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Chapter 7

Gravity SteelSteel-composite Systems for


Building Structures
J Y Richard Liew
Professor
Department of Civil Engineering
National University of Singapore
Tel: +65 6516 2154
Fax: +65 6779 1635
Email: cveljy@nus.edu.sg
http://ivle.civil.nus.edu.sg

Gravity System
Slab transfers gravity load to floor beams
(secondary and primary beams)
Beams transfer loads to columns/walls
Columns/walls transfer loads to the foundations
The shorter the load path, the better the
structural efficiency

Composite Construction

composite slab

composite column

composite beam
floor = beam + slab

Composite Slab Concrete on Steel Decking

Unpropped
Construction
Propped
Construction

Composite Beams
Conventional and innovative composite beams

C
T

Composite Element

Composite Slab
Composite Slab

Precast Concrete Slab

Why Composite?
Minimum floor weight
Self-supporting during
construction
Buildability
Integration of
mechanical and
electrical services
Fire resistance
Long span and large
floor plate

Composite Beams

Optimum Span/Depth Ratio of


Composite Beam
Simply Supported: L/D = 18 to 22
Continuous: L/D = 25 to 28
L = Span Length
D= Overall depth, including the slab
thickness

Key Features for Composite Floor Construction

1. Integration of building service to


reduce structural height
2. Long span composite floor systems

Long Span Options

Beam with Web Opening to accommodate services


>1.0 D

<0.6D to 0.7D

<1.5D to 2D

Cellular
Beam

8-Storey office building


Steel Weight = 3000
tons
Steel usage = 97 kg/m2
18m Cellform beam
Completed in 99 Nov

One Raffles Link

Composite Tapered Girder

Ceiling Line

Composite Tapered Girder

Composite Tapered Girder

Suntec City
8 Storeys Building
Area = 98500m2
Steel weight = 16500 tons
167kg/m2
Max. live load = 17.5kN/m2
Encased Steel Columns
Composite plate girders

Treasury Building
(1986)

52-Storey
Height = 231m
Diameter = 37m
H/D ratio = 6.2
Steel usage
g =
2
112kg/m
25 m internal core
with 11.6m
cantilever girders

Haunched beams

Ceiling Line

Full strength moment resisting joint requires use of a


haunch
Continuity reduces beam moments and deflections smaller beam size
Column size may increase
Full width service zone (set by haunch depth)

Composite Haunch Girder

Haunch
Connections

Composite Haunch Girders

Notched Beam

Composite Truss

Long-span System Composite Truss

Integration of services in design

R
At the end
R = w (L/2)

T = R/sin

At the mid-span
C=T=MxD

Suntec City

Composite Truss System

OUB Building

4.3m

950
20m

Hybrid
system of
steel
frames with
concrete
core

Composite Truss System

(c
)

Parallel Beam System

Parallel
Beam
System

Parallel Beam
System

Stub Girder System

Prestressed Beam System

Prestressed Composite Beams

Shallow floor systems


- Slimflor
Compound beams formed
b the
by
h addition
ddi i off a wide
id
flat plate to the underside
of universal column
sections.
Projecting plate forms a
ledge on which concrete
slab may be supported,
thus reducing the overall
thickness of the floor
structure.

Advantages of shallow floor systems


Shallow floor depth reduces the overall height of
the building
Flexibility of service layout
One-hour fire resistance
because major parts of the
steel section is encased in
concrete.
Longer periods can be
achieved by protecting the
exposed bottom flange

Typical composite steel and precast


concrete floor system

Primary steelwork

Precast
concrete slabs
S

Deep metal decking

Deep metal deck permits the use of in-situ concrete acting


compositely with the metal deck.
This reduces the dead load of the floor and removes the need to
manoeuvre heavy precast sections into place.

Slimdek and Slimflor

Metal decking

Steelwork ready to receive


decking

Placing metal decking

Decking in place

Pumping concrete

Comparison of composite flooring


systems
y
g
y
Building A

Beam +
Overall floor
slab
l b
zone
depth

Building
g
height

Floor slab
dead load

Total steel
weight
i ht per
floor area

STRUCTURAL FORM

mm

mm

KN/m2

Kg/m2

Slimflor with pre-cast slab

237

550

13.0

3.0

43.4

305

650

13.4

2.8

51.7

295

650

13.4

2.7

42.2

Slimflor with deep metaldeck


(unpropped)
Slimflor with deep metal deck (propped
deck unpropped beam)
deck,
Composite beams & composite slab

435

800

14.0

2.0

38.9

Cellular beams with composite slab

775

1100

15.2

2.0

46.6

Composite beams with web openings

725

1050

15.0

2.0

50.2

Precast Slabs with Steel Beams

Effect of concrete confinement for


concrete--filled column
concrete

Steel Core CFT (SC(SC-CFT)

Slim column size


No fire protection
Internal steel core can resist the service
load during fire.

