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..................................................................................................... 4
Unit 1 The tense and aspect distinctions of the infinitive............................5
Unit 2 The Full or Bare infinitive...............................................................12
Unit 3 The functions of the infinitive.........................................................19
Unit 4 For -To- Infinitive Construction......................................................48
Unit 5 The Infinitive or the Gerund/ - ing form..................................................57
Unit 6 Verbs taking to-infinitive or -ing form with a change in meaning.............59
Revision exercises....................................................................................... 79
.............................................................................................. 103


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Unit 1 The tense and aspect distinctions of the infinitive

There are simple, progressive, perfect and passive infinitives, with and
without to.
continuous infinitive
perfect infinitive
perfect continuous
passive infinitive
perfect passive

(to) do
(to) be doing
(to) have done
(to) have been
(to) be done
(to) have been

I want to see the manager. It may rain.
progressive: It's nice to be sitting here. You must be joking.
I'm glad to have seen her. She could have told us.
She likes to be liked.
It will be posted today.
perfect progressive: I'd like to have been sitting there when she walked in.
perfect passive: You could have been killed.
The negative infinitive form is not + (to-) infinitive:
He agreed not to tell anyone.
I'm sorry not to have phoned.
Perfect infinitives have the same kind of meaning as perfect or past
I'm glad to have left school ( = ... that I have left school)
She was sorry not to have seen Bill. ( = ... that she had not seen Bill)
We hope to have finished the job soon. ( = .. that we will have finished)
I seem to have annoyed Anne yesterday. ( = It seems that I annoyed ...)
With was/ were, would like and meant, perfect infinitives often refer to
unreal situations that are the opposite of what really happened.
He was to have gone to art college but he fell ill. (He didn't go.)
I'd like to have been sitting there when she walked in. (I wasn't there.)
I meant to have telephoned but I forgot.

Ex. 1. Read the following sentences and analyse the form of the
1. "When you've got time to listen," he said crossly, "you might be
interested in discussing the poorhouse question with me". 2. There was
also the question of tolerance of injure to be considered. 3. Professor
Bernsdorff was not a man to be mistaken in his beliefs. 4. There is only
one more incident to be related here, and it happens seven years farther on.
5. But these people are illogical, they want to be reassured by your telling
them what they want to believe. 6. In fact, he has to be seen to be believed.
7. I say to you I believe them to be burnt. 8. Something festive ought to
be done tonight. 9. There was not a moment to be lost. 10. There is a lot to
be seen here.
1. To be able to sift evidence impartially, to take the facts and look at
them as facts that seems to me j the only logical method of arriving at the
truth. 2. At that hour people were less likely to be coming in or going out.
3. Young Tom Driscoll appeared and joined the party. He pretended to be
seeing the distinguished strangers for the first time when they rose to shake
hands. 4. Everything seems to be moving very nicely nowadays. 5. Draw
water, serve food, lay pillows on the front porch, bind wounds, hold the
dirty heads of the dying. No, this could not be happening to her. 6.
Neighbours met on the streets and stared at one another uncertain, uneasy
as to what might be impending. 7. You may be kidding, but the things that
turn the big shots against a man make just about as much sense ..." 8. The
girl noticed that particularly, because it struck her as odd that a lady so well
dressed should be carrying a case about. 9. How silly of Melanie to be
bothering about modesty at a time like this, Scarlett thought irritably.
1. The twist of her imagination which, two months before, had disclosed
to her unguessed desire to see him again, seemed now to have been leading
up to this dance. 2. "I am sorry to have upset you, Miss Mary Brodil," he
had said gravely, but limiting at her the while out of his hazel eyes... 3.
Now he discussed what he ought to have said instead of what he said. 4.
"Damn," said Lord Caterham, springing up from an armchair in which ho
appeared to have been taking forty winks. 5. "Dear me," said Virginia, "I
seem to have been frightfully indiscreet." 6. I was not going to have come

all this way for nothing... 7. "The sound was very slight," said Virginia. "It
might have been just my imagination." 8. Though his father is known to
have been either English or Irish, he himself has worked chiefly in Paris. 9.
It is possible that you in England may not even hear of our famous and
fantastic King Victor. 10. Yes, he seems to have been taken suddenly ill at
the office.
Ex. 2. Translate into Russian paying attention to the form of the
infinitive after the modal verbs
1. You were told to be careful and you oughtn't really to have left
England for at least another month. 2. You ought to have learnt by now that
I know my own mind. 3. "My lord Milton," cried Evelyn, "couldn't you
have done something?" 4. I could have crumpled them (the papers) up and
thrown them at him, only they would not have hurt. 5. Now I see I needn't
have worried. 6. Daddy wrote so well. He ought to have been a writer. 7. I
learned something from him that I should have known myself. 8. How
could it have been otherwise? 9. I feel I ought to have gone with him. One
of us ought to have done so. 10. She must have come early to have got a
position like that. 11. Yet the gentleman might have said, "I should like a
portrait of my wife," and I he lady might have said, "I should like a portrait
of my husband."
Ex. 3. Choose the proper form of the infinitive in brackets
1. I've tried (to plan, to have planned) you a house here with some selfrespect of its own. 2. "Well," he said, "there's nothing more (to see, to be
seen) here." 3. Did he ever ask you (to engage, to be engaged) or talk about
marrying? 4. What happened is a very long time ago. I'm going (to ask, to
have asked) her to let bygones. 5. Henet was one of those people whose
fate is (to devote, to be devoted) to others and to have no one devoted to
them. 6. It had been the Christmas Eve custom of the Carters' (to hang, to
have hanged) up their children's stockings and (to fill, to have filled) them
with inexpensive toys. 7. He promised (to come, to have come) and (to see,
to have seen) them before he left. 8. She watched him with lips ready (to
speak, to have spoken) at any minute. 9. I had no cases of special interest
(to attend, to have attended). 10. He had to say: "I am sorry (to cause, to
have caused) you such distress."

Ex. 4. Rewrite these sentences using perfect infinitives



I'm glad I've met you.

I was sorry I had disturbed him.
I expect I'll have passed all my exams by June.
It seems that you made a mistake. (You seem ...)
I'm happy that I've had a chance to talk to you.
I was disappointed that I had missed the party.
It seems that she's got lost.
She was pleased that she had found the house

Ex. 5. Rewrite the sentences as shown

1 She didn't marry a friend of her parents. (was to)
2 I didn't see his face when he realised what had happened. (would like to)
3 He didn't finish all his work by three o'clock. (mean)
4 We didn't spend a week skiing. (were to)
5 It wasn't the happiest week of my life. (was to)
6 She didn't say goodbye to everybody before she left. (mean)
7 I didn't live in the seventeenth century. (would like)
8 He didn't play in the Cup Final. (was to)
Ex. 6. Open the brackets
a) Use the infinitive in the non-perfect form of the active or passive
1. I hate (to bother) you, but the man is still waiting (to give) a definite
answer. 2. He hated (to bother) with trifling matters when he had many more
important questions (to decide). 3. She would never miss a chance (to
show) her efficiency, she was so anxious (to like) and (to praise). 4. The
idea was too complicated (to express) in just one paragraph. It seemed it
would take not less than a page (to put) it into words. 5. Is there anything
else (to tell) him? I believe he deserves (to know) how the matter stands
and (to tell) all about it. 6. The book is likely (to publish) and (to appear)
on sale pretty soon. It is sure (to sell) well and (to sell) out in no time. 7.
What he took to writing for was not (to earn) a living but a name. All he
wanted was (to read) and not (to forget).
b) Use the infinitive in the required form of the active voice
1. How fortunate he is (to travel) all over the world and (to see) so much
of it. 2. The man appears (to know) practically all European languages; he is
said (to learn) them while travelling. 3. The river was reported (to overflow)
the banks and (to advance) towards the suburbs of the city. 4. The girl
pretended (to read) a book and not (to notice) me. 5. You seem (to look) for

trouble. 6. It seems (to rain) ever since we came here. 7. It is so thoughtful

of you (to book) the tickets well in advance.
c) Use the appropriate form of the infinitive
1. The man seemed (to study) me, and I felt uneasy in his presence. 2.
Perhaps it would bother him (to speak) about the quarrel. 3. He is supposed
(to work) at the translation of the book for two years. 4. The only sound (to
hear) was the ticking of the grandfather's clock downstairs. 5. The book
was believed (to lose) until the librarian happened (to find) it during the
inventory. It turned out (to misplace). 6. The strength of the metal proved
(to overestimate) by the designer. The engineer claimed (to warn) against
its use for the purpose all along as he had been always sure it was likely (to
deform) under great load. 7. We seem (to fly) over the sea for quite a time
and there is yet no land (to see). 8. Not (to answer) would have been a
wrong step. 9. We don't seem (to acquaint), at least I can't remember ever
(to meet) him. 10. The third key remained (to test).
Ex. 7. Use the infinitive in brackets in the appropriate form
1. It was foolish not (to call) a doctor, but I did not, well, out of respect
for her feeling. 2. She was prepared (to think) wrong-headed, but not naive.
3. Come, I have finished (to dig) and am going (to plant). 4. I'm deeply
sorry (to involve) you in this. 5. At home Mrs. Goff would have kept my
supper. You had to be on the dot if you want (to feed), so I usually went
with one or the other (to have) cheese rolls and beer. 6. Don't expect
comfort. You've just got to be thankful if we get a bed (to sleep) on and a
roof over our heads. 7. "Perhaps," suggested Rollock, "the man didnt want
(to see) turning into the house from the road." 8. At last Mor allowed
himself (to persuade). 9. "Do you want (to come) in and (to wash) up?" he
asked suddenly. "No, thanks," said John. "I ought to go home my wife'll
be worried." 10. I began (to walk) very slowly.
Ex. 8. Use the infinitive in brackets in the appropriate form after
the modal verbs. Remember that modal verbs are followed by the
infinitive without the particle to" with the exception of "ought",
"have", "be"
1. Old Jolyon said simply, "I suppose I oughtn't (to come) here, Jo." 2.
"All right," I said to Andy. "You can (to come) and he can (to turn) in
ahead of us if he likes." 3. To the north we could (to look) across a valley
and see a forest of chestnut trees. 4. I fancy he must (to belong) to high
society... 5. "I wish you could (to put) some sense into Uncle Simon," he

