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Air Distribution for Laboratories, Hospitals and Clean Rooms Dan Int-Hout Chief Engineer / Krueger Richardson
Air Distribution
for Laboratories, Hospitals and
Clean Rooms
Dan Int-Hout
Chief Engineer / Krueger
Richardson Texas
3/22/2011
Today’s Standard Lab?
Today’s Standard Lab?
Purpose Recognize the importance of proper air distribution selection in laboratory designs
Purpose
Recognize the importance
of proper air distribution selection
in laboratory designs
Agenda • Defining the Problem – Lab Types – Design Parameters • Possible Solutions –
Agenda
• Defining the Problem
– Lab Types
– Design Parameters
• Possible Solutions
– Types of Air Outlets
• Proving the Case
– Case Studies
Defining the Problem
Defining the Problem
Common Laboratory Types • Biological – contain biologically active materials or involve chemical manipulation •
Common Laboratory Types
• Biological – contain biologically active
materials or involve chemical manipulation
• Chemical – organic and inorganic analysis
and synthesis
• Animal – manipulation, surgical modification
and pharmacological observation
• Physical – incorporate lasers, optics, nuclear
material, high and low temp materials
• Isolation – can be infectious or protective in
nature
HVAC Design Parameters • Define Air Change Rate requirements • Suppress & Remove Airborne Contaminants
HVAC Design Parameters
• Define Air Change Rate requirements
• Suppress & Remove Airborne Contaminants
• Optimize Air Change Effectiveness
• Control and Direct Room Air Motion
• Provide Occupant Comfort
• Room Controls
• Aid in Fume Hood Containment
Air Change Rates • Air Change Rates per Hour-ACH frequently established by exhaust hood make
Air Change Rates
• Air Change Rates per Hour-ACH
frequently established by exhaust hood
make up air requirement
– Typical Labs requires 6 -10 ACH
– Animal Housing requires 15 ACH
Example
• Room Dims – 10’Wx20’Lx10’H = 2000 ft 3
• @ 10ACH = 333 CFM or 1.6 CFM/ft 2
ACH = CFM * 60 / Room Volume
Suppress & Remove Airborne Contaminants HighHigh CountCount Factors to Consider: • System Effectiveness •
Suppress & Remove
Airborne Contaminants
HighHigh CountCount
Factors to Consider:
• System Effectiveness
• Particulate Concentration &
Dilution Rate
Measurements:
LowLow CountCount
• Particulate Dispersion
– Particle Count
– Gas Concentration
– Contaminant Migration
Optimize Air Change Effectiveness • Efficiency of Dilution Environmental Paints Dust Acetates Pollen Mold •
Optimize Air
Change Effectiveness
• Efficiency of
Dilution
Environmental
Paints
Dust
Acetates
Pollen
Mold
• Speed of
Extraction
Copiers
Ammonia
Benzaldehyde
Benzene
Isopropanol
Combustion Products
Alcohol
Alkanes
Benzenes
Computer
Butanol
Butanole
Butoxyethanol
Ozone
Phosphoric Acid
Tolune
Occupants
CO2
• Decrease
Age of Air
• Improve
Operational
Efficiency
Floor Coverings
Formaldehyde
Acetates
Styrenes
Xylenes
Room air motion is primarily determined by supply
air delivery and heat load, not exhaust flows
Control and Direct Room Air Motion Controlled Flow to avoid: • Excessive Drafts • Recirculation
Control and Direct Room Air Motion
Controlled Flow to avoid:
• Excessive Drafts
• Recirculation
• Hot and Cold Spots
• Interference with Experiments
• Compromise Fume Hood Safety
• Temperature Swings
Supply air outlets direct air into the space in different ways.
Supply outlet type and location must be evaluated to assure
satisfactory room air motion.