Flat slab
construction

Ultra-high Strength Concrete


UltraFilled Columns (HSCF)
Ultra high strength
concrete; 200MPa

Tube-in-tube
composite
columns

Normal concrete,
35 MPa

Punching shear connector


(encased in slabs, protected from fire)

Effect of concrete confinement for


concrete--filled column
concrete

Steel Core CFT (SC(SC-CFT)

Slim column size


No fire protection
Internal steel core can resist the service
load during fire.

Flat slab
construction

Ultra-high Strength Concrete


UltraFilled Columns (HSCF)
Ultra high strength
concrete; 200MPa

Tube-in-tube
composite
columns

Normal concrete,
35 MPa

Punching shear connector


(encased in slabs, protected from fire)

Tube in tube columns

D1

t2

RC

CFT

Ultra high strength


concrete (180MPa)
Normal concrete

HSCFT

Column Diameter (mm)

Number of
stories

RC

CFT

HSCFT

12

900

650

500

30

1500

1100

750

50

1800

1400

900

Save 1.9m
S
19 2
per column

Column Size reduce by half

Tube in tube columns

D1

t2

RC

CFT

Ultra high strength


concrete (180MPa)
Normal concrete

HSCFT

Column Diameter (mm)

Number of
stories

RC

CFT

HSCFT

12

900

650

500

30

1500

1100

750

50

1800

1400

900

Save 1.9m
S
19 2
per column

Column Size reduce by half

Composite Column

Encased Column

Infilled Column

Composite Columns

Shear
connectors
welded to
web of
profile
fil

Methods
Part 5 of the Bridge Code BS 5400
Part 1 of BS 5950 : conservative but simple
"cased strut" method
EC 4: Johnson and Smith
Roik and Bergmann

Axial Resistance
EC4 Part 1.1
N pl,Rd 0.67f ck A c 0.87f ys A s 0.95f ya A

fck = 0.8 fcu

BS5400:Part 5
N u 0.45f cu A c 0.87f ys A s 0.91f ya A

Stiffness:

EIeff E a Ia 0.5E cm Ic E s Is
Factor for cracking of concrete

EC 4 approach
Determine
Ieff of the equivalent steel section
Radius of gyration r
L/r
Reduction ratio x
Buckling resistance x Npi,Rd

Design Principles for Composite Frames

Analysis of Braced Frame

Composite Joint Action

Rigid Composite Connections

Extended End Plate Connection

Moment Rotation Curve for Connection

Design of Composite Joints


Provide adequate moment resistance
Provide adequate shear resistance
Ensure adequate rotational capacity
Estimate rotational stiffness for deflection calculations
Estimate secant stiffness for ultimate strength
g calculations
Avoidance of local failure in the column

Beam to Wall Connections

Composite Sections in a continuous frame

Hogging Moment region

Beam section

Construction Sequence

2 Steel columns
& Steel beams

1 Central Core
wall
3 Metal decking
4 Casting of
concrete

Composite
beams

Composite floor slab


5 Composite
infilled columns

Fire protection &


Architectural

Composite construction (composite


steel-concrete columns)
Steel Primary Beam

Steel Secondary Beam

Hollow Steel Box

Concrete shear wall

Wet concrete pumped


from below

Composite Steel - Concrete


Floor Beam
Concrete Pump

CAPITAL TOWER
Completed in May 2000
52 storey building
Height = 260m
Width = 45m
Height/Width = 5.7
Steel Weight = 10,500 t
Steel usage = 87 kg/m2

M&E
services

M&E
services

High -Rise
High -Rise

Mid -Rise

Knock-out panel
2 nos. per typical
floor for future
inter-floor stairs
connection by
tenants

M&E
services

Low - Rise
M&E
servic

CAPITAL TOWER

C
Composite
it b
beams and
d
trusses as primary
members
composite beams as
secondary members
Steel truss = 18m
composite
it beam
b
= 11
11.5m
5
Composite Floor with
Bondek
Perimeter frame with
infilled circular columns