said. 6. "You shouldn't (to leave) your lift door unbolted, miss. You really
shouldn't." "I shan't again," said Pat, with a shiver. 7. Christine knew that
this was not what she ought, (to say). 8. If you don't mind I should much
(to oblige) if you would stay. 9. She knew that she ought (to jump) out of
bed, put her arms round her mother, and attempt to comfort her. 10. You
are supposed to take notes. You can (to write) this one up if you like. 11.
He wished Chilla was still there, and he could (to point) her out to him. 12.
He must (to get) tired of going up and down in lifts. 13. They're all grown
up, as old as the hills, and Mama thinks you might (to bore). Should you
mind staying here? 14. On this she left the room, and, glancing at my
watch, I hurried out to pay some visits that ought (to make) earlier in the
day.15. "Why, you've been crying," he said, "You oughtnt (to cry) at your
Ex. 9. Insert the Infinitive in the appropriate form and translate the
sentences into Russian
1. Mr Abbot was the first ... the silence. (to break). 2. The next patient ...
was nice girl in early teens. (to examine). 3. Honesty is the first
principle ... when working with us. (to observe). 4. complained that he
was always the last... . (to inform). 5. I m the last man ... question of the
kind. (to ask). 6. They were among the last... . (to arrive). 7. found he
was the only n ... the discrepancy. (to notice).8. If there is to b
vn I would like to b the n ... the job. (to offer). 9. These houses
were among the few ... after great fire. (to survive). 10. Who was the
youngest chess player ... the title of All-Union Champion? (to win). 11.
The Shakespeare Memorial Theatre players were the second British
company ... the Soviet Union. (to visit). 12. The Nuremberg trial was the
biggest international trial ... ever ... . (to hold).
Ex. 10. Complete the sentences with the appropriate form of the
1 His greatest ambition is .. (choose) to take part in the Olympics.
2 Please come in. I'm sorry (keep) you waiting.
3 It is understood that the escaped prisoner might (hide) in a friend's
house for the last month.
4 I saw Amy last night. She seems ... (get) much better.
5 I hope ... (live) in my own house in five years' time.
6 The children are looking forward to ... (film) for that television
7 I'm sorry I wasn't in when you came round. I would like (see) you.

8 I can't see Tony. He seems ... (leave).

9 The Director is understood ... (resign) last week because of the
impending fraud investigation.
10 The builders are expecting ... (finish) the job by the time we get back.
11 She can't ... (dance) with Tim last night. He's got a broken leg.
10She seems ... (lose) a lot of weight recently, but otherwise I think she's
all right.
. 11. Use the correct form of the Infinitive in brackets
1. I hope (to see) you soon. 2. We expect (to b) back in two days. 3.
expected (to help) b his friends. 4. I m glad (to do) all the homework
yesterday. 5. I m sorry (to break) my n. 6. I hate (to bother) you, but the
students r still waiting (to give) books for their work. 7. seized every
opportunity (to r) in public: he was so anxious (to talk) about... 8. Is
there anything else (to tell) her? I believe she deserves (to know) the state
of her sick brother. 9. began writing books not because he wanted (to
earn) living. 10. The woman pretended (to read) and (not to hear) the
bell. 11. Perhaps it would upset her (to tell) the truth of the matter. 12. The
only sound (to hear) was the snoring of grandfather in the bedroom.
. 12. Use the appropriate form paying special attention to the
infinitive after the verbs to make, to let, to advise, to allow and the
expression would like
1. made m (to do) it all over again. 2. made her (to repeat) the
message. . Would you like m (to go) now? 4. They won't let us (to leave)
the Customs till our luggage has been examined. 5. wouldn't let m
baby (to play) with his gold watch. 6. Please let m (t know) your
decision as soon as possibIe. 7. made us (to wait) for hous. 8. I let him
(to go) early as he wanted to meet his wife. 9. I'd like him (to go) to
university but I can't make him (to go). 10. tried to make m (to
believe) that he was my stepbrother. 11. Before he let us (to go) he made us
(to promise) not to tell anybody what we had seen. 12. I advised him (to
ask) the bus-conductor to tell him where to get off. 13. That is too heavy
for n person (to rr); let m (to help) you. 14. The teacher advised us
(to use) dictionaries. 15. r father doesn't allow her (to go) to the cinema
alone. 16. Who told the nurse (to give) the sick man this medicine? 17. The
old man doesn't like his grandchildren (to make) lot of noise when they
r playing. 18. The gardener won't let the children (to pick) the flowers.
. 13. Translate into English, using the appropriate form of the

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Unit 2 The Full or Bare infinitive

We generally use to with the infinitive, e.g. I want to see you. However,
in some cases, we use the bare infinitive: that is, the infinitive without to
1. After modals and after the auxiliaries do/did:
You must come.
They may arrive soon.
Did you pass the exam?
2. The infinitive with to is used after the modal verb ought.

We ought to see if Pat's OK

3.After Let's ...:
Let's go out tonight.
4. After make + noun/pronoun object:
He made me come here.
but: in the passive: be made / be heard / be seen + to -infinitive.
He was made to pay for the damage
5. After would rather:
I'd rather walk there than take the bus.
I'd rather not stay out late tonight.
6. After had better
We'd better go home now
7. After Why not ...?:
Why not phone me tomorrow
8. After the verb help, know we can use the to- infinitive or the bare
Can you help me (to) open this
I've never known him (to) be so mean
but: in the passive: be known, be helped + to-infinitive.
She was known to have worked as a teacher
9. After a verb of perception (see, watch, notice, feel, hear) + object
I didn't hear you come in
What could they do except wait?
10. When there is a series of infinitives after a verb: If two infinitives are
joined by "and" or "or", the "to" of the second infinitive can be omitted.
I want to call Mr Jones and fax or post him a letter
I'd like to come and see you
11.We can use to for the infinitive of a repeated verb, if the meaning is
'Are you moving?' 'We hope to.' ( = ... 'We hope to move.)
'Come and dance.' 'I don't want to.'

I don't play tennis, but I used to.

'You made Ann cry.' 'I didn't mean to.'
12. We cannot usually drop to.
'Come and have a drink.' 'I'd like to.' (NOT-'I'd like.')
But we can drop to in the expressions if you like/want, when you like/want
and as you like.
'Can I help?' If you like.'
We'll stop when you want

Ex. 14. Insert the particle "to" where required
1. Her anxiety was all the more pitiful __ see because she took such
pains __ hide it 2. I refused allow anything of the sort __ be attempted. 3.
At the same time she glanced at him __ assure herself that he must be
joking. 4. She watched Theodora's hands move as if they were about
reach out and __ touch something. 5. Paul tried __ break awaycome to me.
6. Then nobody need __ be disturbed. 7. I looked up, quick __ notice the
change of tone. 8. I was pleased at the idea of no more of that chilly room,
where the light hung in the one place where you could neither __ see and
__ read in bed no __ do your face, but soon I began __ be worried. 9. I
wasn't worrying about that, I happen __ be going to London. That's all. 10.
He did not think the cheeses ought __ be kept much longer. 11. He told
himself that she should __ have foreseen this ghastly thing. 12. I was in
and out of the house for three days, and I'm telling you, mate, the going-on
there had __ be heard __ believed. 13. She was relieved __ feel she need
not investigate, and probably would never __ hear the reason for this
quarrel. 14. Heater was really frightened now and even Mrs. Ogilvie was
beginning __ look as if she would rather __ be somewhere else. 15. I felt
she must __ suffer and I did not want __ see a pain which I could not __
help. 16. I would
__ give a great deal to know what is behind that affair.
17. I questioned Valerie. She would __ tell me nothing.
Ex. 15. Put the beginnings and ends together
Ann really upset Granny.
'Are you enjoying your new job?'
'Can I see you home?'

'Can you mend this by Tuesday?'

'Did you get my coat from the cleaner's?'
'Do you collect stamps?'
'Do you think he knows what he's doing?'
'Do you want to come out with us tonight?
'Does she think she'll win?'
'How would you and Sue like to spend the weekend with us?'
'I think you ought to see the police about the people next door.'
'Shall we go swimming?'
'Should we book seats in advance?'
We'd like to move to a bigger house
but we can't afford to.
'He seems to.'
'I don't really want to - it's too cold.
'I intend to. They can't go on keeping the whole street awake every night.'
'I'd like to, but I'm working late.'
'I'll try to. but I can't promise.'
'I'm sure she didn't mean to.'
'If you'd like to.'
'No, but I used to.'
'Sorry, I forgot to.'
'We don't need to - there's always plenty of room.'
'We'd love to.'
'Well, I'm starting to.'
'Yes, she expects to.
Ex. 16. Translate into Russian paying attention to the particle "to"
which implies the verb already mentioned
1. Charles Quigly's reactions to this romance were, at best, mixed. He
liked Alan. It was impossible not to. 2. And you want to go to a
sanatorium? I think you ought to. 3. "Why not come down there for a bit?"
said Bill hospitably. "Well, I'd love to, Bill, old man." 4. Bill gasped. "I beg
your pardon." "I'm glad you have the grace to." 5.1 noticed for the first
time how short he was; but he looked more distinguished than he used to.
6. When Liza caught Mrs. Blakestons eye she stepped forward a little to
go and speak with the woman, but Mrs. Blakeston, standing still, looked so
angrily at her that she was afraid to. 7. "Good-bye." He shook hands. "I
expect Evensford will be here if ever we want to come back." "If ever we

want to." 8. "I think it's turned much warmer," he said. "I think we shall
probably sing outdoors this evening. In that case you needn't come inside if
you didn't want to." 9. I would like to help George to sing the way I
always wanted to myself and never could. 10. "Don't tell me anything you
don't want to," I said by way of encouraging him. 11. He has taken her
hand because she expects him to. 12. You know, I shouldn't do that. You
don't know what it may lead to
Ex. 17. In your notebook, copy the dialogue underlining all the
infinitives and adding to where it is required
Two friends, Alex and Megan, are talking.
A: Megan, where were you last night? I tried to find you but I couldn't see
you anywhere. James says he didn't see you come in to the party.
M: Yes Alex, that's right. I'm sorry. My parents wouldn't let me come out
last night. I wanted see you - honestly I did.
A: Why did your parents make you stay in? They usually allow you go out
in the evenings, don't they?
M: Yes, but I hadn't finished doing my homework. And they refused let me
go out until I had.
A: Oh dear, poor you. Oh well, never mind. Let's do something tonight
M: OK. Actually, I'd like see that new film.
A: Would you? I suppose it might be quite good but I'd rather just go out to
the cafe. I was hoping have a chance talk to you properly.
M: Well, why not do both? We could go to the early showing of the film
and then go to the cafe.
A: I'm not sure I can afford go to the cinema.
M: That's all right. I've got some money.
A: So what time would you like meet, then?
M: Six o'clock I suppose - in the cinema. I'll try get there a bit earlier and
buy the tickets
Ex. 18. Fill in the blanks with the infinitive of the verb in brackets
1. The guard would not let me (go) into the building. 2. Mrs Smith
always made her children (put) away their toys before they went to bed. 3.
Mrs Jones will not allow her dog (sit) on the sofa. 4. As a child, I was
always made (put) away my toys before I went to bed. 5. Johnny was made
(go) to bed early because he had been a naughty boy. 6. Johnny's mother
made him (say) he was sorry for being naughty. 7. I wish you wouldn't let
everyone (know) what you are doing. 8. Why don't you let me (help) you?