Laboratory Pressure Controls Energy Future First Cost Safety Efficiency Flexibility Constant Volume Low $ Low
Laboratory Pressure Controls
Energy
Future
First Cost
Safety
Efficiency
Flexibility
Constant Volume
Low
$
Low
2 Position
Med
$$
Low
VAV Systems
Direct Pressure
High
$$$
High

Flow Tracking
High
$$
High

Flow Tracking with
Pressure Feedback
High
$$$
High
 
Provide Occupant Comfort • Noise – Operating Fume Hoods generate NC levels between an NC
Provide Occupant Comfort
• Noise
– Operating Fume Hoods generate NC levels
between an NC 40 to 45
• Temperature
– Uniform Temperature
– No Stratification
• Eliminate Drafts
• Ventilation
• Humidity
Fume Hood Containment ASHRAE Standard 110: 4.11.2 Supply Air Distribution - “Supply air distribution shall
Fume Hood Containment
ASHRAE Standard 110: 4.11.2 Supply Air Distribution -
“Supply air distribution shall be provided to create air jet
velocities {distributed towards the hoods}less than half
(preferably less than one-third) of the capture or face
velocity of the exhaust hoods.”
Fume Hood Face Velocity = 100 fpm
Fume Hood Containment Fume Hood Locations • Avoid walkways – Prevent spillage due to walking
Fume Hood Containment
Fume Hood Locations
• Avoid walkways
– Prevent spillage due to walking wake
• Avoid fume hoods near exits
– Spills or accidents
may increase the
danger
Possible Solutions
Possible Solutions
3 Most Common Types of Air Outlets • High-Induction/Entrainment Outlets • Laminar Flow Outlets •
3 Most Common Types of Air
Outlets
• High-Induction/Entrainment Outlets
• Laminar Flow Outlets
• Radial/Forced Displacement
High Induction/Entrainment Diffusers RM PLQ-R • Commercial Office Spaces • High Velocity Jets • Long
High Induction/Entrainment Diffusers
RM
PLQ-R
• Commercial Office Spaces
• High Velocity Jets
• Long Throw
• Designed to Mix in Zone
1400
Prism
Prism
Animation of High Induction/Entrainment Diffusers
Animation of High Induction/Entrainment
Diffusers
Why Not a High Induction Diffuser in the Laboratory? • High velocity ceiling pattern and
Why Not a High Induction Diffuser in
the Laboratory?
• High velocity ceiling pattern and colliding jets may enter
occupied zone
• Results in mixing & re-circulation of air
• particles and gases drawn into supply air stream
• air ages before it is exhausted
• Operational Efficiency is Sacrificed
• Requires higher ACR to reduce particle counts
• Interference w/ Fume Hood
• Occupant comfort
• Uniform Temperatures Only
Laminar Flow Outlets • Hospital Operating Suites when used in conjunction with air curtain •
Laminar Flow Outlets
• Hospital Operating Suites when used in
conjunction with air curtain
• Hi-Tech Electronics - Bench Top Applications
Why not a Laminar Flow Device in the Laboratory? • Vertical Column of Air •
Why not a Laminar Flow Device in the
Laboratory?
• Vertical Column of Air
• Velocity 30-100 fpm depending on T
• Turbulence in space
• Fume Hood Face Velocity Disturbance
• No Occupant comfort
• Operational Efficiency is Sacrificed
• Results in higher ACR to reduce particle counts
• Non Uniform SpaceTemperature
Animation of High Laminar Flow Diffuser
Animation of High Laminar Flow Diffuser
Radial Forced Displacement Outlets • Pharmaceutical & Chemistry Labs • University Labs • Isolation Wards
Radial Forced Displacement Outlets
• Pharmaceutical & Chemistry Labs
• University Labs
• Isolation Wards
• Animal Holding Rooms
Why a Radial Displacement Diffuser in a Laboratory? • Creates a low velocity radial air
Why a Radial Displacement Diffuser
in a Laboratory?
• Creates a low velocity radial air flow pattern
• Suppresses mixing & re-circulation of air
• particles and gases pushed down and away from work area
toward exhausts
• minimal age of air (one-pass-then-out)
• Operational Efficiency
• ACE vs. ACR improved
• Occupant comfort
• Uniform Temperatures
• Improved Acoustics
• Minimal Fume Hood
interference
Animation of Radial Flow Diffuser
Animation of Radial Flow Diffuser
Proving the Case
Proving the Case
Case Study: Integrated-circuit crystal growth chamber • Test problem: Determine the efficiency in which particles
Case Study: Integrated-circuit
crystal growth chamber
• Test problem: Determine the efficiency in which
particles could be removed from a space based on the
type of air distribution device employed.
• Displacement
vs.
