with the signal line, which
component could be used to create a low-pass filter?
3. If a resistor were placed in parallel with the inductor in Fig. 12.2.1, what
would the result be?
4. At 50 Hz, what is the approximate output Z of the filter circuit in Fig.
12.2.2?

Materials Required

Oscilloscope
Audio signal generator
Resistor, 10 k
Inductor, 7 to 8 H
Capacitor, 0.1 F

Procedure
1.
2.

Connect the circuit of Fig. 12.2.3.


Measure the source voltage Vs: _______ V.
147

Khalil Ismailov

3.

4.
5.

Measure the output voltage V0 across RL, and record V0 at each frequency
listed in Table 12.2.1.
NOTE: Because the filter circuit changes impedance with the change in
input frequencies, the generator will see a varying load. This causes its
output voltage to vary. At each V0 measurement, check Vs and, if
necessary, adjust it to maintain a constant 7-V rms output.
Connect a 0.1-F capacitor across RL and repeat steps 2 and 3.
Draw a graph of frequency versus V0 for each circuit. Label the graphs
without C and with C.
L
7-8 H
7 V rms
20 Hz

RL
Vout
10 k

Fig. 12.2.3. Experimental circuit

Frequency, Hz

V0 rms
Without C
With C

20
40
80
120
200
320
520
840
1260
1800
2640
3280
Table 12.2.1. Low-Pass Filter Measurements

Questions

What was the cutoff frequency for both circuits?

What was XL at cutoff frequency?

Explain the effect of adding C in parallel with the load resistor.

148

Circuit Theory

Answers to Self-Test
1. Series
2. Capacitor. The capacitor in parallel with the signal line would allow the
higher frequencies to go to ground. It would exhibit a high Z to low
frequencies, thus causing them to be input to the following circuit
3. A slower rolloff
4. 10 k

149

REFERENCES
1. Robert L. Boylestad, Introductory Circuit Analysis, 11/e, Pearson
Education, Inc., 2007
2. Jim Gregorec, The Basics of Digital Multimeters, Electrical Construction &
Maintenance (EC&M) magazine,
http://ecmweb.com/mag/electric_basics_digital_multimeters/index.html,
Due 05.01.09
3. John Hewes, Electronic Components,
http://www.kpsec.freeuk.com/compon.htm, Due 01.12.08
4. Electronix Express/RSR Electronics Inc., http://www.elexp.com, Due
05.12.08.
5. Agilent Technologies, Manuals,
http://www.home.agilent.com/agilent/home.jspx, Due 13.12.08
6. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, Inductor,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inductor, Due 08.01.09
7. V. Ryan, Breadboards,
http://www.technologystudent.com/elec1/bread1.htm, 2002, Due 17.02.09

150

APPENDIX A
Product descriptions and performance characteristics of the
multimeters MASTECH MY-64 and MY-68, and ProsKit 3PK600T
These multimeters have been designed according to IEC-1010 concerning
electronic measuring instruments with an overvoltage category (Cat II) and
pollution 2.
Follow all safety and operating instructions to ensure that the meter is
used safely and is kept in good operating condition.
When using the meter, the user must observe all normal safety rules
concerning:
- Protection against the dangers of electrical current.
- Protection of the meter against misuse.
Full compliance with safety standards can be guaranteed only if used
with test leads supplied. If necessary, they must be replaced with the same
model or same electric ratings. Measuring leads must be in good condition.

During Use

Never exceed the protection limit values indicated in specifications for


each range of measurement.

When the meter is linked to a measurement circuit, do not touch unused


terminals.

When the value scale to be measured is unknown beforehand, set the


range selector at the highest position.

Before rotating the range selector to change functions, disconnect test


leads from the circuit under test.

When carrying out measurements on TV or switching power circuits,


always remember that there may be high amplitude voltages pulses at
test points which can damage the meter.

Never perform resistance measurements on live circuits.

Never perform capacitance measurements unless the capacitor to be


measured has been discharged fully.

Always be careful when working with voltages above 60 V dc or 30 V ac


rms. Keep fingers behind the probe barriers while measuring.
151

Khalil Ismailov

MASTECH MY-64
Product Description
This meter is one of a series handhold measuring instrument, capable of
performing functions:
-

DC and AC voltage measurement


DC and AC current measurement
Resistance measurement
Capacitance measurement
Diode and transistor test
Audible continuity test
Frequency measurement
Temperature measurement

There are different functions and 32 ranges provided. A rotary switch is


used to select functions as well as ranges. The DMM has 3 digits LCD with
a maximum reading of 1999. When only the figure 1 is displayed, it
indicates overrange situation and the higher range has to be selected.
A push-push switch is used to turn the meter on or off. To extend the
battery life, Auto power Off function is provided. The meter will be turned
off automatically within around 40 minutes. To turn on the meter again,
push the power switch to release it and then push it once more.
This meter has four input jacks that are protected against overload to the
limits shown. During use connect the black test lead to COM jack and
connect red lead depending on the function selected.
FUNCTION
200 mV
V
&V~
Hz

mA
& mA ~
20 A
& 20 A ~

152

RED LEAD
CONNECTION
V Hz
V Hz
V Hz
V Hz
V Hz
mA
A

INPUT LIMITS
250 V dc or rms ac
1000 V dc, 700 v ac (sine)
250 V dc or rms ac
250 V dc or rms ac
250 V dc or rms ac
200 mA dc or rms ac
10 A dc or rms ac continuous
20 A for 15 seconds maximum

mA/F (200mA/250 V) ranges are protected by fuse A (unfused).


Before attempting to insert transistor, capacitor, thermocouple for
testing, always be sure that test leads have been disconnected from any
measurement circuits.

Circuit Theory

Components should not be connected to the hFE and capacitor socket


and the thermocouple has been removed when making voltage
measurements with test leads.

Digital Multimeter MY-64

Digital Multimeter MY-64

Performance Characteristics of the MY-64

DC voltage

AC voltage
(Frequency range
40 Hz to 400 Hz)
DC Current

RANGE
200 mV
2V
20 V
200 V
1000 V
200 mV
2V
20 V
200 V
700 V
2 mA
20 mA

RESOLUTION
0.1 mV
1 mV
10 mV
100 mV
1V
0.1 mV
1 mV
10 mV
100 mV
1V
1 A
10 A

ACCURACY
0.5% of rdg 1 digit
0.8% of rdg 2 digits
1.2% of rdg 3 digits
0.8% of rdg 3 digits
1.2% of rdg 3 digits
0.8% of rdg 1 digit
153

Khalil Ismailov

AC Current
(Frequency range
40 Hz to 400 Hz)

Resistance

Capacitance

Frequency

Temperature

Diode Test
Continuity Test
Transistor Test

200 mA
10 A
2 mA
20 mA
200 mA
10 A
200
2 k
20 k
200 k
2 M

0.1 mA
10 mA
1 A
10 A
0.1 mA
10 mA
0.1
1
10
100
1 k

20 M

10 k

200 M

100 k

2 nF
20 nF
200 nF
2 F
20 F
2 kHz
20 kHz

1 pF
10 pF
0.1 nF
1 nF
10 nF
1 Hz
10 Hz

20 C
to 1000
C

1 C

1.5% of rdg 1 digit


2.0% of rdg 5 digits
1.0% of rdg 3 digits
1.8% of rdg 3 digits
3% of rdg 7 digits
0.8% of rdg 3 digits
0.8% of rdg 1 digit

1% of rdg 2 digits
5.0% of (rdg 10
digits) 10 digits

4% of rdg 3 digits

2% of rdg 5 digits
1.5% of rdg 5 digits
5.0% of rdg 4 digits
(From 20 C to 0 C)
1.0% of rdg 3 digits
(From 0 C to 400 C)
2.0% of rdg
(From 400 C to 1000 C)

Test Voltage: 2.8 V


Maximum Test Current: 1 mA
When the resistance is less than 50 , the built-in buzzer
sounds
Display approximate hFE value of transistor under test
(npn and pnp). Base current approximately 10 A, VCE
approximately 3.2 V.

ACCURACY IS GIVEN AS (% OF READING PLUS NUMBER OF LEAST


SIGNIFICANT DIGITS) AT 18C TO 28C WITH RELATIVE HUMIDITY UP TO
80% FOR A PERIOD OF ONE YEAR AFTER CALIBRATION.