9. Mr Brown will never allow his wife (forget) that she made him (give up)
his job. 10. Since Mr Brown was made (give up) his job, he has not let his
children (have) any pocket money. 11. The notice-board says the plane will
(land) within the next few minutes. 12. Angela saw the accident (happen),
so she went to call an ambulance. 13. The thief didn't (manage) to find the
jewellery. 14. Does the gardener always (arrive) late for work? 15. The
teacher has (mark) the tests by Friday.
Ex.19. Change the sentences as shown
1 I couldn't understand the timetable. (wasn't able)
2 It's important to eat enough. (You should)
1 I'd like to go sailing this summer. (1 might)
2 She will probably get married in June. (She expects)
3 I said I would help her. (I agreed)
4 It's necessary to make careful plans. (We must)
5 Perhaps he's ill. (He seems)
8 I want to change my job. (I wish I could)
9 I may come and see you next week. (1 hope)
10You don't need to apologise. (You needn't)
11 They will open a new branch in North London. (They have decided)
12I will certainly pay you on Saturday. (I promise)
13I couldn't find the ticket office. (I didn't manage)
14I prefer to go by myself. (1 would rather)
15She said she wouldn't see him again. (She refused)
16I can play chess. (I've learnt)
Ex. 20. Use the required form of the infinitive in brackets. Insert the
particle to where necessary
1.I decided (to make) a fuss, and went (to look) for Robinson. 2. We
walked to the door and I saw her (to go) in and down the hall. I liked (to
watch) her (to move). 3. Let's (to go) and (to find) him, he's sure (to be) in
front of his picture. 4. It's very interesting (to hear) you (to say) that. 5.
Some important decisions must (to make) soon. 6. You must (to do)
something heroic at that time. 7. I think he must (to suffer) from injury
now. 8. You must (to dream) of it long. 9. She liked, passionately (to like),
(to think) worthy of confidence. 10. Let me (to hold) the baby, Scarlett. Oh,
I know how (to hold) babies. 11. She noticed that he seemed (to look) at
the sideboard and with her engaging smile leaned forward. 12. Do you
want (to make) something (to happen)? 13. But there is something else (to
do). 14.I have not done much for you. You might (to ask) much more at

that time. 15. "If you've got nothing to say," I said, "why (to try) (to say) it?
Why not (to have) a little rest?" 16. There was one more announcement (to
Ex. 21. Insert to where necessary before the infinitives in brackets
1 He made me (do) it all over again. 2 She can (sing) quite well. 3
He will be able (swim) very soon. 4 I used (live) in a caravan. 5 You
ought (go) today. It may (rain) tomorrow. 6 You needn't (say) anything.
Just nod your head and he will (understand). 7 I want (see) the house
where our president was born. 8 He made her (repeat) the message. 9
May I (use) your phone? 10 You needn't (ask) for permission; you can
(use) it whenever you like. 11 If you want (get) there before dark you
should (start) at once. 12 I couldn't (remember) his address. 13 You'll be
able (do) it yourself when you are older. 14 Would you like (go) now or
shall we (wait) till the end? 15 They won't let us (leave) the Customs shed
till our luggage has been examined. 16 How dare you (open) my letters!
17 He didn't dare (argue) with his boss. 18 I used (smoke) forty cigarettes
a day. 19 Will you help me (move) the bookcase? 20 He wouldn't let my
baby (play) with his gold watch. 21 They refused (accept) the bribe. 22
He is expected (arrive) in a few days. 23 Please let me (know) your
decision as soon as possible. 24 He made us (wait) for hours. 25 Could
you (tell) me the time, please? 26 We must (send) him a telegram. 27 I let
him (go) early as he wanted (meet) his wife. 28 Where would you like
(have) lunch? 29 You can (leave) your dog with us if you don't (want)
(take) him with you. 30 I'd like him (go) to a university but I can't (make)
him (go). 31 We could (go) to a concert, unless you'd prefer (visit) a
museum. 32 You seem (know) this area very well. ~ Yes, I used (live) here.
33 The kidnappers told the parents (not inform) the police, and the parents
didn't dare (disobey). 34 Need I (come)? I'd much rather (stay) at home. 35
You can (take) a horse to water but you can't (make) him (drink).
(proverb). 36 I'm sorry (disappoint) you but I can't (let) you (have) any
more money till the end of the month.
Ex. 22. Translate into English, using would rather/had better +
1. . . 2.
. . 3.
? 4. ?
. 5. .

. 6. ,
. 7. . . 8.
? .
. 9. ,
. 10. .
. 11.
. , . 12.
? .
. 13. ,
. . 14.
? , . . 15.
. . . 16.
. , .

Unit 3 The functions of the infinitive

1. Subject
In this function the infinitive can be used in all its forms
be talking with you like this is a real pleasure.
To have said that in her presence is unpardonable.
To be offered all this was quite unexpected.
To have been invited to that place was an honour.
see you is always a pleasure. = It is always a pleasure to see you.
It was foolish to be angry. = To be angry was foolish.
2. We can use the to-infinitive as a subject (e.g. To know how to drive is
useful) but this is unusual. When we use the to-infinitive as a subject, it is
more usual to begin the sentence with it (as a "preparatory subject").
It is useful to know how to drive.
It isn't expensive to play tennis in England.


Ex. 23. Transform according to the model

e.g. To skate here is pleasant. It is pleasant to skate here.
1. To swim on a hot summer day is marvellous. 2. To learn a foreign
language is difficult. 3. To rest there was pleasant. 4. To be given such an
opportunity is important. 5. To look after the children was her duty. 6. To
marry him was her ambition. 7. To have spent a month at the seaside was
very useful. 6. To be fishing now is too cold. 9. To have bought such a
useless thing was stupid. 10. To be treated rudely is unpleasant.
Ex. 24. Make sentences with the same meaning by using it +
e.g. Having good friends is important. It is important to have good
1. Playing tennis is fun. 2. Being polite to other people is important. 3.
Learning about other cultures is interesting. 4. Walking alone at night in
this part of the city is dangerous. 5. Is learning a second language difficult?
6. Is riding a motorcycle easy? 7. Having a cold isn't much fun. 7. Learning
a second language takes a long time. 8. Cooking a soft-boiled egg takes
three minutes.
. 25. Translate the sentences into English using the Infinitive as a
1 . - . 2.
. . "" , ""
. 4. , ,
. 5. - . 6.
. 7. . 8.
. 9. ,
. 10. . 11.
. 12. , . 13.
, . 14. ,
? 15. ,
. 16. . 17.
. 18.
. 19.
. 20. . 21.
. 22.
. 23. . 24.
. 25.

. 26. . 27.
. 28. . 29.
. 30. ,
. 31. : -
-? 32. . 33.
. 34.
. 35. ? 36.
. 37.
. 38. .
39. - . 40.
. 41.
. 42.
, , . 43.
. 44.
. 45.

2. Predicative/Predicate
a)Simple predicate:
You to come so late again!
After to be:
My first thought was to phone you
be + adjective describing the activity + to-infinitive:
This book is very difficult to read.
She's very amusing to talk to
c) Modal predicate:
He is to become Mayor next month
I must see him.
d) Aspect predicate:
to begin to commence to start to come
to continue to proceed to go on to cease
began to laugh.
At last I came to understand his meaning

She continued to shout.

. 26. Translate the sentences into English
1. - . 2.
. .
. 4. - . 5.
- . 6.
- . 7.
, . 8.
, , - . 9.
- . 10. ,
, - . 11. ,
, - . 12.
. 13.
. 14.
. 15. , , .
16. , ,

3. Object
a) After certain verbs:
wants to rest.
He decided to return the same day.
They agreed to come.
b) After certain verbs + person (object):
I asked her to come here
c) After be + adjective describing personal characteristic + (of person) +
It was silly of her to say that.
It's good of you to come.
It's kind of you to help me.

d) be + adjective of feeling + to-infinitive:

I'm pleased to see you.
We were sorry to hear your news
It was nice to see you.
She's very keen to do the course.
It was selfish of me to ignore you
These adjectives include
surprised etc.
She was infuriated to find the room empty.
He was horrified to know that she was found dead in her own room.
After adjectives like nice, lovely, great, wonderful, awful and horrible,
we can use the ing form (present participle) or the to-infinitive:
It's nice seeing you.
It's nice to see you.
The ing form describes the activity in progress and the to-infinitive
describes the whole event. But in practice, the use of the two forms is very

Ex. 27. Rewrite the sentences using be + adjective + to-infinitive
1 We're going to leave. We're ready. We're ready to leave.
2 He's afraid of telling her the truth.
3 I received your letter. I was delighted.
4 I heard about their divorce. I was surprised.
5 You shouldn't interrupt people. It's rude.
6 You brought those flowers. It was very kind of you.
7 Heating this house is very expensive.
8 I saw you last night. It was lovely.
9 Having interests outside work is important.
10 That child learns very quickly.