Laminar
(Qty=10)
• Parameters:
– 41x41x9 Room
- Qty = 10
– 32 ACH
– 20°F T
Case Study: Integrated-circuit crystal growth chamber Laminar, 800CFM/Diffuser Results: – low efficiency After 4
Case Study: Integrated-circuit
crystal growth chamber
Laminar, 800CFM/Diffuser
Results:
– low efficiency
After 4 min.
207% ACE
difference
Displacement TAD, 600
CFM/Diffuser– High
efficiency
TAD-800CFM/diffuser
Case Study: Animal Holding Room Mock-Up • Test Problem: Determine the rate of decay in
Case Study: Animal Holding Room
Mock-Up
• Test Problem: Determine the rate of decay in an animal
holding room
• High Induction
vs.
Forced Radial Displacement
• Parameters:
– 20x14x9 Room
- (Qty=2)
– 15 ACH
– 10°F T
Case Study: Animal Holding Room Mock-Up-High Induction Diffusers 17:40 min to reach Class 100,000
Case Study: Animal Holding Room
Mock-Up-High Induction Diffusers
17:40 min to
reach Class
100,000
Case Study: Animal Holding Room Mock- Up-Forced Displacement Diffusers 13:45 min to reach Class 100,000
Case Study: Animal Holding Room Mock-
Up-Forced Displacement Diffusers
13:45 min to
reach Class
100,000
29%, ACE
improvement
Case Study: Animal Holding Room Mock-Up • Test Problem: Determine the most efficient room layout
Case Study: Animal Holding Room
Mock-Up
• Test Problem: Determine the most efficient room layout
and exhaust location in a animal holding room mock up
• High Exhaust vs. Low Exhaust
• Parameters:
– Forced Radial Displacement (Qty=2)
– 20x14x9 Room
– 15 ACH
– 10°F T
Case Study: Animal Holding Room Mock-Up with Ceiling Located Exhaust
Case Study: Animal Holding Room
Mock-Up with Ceiling Located Exhaust
Case Study: Animal Holding Room Mock-Up with Low Sidewall Exhaust •Class 20,000 17%, ACE improvement
Case Study: Animal Holding Room
Mock-Up with Low Sidewall Exhaust
•Class 20,000
17%, ACE
improvement
over ceiling
located exhaust
Effective Solutions
Effective Solutions
Effective Solutions Intrusive Radial flow Flush Face Radial flow
Effective Solutions
Intrusive Radial flow
Flush Face Radial flow
Performance Matters • Notice Jets – Competition photo published in ASHRAE magazine • Perforated Metal
Performance Matters
• Notice Jets
– Competition photo
published in ASHRAE
magazine
• Perforated Metal Physics
– Air wants to travel Horizontal or Vertical to the face of
the perforated metal
– The larger the  T the more difficult it is to throw at a
45° angle
Parallel SCC Unit in a Lab Application Parallel SCC Unit Lab Pressure Control Valve Critical
Parallel SCC Unit in a Lab Application
Parallel SCC Unit
Lab Pressure Control Valve
Critical Environment Outlets
Hospital Air Curtain Systems
Hospital Air Curtain Systems
Down the road to bad assumptions Total particle counts reductions leads to reductions in infection
Down the road to bad
assumptions
Total particle counts reductions leads to reductions in
infection rates
+ micro-filtered vertical laminar airflow of a specific velocity
leads to total particle reductions
= micro-filtered vertical laminar airflow of a specific velocity
is the only acceptable air distribution solution
“…what we observe is not nature in itself, but nature exposed to our
method of questioning” Werner Heisenberg, physicist
Where Clean Counts • Other than the surgeon’s hands, nothing is more important than sterile
Where Clean Counts
• Other than the surgeon’s hands,
nothing is more important than sterile in
the hospital OR
• Through bad choices, we can dirty an
otherwise clean environment
• Assumptions that hold true in the clean
room may not apply in the OR
Fallacy: all vertical laminar is good laminar • Laminar diffusers do not behave predictably outside
Fallacy: all vertical
laminar is good laminar
• Laminar diffusers do not behave predictably outside a
system that does not include these features:
1. Isothermal entry
2. Unbroken arrays
3. Controlled static (HEPA filter?)
4. Proper exhaust location
5. Precise balancing
6. Distributed heat load
OR’s are not clean rooms!