154

Circuit Theory

MASTECH MY-68
Product Description
This meter is an autoranging professional measuring instrument with
3 digit LCD, capable of performing functions:
-

DC voltage measurement
AC voltage measurement
DC current measurement
AC current measurement
Resistance measurement
Capacitance measurement
Frequency measurement
Diode test
Transistor test
Audible continuity test

Range for AC/DC voltage, AC/DC current


(A and mA only), resistance and Frequency
measuring can be selected manually or handled
by autoranging. Push Range Control Button to
choose range control mode and desired ranges
(push for over 3 sec for Auto Ranging and for
less than 1 sec for Manual Ranging).
When DATA H Button (Data Hold) is
pushed, the display will show the last reading Digital Multimeter MY-68
and D-H symbol will appear untill pushing it
again. Data holding will be cancelled automatically when the function
switch is rotated.
When OL is displayed, it indicates overrange situation and the higher
range has to be selected for manual ranging.
This meter has four input jacks that are protected against overload to
the limits shown. During use connect the black test lead to COM jack and
connect red lead depending on the function selected.

155

Khalil Ismailov
FUNCTION
DCV/ACV
kHz
/ /
A/mA
nF/F
A

RED LEAD
CONNECTION
VF
VF
VF
mA CX

INPUT LIMITS
1000 V dc, 750 V rms ac
250 V dc or rms ac
250 V dc or rms ac
300 mA dc or rms ac

mA CX

300 mA fuse protected

10 A dc or rms ac

A/mA and A ranges are protected by fuses.

Before attempting to insert transistor, capacitor, thermocouple for


testing, always be sure that test leads have been disconnected from any
measurement circuits.

Components should not be connected to the hFE and capacitor socket


and the thermocouple has been removed when making voltage
measurements with test leads.

Performance Characteristics of the MY-68

DC voltage

AC voltage

DC Current

AC Current

156

RANGE
326 mV
3.26 V
32.6 V

RESOLUTION
0.1 mV
1 mV
10 mV

326 V
1000 V
3.26 V
32.6 V
326 V
750 V
326 A
3.26 mA
32.6 mA
326 mA
10 A
326 A
3.26 mA
32.6 mA
326 mA
10 A

100 mV
1V
1 mV
10 mV
100 mV
1V
0.1 A
1 A
10 A
100 A
10 mA
0.1 A
1 A
10 A
100 A
10 mA

ACCURACY
0.5% of rdg 2 digits
0.3% of rdg 2 digits
5% of rdg 2 digits
0.8% of rdg 3 digits

1.2% of rdg 3 digits


2% of rdg 3 digits
1.5% of rdg 5 digits

3% of rdg 7 digits

Circuit Theory

Resistance

326
3.26 k
32.6 k

0.1
1
10

326 k

100

3.26 M

1 k

0.8% of rdg 3 digits

0.8% of rdg 1digit

1.2% of rdg 2 digits


32.6 M
10 k
326 nF
0.1 nF
4% of rdg 2 digits
Capacitance
10 nF
32.6 F
32.6 kHz
10 Hz
1.2% of rdg 3 digits
Frequency
150 kHz
100 Hz
2.5% of rdg 3 digits
TEST VOLTAGE: 2.8 V
Diode Test
MAXIMUM TEST CURRENT: 1 mA
Continuity
When the resistance is less than 50 , the built-in buzzer
Test
sounds
Display approximate hFE value of transistor under test (npn
Transistor
and pnp). Base current approximately 10 A, VCE
Test
approximately 3.2 V.
ACCURACY IS GIVEN AS (% OF READING PLUS NUMBER OF LEAST
SIGNIFICANT DIGITS) AT 18C TO 28C WITH RELATIVE HUMIDITY UP
TO 80% FOR A PERIOD OF ONE YEAR AFTER CALIBRATION.

ProsKit 3PK-600T
Product Description
This meter is a portable professional measuring instrument with 3
digit LCD (with a maximum reading of 1999), capable of performing
functions:
- DC voltage measurement, 5 ranges from 200 mV to 1000 V
- AC voltage measurement, 5 ranges from 200 mV to 700 V
- DC current measurement, 7 ranges from 20 A to 10 A
- AC current measurement, 5 ranges from 2 mA to 10 A
- Resistance measurement, 7 ranges from 200 to 200 M
- Diode test
- Transistor test
- Audible continuity test
- Temperature measurement
157

Khalil Ismailov

There are 9 functions and 32 ranges provided. A rotary switch is used to


select functions as well as ranges. When only the figure 1 is displayed, it
indicates overrange situation and the higher range has to be selected.
A push-push switch is used to turn the meter on or off. To extend the
battery life, Auto power Off function is provided. The meter will be turned
off automatically within around 40 minutes. To turn on the meter again,
push the power switch to release it and then push it once more.
This meter has four input jacks that are protected against overload to
the limits shown. During use connect the black test lead to COM jack and
connect red lead depending on the function selected.
FUNCTION
200 mV /200 mv ~
V /V~

/
A /A
10 A / 10 A ~

RED LEAD
CONNECTION
V
V
V
V
A
10 A

Digital Multimeter 3PK-600T

158

INPUT LIMITS
250 V dc or rms ac
1000 V dc, 700 v ac (sine)
250 V dc or rms ac
250 V dc or rms ac
2 A dc or rms ac
10 A dc or rms ac

Digital Multimeter 3PK-600T

Circuit Theory

Performance Characteristics of the 3PK-600T

DC voltage

AC voltage
(Frequency
range 40 Hz to
400 Hz)

DC Current

AC Current
(Frequency
range 40 Hz to
400 Hz)

Resistance

Temperature

RANGE
200 mV
2V
20 V
200 V
1000 V
200 mV
2V
20 V
200 V
700 V
20 A
200 A
2 mA
20 mA
200 mA
2A
10 A
2 mA
20 mA
200 mA
2A
10 A
200
2 k
20 k
200 k
2 M
20 M

RESOLUTION
0.1 mV
1 mV
10 mV
100 mV
1V
0.1 mV
1 mV
10 mV
100 mV
1V
0.01 A
0.1 A
1 A
10 A
0.1 mA
1 mA
10 mA
1 A
10 A
0.1 mA
1 mA
10 mA
0.1
1
10
100
1 k
10 k

200 M

100 k

20 nF
200 nF
2 F
20 F
20 kHz

10 pF
0.1 nF
1 nF
10 nF
10 Hz

20 C to
1000 C

1 C

ACCURACY
0.5% of rdg 1 digit
0.8% of rdg 2 digits
1.2% of rdg 3 digits
0.8% of rdg 3 digits
1.2% of rdg 3 digits
2% of rdg 5 digit
0.8% of rdg 1 digit
1.5% of rdg 1 digit
2.0% of rdg 5 digits
1.0% of rdg 3 digits
1.8% of rdg 3 digits
3% of rdg 7 digits
0.8% of rdg 3 digits
0.8% of rdg 1 digit
1% of rdg 2 digits
5.0% of (rdg 10
digits) 10 digits

1.5% of rdg 5 digits


5.0% of rdg 4 digits
(From 20 C to 0 C)
1.0% of rdg 3 digits
(From 0 C to 400 C)
2.0% of rdg
(From 400 C to 1000 C)

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Khalil Ismailov
Test Voltage: 3.2 V
Maximum Test Current: 1 mA
Display approximate hFE value of transistor under test (npn
Transistor Test
and pnp). Base current approximately 10 A, VCE
approximately 3.2 V.
When the resistance is less than 70 , the built-in buzzer
Continuity Test
sounds
ACCURACY IS GIVEN AS (% OF READING PLUS NUMBER OF LEAST
SIGNIFICANT DIGITS) AT 18C TO 28C WITH RELATIVE HUMIDITY UP TO 80%
FOR A PERIOD OF ONE YEAR AFTER CALIBRATION.
Diode Test

160

APPENDIX B
EZ Digital GP4303TP Digital DC Power Supply
GP-4303-TP is a 3-channel linear DC power supply. It has two continuously variable (0-30 V, 0-3A) DC output and one fixed 5 V, 2 A output.
Description

Triple Output (Two variable and one fixed)


Output Voltage: 0~30 V (Two), 5 V (One)
Output Current: 0~3 A (Two), 2 A (One)
Output Polarity: Positive and Negative
Low ripple voltage less than 3 mVp-p
Built-in 3 digit Green LED display
Series and Parallel operation available
Constant current and constant voltage operation
Overload protection circuit

Specifications
Channel:
Output voltage:

Output current:
Output Polarity:

Three Channel (two variable, one fixed)


0 ~ +30 V 0 ~ -30 V (continuously variable)
0 ~ 60 V (serial operation)
5 V (fixed)
0 ~ 3 A (continuously variable)
0 ~ 6 A (parallel operation)
2 A (fixed)
Positive and Negative

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Ripple Voltage
Output Stability
Voltmeter:
Compensation/
Protection Circuit:
Power Source
Dimension:
Weight:

162

Less than 3 mVp-p


Less than 0.01%+2 mV for power source voltage
change of 10% less than 0.01%+3 mV for load
variation of 0 to 100%
LED digital display voltmeter Accuracy of (1% + 1
digit)
Overload protection circuit of constant current selfrestoring type
AC 90-132 V or AC 198-264 V, 50/60 Hz
235145380 mm
11.5 kg