Ex. 28. Translate the sentences into English using the Infinitive as
n object
1. , . 2.
. 3. . 4.
. 5. . 6.
. 7. ,
. 8. 7 .
9. . 10.
. 11.
. 12. . 13. . 14. . 15.
. 16.
. , . 17.
, . 18.
. 19. .
20. . 21. ,
. 22.
. 23. , . 24.
-? 25.
. 26.
. 27. ,
. 28. ,
. 29. :
. 30. , ,

4. Attribute
a) After the first/second/last/only/best (and other superlative adjectives)
+ noun or pronoun 'one':
He was the only one to die.
b) After a noun/pronoun. The verb in the infinitive relates to the
preceding noun/pronoun:
We have a problem to discuss. (= We have a problem which we should
I've got a comic to read. (= I've got a comic which I can read.)
I have an exercise to do. (= I have an exercise which I must do.)
The book tells you about walks to take. (= which you can take)

There are a lot of museums to visit. (= which you can visit)

Ex. 29. Paraphrase the following so as to use the infinitive
e.g. He gave me a passage which I was to look through. He gave me a
passage to look through.
1. There are still a lot of things which must be packed. 2. There are so
many letters that must be answered. 3. I have no money which I can spend.
4. There is nothing which we might record now. 5. There is nothing you
should worry about. 6. Here is a list of medicines which are to be sold
without a prescription. 7. He is not the man you can rely on. 8. A good
housewife will always find something that must be done about the house.
9. He is not the man who can be easily impressed. 10. The next patient who
was examined was my brother. 11. There was nothing that might keep him
at home that night, and he gladly accepted the invitation. 12. She had no
one who could take care of her. 13. We've got no time that we can lose.
Ex. 30. Respond using what a/an + adjective + noun + infinitive
A: He lives in a cave, (funny place)
B: What a funny place to live!
1. parked outside the police station, (silly place)
2. travels by donkey, (slow way)
3. said, "mind your own business." (rude thing)
4. sleeps in his car. (uncomfortable place)
5. makes money by telling fortunes, (interesting way)
6. swims at night, (odd time)
7. plays golf on his flat roof, (strange place)
8. makes all his important decisions in the lift, (extraordinary place)
9. lives on brown rice, (odd thing) (Keep on)
10. cooks in his bathroom, (queer place)
11. rings up his friends at 6 a.m. (inconvenient time)
12. relaxes by standing on his head, (odd way)
13. reads the telephone directory, (strange thing)
14. gets up at 4 a.m. (unpleasant time)
15. has a holiday in June, (agreeable time)
16. drives a Rolls Royce. (expensive car)

Ex. 31. Paraphrase the following using a noun instead of the verb in
bold type with the infinitive as attribute, make all other necessary
e.g. He offered to help us but we refused. We refused his offer to help
I don't want to change my mind. I have no desire to change my mind.
1.I was surprised that he refused to go there. 2. We did not know that
they planned to leave soon. 3. They demand to be regularly informed, and
you will have to comply with it. 4. I remember you promised not to talk of
it. 5.I told him that I was firmly determined to find out the truth. 6. He was
permitted to leave. 7.I don't intend to do anything about it. 8. They
repeatedly attempted to stage the experiment. 9. He did not wish to let you
down. 10. The trainer instructed the cyclists to examine their bicycles
before the competition. 11. He consented to fill up the vacancy.
Ex. 32. Translate the sentences into English using the Infinitive as
n attribute
1. - , ? 2.
. 3.
. 4. ,
. 5. , ? 6.
, . 7.
; . 8.
. 9. .
. 10. , .
11. . 12.
. 13. . 14.
, . 15. .
. 16. .
17. , . 18. ,
. 19.
, . 20. . 21.
; . 22.
? 23. -,
? 24. ,
5. The Adverbial Modifier of Purpose
The infinitive with to frequently expresses purpose, indicating that one

action will follow another:

I have come to apologise.
I sent Mrs Bacon a bunch of flowers to thank her for the party.
We shouted to warn everyone of the danger.
You can also use in order or so as + to-infinitive:
We shouted in order to warn everyone of the danger.
Some speakers hesitate so as to choose the right word.
In order and so as + to-infinitive are more formal than the infinitive of
purpose with to.
I am going to England to improve my English.
I am going to England in order (so as) to improve my English.
In order to ... and so as to ... are common before be, know and have;
and before other verbs in a more formal style.
I got up early in order to be ready to leave at eight.
She studied English in order to have a better chance of getting a job.
I came to Britain so as to know more about British culture.
In order and so as are normal before not to.
I spoke quietly so as not to frighten her. (NOT I spoke quietly not to ...)

Ex. 33. Write sentences to say why people go to some of the
following places. Begin You go ...
a library You go to a library to borrow books.
a bookshop
a cinema
a theatre
a swimming pool
a gymnasium
a driving school
a station

an airport
a travel agent's
a church
a football stadium
a bank
a post office

Ex. 34. Write a sentence to say why you are learning English. (To
get a better job? To study something else? To travel? To ...?) If you can

work with other students, find out why they are learning English
Ex. 35. Join the sentences with in order to, so as or so that
1. I'll give you my telephone number. You can phone me at work. 2.
Take some suntan cream. Then you won't get sunburnt. 3. I'm going to the
post office. I want to post a parcel. 4. We are organizing a "Fun Run". We
want to raise money for the local hospital. 5. They took the phone off the
hook. Nobody could phone them. 6. Speak louder. Then Granny can hear
you. 7. Turn the sound down. I don't want you to disturb the neighbours. 8.
We are installing solar heating. We want to save energy.
Ex. 36. Use so as/in order with the infinitive
1. was playing very softly. didn't want to disturb nn. 2. I sent
him out of the room. I wanted to discuss his progress with his headmaster.
3. I m learning Greek. I wish to rd mer. 4. sent his children to
their aunt's house. wanted to have some . 5. read only for short
periods each day. didn't want to strain his eyes. 6. They got up very
early. They wanted to get to the top of the hill before sunrise. 7. We must
keep our gloves n. We don't want to get fostbitten.
Ex. 37. Translate the sentences into English using the Infinitive as
n adverbial modifier of purpose
1. , . 2.
, . 3. 6 ,
. 4. ,
. 5. .
6. , . 7. ,
. 8. ,
. 9. , . 10.
, . 11.
, ,
. 12. , .
13. , . 14.
, . 15.
, . 16.
, . 17. ,
6. The Adverbial Modifier of Cause and Result
a)After too + adjective and after adjective + enough:

He's too ill to come.

The garden isn't big enough to play games in
b) with: so + adjective + as.
Would you be so kind as to help me move the sofa?

Ex. 38. Fill in "too" or "enough" with the adjectives from the list.
Add an object where necessary
small, tall, warm, early, busy, strong, difficult, tired
1. The exercise is too difficult for me to do.
2. The shoes are ... (wear).
3. We didn't go to the beach last weekend because it wasn't ... (swim).
4. She isn't ... (lift) the weights.
5. I'm ... (do) the ironing now.
6. We weren't ... (get) good seats for the concert.
7. She can't make dinner tonight. She's ... with office work ... (make) dinner
8. He isn't ... (be) in the basketball team.

7. The Adverbial Modifier of Attendant circumstances

He rushed to the door only to be stopped by the big footman.
I woke up to hear a tiny voice calling me from the next room.
There was a step behind him and he turned to find George emerging
from the back room.
8. Parenthesis
to tell you the truth, to begin with, to be honest etc.
To be honest, I don't like him.

. 39. Translate the sentences into Russian. special attention to

the use of the Infinitive
1. crown it all, there was story full ten years old now of his
treatment of his wife. 2. meet the increased demand for industrial
goods, factory has bn opened in the town this r. . It was awfully
cold, to b sure. 4. She had broken precious china and, to make the things
still worse, she never told nn about it. 5. make long story short,
the mny broke up and returned home in bad temper. 6. put it
crudely, whatever is man's mnnr life, such is his mnnr of thought. 7.
She had bm n of those London girls to whom rest, not to.say
pleasure, is unknown. 8. claim damages was not pleasant thing to do.
. 40. Translate the sentences from Russian into English
1. , . 2. ,
. . , . 4. ,
. 5. , : ,
. 6. ,
. 7. . 8.
, . 9. , . 10.
, . 11. " , ." 12. ,

9. Complex Object: verb + object + infinitive

a) After Verbs of perception (see, notice, look at, watch, feel, hear,
listen to) + object + ing or the bare infinitive.
The verb smell can only be followed by the ing form.
The use of the bare infinitive describes the complete action:
I watched her play tennis. (I saw the whole game.)
The use of the ing form describes the action in progress:
I watched her playing tennis. (I saw the game in progress.)
The ing form after a verb of perception is a present participle.
Verb of perception + present participle is more common than verb of
perception + bare infinitive.
The difference between the use of the present participle and the use of
the bare infinitive is often very small
I always hear the birds singing in the mornings.

I always hear the birds sing in the mornings

A few other verbs find, discover, catch, leave, keep cannot be followed by
the bare infinitive:
I found her looking in my desk
b) After verbs of knowing and believing:
Everybody expected him to speak brilliantly as usual.
We consider it to be our duty.