Fact: Vertical laminar can behave badly  May induce more than expected  Broken arrays
Fact: Vertical laminar
can behave badly
 May induce more than expected
 Broken arrays may cause chaotic flow
 Large arrays produce mass effect
 Low velocity may not overpower mass heat
source
 No proof that it works!
A Change of Heart What is needed is a “one pass – then out” system
A Change of Heart
What is needed is a “one pass – then out” system that was sensible,
safe, efficient and economical
Enter the air curtain • Air distribution manufacturers realized several things: – Howorth systems did
Enter the air curtain
• Air distribution manufacturers realized
several things:
– Howorth systems did not play well
with others
– Laminar flow was unpredictable
outside of the clean room
– Designers needed a scalar design
proven to reduce viable particle
counts
Enter the air curtain • What an air curtain looks like:
Enter the air curtain
• What an air curtain looks like:
Enter the air curtain • What an air curtain does:
Enter the air curtain
• What an air curtain does:
Why air curtains work better  It doesn’t replace laminar; it helps laminar behave predictably
Why air curtains work
better
 It doesn’t replace laminar; it helps laminar
behave predictably
 Mechanically friendly
Catching and counting microbes  Classifications based on viable microbiologic particle counts  Counts taken
Catching and counting
microbes
 Classifications based on viable microbiologic particle
counts
 Counts taken during periods of normal work activity
(during surgery)
 Counts taken a locations where air approaches the
site of actual work (incision, instrument tables, etc.)
 Reliability to be achieved through repetitive sampling
 Minimum sampling 30 cubic feet of air
 Record temperature, humidity, ACH, delta P
 Class 1 Microbiologic Cleanliness: 1 particle per cubic
foot
Catching and counting microbes  Real time tests – 13 tests – 2 hospitals –
Catching and counting
microbes
 Real time tests
– 13 tests
– 2 hospitals
– 8 surgeries
– 5 surgeries were total knee replacements
– Meets all requirements of definition
– Class 1 Microbiologic Cleanliness inside the curtain, Class 5
outside
There is only one air curtain systems on the market based
on designs tested during actual surgery
What should you do?  Ask facility what level of microbiologic clean air they want
What should you do?
 Ask facility what level of microbiologic clean air they
want
 Use laminar arrays when they count
– Don’t apply blindly without recognizing the limitations
– Keep the big picture in mind
 Use air curtain systems when they count
– Large OR’s or high ACH
– Invasive or critical surgery
– Other mechanical equipment placement important
– Don’t apply blindly without recognizing limitations
“sensible, safe, efficient and economical design” Harold Laufman
CORE Chairman 1972-1979
Summary • The path to clean OR air has not always been clear • Early
Summary
• The path to clean OR air has not always been clear
• Early pioneering efforts did not provide complete
solutions
• Assumptions not based on microbe counts have
proven wrong
• There is such a thing as a harmful approach
• There are solutions based on counting microbes
• Air distribution must be part of a complete approach
• As surgery advances, we must advance with it
• Not all manufacturers may be qualified
Cleanroom Product Overview
Cleanroom Product Overview
Cleanroom Overview Market Characteristics - Size: $200M Worldwide – NA $50M - A few companies
Cleanroom Overview
Market Characteristics
- Size: $200M Worldwide – NA $50M
- A few companies competing for the larger jobs
- Focus on traditional HEPA/ULPA products
Trends
- Regulations: ISO, SEMI, IEST, UL, CE, FM
- NanoTechnology will be the next driver in the US
market.
- New greenfield projects are down in US. Retrofit
projects are more common.
North America Cleanroom Market Other = $5 M Fan Filter Unit = $20 M 10%
North America Cleanroom Market
Other = $5 M
Fan Filter Unit = $20 M
10%
MiniEnv. = $5 M
40%
10%
40%
Terminal Filter = $20 M
Technology Overview
Technology Overview
HEPA Filters: How They Work Dirty Air Pre-Filter HEPA Filter Clean Air Straining Impingement Diffusion
HEPA Filters: How They Work
Dirty Air
Pre-Filter
HEPA Filter
Clean Air
Straining
Impingement
Diffusion
Interception
Brownian Effect
Laminar Flow in Cleanrooms What is Laminar Flow? • Laminar Flow is usually HEPA filtered.