APPENDIX C
The Breadboard
A breadboard is used to make up temporary circuits for testing or to try
out an idea. No soldering is required so it is easy to change connections and
replace components. Parts will not be damaged so they will be available to
re-use afterwards.
The breadboard derives its name from an early form of point-to-point
construction. In the early days of radio, amateurs would nail copper wire or
terminal strips to a wooden board (often literally a board for cutting bread),
and solder electronic components to them. Sometimes a paper schematic
diagram was first glued to the board as a guide to placing terminals,
components and wires.
The heart of the solderless breadboard is a small metal clip that looks
like as in Fig. C.1:

Fig. C.1. Socket and bus strips

The clip is made of nickel silver (which like mock turtle soup, contains
no silver), a material which is reasonably conductive, reasonably springy,
and reasonably corrosion resistant. Because each of the pairs of fingers is
independent we can insert the end of a wire between any pair without
reducing the tension in any of the other fingers. Hence each pair can hold a
wire with maximum tension.
To make a breadboard, an array of these clips is embedded in a plastic
block which holds them in place and insulates them from each other (Fig.
C.2).
In general the breadboard consists of two terminal strips and two bus
strips. Each bus strip has two rows of contacts. Each of the two rows of
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Khalil Ismailov

contacts is a node. That is, each contact along a row on a bus strip is
connected together (inside the breadboard). Bus strips are used primarily for
power supply connections, but are also used for any node requiring a large
number of connections.
To use the breadboard, the legs of components are placed in the holes
(the sockets). The holes are made so that they will hold the component in
place. Each hole is connected to one of the metal strips running underneath
the board.

Fig. C.2. Embedded clips

Using strips, buses, and jumper wires you can construct a circuit on your
breadboard. You can tell which holes are connected in one node by the black
lines connecting them in Fig. A3. There are the component connection strips
that run up and down and buses labeled with an A or B. After examining
Fig. C.3 the use of a breadboard should be intuitive.

Fig. C.3. A schematic diagram of the breadboard showing buses and strips.

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Circuit Theory

On larger breadboards there may be a break halfway along the top and
bottom power supply rows. It is a good idea to link across the gap before you
start to build a circuit, otherwise you may forget and part of your circuit will
have no power!
Some components such as switches and variable resistors do not have
suitable leads of their own so you must solder some on yourself (Fig. C.4).
Use single-core plastic-coated wire of 0.6 mm diameter (the standard size).
Stranded wire is not suitable because it will crumple when pushed into a
hole and it may damage the board if strands break off.

Fig. C.4. A switch with soldered wire leads.

Breadboard Examples
Example 1. Given the circuit below:
R7
R5

DC
Source

R6

R2
R1

R4
R3
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This would be implemented as:


R7

+
DC
Source

R5

R6
R4

R1
R3
R2

Example 1. Diagram below shows how a 380 ohm resistor and an LED are
setup on a breadboard.

166

APPENDIX D
Resistors
A resistor is a two-terminal electronic component designed to oppose
an electric current by producing a voltage drop between its terminals in
proportion to the current, that is, in accordance with Ohms law: V = IR. The
resistance R is equal to the voltage drop V across the resistor divided by the
current I through the resistor. Resistors are used as part of electrical
networks and electronic circuits. Resistors restrict the flow of electric
current, for example a resistor is placed in series with a light-emitting diode
(LED) to limit the current passing through the LED.
Practical resistors can be made of resistive wire, and various compounds
and films, and they can be integrated into hybrid and printed circuits. Size,
and position of leads are relevant to equipment designers; resistors must be
physically large enough not to overheat when dissipating their power.
Resistance is measured in ohms, the symbol for ohm is an omega . 1
is quite small, so resistor values are often given in k and M. 1 k = 1000
; 1 M = 1000000 .
Resistors are too small to have numbers printed on them and so they are
marked with a number of coloured bands. Each colour stands for a number.
Three colour bands shows the resistors value in ohms and the fourth shows
tolerance.
Example:

Circuit symbol:

Each colour represents a number as shown in the table.

The Resistor Colour Code


Colour
Black
Brown
Red
Orange
Yellow
Green

Code
0
1
2
3
4
5
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Blue
Violet
Grey
Write

6
7
8
9

Most resistors have 4 bands:


The first band gives the first digit (is interpreted as the FIRST DIGIT
of the resistor value).
The second band gives the second digit.
The third band indicates the number of zeros.
The fourth band is used to shows the tolerance (precision) of the
resistor, this may be ignored for almost all circuits but further details are
given below.
For the resistor shown below, the first band is yellow, so the first digit
is 4:
TOLERANCE gold

FIRST DIGIT yellow

MULTIPLER red

SECOND DIGIT violet


The second band gives the SECOND DIGIT. This is a violet band, making
the second digit 7. The third band is called the MULTIPLIER and is not
interpreted in quite the same way. The multiplier tells you how many
noughts you should write after the digits you already have. A red band tells
you to add 2 noughts. The value of this resistor is therefore 4 7 0 0 ohms,
that is, 4 700 , or 4.7 k .
The remaining band is called the TOLERANCE band. This indicates the
percentage accuracy of the resistor value. Most carbon film resistors have a
gold-coloured tolerance band, indicating that the actual resistance value is
with + or - 5% of the nominal value. Other tolerance colours are:
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Circuit Theory

Tolerance Colour

1%

brown

2%

red

5%

gold

10%

silver

When you want to read off a resistor value, look for the tolerance band,
usually gold, and hold the resistor with the tolerance band at its right hand
end. Reading resistor values quickly and accurately isn't difficult, but it does
take practice!

Small value resistors (less than 10 ohm)


The standard colour code cannot show values of less than 10 . To show
these small values two special colours are used for the third band: gold
which means 0.1 and silver which means 0.01. The first and second
bands represent the digits as normal.
For example:
red, violet, gold bands represent 27 0.1 = 2.7
blue, green, silver bands represent 56 0.01 = 0.56

Tolerance of resistors (fourth band of colour code)


The tolerance of a resistor is shown by the fourth band of the colour
code. Tolerance is the precision of the resistor and it is given as a percentage.
For example a 390 resistor with a tolerance of 10% will have a value
within 10% of 390 , between 390 39 = 351 and 390 + 39 = 429 (39
is 10% of 390).
A special colour code is used for the fourth band tolerance:
silver 10%, gold 5%, red 2%, brown 1%.
If no fourth band is shown the tolerance is 20%.
Tolerance may be ignored for almost all circuits because precise resistor
values are rarely required.

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Resistor shorthand
Resistor values are often written on circuit diagrams using a code system
which avoids using a decimal point because it is easy to miss the small dot.
Instead the letters R, K and M are used in place of the decimal point. To read
the code: replace the letter with a decimal point, then multiply the value by
1000 if the letter was K, or 1000000 if the letter was M. The letter R means
multiply by 1.
For example:
560R means 560
2K7 means 2.7 k = 2700
39K means 39 k
1M0 means 1.0 M = 1000 k

Real resistor values (the E6 and E12 series)


You may have noticed that resistors are not available with every possible
value, for example 22 k and 47 k are readily available, but 25 k and 50
k are not!
Why is this? Imagine that you decided to make resistors every 10
giving 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and so on. That seems fine, but what happens when
you reach 1000? It would be pointless to make 1000, 1010, 1020, 1030 and so
on because for these values 10 is a very small difference, too small to be
noticeable in most circuits. In fact it would be difficult to make resistors
sufficiently accurate.
To produce a sensible range of resistor values you need to increase the
size of the 'step' as the value increases. The standard resistor values are based
on this idea and they form a series which follows the same pattern for every
multiple of ten.
The E6 series (6 values for each multiple of ten, for resistors with 20%
tolerance) 10, 15, 22, 33, 47, 68, ... then it continues 100, 150, 220, 330, 470,
680, 1000 etc.
Notice how the step size increases as the value increases. For this series
the step (to the next value) is roughly half the value.
The E12 series (12 values for each multiple of ten, for resistors with
10% tolerance) 10, 12, 15, 18, 22, 27, 33, 39, 47, 56, 68, 82, ... then it
continues 100, 120, 150 etc.
Notice how this is the E6 series with an extra value in the gaps.
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Circuit Theory

The E12 series is the one most frequently used for resistors. It allows
you to choose a value within 10% of the precise value you need. This is
sufficiently accurate for almost all projects and it is sensible because most
resistors are only accurate to 10% (called their 'tolerance'). For example a
resistor marked 390 could vary by 10% 390 = 39 , so it could be
any value between 351 and 429 .