. 41. Translate the sentences, paying special attention to the use of
the Complex Object
1. Seeing her enter the rom he rose to greet her. 2. Did you feel the
bridge shake? 3.I don 't like you to say such things. 4. Put n thicker coat,
I don't want you to catch cold. 5. We knew him to b very brave. 6.
Nobody said anything, we just watched him put it away in his case. 7. You
could have heard pin drop. 8. She wouldn't explain, just urged m to use
m own eyes. 9. Well, tell him to see us tomorrow morning, will you? 10.
After lunch he begged m to mn him home. 11. the way, did
she ask you to sign n papers yesterday? 12. r visit agitated the patient
so much that the doctor advised her not to m again. 13. There is n
harm, I think, in letting you know. 14.I understood you to say that you had
received n letter from your brother since he left England.
Ex. 42. Read the following sentences and analyse complex objects
1. Nick's father ordered some water to be put on the stove. 2. He never
wants anyone to carry anything. 3. I never saw a man pick up this work so
fast. 4. I don't even think they heard us come in. 5. I have watched you
paint a picture. 6. "Well, what's the matter?" She broke out finally. "Do you
expect me to jump up and sing?" 7. He had married Judy Jones and seen
her fade away before his eyes. 8. Paul suppressed a shiver, and forced
himself to ask the question uppermost in his mind. 9. ... everyone knew
him to be feeling fine. 10. He dressed well and he liked his clothes to be
properly looked after.
Ex. 43. Read and translate the following sentences. Speak on the
verbs after which complex objects are used

1. After a ten-minute wait I watched the train pull out. 2. Jennie was
intensely sorry. She had never heard Lester complain before. 3. How can
you expect anyone to think well of us when such things are written about
us? 4. Her smile was friendly and she made you feel, that she was really
pleased to see you. 5. Next day, though I pressed him to remain, Stroeve
left me. 6. I am not at all sure that in her own interests I shan't require her
to return to me. 7. I didn't mean you to hear, or that old person. 8. Short of
actually beating his wife, he perceived nothing to be done. 9. So I think I'd
like you to know that it's just well to be prepared, so that if she did go
suddenly it wouldn't be any shock to you. 10. I wanted us to be married at
once, but she was quite firm that she wouldn't.
Ex. 44. Remembering that after the verbs of physical perception
and after the verbs "to make" and "to let" the infinitive is used
without the particle "to", fill in the blanks with one of the verbs from
the list below. In some sentences, more than one verb is correct
to want, to make, to force, to hear, to see, to bring, to observe, to feel,
to let, to order, to tell, to compel
1. The question __ him feel embarrassed. 2. They __ me to run. 3. When
I __ him go downstairs I went down after him. 4. She could not __ herself
to tell him about it. 5. Paul__ his heart melt 6. Suddenly he __ her rise and
turn away. 7. At first he __ them to be married. 8. The colonel __ everyone
to wear a gas mask. 9. My feelings as a father __ me to ask you yet again
whether you will not reconsider your decision. 10. I __ him to eat, and
after lunch I __ him to lie down, but he couldn't sleep. 11. I __ him take
me to a restaurant of his choice.
Ex. 45. Fill in the blanks with the particle "to" where necessary
1. This is the place from which I saw John ... arrive to the house. 2. I
tried to induce him ... see doctor. 3. The family suspected it and wanted
to get him ... see lawyer. 4. asked her ... destroy his letters. 5. I told
her ... bring in the tea. 6. Women always want you ... write them letters. 7.
I'd love you... see my little daughter. 8. You can't make m ... say what you
want m ... say.9. She begged m to let her ... know when Mother would b
back. 10. I had expected him ... b disappointed. 11. Dn't let it ... trouble
you. 12. She watched m ... on the safe.
Ex. 46. Transform the following sentences into sentences with
complex object

Model: I still consider they are right. > I still consider them to be
A. 1. He saw that the woman turned the corner. 2. They required that
should arrive at 8 a.m. 3. The judge ordered that the prisoner should be
remanded. 4.1 believe they are very good at physics and other pure
sciences. 5. He did what he could, though considered he got little thanks
for it from his wife and five kids.
Model: She reddened on hearing these words. (to see) -> He saw her
redden on hearing these words.
B. 1. He went downstairs. (to hear) 2. They married a year ago. (to
believe) 3. He ate much and slept after lunch. (to force, to induce) 4. His
clothes looked smart. (to like) 5. I feel quite at home here. (to make)
. 47. Replace the following complex sentences r groups of
sentences b simple sentences with the Infinitive Construction
1.I shall stay at home and do m lessons. Mother said so. 2. I never
smoke indoors. wife doesn't like it. 3. He's n honest b. I know it. 4.
We don't eat ice-cream before dinner because Mother has forbidden it. 5.
You got off the train at Saltmarsh city. The porter saw you. 6. ordered
that tea should b brought at n. 7. No n had expected that she would
mrr the man. 8. I could hear it perfectly well. They were discussing m.
9. Don't shout so! The whole house will know what has happened.
Ex. 48. Rewrite the following pairs of sentences as one sentence,
using the ing form or a bare infinitive
1 I saw you the other day. You were cycling to work.
2 I heard him early this morning. He left the house.
3 She stood there and watched him. He drove away.
4 Did you notice me? I was crying.
5 I've often seen you. You've been walking along the beach with your dog.
6 Have you ever heard him? He plays the saxophone.
7 I expect to find you when I get back. You'll be working hard.
8 Did you hear me? I arrived

Ex. 49. Complete these sentences using an object + to-infinitive after

the verbs

1. Take out a loan. My bank manager advised me to take out a loan. 2.

She didn't peel the potatoes. You didn't tell... 3. We work hard. Our teacher
taught... 4. The soldiers fired. The officer ordered... 5. The public should
not approach this man. The police have warned... 6. My wife and I play
tennis. My boss invited... 7. You may take my car. He allowed... 8. At first I
didn't want to play but Jack persuaded me. Jack persuaded... 9. You should
tell the police about the accident. She advised... 10. Could you please post
this letter? She asked... 11. Don't forget to buy some sugar. She reminded...
Ex. 50. Make up short dialogues
make + object + infinitive without to
(a) A: He told Ann, I hope.
B: Yes, I made him tell her.
() ... I hope.
1. apologized
2. explained
3. paid the bill
4. wrote to the Smiths
5. cleaned the bath
6. took the medicine
7. reported the accident
8. waited for Ann
9. rang his parents

(b) He put on his gloves, I hope.

Yes, I made him put.
10. finished the book
11. answered the letter
12. made his bed
13. cleaned his shoes
14. wore his best suit
15. insured his house
16. did his exercises
them on.

(b) He... I hope.

1. hung up his coat
2. turned down the radio
3. shaved off his beard
4. took back the books
5. rang up Jane
6. took down the notice
7. rolled up the carpet
8. locked up the papers
9. threw away his old boots

10. filled up the form

11. looked up the time of the train
12. switched off the central
13. paid back the money
14. put away his tools
15. put on his raincoat
16. took off his coat

Ex. 51. Make up situations using

a) let + object + infinitive without to, to be allowed + to-infinitive.
The Smiths and their two boys and the Browns and their two girls went

to the same holiday resort but at different times. Afterwards the boys and
the girls compare their holidays. The boys had a much more interesting
time! The boys speak first.
(a) Active: A: We went rock climbing.
B: Our parents didn't let us go rock-climbing.
(b) Passive: A: We ran about without shoes.
B: We weren't allowed to run about without shoes, (stress on we and
1. ran about without shoes.
8. canoed down the river.
2. slept in the garden.
9. climbed the cliffs.
3. practised parachuting.
10. went surfing.
4. played water polo.
11. rode Peter's pony.
5. sailed round the island.
12. explored the caves.
6. water skied.
13. learnt how to dive.
7. had bicycle races on the sand.
b) would prefer + object + infinitive
A: Shall I phone Tom tomorrow? B: I'd prefer you to phone him today.
Shall I... tomorrow'''
1. phone Bill
9. go to the library
2. bring my friends
10. read the instructions
3. speak to James
11. take the books back
4. sweep the stairs
12. burn the rubbish
5. begin
13. get the new programme
6. pay the milk bill
14. write to the Smiths
7. come
15. buy your season ticket
8. leave
16. make the arrangements
Ex. 52. Paraphrase these sentences using a to-infinitive
e.g. People know that he is an honest man. People know him to be an
honest man.
1. I believe that she is guilty. 2. I found that the job was too difficult. 3.1
know that she has an interest in the company. 4.1 imagine that he works
very hard. 5. The teacher considered that my answer was inadequate. 6.1
felt that it was true. 7.1 suppose that the matter is urgent. 8.1 think he is a
Ex. 53. Translate the sentences from Russian into English
a) I asked John to help me. I made/let him come. He was made to come.
He was allowed to come.

. 2. . 3.
. 4. ,
. 5. . 6.
. 7.
. 8. . 9.
. 10. . 11.
. 12.
. 13.
. 14.
. 15.
. 16. , . 17.
, . 18.
. 19.
. 20. . 21.
. 22.
. 23. . 24.
, . 25. ,
. 26.

. 27. . 28.
. 29. . 30. .
b)I want you to come. I'd like you to come. I expect him to join us.
1. , . 2. ,
. 3. , . 4.
, . 5. , ?
6. , . 7. ,
. 8. ,
. 9. , ? 10.
, . 11. ,
. 12. , .
13. , . 14. ,
. 15. , ? 16.
, . 17.
, . 18. ,
c) I know him to be an honest man.
1. , . 2. ,
. 3. , . 4. ,