Laminar Flow in Cleanrooms
What is Laminar Flow?
• Laminar Flow is usually HEPA
filtered. Laminar flow removes
particles and creates a clean zone. It
does this by maintaining a minimum
velocity.
Central Air System SUPPLY AIR RETURN AIR AIR DUCTS TO EACH FILTER AHU TERMINAL FILTER
Central Air System
SUPPLY AIR
RETURN AIR
AIR DUCTS TO EACH FILTER
AHU
TERMINAL FILTER
RETURN AIR
CEILING GRID
HEPA/ULPA
FILTER
HOLLOW
RETURN
CLEANROOM CLASSIFICATIONS
WALL
ENGLISH
LAMINAR AIR FLOW
SI
1
M1.5
10
M2.5
PERFORATED
100
M3.5
RAISED
1000
M4.5
10,000
M5.5
FLOOR
Pressurized Plenum AHU SUPPLY AIR POSITIVE PRESSURE PLENUM (RELATIVE TO ROOM) HEPA/ULPA PANEL FILTER RETURN
Pressurized Plenum
AHU
SUPPLY AIR
POSITIVE PRESSURE PLENUM
(RELATIVE TO ROOM)
HEPA/ULPA
PANEL FILTER
RETURN AIR
CEILING GRID
WALL
CLEANROOM CLASSIFICATIONS
ENGLISH
SI
LAMINAR AIR FLOW
1
M1.5
10
M2.5
PERFORATED
100
M3.5
RAISED
1000
M4.5
10,000
M5.5
FLOOR
Fan Filter Unit System AHU SUPPLY AIR NEGATIVE PRESSURE PLENUM (RELATIVE TO ROOM) FAN FILTER
Fan Filter Unit System
AHU
SUPPLY AIR
NEGATIVE PRESSURE PLENUM
(RELATIVE TO ROOM)
FAN FILTER UNIT
(MAC 10)
RETURN AIR
HEPA/ULPA
FILTER
HOLLOW
RETURN
CLEANROOM CLASSIFICATIONS
WALL
ENGLISH
SI
LAMINAR AIR FLOW
1
M1.5
10
M2.5
PERFORATED
100
M3.5
RAISED
1000
M4.5
10,000
M5.5
FLOOR
Fan Filter Units Standard Features Options • Low sound, low watts, low profile • Room-Side
Fan Filter Units
Standard Features
Options
• Low sound, low watts, low
profile
• Room-Side Replaceable
(ARS)
• Solid State or Digital Speed
Control
• ULPA Filter
• Airflow Indicator Light
• Snap-in prefilter; no tools
required
• A/C Collar (10 & 12 in dia.)
• Walkable plenum
• Painted or Stainless Steel
Exterior
• UL Listed and CE marked
• Power Cord
• Various sizes and voltages
available
• Challenge and Test Port
• Knife Edge
• Exceeds latest ISO 14644
• Custom-Sizes Available
Data Comparison Unit Motor Average DBA Size HP Airflow Watts @ 90 FPM Sound PSC
Data Comparison
Unit
Motor
Average
DBA
Size
HP
Airflow
Watts @
90 FPM
Sound
PSC
24x24
1/5
325
150
48
motor
24x48
1/5
650
190
50
ECM
24x24
1/3
325
80
46
motor
24x48
1/3
650
105
48
FFU System Summary • Fan Filter units offer the most cost effective method of supplying
FFU System Summary
• Fan Filter units offer the most cost effective method
of supplying Clean Room Air quantities, with the
lowest maintenance and energy costs.
• These include moth PSC and ECM constant flow rate
motor driven units.
• Available Smart Control Systems provide both set-
point control and monitoring of system performance
• Cost savings from optimized performance and
reduced down-time offset the investment in upgraded
control systems.
Specialty Air System Summary • Hospitals can provide a safer Operating Room environment with air
Specialty Air System Summary
• Hospitals can provide a safer Operating Room
environment with air curtain air delivery systems than
with “laminar” systems.
• Laboratories with Fume Hoods require special air
delivery systems to ensure that supply air doesn’t
cause outflow from the hood opening.
• Fan Filter units offer the most cost effective method
of supplying Clean Room Air quantities, with the
lowest maintenance and energy costs.