CAPITAL TOWER
Primary beam span
between core wall and
perimeter columns
Secondary beams
designed as simply
supported

Simple Construction

Beam to RC wall

Beam to Steel column

OUTRIGGER
TRUSSES
Outrigger truss @ 36th floor

Outrigger steel trusses housed in M&E


rooms at 21st and 36th floor to reduce
building lateral displacement

Outrigger truss @ 21st floor

Technical Innovation
Roof Top Construction
Stainless steel bow truss externally for
the frameless skylight allows full
utilization of the internal space without
any structural encumbrances
The intermediate bracing
g truss doubles
up as maintenance platform and
sunscreen

Capital Tower,
Singapore

Summary
Various long span options are available
Integration
I t
ti off building
b ildi services
i
reduce
d
overall height
Composite design provides extra saving
Cost effective if choice of connections is
correct
Light, Dry, speed and buildable
Aesthetic

Summary
Long Span Option

QUIZ 1: 10 October 2008


Time 1800-2100
Subjects: Steel beams,
beams columns,
columns beam-columns,
beam-columns
roof trusses and steel Frames
using design tables
Open Book
No Class on 17 October 2008!

EXAMINATION
Quiz = 20% (27 Oct 2008)
Assignments (20%)
Main Exam = (60%)
Answer all questions
Open Book
Use the design tables provided
Presentation materials and selected solutions to
homework problems are available on

http://ivle.nus.edu.sg

6500

6500

6500

6500

6500

BRACING

8000

A
B

Roof

80000

After removal of column


C

BRACING

A
B
Unfactored
wind load
64 kN m

2nd
64 kN m

44 kN m

64 kN m

64 kN m

1st

(b) Typical Section

20 kN m

64 kN m

Gravity load

Grd

Col. moment
Grd

8000

8000

64 kN m

1st

64 kN m

Column to be
removed

64 kN m

Beams moment
BEAM MOMENTS GRID LINE 3
(UNFACTORED WIND LOAD)

-0.125

W
0.070
0.375

W
0.070

1.250

0.375

Possible layout
6000

6000

6000

6000

Outline of existing
building

Column '

10000

Column '

150 mm concrete slab


10000
Note: reinforcement concrete slab can span up to a maximum of 3
meters only.

Figure 1: Draw the beam layout on this figure

Not an Efficient Scheme - Avoid


6000

6000

6000

6000

Outline of existing
building

Column '

10000

Column '

150 mm concrete slab


10000
Note: reinforcement concrete slab can span up to a maximum of 3
meters only.

Figure 1: Draw the beam layout on this figure

Not an effective scheme

Beams site spliced to


beam stub

beam stub shop


welded to column

STEEL COST
Fabrication
(35%)

Material
(30% - 50%)

IInstallation
ll i
(15-25%)

T t l Steel
Total
St l Cost:
C t I or H S
Section
ti
= $1700 - $2500
CHS
= $2500 - $4000

Buildability - Avoid Site


Welding

Springleaves Tower
37 Storeys; 178m
Steel weight = 4,200 tons
Composite infilled CHS
columns (0.5m - 1.0m dia);
grade 50 steel and grade 60
concrete
Composite plate girders
12m - 16m with web
openings Outrigger beams
at 20-25 floors
2hrs fire protection for
beams and columns only

Concrete Filled Steel Tube


No formwork is required for
concrete
High-strength steel tube filled
with high-strength concrete
to reduce column size
Steel section to resist uplift
Only light reinforcement in
concrete core to provide
adequate fire protection

Concrete
cased

Concrete
filled
D

EC 4 Approach

Force Transfer

One Raffles Link

Environmental Friendly
Large Floor Plate
Light, Dry and Rapid Construction

Haunched Composite Connections

STEEL COST
Cementitious fire spray = $200 - $280 /ton or $18/m2
Sand blasting
g & Primingg = $120-150/ton
2-coat paint = 150-200 /ton
Metal decking = $30 /m2
Shear stud $3 each or $9/m2 assuming 3 studs/ m2
Material:

I or H section
SHS
Fabrication: I or H section
SHS
Erection & Installation

= $650/ton
= $1000
$1000-1800/ton
1800/ton
= $450-$750/ton
= $600-$1000/ton
= $300-$600/ton

STEEL ADVANTAGES
Prefabrication
Fast
as e
erection
ec o
Lightweight and dry construction
Economical
Aesthetics
Environmental friendly
Steel-concrete composite gives extra
advantage