. 5. , ? 6.
, . 7. ,
. 8. , . 9.
. 10. ,
d)See someone do and see someone doing
1. , -. 2.
, . 3. ,
. 4. , , ,
. 5. , ,
. 6. , ,
, . 7. , -
. 8. , . 9.
, . 10.
, , . 11.
, . 12. ,
. 13. (), .
14. , . 15.
, -. 16. ,
, - . 17. ,
Ex. 54. Choose the correct form of the verb in brackets to complete
these sentences
1. I looked out of the window and watched the children (play/ playing)
in the yard for a few minutes. 2. I saw Linford Christie (win/winning) the
100 metres final at the Barcelona Olympics. 3. I heard a wild animal
(cry/crying) out suddenly, as if it had been caught in a trap. 4. We heard
someone (play/playing) loud music in the flat above us well after midnight
last night. 5. She ran into the kitchen because she could smell something
(burn/burning). 6.1 can feel something (crawl/crawling) down my back!
7.1 jumped when I heard the door (slam/slamming). 8. They saw the boy
(fall/ falling) into the water. 9. I saw Sue (drop/dropping) the bag and
(pick/picking) it up again. 10. As I walked past the room, I heard two
people (argue/arguing). 11. We stopped for a moment and watched them
(build/building) the new hospital. 12. Did you see someone
(break/breaking) the window? 13. We watched them (climb/climbing) up to
the top of the hill and then come down again. 14. We saw the man
(post/posting) a letter and walk down the street. 15. As I looked out of the

window I noticed the woman (repair/repairing) her car. 16. I turned roimd
because I suddenly felt someone (grab/grabbing) my sleeve. 17. As we
walked through the streets of the city, we were shocked to see so many
people (sleep/sleeping) in shop doorways. 18.1 was driving down the road
when I saw a woman (walk/ walking) straight in front of a bicycle. 19.1
woke up because I heard people (shout/shouting) in the street. 20. All of a
sudden I heard the branch (break/breaking) 21. When I was downtown
yesterday I saw the police (chase/chasing) a thief. 22.1 like to listen to the
birds (sing/singing) when I get up early in the morning. 23. While I was
waiting for my plane, I watched other planes (land /landing) and (take
off/taking off). 24. Do you hear someone (call/ calling) for help in the
distance? I do.
Ex. 55. Put the verbs in brackets into the -ing form or the infinitive
without to
1 I saw her ...turn... (turn) the corner and..................(disappear).
2 Can you hear the dog........................(bark) outside?
3 I watched the plane........................(take off) and then I left.
4 He was listening to the rain......................(patter) on the roof.
5 Paul noticed a woman........(stare) at him while he was waiting at the
6 When she opened the door she saw someone............(try) to steal her car.
. 56. Translate the sentences
1. . 2.
. 3. , - . 4.
. 5. . 6.
. 7. .
8. , . 9. . 10.
. 11. . 12.
, . 13. ,
. 14. , . 15.
1. , . 2. ,
. 3. . 4.
? 5. . 6. .

7. . 8. ,
. 9.
. 10. . 11.
. 12.
( ). . 13.
, .
. 57. Translate the sentences from Russian into English
1. , . 2. ,
. 3. ,
. 4. , -
. 5. , . 6.
. 7. ,
, - . 8. ,
. 9. , - . 10.
, .
1. , . 2. ,
. 3. , -
. 4. , . 5.
, ? 6. ,
. 7. , . 8.
, .
1 . , (move). 2. ,
. 3. ,
. 4. , . 5.
, . 6.
. 7. ,
. 8. ,
. 9. , .
10. . 11.
, .
10. Complex Subject: verb in the passive + infinitive
a) with the verbs:

to feel
to see
to hear
to watch
to notice
She was heard to sing something on the balcony
b) After verbs of knowing and believing
to find to know to mean to presume
to regard to suppose to understand
is said to deserve the reward.
The palace was reported to have been fully destroyed by the fire.
She was thought to have left her husband years ago.
He looked at the girl. She was supposed to be watching the game.
Complex Object Complex Subject:
I know him to be an honest man.
He is known to be an honest man.
c) the expressions:
to be likely
to be unlikely
to be sure
to be certain

, ,

After the structures to be likely/to be unlikely only non-perfect forms of

the infinitive are used:
We're sure to have a good time.
She is not likely to remember me.
He's sure to be back soon.
She's certain to have known of my arrival long before.
d) with the verbs:
to seem
to turn out
to appear
to happen
to prove
to chance
He seemed to understand everything.
Ex. 58. Comment on the form and the meaning of the infinitives

1. She grew silent and seemed to be thinking. 2. His mother seemed to

be talking to someone. 3. They appeared to be enjoying themselves greatly.
4. He appeared to be staring at something in the distance. 5. I happened to
be going along the hall when the alarm was heard. 6. So far she seemed to
have done him nothing but harm. 7. People seem to have forgotten all
about the accident 8. He seemed to have disappeared into the air. 9. The
girls ap-peared to have gone off their heads. 10. She appears to have
adopted him as her special cavalier. 11. He happened to have come out
without a hat. 12. School in my days seemed to be designed simply to keep
us out of the air. 13. The track appeared to be barred in a dozen places. 14.
Everybody seems to have been interrogated. 15. Somebody seems to have
been grooming the horse carefully. 16. Sometimes I seem to have been
doing things and not remembering I've done so.
Ex. 59. Read the following sentences and analyse complex subjects
1. "I'm not going to stand it," he is declared to have said. 2. He seemed
to be turning it over in his mind. 3. He thinks she's a stenographer but she
turns out to be a writer. 4. The two have been observed to meet daily
during the past week in Richmond Park. 5. Kilimanjaro is a snow-covered
mountain and is said to be the high mountain in Africa. 6. They've been
known to chap holes in the roof. 7. He was known to have refused office in
the interests of his profession. 8. But perhaps her father could be induced
to remain silent. 9. Recent attack of typhoid, from which he was thought to
be recovering proves fatal. 10. Some members of the action committee are
believed to have spoken yesterday.
Ex. 60. Read and translate the sentences paying special attention to the
position of negation in Russian and in English
1. They feel rather uneasy, they don't seem to know what this thing is.
2. However frightening it may sound it doesn't seem to me to be a grave
objection. 3. All this doesn't seem to make much sense. Look here, you
don't seem to realize the importance of the man's evidence. 5. The girl
doesn't seem to be a coward. 6. My dear, you don't seem to think much of
me. 7. I looked up. My wife did not appear to be listening. 8. I can't say
anything, I don't happen to know the man well enough. 9. She didn't
happen to be at home. 10. The huge beasts were grazing and did not seem
to notice us at all. 11. The man looked puzzled, he did not seem to have
thought to such a turn. 12. Fortunately, the lads did not happen to be killed.
13. The crime doesn't seem to have been committed that very day. 14. Poor
soul, she doesn't appear to be anything at all to you. 15. I reputed the

question, but again he didn't seem to have heard me.

Ex. 61. Speak on the verbs with which complex subjects are used
1. I have often thought, Lester, if mamma had not been compelled to
worry so much she might be alive today. 2. They were seen to just touch
each other's hands. 3. After that Tommy was forced to admit the prospect
looked dreary. 4. But he was expected to go down to keep up his father's
prestige. 5. He could be made to fight easily enough. 6. Children appear to
go through definite stages as they develop. 7. Before Krebs went away to
the war he had never been allowed to drive the family motor car. 8. So he
was found to be unfit for active service... 9. He seemed to be wondering
whether much anxiety of mind had affected his eyesight.
Ex. 62. Rewrite the sentences using the verb in brackets.
1 She has lost her job. (seem) She seems to have lost her job
2 Ann was accepted to work there. (seem) ................................................
3 He is working hard. (appear)
4 They have been watching TV all afternoon. (seem).....................................
5 Tom missed the train. (appear)
6 They are moving house. (seem)..................................................................
7 She found the solution. (claim)
8 It has been raining hard. (appear)
9 She is reading a magazine. (pretend)
10 Sharon tells lies. (tend)
Ex. 63. Fill in the blanks, using to appear, "to seem", "to
happen" in the active form and the rest of the verbs in the passive
form. In some sentences more than one verb is possible
to appear, to seem, to expect, to be sure, to force, to suppose, to think, to
1. But I don't __ to know anything. 2. The picture __ to be of a wellknown artist. 3. We have not been __ to undertake any work. 4. I don't __
to see any difference between them. 5. That __ to be a rose. 6. He __ to
give up this work last December because of chronic arthritis. 7. I __ to
have so much influence over her. 8.He, as you know, __ to be a star. 9. She
__ to have been moved by her uncle's last words and looked at him
doubtfully. 10. That evening he was very excited, and he __ to take no
thought to disguise his excitement.

Ex. 64. Translate the following sentences into English

1.() , , . () , , .
() , , ,
. () , . () ,
2. () , , . () , ,
. () , ()
, .
3. () , -, . () ,
, . () , -,
. () , -, .
4.() , . ()
, . () ,
, . () ,
. () ,
, .
5. () . ()
. () .
Ex. 65. Read each sentence. Then make two new sentences in the
passive, beginning with the words in brackets
e.g. People expect that taxes will be reduced soon. (It) ... (Taxes)
It is expected that taxes will be reduced soon. Taxes are expected to be
reduced soon.
1. People say that the monument is over 2000 years old. (It) ... (The
2. People expect that the president will resign. (It) ... (The president)
3. People think the fire started at about 8 o'clock. (It) ... (The fire)
4. Journalists reported that seven people had been injured in the fire. (It) ...
(Seven people)
5. They say that prices will rise again this month. (It) ... (Prices)
6. People consider that he is honest and reliable. (It) ... (He)
7. We suppose that he is an expert in financial matters. (It) ... (He)
8. People know that this place is famous for its lakes. (It) ... (This place)
Ex. 66. Read each sentence. Then make a new sentence with be +
supposed to, as in the example
e.g. People say that Whitby is a very nice town. Whitby is supposed to

be a very nice town.

1. People say that the new film is very exciting.
2. People say that those cars are rather unreliable.
3. People say that he moved to New York last year.
4. People say that the new restaurant is very expensive.
5. People say that the concert was very good.
Ex. 67. Turn the following sentences into sentences with complex
Model: It seems that he is not in the habit of coming in time. He
seems not to be in the habit of coming in time.
1. It seemed to him that his father was inclined to be patient with him. 2.
It was felt that she was perfectly capable of taking care of herself. 3. It is
believed that his advice was ignored. 4. They say that he is honest. 5. A
group of people at the gangway saw that the boat came into harbour.
Model: He was taken aback. (to seem) He seemed to be taken aback.
1. She is busy today. (to seem) 2. The situation has changed a lot. (to
appear) 3. The Crimea was visited by numerous hikers last summer. (to
know) 4. He didn't have any money with him. (to happen) 5. Amy Driffield
would never speak to me again. (unlikely)
Ex. 68. Translate the sentences into English using the following
a)seem/happen/appear/prove/pretend + infinitive
1. , . 2. , . 3.
. 4. ,
. 5. . 6.
, .
7. . 8. ,
. 9. , . 10.
, , . 11. , , . 12. , . 13. ,
. 14. , . 15.
, 1986 .
16. , . 17. ,
. 18. ,
. 19. , , 44

. 20. , -, . 21.
, -, . 22. , ,
. 23. - . 24. , ,
. 25. , -, . 26.
. 27.
. 28. , . 29.
, . 30. , ,
. 31. , -, . 32. , , . 33. , , . 34.
. 35.
. 36. . 37. ,
. 38. , ,
.39. , ,
. 40. , , . 41. ,
-, . 42. , . 43.
b) is said/supposed/thought, etc. to be clever.
1. , . 2. ,
. 3. ,
. 4. , . 5. ,
. 6. ,
. 7. , 15 . 8. ,
. 9. ,
. 10. ,
. 11. ,
. 12. , . 13. ,
. 14. ,
. 15. ,
. 16. ,
c) likely/unlikely/certain/sure + infinitive
1. , , . 2. ,
. 3.
. 4. , . 5. ,
, . 6. . 7.
, . 8.