Power Ratings of Resistors


Electrical energy is converted to heat when current flows through a
resistor. Usually the effect is negligible, but if the resistance is low (or the
voltage across the resistor high) a large current may pass making the resistor
become noticeably warm. The resistor must be able to withstand the heating
effect and resistors have power ratings to show this.
Power ratings of resistors are rarely quoted in parts lists because for
most circuits the standard power ratings of 0.25 W or 0.5 W are suitable. For
the rare cases where a higher power is required it should be clearly specified
in the parts list, these will be circuits using low value resistors (less than
about 300 ) or high voltages (more than 15 V).
The power, P, developed in a resistor is given by:
P = I R or P = V/R
where P = power developed in the resistor in watts (W)
I = current through the resistor in amps (A)
R = resistance of the resistor in ohms ()
V = voltage across the resistor in volts (V)

Examples:
A 470 resistor with 10 V across it, needs a power rating
P = V/R = 10/470 = 0.21 W.
In this case a standard 0.25 W resistor would be suitable.
A 27 resistor with 10 V across it, needs a power rating
P = V/R = 10/27 = 3.7 W.
A high power resistor with a rating of 5 W would be suitable.

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Variable Resistors
Construction
Variable resistors consist of a resistance
track with connections at both ends and a wiper
which moves along the track as you turn the
spindle. The track may be made from carbon,
cermet (ceramic and metal mixture) or a coil of
wire (for low resistances). The track is usually
rotary but straight track versions, usually called
sliders, are also available.
Variable resistors may be used as a rheostat
with two connections (the wiper and just one
end of the track) or as a potentiometer with all
three connections in use. Miniature versions
called presets are made for setting up circuits
which will not require further adjustment.
Variable resistors are often called potentiometers in books and
catalogues. They are specified by their maximum resistance, linear or
logarithmic track, and their physical size. The standard spindle diameter is 6
mm.
The resistance and type of track are marked on the body:
4K7 LIN means 4.7 k linear track.
1M LOG means 1 M logarithmic track.
Some variable resistors are designed to be mounted directly on the circuit
board, but most are for mounting through a hole drilled in the case
containing the circuit with stranded wire connecting their terminals to the
circuit board.

Linear (LIN) and Logarithmic (LOG) tracks


Linear (LIN) track means that the resistance changes at a constant
rate as you move the wiper. This is the standard arrangement and you
should assume this type is required if a project does not specify the type of
track. Presets always have linear tracks.
Logarithmic (LOG) track means that the resistance changes slowly at
one end of the track and rapidly at the other end, so halfway along the track
is not half the total resistance! This arrangement is used for volume
(loudness) controls because the human ear has a logarithmic response to
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Circuit Theory

loudness so fine control (slow change) is required at low volumes and


coarser control (rapid change) at high volumes. It is important to connect
the ends of the track the correct way round, if you find that turning the
spindle increases the volume rapidly followed by little further change you
should swop the connections to the ends of the track.

Rheostat
This is the simplest way of using a variable
resistor. Two terminals are used: one connected
to an end of the track, the other to the moveable
Rheostat Symbol
wiper. Turning the spindle changes the
resistance between the two terminals from zero up to the maximum
resistance.
Rheostats are often used to vary current, for example to control the
brightness of a lamp or the rate at which a capacitor charges.
If the rheostat is mounted on a printed circuit board you may find that
all three terminals are connected! However, one of them will be linked to the
wiper terminal. This improves the mechanical strength of the mounting but
it serves no function electrically.

Potentiometer
Variable resistors used as potentiometers
have all three terminals connected.
This arrangement is normally used to vary
voltage, for example to set the switching point
Potentiometer
of a circuit with a sensor, or control the volume
(loudness) in an amplifier circuit. If the terminals at the ends of the track
are connected across the power supply then the wiper terminal will provide a
voltage which can be varied from zero up to the maximum of the supply.

Presets
These are miniature versions of the
standard variable resistor. They are designed to
be mounted directly onto the circuit board and
adjusted only when the circuit is built. For
Preset Symbol
example, to set the frequency of an alarm tone
or the sensitivity of a light-sensitive circuit a small screwdriver or similar
tool is required to adjust presets.
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Presets are much cheaper than standard variable resistors so they are
sometimes used in projects where a standard variable resistor would
normally be used.
Multiturn presets are used where very precise adjustments must be
made. The screw must be turned many times (10+) to move the slider from
one end of the track to the other, giving very fine control.

Preset
(open style)

174

Presets
(closed style)

Multiturn preset

APPENDIX E
Capacitors
Function
Capacitors store electric charge. They are used with resistors in
timing circuits because it takes time for a capacitor to fill with charge. They
are used to smooth varying DC supplies by acting as a reservoir of charge.
They are also used in filter circuits because capacitors easily pass AC
(changing) signals but they block DC (constant) signals.

Capacitance
This is a measure of a capacitors ability to store charge. A large
capacitance means that more charge can be stored. Capacitance is measured
in farads, symbol F. However 1F is very large, so prefixes are used to show
the smaller values.
Three prefixes (multipliers) are used, (micro), n (nano) and p (pico):

means 10-6 (millionth), so 1000000 F = 1 F


n means 10-9 (thousand-millionth), so 1000 nF = 1 F
p means 10-12 (million-millionth), so 1000 pF = 1 nF

Capacitor values can be very difficult to find because there are many
types of capacitor with different labelling systems!
There are many types of capacitor but they can be split into two groups,
polarised and unpolarised. Each group has its own circuit symbol.

Polarised capacitors (large values, 1F +)


Examples:

Circuit symbol:

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Khalil Ismailov

Electrolytic Capacitors
Electrolytic capacitors are polarized and they must be connected the
correct way round, at least one of their leads will be marked + or -. They
are not damaged by heat when soldering.
There are two designs of electrolytic capacitors; axial where the leads
are attached to each end (220 F in picture) and radial where both leads are
at the same end (10 F in picture). Radial capacitors tend to be a little
smaller and they stand upright on the circuit board.
It is easy to find the value of electrolytic capacitors because they are
clearly printed with their capacitance and voltage rating. The voltage rating
can be quite low (6 V for example) and it should always be checked when
selecting an electrolytic capacitor. It the project parts list does not specify a
voltage, choose a capacitor with a rating which is greater than the projects
power supply voltage. 25 V is a sensible minimum for most battery circuits.

Tantalum Bead Capacitors


Tantalum bead capacitors are polarised and have low voltage ratings like
electrolytic capacitors. They are expensive but very small, so they are used
where a large capacitance is needed in a small size.
Modern tantalum bead capacitors are printed with
their capacitance and voltage in full. However older ones
use a colour-code system which has two stripes (for the two
digits) and a spot of colour for the number of zeros to give
the value in F. The standard colour code is used, but for
the spot, grey is used to mean 0.01 and white means 0.1 so that values of
less than 10 F can be shown. A third colour stripe near the leads shows the
voltage (yellow 6.3 V, black 10 V, green 16 V, blue 20 V, grey 25 V, white 30
V, pink 35 V).
For example: blue, grey, black spot means 68 F
For example: blue, grey, white spot means 6.8 F
For example: blue, grey, grey spot means 0.68 F

Unpolarised capacitors (small values, up to 1 F)


Small value capacitors are unpolarised and may be connected either way
round. They are not damaged by heat when soldering, except for one unusual
type (polystyrene). They have high voltage ratings of at least 50 V, usually
250 V or so. It can be difficult to find the values of these small capacitors
because there are many types of them and several different labelling systems!
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Circuit Theory
Examples:

Circuit symbol:

Many small value capacitors have their value printed


but without a multiplier, so you need to use experience to
work out what the multiplier should be!
For example 0.1 means 0.1 F = 100 nF.
Sometimes the multiplier is used in place of the decimal
point:
For example: 4n7 means 4.7 nF.

Capacitor Number Code


A number code is often used on small capacitors where
printing is difficult:
the 1st number is the 1st digit,
the 2nd number is the 2nd digit,
the 3rd number is the number of zeros to give the

capacitance in pF.
Ignore any letters - they just indicate tolerance and voltage rating.
For example: 102 means 1000 pF = 1 nF (not 102 pF!)
For example: 472J means 4700 pF = 4.7 nF (J means 5% tolerance).
Capacitor Colour Code
A colour code was used on polyester capacitors for many years. It is now
obsolete, but of course there are many still around. The colours should be
read like the resistor code, the top three colour bands giving the value in pF.
Ignore the 4th band (tolerance) and 5th band (voltage rating).
For example:
brown, black, orange means 10 000 pF = 10 nF = 0.01 F.
Note that there are no gaps between the colour bands, so 2 identical
bands actually appear as a wide band.
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For example:
wide red, yellow means 220 nF = 0.22 F.
Colour Code
Colour Number
Black

Brown 1
Red

Orange 3
Yellow 4
Green

Blue

Violet

Grey

White

Polystyrene Capacitors
This type is rarely used now. Their value
(in pF) is normally printed without units.
Polystyrene capacitors can be damaged by heat
when soldering (it melts the polystyrene!) so
you should use a heat sink (such as a crocodile
clip). Clip the heat sink to the lead between the
capacitor and the joint.