() . 9. . 10.
, . 11.
. 12. , ,
1- . 13.
. 14. ,
. 15. ,
. 16. ,
. 17. . 18.
. 69. Translate the words in brackets
1. is thought () very good singer. 2. They r expected
() reply today. 3. They r said () to new flat. 4.
Who is supposed () the letter? 5. The doctor is supposed
() you something. 6. The results of the experiment r believed
() very good. 7. he new instrument is expected () scientists
solve many important problems. 8. The members of the committee r
understood () to an agreement. 9. is said () them his
services. 10. In the 19th century the dark areas n the Mas were thought
() seas. 11. We were supposed () the day n board the ship.
12. The seamen were not supposed () ashore that day. 13. The
expedition is said () very important discovery. 14. They were
expected () 300 miles that day. 15. She is known (
) in the subject. 16. They were heard () t do it. 17. The ship is
expected () here n Tuesday. 18. They r supposed
() him. 19. They were believed () the secret ll the
. 70. Translate the following sentences into English
1. , . 2. ,
. 3. , . 4.
. 5. , . 6.
. 7. . 8.
, . 9. , . 10.
, . 11.
1. , , . 2. , , . 3. ,
, . 4. , -, . 5.

, , . 6. , -,
. 7. , . 8.
, , . 9. ,
. 10. , , . 11. , ,
1. , . 2. ,
. 3. , 15
. 4. ,
. 5. , .
6. , . 7.
, , . 8. , -,


Unit 4 For -To- Infinitive Construction

Sarah: I'll just ring the office. The boss is waiting for me to ring her back.
Mark: I don't think it was a good idea for you to bring that mobile phone
on holiday with you.
We can use for + object + to-infinitive. Here are some more examples.

My mother has arranged for


It's difficult
It's a nuisance


were for

to look after her dog next
unskilled people to find work these days.
the match
to begin.
to have to wait.

a) For expressing purpose

We can use this structure to say why something is done (to express
Mark photocopied the figures for the Sales Manager to have a look at.
(= He photocopied the figures so that the Sales Manager could have a look
at them.)
The shop provides baskets for the customers to put their purchases in.
I'd like to put forward a few suggestions for you to think about.
b) Too and enough
We can use too and enough with this structure.
The road is too busy for the children to cross safely.
Unfortunately the table was too small for all of us to sit round.
Fortunately the table was big enough for all of us to sit round.
The guide didn't speak loudly enough for everyone to hear clearly.
c) We can use For with the infinitive of there is - for there to be.
It's important for there to be enough jobs for everybody.


Ex. 71. Read the following sentences and state the function of the
"for"-complexes with the infinitive
1. They feel that what they tell you will excite your interest in an
impersonal way that will make it easier for them to discharge their souls. 2.
The lady was speaking too fast for me to catch what she said. 3. "This
question of company," he said, "is something for me to decide." 4. So now
she waited for Frank to speak. 5. ... they thought it was better for me to live
in a place like this. 6. It would not be possible for a human and intelligent
person to invent a rational excuse for slavery. 7. I told them that the plan
was for them to come and have a bit of breakfast at my house and then
drive home. 8. Look here, there's no need for you to wait about; you have
your housework to do, which is more important than seeing me off. 9. He
was anxious for her to get settled so that she could begin work. 10. Ned
suggested books for him to read and he took them out of the library....
Ex. 72. Read and translate the following sentences. Pay attention to
the function of the for-complexes with the infinitive
1. It is possible for any man to disregard others entirely. 2. In a minute it
would be fitting for me to take my leave. 3. They were grouped about the
mother, waiting for something to happen. 4. You all used to be sweet and
loving to each other, it was a joy for me to see you. 5. You know, Harry,
you do make it hard for me to keep the place looking nice when you leave
your things about everywhere. 6. She waited for Violet to say something. 7.
My friend motioned for him to come in. 8. "When will you marry me?"
"Are you ready for me to marry you?" 9. She was very nice to me, kind
and thoughtful; I knew she was glad to see me and sorry when it was time
for me to go. 10. "It is not for me to disagree there," said Jolyon, "but that's
quite beside the mark."
Ex. 73. Transform the following sentences so as to use forcomplexes with the infinitive
Model: He came in the nick of time. It was usual of him. > It was
usual for him to come in the nick of time.
l. She told them the truth. It was easy for her. 2. Your child must spend
more time outdoors. It will be better for him. 3. He speaks too fast. I
cannot follow him. 4. We are going to the country on the coming weekend.
It will be good for us. 5. Old people do not usually change their habits. It is

hard for them.

Model: He watched his father repair their TV set. It was a good
experience for him. > It was a good experience for him to watch his
father repair their TV set.
1. He always took part in the discussions. It was a natural thing for
him. 2. She translated the whole article without a dictionary. It was not an
easy thing for her. 3.1 received a letter from him. It was a real joy for me.
4. Our little daughter can't join us on this trip. It will be too long a journey.
Ex. 74. Paraphrase the following sentences so as to use for-toinfinitive phrases
1. Sandy stood at the kitchen door waiting till Miss Brodie came for a
walk by the sea. 2. It is time that you should go, Tom. 3. There was nobody
who she could speak to. A peasant was walking wearily towards us, and we
waited till he came up to us in order to ask the way again. Janet sat and
waited till they went away. 6. She then sat down in Mrs Anthony's chair
and waited till the kettle boiled. 7. Was it possible that she could forget
him? 8. Then she made her way to the kitchen where the tray had been set
by Mrs Anthony and waited till Mrs Pettigrew made the tea. 9. He waited
till she spoke.
Ex. 75. Replace the following groups of sentences b sentence with
for-phrase subject
1. She explained everything. It was not difficult. 2. She managed to do it
in time. But it was quite n effort. 3. Don't make mistakes. It's important. 4.
r mother made the decision. It's the usual thing in this family. 5. We
ought to take vacation now. It won't b difficult. 6. You'll speak English
with her. It'll do you good. 7. She is very late. It's rather unusual. 8. You
rll ought to see doctor. It will b best. 9. We'll spend couple of
weeks in Petersburg nt June. It will b rather pleasant.
Ex. 76. Imagine you are planning a new town. Rewrite the following
sentences using for there to be
1 It's important that there should be public libraries.
2 It's vital that there should be a good public transport system.
3 It's important that there should be plenty of open spaces.
4 It's essential that there should be enough car parks.
Now write five more sentences about the town using for there to be

Ex. 77. Complete the following sentences using for-to-infinitive

1. They waited at the door for (she) ... .
2. It is necessary for (he) ....
3.. There was no reason for (she) ... .
4. It was obligatory for (they) ... .
5. There were no friends for (he) ... .
6. There is nothing for (you) ... .
7. She played the violin for (they) ... .
8. It seemed strange for (they) ... .
9. It is desirable for (Pete) ... .
10. It is advisable for (they) ....
Ex. 78. Rewrite these sentences using the structure with for ... to ...
She can't come. - It's impossible for her to come.
1 The meeting needn't start before eight. (There's no need for the....)
2 The postman ought to come. (It's time for ...)
3 He's not usually late. (It's unusual for ...)
4 I want the children to go to a good school. (I'm anxious for...)
5 John shouldn't go to Australia. (It's a bad idea ...)
6 Sue shouldn't change her job just now. (It would be a mistake ...)
7 Can Paul come to the meeting? (Is it possible ...?)
8 The car really should have regular services. (It's important ...)
9 He normally stays up late on Saturdays. (It's normal...)
10 I'd be happy if you took a holiday. (I'd be happy for ...)
Ex. 79. Translate the following sentences into English
1. , . 2.
. 3. ,
. 4. , . 5.
, . 6. ,
, ,
. 7. . 8.
, . 9.
. 80. Replace the following pairs of sentences b sentences with
adverbial for phrases of result
1. The way to the village was long. I felt hungry again. 2. The heat was

oppressive. We did not stay long n the beach. . The prblem was
comparatively easy. I solved it in half an hour. 4. The situation was getting
complicated. We could n longer with it. 5. The conversation was
interesting. The children did not want to go to bed. 6. The noise of the
taffic grew loud. I could not sleep. 7. The light was good. She could read
the inscription.
. 81. Translate the sentences from Russian into English
1. ,
. 2. ,
. 3. , . 4.
- , ,
. 5. , .
. 82. Translate the sentences from Russian into English
1. . 2. . 3.
. 4.
. 5. . 6.
. 7. . 8.
.9. . 10.
. 11. ,
? 12. ( ), .
13. , . 14. ,
. 15. ,
. 16. , . 17.
, . 18.
. 19. . 20.
, . 21. ,
. 22.
5 . 23.
. 24. . 25.
. 26. , . 27.
, . 28.
. 29. ,
. 30. . 31. ,
. 32. , ,
. 33.
. 34. .
35. , . 36.
, .

37. . 38.
. 39. ,
. 40. ,
Ex. 83. Translate into English
1. . 2.
, - . 3. ,
, ,
, . 4.
, . 5.
, , ,
. 6. .
. 7. ,
. 8. ,
. 9. ,
. 10. ,
, , . 11.
. 12. ,
, . 13.
- ,
Ex. 84. Use the infinitive in the function of:
A. the subject
1. ... is not my custom. 2 .... is quite unusual for her. 3. ... was the last
thing any man wanted. 4. .... is a hardship. 5. ... is a real pleasure. 6. ... is
B. a part of the compound predicate
a) 1. All they do is ... . 2. To get straight to the best is . 3. The only
safe and sane thing to do was ... . 4. I What my father should do is.. .. 5.
My original idea was... . 6. His only regret was ... . 7. His only joy was ... .
8. Her first impulse was ... . 9. The last thing in the world she wanted
was ... .
b) 1. He got up and started ... . 2. He looked curiously at the child and
began ... . 3. She gave a short acid laugh and began ... . 4. He had a fancy
that he had seen the man somewhere before and started ... . 5. Though it
was late he had ... . 6. It was arranged that we were ... .