Real capacitor values (the E3 and E6 series)


You may have noticed that capacitors are not available with every
possible value, for example 22 F and 47 F are readily available, but 25 F
and 50 F are not!
Why is this? Imagine that you decided to make capacitors every 10 F
giving 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and so on. That seems fine, but what happens when
you reach 1000? It would be pointless to make 1000, 1010, 1020, 1030 and so
on because for these values 10 is a very small difference, too small to be
noticeable in most circuits and capacitors cannot be made with that accuracy.
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Circuit Theory

To produce a sensible range of capacitor values you need to increase the


size of the step as the value increases. The standard capacitor values are
based on this idea and they form a series which follows the same pattern for
every multiple of ten.
The E3 series (3 values for each multiple of ten) 10, 22, 47, ... then it
continues 100, 220, 470, 1000, 2200, 4700, 10000 etc.
Notice how the step size increases as the value increases (values roughly
double each time).
The E6 series (6 values for each multiple of ten) 10, 15, 22, 33, 47, 68,
... then it continues 100, 150, 220, 330, 470, 680, 1000 etc.
Notice how this is the E3 series with an extra value in the gaps.
The E3 series is the one most frequently used for capacitors because
many types cannot be made with very accurate values.

Variable capacitors
Variable capacitors are mostly used in radio tuning circuits and they are
sometimes called tuning capacitors. They have very small capacitance
values, typically between 100 pF and 500 pF (100 pF = 0.0001 F). The type
illustrated usually has trimmers built in (for making small adjustments - see
below) as well as the main variable capacitor.

Trimmer Capacitor Symbol

Trimmer Capacitor

Many variable capacitors have very short spindles which are not suitable
for the standard knobs used for variable resistors and rotary switches. It
would be wise to check that a suitable knob is available before ordering a
variable capacitor.
Variable capacitors are not normally used in timing circuits because
their capacitance is too small to be practical and the range of values available
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Khalil Ismailov

is very limited. Instead timing circuits use a fixed capacitor and a variable
resistor if it is necessary to vary the time period.

Trimmer capacitors
Trimmer capacitors (trimmers) are miniature variable capacitors. They
are designed to be mounted directly onto the circuit board and adjusted only
when the circuit is built.
A small screwdriver or similar tool is required to adjust trimmers. The
process of adjusting them requires patience because the presence of your
hand and the tool will slightly change the capacitance of the circuit in the
region of the trimmer!
Trimmer capacitors are only available with very small capacitances,
normally less than 100 pF. It is impossible to reduce their capacitance to
zero, so they are usually specified by their minimum and maximum values,
for example 2-10 pF.
Trimmers are the capacitor equivalent of presets which are miniature
variable resistors.

180

APPENDIX F
Inductor (coil)
An inductor is a passive electrical
component that can store energy in a
magnetic field created by the electric
current passing through it. An inductor
is a coil of wire which may have a core
of air, iron or ferrite (a brittle material
made from iron). Its electrical property
is called inductance and in honour of
Joseph Henry, the unit of inductance
has been given the name henry (H): 1
H = 1 Wb/A. 1 H is very large so mH
and H are used, 1000 H = 1 mH and
1000 mH = 1 H. It is customary to use
the symbol L for inductance, possibly in
honour of the physicist Heinrich Lenz.

Inductor (miniature)

Ferrite rod

Circuit symbol

Iron and ferrite cores increase the inductance. Inductors are mainly used
in tuned circuits and to block high frequency AC signals (they are sometimes
called chokes). They pass DC easily, but block AC signals, this is the opposite
of capacitors.
Inductors are used extensively in analog
circuits and signal processing. Inductors in
conjunction with capacitors and other
components form tuned circuits which can
emphasize or filter out specific signal
frequencies. This can range from the use of
large inductors as chokes in power supplies,
which in conjunction with filter capacitors
remove residual hum or other fluctuations
from the direct current output, to such
small inductances as generated by a ferrite
Some low-value inductors
bead or torus around a cable to prevent
radio frequency interference from being transmitted down the wire. Smaller
inductor/capacitor combinations provide tuned circuits used in radio reception
and broadcasting, for instance.

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Two (or more) inductors which have coupled magnetic flux form a
transformer, which is a fundamental component of every electric utility power
grid. Size of the core can be decreased at higher frequencies and, for this
reason, aircrafts use 400 hertz alternating current rather than the usual 50 or
60 hertz, allowing a great saving in weight from the use of smaller
transformers.
Inductors are also employed in electrical transmission systems, where
they are used to depress voltages from lightning strikes and to limit switching
currents and fault current. In this field, they are more commonly referred to
as reactors.

Inductor construction
An inductor is usually constructed as a
coil of conducting material, typically copper
wire, wrapped around a core either of air or of
ferromagnetic material. Core materials with a
higher permeability than air increase the
magnetic field and confine it closely to the
inductor, thereby increasing the inductance.
Low frequency inductors are constructed like
transformers, with cores of electrical steel
laminated to prevent eddy currents. Soft
ferrites are widely used for cores above audio
frequencies, since they don't cause the large
energy losses at high
Inductors. Major scale
frequencies that ordinary
in centimetres.
iron alloys do. This is
because of their narrow hysteresis curves, and their
high resistivity prevents eddy currents. Inductors come
in many shapes. Most are constructed as enamel coated
wire wrapped around a ferrite bobbin with wire
Surface Mount
exposed on the outside, while some enclose the wire
completely in ferrite and are called shielded. Some
inductors have an adjustable core, which enables
changing of the inductance. Inductors used to block
very high frequencies are sometimes made by stringing
a ferrite cylinder or bead on a wire.
Thin Film

182

Small inductors can be etched directly onto a


printed circuit board by laying out the trace in a spiral

Circuit Theory

pattern. Some such planar inductors use a planar core. The surface mount
type inductors are very small in size and therefore deserve to be considered
when space becomes and issue. The Thin Film inductors are fabricated by
several processing steps similar to the fabrication of transistors and diodes
(They are very small in size too).
Small value inductors can also be built on integrated circuits using the
same processes that are used to make transistors. Aluminium interconnect is
typically used, laid out in a spiral coil pattern. However, the small
dimensions limit the inductance, and it is far more common to use a circuit
called a gyrator which uses a capacitor and active components to behave
similarly to an inductor.

183

APPENDIX G
Analog Oscilloscope OS-5020
1. Product Description
1.1 Introduction
The OS-5020 is an oscilloscope with a frequency bandwidth of DC to 20
MHz that display 2 traces on 2 channels. The OS-5020 provides a set of
powerful features for a wide range of applications such as production,
maintenance, service, research and development.
The features of the OS-5020 are as follows:

184

The OS-5020 has ADD function for measuring the sum of two
signals.

The OS-5020 has X-Y operation function, alternate trigger and


independent TV synchronizing signal separate circuit so that television
and other composite video signal waveforms can be observed.

The OS-5020 is designed for compact size and portable function.

Circuit Theory

1.2. Specifications
PART
Cathode Ray Tube
(CRT)
1. Configuration and
useful screen

SPECIFICATION

6 inch rectangular screen with internal graticule:


810 div. (1 div = 1 cm, marking for
measurement of rise time, 2 mm subdivisions
along the central axis)
+1.9 kV approx.(ref. cathode)

2. Accelerating
potential
3. Focusing
4. Trace rotation
5. Intensity control

Provided
Provided
Provided

Vertical Deflection
1. Bandwidth (-3 dB)
DC coupled

DC to 20 MHz normal
DC to 10 MHz magnified (CH1 only)

AC coupled (-3dB)
2. Modes

3. Deflection factor

4. Accuracy
5. Input impedance
6. Maximum input
voltage
7. Input coupling
8. Rise time
9. CH1 output
10. Polarity inversion

10 Hz to 20 MHz normal
10 Hz to 10 MHz magnified (CH1 only)
CH1, CH2, ADD, DUAL (CHOP: Time/div. switch
from 0.2 s to 1 ms, ALT: Time/div. switch from 0.5
ms to 0.2 s)
5 mV/div to 20 V/div in 12 calibrated steps of 1:2:5
sequence. Continuously variable between steps at
least 1:2.55 MAG: 1 mV/div to 4 V/div in 10
calibrated steps (CH1 only)
Normal; 3%, magnified: 5% (CH1 only)
Approximately 1 M in parallel with 30 pF
Direct: 400 V (DC + peak AC)
With probe: refer to probe specification
DC-GND-AC
17.5 ns or less (35 ns or less in 5MAG)
25 mV/div into 50 /DC to 10 MHz (-3 dB)
CH2 only

Horizontal Deflection
1. Display modes
Normal, X-Y, 10, VARIABLE
185

Khalil Ismailov

2. Time base

3. Sweep
magnification
4. Accuracy
Trigger System
1. Modes
2. Source
3. Coupling
4. Slope
5. Sensitivity and
frequency
AUTO, NORM
6. External trigger
input impedance
Maximum input
voltage
X-Y Operation
1. X-axis

2. Y-axis
3. X-Y phase
difference
Power Supply
1. Voltage range

0.2 s/div to 0.2 s/div in 19 calibrated steps of 1:2:5


sequence
Uncalibrated continuous control between steps at
least 1:2.5
10 times (maximum sweep rate: 20 ns/div)
Note: 50 ns/div, 20ns/div of TIME BASE are 10%
3% (0 to 35 ), 5% (0 to 40 ), additional
error for magnifier: 2%
AUTO, NORM, TV-V, TV-H
VERT (DUAL, ALT), CH1, LINE, EXT
AC
+ or
20 Hz 2 MHz 2 MHz 20 MHz
INT (VERT)
0.5 div.(2.0)
1.5 div.(3.0)
EXT
0.2 V p-p
0.8 V p-p
Approximately 1 M
400 V (DC + AC peak)

Same as CH1 except for the following:


Deflection factor: same as that of CH1
Accuracy: 5%
Frequency response: DC to 500 kHz (-3dB)
Same as CH2
3 or less (at DC to 50 kHz)
Voltage range
115 V (98-125
V)/AC
230 V (198-250
V)/AC

2. Frequency
3. Power
consumption
186

50/60 Hz
Approximately 45 W

Fuse (250 V)
UL198G
IEC127
1.25 A
1.25 A
0.63 A

0.63 A

Circuit Theory

2. Operating Instructions
2.1 Function of Controls, Connectors, and Indicators
Before turning this instrument on, familiarize yourself with the controls,
connectors, indicators, and other features described in this section. The
following descriptions are keyed to the items called out in Fig. G.1.
1

10

11

12
13
14
15
16
16

29

28 27 26 25

24 23

22

21 20

19

18

17

(a) Front panel

(b) Rear panel


Fig. G.1. The front and rear panels of OS-5020

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Khalil Ismailov

2.1.1 Display and power blocks


(16)
(16-1)

Item
POWER Switch
POWER Lamp

(2)

INTEN Control

(1)

FOCUS Control

(29)

ROTATION
Control

(33)

Voltage Selector

(34)

Power Connector

Function
Push into turn instrument power on and off
Signals when power is on
Adjusts the brightness of the CRT display.
Clockwise rotation increases brightness.
To obtain maximum trace sharpness
Allows screwdriver adjustment of trace
alignment with regard to the horizontal
graticule lines of the CRT
Permit changing the operating voltage range
Permits removal or replacement of the AC
power cord

2.1.2 Vertical Amplifier Block

(24)

(22)

CH1 or X IN
Connector
<CAUTION>

CH1 or Y IN
Connector
<CAUTION>

(25)

CH1 AC/GND/DC
Switch

(21)

CH2 AC/GND/DC
Switch

188

For applying an input signal to vertical


amplifier CH1, or the X-axis (horizontal)
amplifier during X-Y operation.
To avoid damage to the oscilloscope do not
apply more than 400 V (DC + peak AC)
between CH1 terminal and ground.
For applying an input signal to vertical
amplifier CH2, or the Y-axis (vertical)
amplifier during X-Y operation.
To avoid damage to the oscilloscope do not
apply more than 400 V (DC + peak AC)
between CH2 terminal and ground.
To select the method of coupling the input
signal to the CH1 vertical amplifier.
AC position inserts a capacitor between the
input connector and amplifier to block any
DC component in the input signal.
GND position connects the amplifier to
ground instead of the input connector,
So a ground reference can be established.
DC position connects the amplifier directly to
its input connector, thus passing all signal
components on to the amplifier.
To select the method of coupling the input
signal to the CH2 vertical amplifier.

Circuit Theory

(26)
(23)

CH1 VOLTS/DIV
Switch
CH2 VOLTS/DIV
Switch

(27)
(20)

VARIABLE
Controls

(3)

5MAG Switch

(4)

CH1 POSITION
Control

(7)

CH2 POSITION
Control

(6)

CH2 INV Switch

(5)

V MODE Switch

To select the calibrated deflection factor of


the input signal fed to CH1 vertical amplifier
To select the calibrated deflection factor of
the input signal fed to CH2 vertical amplifier.
Provide continuously variable adjustment of
deflection factor between steps of the
VOLTS/DIV switches.
VOLTS/DIV calibrations are accurate only
when the variable controls are click stopped
in their fully clockwise position.
The sensibility of vertical axis will become 5
times if the switch selected at 5MAG. Thats
to say. the measuring voltage will be 1/5 of
indicator value of VOLTS/DIV.
(in this instance the maximum sensitivity
will be 1 mV/DIV.)
For vertically positioning the CH1 trace on
the CRT screen, clockwise rotation moves the
trace upward; counterclockwise rotation
moves the trace down.
For vertically positioning the CH2 trace on
the CRT screen, clockwise rotation moves the
trace upward; counterclockwise rotation
moves the trace downward.
Select switch at INV the signal added to CH2
will be turned over.
To select the vertical amplifier display mode.
CH1 position displays only the CH1 input
signal on the CRT screen.
CH2 position displays only the CH2 input
signal on the CRT screen.
DUAL position displays the CH1 and CH2
input signal on the CRT screen
simultaneously.
If Trigger Source is selected CH1. CHOP
mode: TIME/DIV 0.2 s ~ 1 ms
ALT mode: TIME/DIV 0.5 ms ~ 0.2 s
If Trigger Source is selected VERT,
ALT mode: TIME/DIV 0.2 ms ~ 0.2 s
189

Khalil Ismailov

(30)

CH1 OUTPUT
Connector

ADD position displays the algebraic sum of


CH1 and CH2 signal.
Connector provides amplified output of the
CH1 signal suitable for driving a frequency
counter or other instrument.

2.1.3 Sweep and Trigger Blocks


(15)

TIME/DIV Switch

(12)

Variable Control

(11)

10MAG Switch

(10)

Horizontal
POSITION
Control

(14)

Trigger MODE
Switch

190

To select either the calibrated sweep rate of


the main timebase, the delay time range for
delayed sweep operation or X-Y operation.
Provides continuously variable adjustment of
sweep rate between steps of the TIME/DIV
switch. TIME/DIV calibrations are accurate
only when the VARIABLE control is clickstopped fully clockwise.
Placing the switch on 10MAG sweep time
will be expanded to 10 times and in this
instance sweep time becomes 1/10 of
TIME/DIV indicator value.
To adjust the horizontal position of the traces
displayed on control the CRT. Clockwise
rotation moves the traces to the right,
counterclockwise rotation moves the traces to
the left.
To select the sweep triggering mode.
AUTO position selects free-running sweep
where a baseline is displayed in the absence of
a signal.
This condition automatically reverts to
triggering sweep when a trigger signal of 25
Hz or higher is received and other trigger
controls are properly set.
NORM position produces sweep only when a
trigger signal is received and other controls
are properly set. No trace is visible when the
signal frequency is 25 Hz or lower.
TV-V position is used for observing a
composite video signal at the frame rate.
TV-H position is used for observing a composite
video signal at the scanning line rate.

Circuit Theory

(18)

Trigger Source
switch

(9)

Trigger LEVEL
Control

(8)

Trigger Slope
Switch
(on LEVEL
Control)

(19)

EXT TRIG IN
Connector
<CAUTION>

To conveniently select the trigger source.


VERT: Signal which is put into CH1 or CH2 is
source of operation.
In case of vertical mode switch is CHi
which automatically becomes registry
source.
In case of vertical mode switch is CH2
which automatically becomes registry
source.
When Vert Mode Switch is dual, the
signals are displayed with ALT Mode
in all TIME/DIV range.
CH1: When there is the signal in the CH1,
you may select trigger source CH1.
LINE: Position selects a trigger derived from
the AC poser line, This permits the
scope to stabilize display line, related
components of a signal even if they
are very small compared to other
components of the signal.
EXT: Position selects the signal applied to
the EXT TRIG IN connector.
To select the trigger signal amplitude at which
triggering occurs. When rotated clockwise, the
trigger point moves toward the positive peak
of the trigger signal. When this control is
rotated counterclockwise, the trigger point
moves toward the negative peak of the trigger
signal.
To select the positive or negative slope of the
trigger signal (on LEVEL Control) for
initiating sweep. pulled in, the switch selects
the positive (+) slope. When pushed, this
switch selects the negative () slope.
For applying external trigger signal to the
trigger circuits.
To avoid damage to the oscilloscope, do not
apply more than 400 V (DC + Peak AC)
between EXT Trig In" terminal and ground.
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Khalil Ismailov

2.1.4 Miscellaneous Features


(31)

EXT Blanking
Input Connector

(17)

Probe Adjust

(28)

Ground
Connector

For applying signal to intensity modulate the


CRT, trace brightness is reduced with a
positive signal, and increased with a negative
signal.
Provides a fast rise square wave of precise
amplitude for probe adjustment and vertical
amplifier calibration.
Provides an attachment point for a separate
ground lead.

2.2 Basic Operating Procedures


The following paragraphs in this section describe how to operate the
OS-5020 beginning with the most elementary operating modes, and
progressing to the less frequently used/or complex modes.
2.2.1. Preliminary Control Settings and Adjustments
Before placing the instrument in use, set up and check the instrument
as follows:
1. Set the following controls as indicated.
POWER Switch (1B)
INTEN Control (2)
FOCUS Control (1)
AC/GND/DC Switch (25) (21)
VOLTS/DIV Switch (26) (23)
5MAG Switch (3)
Vertical POSITION Controls (4) (7)
INV Switch (6)
VARIABLE Controls (27) (20)
V MODE Switch (5)
TIME/DIV Switch (15)
VARIABLE Control (13)
Horizontal POSITION Control (10)
10MAG Switch (11)
Trigger MODE Switch (14)
Trigger SOURCE Switch (18)
Trigger LEVEL Control (9)
SLOPE Switch (8)

OFF (released)
Mid rotation
Mid rotation
DC
10 mV
1
Mid rotation
Norm
Fully CCW
CH1
1 ms
CAL
Mid rotation
1
AUTO
VERT
Mid rotation
Button out

2. Connect the AC power Cord to the Power Connector (34), then plug
the cord into a convenient AC outlet.
3. Press the POWER Switch (16).
192

Circuit Theory

The POWER lamp (16-1) should light immediately.


About 30 seconds later, rotate the INTEN Control clockwise until the
trace appears on the CRT screen. Adjust brightness to your liking.
<CAUTION>
A burn-resistant material is used in the CRT. However if the CRT is
left with an extremely bright dot or trace for a very long time, the
screen may be damaged. Therefore, if a measurement requires high
brightness, be certain to turn down the INTEN Control immediately
afterward. Also, get in the habit of turning the brightness way down
if the scope is left unattended for any period of time.
4. Turn the FOCUS Control (1) for a sharp trace.
5. Turn the CH1 Vertical POSITION Control (4) to move the CH1 trace to
the center horizontal graticule line.
6. See if the trace is precisely parallel with the graticule line. If it is not,
adjust the Rotation Control (29) with a small screwdriver.
7. Turn the Horizontal POSITION Control (10) to align the left edge of
the trace with the left most graticule line.
8. Set one of the supplied probes for 10 attenuation. Then, connect its
BNC end to the CH1 or X IN Connector (24) and its tip to the PROBE
ADJUST Connector (17). A square wave display, two and a half
divisions in amplitude, should appear on the CRT screen.
9. If the tops and bottoms of the displayed square waves are tilted or
peaked, the probes must be compensated (matched to the scope
input capacitance}. Adjust the capacitance correction trimmer of the
probe with a small screwdriver, See Fig. H.2.
10. Set the V MODE Switch (5) to CH2 and perform Steps 8 and 9 with
the other probe on CH2.

Fig. G.2. Probe

193

Khalil Ismailov

2.2.2 Signal Connections


There are methods of connecting an oscilloscope to the signal you wish
to observe. They are a simple wire lead, coaxial cable, and scope probes.
A simple lead wire may be sufficient when the signal level is high and
the source impedance low (such as TTL circuitry), but is not often used.
Unshielded wire picks up hum and noise: this distorts the observed
signal when the signal level is low. Also, there is the problem of making
secure mechanical connection to the input connectors. A binding post-to
BNC adapter is advisable in this case.
Coaxial cable is the most popular method of connecting an oscilloscope
to signal sources and equipment having output connectors. The outer
conductor of the cable shields the central signal conductor from hum and
noise pickup. These cables are usually fitted with BNC connectors of each
end, and specialized cable and adaptors are readily available for matching
with other kind of connectors.
Scope probes are the most popular method of connecting the
oscilloscope to circuitry. These probes are available with 1 attenuation
(direct connection) and 10 attenuation. The 10 attenuator probes
increase the effective input impedance of the probe/scope combination to 10
megohms shunted by a few picofarads, the reduction in input capacitance is
the most important reason for using attenuator probes at high frequencies,
where capacitance is the major factor in loading down a circuit and
distorting the signal. When 10 attenuator probes are used, the scale factor
(VOLTS/DIV switch setting) must be multiplied by ten.
Despite their high input impedance, scope probes do not pick up
appreciable hum or noise. As was the case with coaxial cable, the outer
conductor of the probe cable shields the central signal conductor. Scope
probes are also quite convenient' from a mechanical standpoint.
To determine if a direct connection with shielded cable is permissible,
you must know the source impedance of the circuit you are connecting to,
the higher frequencies involved, and the capacitance of the cable. If any of
these factors are unknown, use a 10 low capacitance probe.
2.2.3 Single-trace Operation
Single-trace operation with single time base and internal triggering is
the most elementary operating mode of the OS-5020. Use this mode when
you wish to observe only a single signal, and not be disturbed by other traces
on the CRT. Since this is fundamentally a two channel instrument, you have
194

Circuit Theory

a choice from your single channel. Channel has an output terminal: use
channel if you also want to measure frequency with a counter while
observing the waveform. Channel 2 has a polarity inverting switch, While
this adds flexibility, it is not too useful in ordinary single-trace operation.
The OS-S020 is set up for single-trace operation as follows:
1. Set the following controls as indicated below. Note that the trigger
source selected (CH1 or CH2 SOURCE) must match the single
channel selected. (CH1 or CH2 V-MODE)
POWER switch (16)
AC/GNO/DC switches (25) (21)
Vertical POSITION controls (4) (7)
VARIABLE controls (27) (20)
V MODE switch (5)
VARIABLE control (13)
Trigger MODE switch (14)
Trigger SOURCE switch (18)
Trigger LEVEL control (9)

ON (pushed in)
AC
Mid rotation
Fully CW
CH1 (CH2)
CAL
AUTO
VERT
Mid rotation

2. Use the corresponding Vertical POSITION control (4) or (7) to set the
trace near mid screen.
3. Connect the signal to be observed to the corresponding IN connector
(24) or (22).and adjust the corresponding VOLTS/DIV switch (26) or
(23) so the displayed signal is totally on screen.
<CAUTION>
Do not apply a signal greater than 400 V (DC + peak AC)
4. Set the TIME/DIV switch (15) so the desired number of signal cycles
are displayed. For some measurements just 2 of 3 cycles are best: for
other measurements 50-100 cycles appearing like a solid band works
best. Adjust the Trigger LEVEL control (9) if necessary for a stable
display
5. To set 5MAG switch at 5 in case motif is not made or difficult to
measure as the signal to be measured is too small despite VOLT/DIV
switch was placed at 5 mV. In this instance if VOLT/DIV switch is 5
mV, become to 1 mV/DIV and frequency oscillation reduces to 10
MHz and noise will be increased by the revolution.
6. To set 10MAG switch at 10MAG (11) when too many cycles
appear on even the TIME/DIV switch was put on 0.2 s position as
the signal try to be measure is a high frequency. Then, it will be 20
ns/DIV because of sweep speed increases by 10 times and in case of
0.5 s it will be 50 ns/DIV.
195

Khalil Ismailov

7. If the signal you wish to observe is either DC or low enough in


frequency, the AC coupling will attenuate or distort the signal. So,
flip the AC/GND/DC switch (25) or (21) to DC.
<CAUTION>
If the observed waveform is low level AC, make sure it is not riding
on a high amplitude DC voltage.
You will also have to reset the Trigger MODE switch (14) to NORM if
the signal frequency is below 25 Hz, and possibly readjust the Trigger
LEVEL control (9).
2.2.4 Dual trace Operation
Dual trace operation is the major operating mode of the OS-5020. The
setup for dual trace operation is identical to that of 2.2.3 single trace
operation with the following exceptions:
1. Set the V MODE switch (5) to either DUAl. Select ALT for relatively
high frequency signals (TIME/DIV switch set to 0.5 ms or faster).
Select CHOP for relatively low frequency signals (TIME/DIV switch
set to 1 ms or slower)
2. If both channels are displayed in signals of the same frequency, set
the Trigger SOURCE switch (18) to the channel having the steepestslope waveform. If the signals are different but harmonically related,
trigger from the channel carrying the lowest frequency. Also,
remember that if you disconnect the channel serving as the trigger
source, the entire display will free run.

2.3 Measurement Applications


This section contains instructions for using your OS-5020 for specific
measurement procedures. However, this is only a small sampling of the
many applications possible for this oscilloscope. These particular applications
were selected to demonstrate certain control and features not fully coerced
in BASIC OPERATING PROCEDURES, to clarify certain operations by
example, or for their importance and universality.
2.3.1 Amplitude Measurements
The mode triggered sweep oscilloscope has two major measurement
functions. The first of these is amplitude. The oscilloscope has an advantage
over most other forms of amplitude measurement in which complex as well
as simply waveforms can be totally characterized (i.e., complete voltage
information is available).
196

Circuit Theory

Oscilloscope voltage measurements generally fall into one of two types;


peak to peak or instantaneous peak to peak (p-p) measurement simply notes
the total amplitude between extremes without regard to polarity reference.
Instantaneous voltage measurement indicates the exact voltage from each
every point on the waveform to a ground reference.
When making either type of measurement, make sure that the VARIABLE
controls are click-stopped fully clockwise.
Peak-to-peak Voltages. To measure peak-to-peak voltage, proceed as
follows.
1. Set up the scope for the vertical mode (use instructions discussed in
2.3.2 BASIC OPERATING PROCEDURES).
2. Adjust the TIME/DIV switch (15) for two or three cycles of waveform,
and set the VOLTS/DIV switch for the largest-possible on-screen
display.
3. Use the appropriate Vertical POSITION control (4) or (7) to position
the negative signal peaks on the nearest horizontal graticule line
below the signal peaks.
4. Use the Horizontal POSITION control (10) to position one of the
positive peaks on the central vertical graticule line. This line has
additional calibration marks equal to 0.2 major division each.
5. Count the number of division from the graticule line touching the
negative signal peaks to the intersection of the positive signal peak
with the central vertical graticule line. Multiply this number by the
VOLTS/DIV switch setting to get the peak-to-peak voltage of the
waveform. For example, if the VOLTS/DIV switch was set to 2 V, the
waveform shown in Fig. G.3 would be 8.0 V p-p (4.0 DIV 2 V).
6. If 5 vertical magnification is used, divide the Step 5 voltage by 5 to
get the correct peak-to-peak voltage. However if 10 attenuator
probes are used, multiply the voltage by 10 to get the correct peakto-peak voltage.
7. If measuring a sine wave below 100 Hz, or a rectangular wave below
1000 Hz, flip the AC/GND/DC switch to DC.
<CAUTION>
Make certain the waveform is not riding on a high amplitude DC
voltage before flipping the AC/GND/DC switch.
197

Khalil Ismailov

Fig. G.3. Peak-to-peak voltage measurement

Instantaneous Voltages. To measure Instantaneous voltage, proceed as


follows.
1. Set up the scope for the vertical mode (use instructions discussed in
2.3.2 BASIC OPERATING PROCEDURES).
2. Adjust the TIME/DIV switch (15) for one complete cycle of waveform,
and set the VOLTS/DIV switch for the trace amplitude of 4 to 6
divisions. (see Fig. G.4).

Fig. G.4. Instantaneous voltage measurement

198

Circuit Theory

3. Flip the AC/GND/DC switch (25) or (21) to GND.


4. Use the appropriate Vertical POSITION control (4) or (7) to set the
baseline on the central horizontal graticule line. However, if you know
the signal voltage is wholly positive, use the bottommost graticule
line. If you know the signal voltage is wholly negative, use the
uppermost graticule line.
5. Flip the AC/GND/DC switch to DC. The polarity of all points above
the ground reference line is positive: all points below the ground
reference line are negative.
<CAUTION>
Make certain the waveform is not riding on a high amplitude DC
voltage before flipping the AC/GND/DC switch.
6. Use the Horizontal POSITION control (10) to position any point of
interest on the central vertical graticule line. This line has additional
calibration marks equal to 0.2 major division each. The voltage which
is relative to ground at any point selected is equal to the number of
divisions from that point to the ground reference line multiplied by
the VOLTS/DIV setting. In the example used for Fig. G.4, the voltage
for a 0.5 V/DIV scale is 2.5 V (5.0 DIV, 5 V).
7. If 5 vertical magnification is used, divide the Step 6 voltage by 5.
However, if 10 attenuator probes are used multiply the voltage by 10.
2.3.2 Time Interval Measurements
The second major measurement function of the triggered sweep
oscilloscope is the measurement of time interval. This is possible because the
calibrated time base results in each division of the CRT screen representing a
known time interval.
Basic Technique: The basic technique for measuring time interval is
described in the following steps. This same technique applies to the
specific procedures and variations as follows.
1. Set up scope as described in 2.2.3 Single-trace Operation.
2. To set up TIME/DIV (15) larger as much as possible so that it may
appear on the screen. Place VAR switch (13) at CAL. Please be
careful as the measured value may be incorrect if you do not follow
this instruction.
3. Use the Vertical POSITION control (4) or (7) to position the trace so
the central horizontal graticule line passes through the points on the
waveform between which you want to make the measurement.
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Khalil Ismailov

4. Use the Horizontal POSITION control (10) to set the leftmost


measurement point on a nearly vertical gratitude line.
5. Count the number of horizontal gratitude divisions between the
Step 4 gratitude line and the second measurement point. Measure to
tenth of a major division. Note that each minor division on the
central horizontal gratitude line is 0.2 major division.
6. To determine the time interval between the two measurement points,
multiply the number of horizontal divisions counted is Step 5 by the
setting of the TIME/DIV switch. If the 10 MAG (11} is 10 (10
magnification), be certain to divide the TIME/DIV switch setting 10.
Period, pulse width, and duty cycle: The Basic technique described in the
preceding paragraph can be used to determine pulse parameters such as
period, pulse width, duty cycle, etc. The period of a pulse or any other
waveform is the time it takes for one full cycle of the signal. In Fig. G.5a,
the distance between points (A) and (C) represent one cycle: the time
interval of this distance is the period. The time scale for the CRT display of
Fig. G.5a is 10 ms/DIV. so the period is 70 milliseconds in this example.

(a) 10 ms DIVISION

(b) 2 ms DIVISION

Fig. G.5. Time interval measurement

Pulse width is the distance between points (A) and (B). In our example
it is conveniently 1.5 divisions, so the pulse width is 15 milliseconds.
However, 1.5 divisions is a rather small distance for accurate measurements,
so it is advisable to use a faster sweep speed for this particular measurement.
Increasing the sweep speed to 2 ms/DIV as if Fig. G.5b gives a large display,
allowing more accurate measurement.
If it is seen small with the Time/Div switch you may measure 10 is
expanded condition by putting 10 MAG switch to 10 MAG. The duty
cycle may be calculated by knowing pulse breadth and cycle.
200

Circuit Theory

The distance between points (B) and (C) is then called off time. This can
be measured in the same manner as pulse width.
When pulse width and period are known, duty cycle can be calculated.
Duty cycle is the percentage of the period (or total on and off times)
represented by the pulse width (on time).

Duty Cycle (%) =

Pw (100) A > B (100)


=
Period
A > C

Duty Cycle ofexample =

15 ms 100
= 21.4%
70 ms

2.3.3 Frequency Measurement


When a precise determination of frequency is needed, a frequency
counter is obviously the first choice. A counter can be connected to the CH1
OUTPUT connector (30) for convenience when both scope and counter are
used. However, and oscilloscope alone can be used to measure frequency
when a counter is not available, or modulation and/or noise makes a counter
unusable.
Frequency is the reciprocal of period. Period in seconds (s) yields
frequency in Hertz (Hz); period in millisecond (ms) yields frequency in
kilohertz (kHz): period in microseconds (s) yields frequency in megahertz
(MHz). The accuracy of this technique is limited by the timebase calibration
accuracy (see Table of Specifications.)

201

APPENDIX H
A list of SI prefixes
1000m
10008
10007
10006
10005
10004
10003
10002
10001
10002/3
10001/3
10000
10001/3
10002/3
10001
10002
10003
10004
10005
10006
10007
10008

202

10n
1024
1021
1018
1015
1012
109
106
103
102
101
100
101
102
103
106
109
1012
1015
1018
1021
1024

Prefix
yottazettaexapetateragigamegakilohectodeca(none)
decicentimillimicronanopicofemtoattozeptoyocto-

Symbol
Y
Z
E
P
T
G
M
k
h
da
(none)
d
c
m

n
p
f
a
z
y

Decimal
1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000
1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000
1 000 000 000 000 000 000
1 000 000 000 000 000
1 000 000 000 000
1 000 000 000
1 000 000
1 000
100
10
1
0.1
0.01
0.001
0.000 001
0.000 000 001
0.000 000 000 001
0.000 000 000 000 001
0.000 000 000 000 000 001
0.000 000 000 000 000 000 001
0.000 000 000 000 000 000 000 001