C. an object
a) 1. There is a couple of things I want ... . 2. I order .. .. 3. I didn't mean
.. . 4. Has your mother persuaded you ... ? 5. It occurred to me ... . 6. Don't
bother ... .
b) 1. I'm afraid he is not ready ... . 2. They are anxious ... . 3. One day
people will be able ... . 4. In her state she is liable ... . 5. He's quite
willing ... . 6. She seemed reluctant ... .
D. an attribute
1. He resisted the temptation ... . 2. He regretted his inability ... . 3.
There is nothing ... . 4. His wife was the first ... . 5. Again he was the last ...
E. an adverbial modifier
a) 1. The family had gathered ... . 2. She might have dropped in ... . 3.
She bowed graciously and turned ... . 4. We climbed up the mountain ... . 5.
He rose from his chair ... . 6. I got up and stood up at the door ... .
b) 1. The novel was easy enough ... . 2. She was too sad ... . 3. He
couldn't do enough ... . 4. He knew enough of the country not ... . 5. We are
too aware of the fact not ... . 6. He was too astonished ... .
c) 1. ..., you might imagine him to be the Almighty. 2. ..., you would
never suspect him of having nerves. 3. ..., one might think that he
graduated from Oxford. 4. , you might think he is a born orator. 5. ...,
you wouldn't believe she was a famous singer. 6. ... you would notice that
they are skilled workmen.
F. a parenthesis
1. ... she is no match for him. 2. ... there isn't enough space to work in.
3. ... violence is a sign of weakness or fear, not a sign of strength. 4. ... I am
unable to accept your kind invitation. 5. She was a woman past middle age,
... . She was over seventy.
Ex. 85. Make up sentences, using the expressions given below
1. to read is; to help her was; it is impossible to; it is advisable to; it is
unbearable to. 2. is to help; is to ring; was to laugh; must go; must have
gone; dared not speak 3. didn't mean to; don't bother to; I am going to; was
anxious to; is afraid to; is careful not to. 4. he was the first to; she is the last
to; there is nothing to. 5. came here to; rose to; went there to; was too
astonished to; was too glad to; to have seen him dance; to have heard them
speak English. 6. to begin with; to crown it all; to put it mildly; to be quite

frank; to be more precise. 7. a) you to listen; him to remain; her turn;

anyone enter; the work to be done; the report to be typed; him to be feeling
fine; you to be unreasonable and unjust b) he... to be proud; the child ... to
be naughty; you ... to read; she ... not to understand; they... to be sent; c)
it... necessary for... to; it... better for ... to; for... to ... will be; will arrange
for... to; 8. where to go; whom to address; when to come back; what to say;
whether to begin or not.
to help him is; the speech ... to be translated; for him to read; is to be
discussed; to tell the truth; for me to go.
Ex. 86. Think of situations with the sentences given below.
1. I feel that the time has come for me to interfere.
2. It was the first time I have ever seen her cry.
3. This child seems to have taken a fancy to you.
4. To do it is to spoil everything.
5. I came here to consult you.
6. Please put down the address not to forget it.
7. She began to cry hysterically.
8. It was a real torture to see that girl.
9. I don't like I really don't like to hear this kind of ill-natured gossip
being repeated.
10. I think we have already said what there is to be said.
11. He made me repeat these sentences.
12. There is only one thing for her to do, and that's to divorce him.
13. I was so broken that I let her take me by the arm and lead me into
the doctor's room.
14. But it was imperative for me to know the truth.
15. He seemed to have no objections.
16. She still appeared to expect me to recognize her
17. There was embarrassment in her manner and she seemed to be
trembling inside her loose raincoat.
18. I never saw a man pick up this work so fast.
19. She dressed well and liked her clothes to be properly looked after.

Ex. 87. Complete the following dialogues


A: What on earth made you do it?

A: ...
B: It is impossible to believe it.
A: I hate to see you looking so sad.
B: ...
A: It's a natural thing for him to do.
B: ...
A: ...
B: It's easy for you to say.
A: ...
B: You seem to have been able to notice a great deal.
A: I was too tired to go with them.
A: It turned out to be a pleasant day after all.
B: ...
B: I thought it would be easier for you to do it that way.
B. I never before heard her speak so rudely.

Unit 5 The Infinitive or the Gerund/ - ing form

1. Verbs followed by a to-infinitive but not -ing:
afford agree, aim, appear, arrange, ask, attempt, beg, can't afford, can't

wait, choose, claim, decide, decline, demand, desire, expect, fail,

guarantee, happen, help, hesitate, hope, hurry, manage, offer, plan, prepare,
pretend, promise, prove, refuse, seem, tend, threaten, turn out, undertake,
volunteer, want, wish
2. Verbs followed by -ing but not a to-infinitive:
admit, avoid, cant face, can't help, can't stand, can't resist, carry on,
consider, delay, deny, detest, dread, envisage, excuse, fancy, feel like,
finish, give up, imagine, involve, justify, keep (on), mention, mind, miss,
postpone, practise, put off, recall, resent, risk, suggest, tolerate
Ex. 88. Which verbs are followed by infinitives and which followed
by -ing forms? Make two lists
can't help dare
expect (can't)
fancy feel like
give up happen
imagine keep (on)
mean mind
postpone practise
pretend promise
put off
spend time (can't) stand
Ex. 89. Put the following verbs into the correct columns
apologize, arrange, avoid, approve, decide/demand, discourage, dream,
enjoy, expect, finish, help, hope, imagine, enquire, insist, intend, invite,
learn, would like, look forward, manage, mind, miss, object, offer, plan,
pretend, refuse, seem, succeed, want, wish
Verb (+ person) + infinitive
Verb + preposition + gerund
Verb + gerund

arrange (for s.o.)

apologize for

3. Verbs taking to-infinitive or -ing form without a change in

a) begin, bother, can't bear, continue, intend, propose (= intend), start,

continue + to-inf or -ing form.

We don't normally have two -ing forms together.
She began dancing/to dance.
The days are beginning to get shorter
not: The days are beginning getting shorter
b) advise, allow, encourage, permit, recommend, require + object + to-inf.
He advised me to stay indoors.
c) advise, allow, encourage, permit, require + -ing form.
He advised staying indoors.
d) be advised, be allowed, be encouraged, be permitted, be required + to-inf.
We were advised to stay indoors.
e) need, require, want + to-inf/-ing form/passive inf.
You need to prune the trees.
The trees need pruning.
The trees need to be pruned.

Ex. 90. Complete the sentences using the words in bold
We are allowed to take a one-hour lunch break.
They ............................ a one-hour lunch break.
They require employees to work on Saturdays.
Employees ..........................................on Saturdays.
You need to improve your handwriting considerably.
Your handwriting........................... considerably.
She has been learning German since last year.
She....................................................last year.
They advised not drinking the water.
were We.................................... the water.
Ex. 91. Put the verbs in brackets into the -ing form or the infinitive

There has been a bomb scare in central London. The police advise
everybody 1) .......... (stay) clear of the area. You are recommended not
2)..............(travel) by tube as the service has been suspended. We'd recommend
3)..........(take) the bus, but only if your journey is essential. The police require
any members of the public with any information relating to this incident 4)...........
(come forward).

Unit 6 Verbs taking to-infinitive or -ing form with a change in

1) forget + to-inf (= fail to remember to do sth)
He forgot to turn off the radio.
forget + -ing form (= not recall a past event)
I'// never forget seeing the Eiffel Tower for the first time,
2) remember + to-inf (= not forget to do sth)
Please, remember to feed the dog before leaving.
remember + -ing form (= recall a past event)
I don't remember seeing him at the party last night.
3) mean + to-inf (= intend to)
She means to study art in Paris this summer.
mean + -ing form (= involve)
I won't go if it means taking the train during rush hour.
4) go on + to-inf (= finish doing sth and start doing sth else; then;
He pruned the hedges, then went on to mow the lawn.
go on + -ing form (= continue)
We went on dancing until we got tired.
5) regret + to-inf (= be sorry to)
I regret to informyou that there are no seats on the 12.30 flight.
regret + -ing form (= have second thoughts about sth already done)
He regrets buying such an expensive sports car.

6) try + to-inf (= do one's best; attempt)

Try to throw the ball into the basket.
try + -ing form (= do sth to see if it improves a situation)
Try cooking with olive oil, you might find it improves the taste.
7) want + to-inf (= wish)
I want to go home.
want + -ing form (= sth needs to be done)
These windows want cleaning.
8) stop + to-inf (= pause temporarily).
Can we stop here to admire the view?
stop + -ing form (= finish; cease)
He stopped studying and switched on the TV.
9) be sorry + to-inf (= regret)
I was sorry to hear he failed his exam.
be sorry for + -ing form (= apologise for)
She was sorry for yelling at him
10) would prefer + to-inf (specific preference)
I'd prefer to eat at this restaurant.
prefer + -ing form (in general)
I prefer reading spy stories.
prefer + to-inf + rather than + inf without to
I prefer to drive to work rather than take the bus
I prefer staying in to going out.
(We cannot say: I prefer to stay in to go out.)
11) hate + to-inf (= not like what one is about to do)
I hate to argue, but you are definitely wrong.
hate + -ing form (= feel sorry for what one is doing)
I hate bothering you at such a late hour.
12) be afraid + to-inf (= be too frightened to do sth; hesitate)
She was afraid to jump into the pool.
be afraid of + -ing form (= be afraid that what is referred to by the -ing
form may happen)

When driving in the rain, I'm afraid of skidding on the wet road
13) I like going for a run before work.
(I enjoy the activity of going for a run before work. I may or may not do it
I like to go for a run before work.
(Describes a regular activity. I like it because I think it's a good idea. I may
or may not enjoy the activity while I am actually doing it.)
Compare would like and like.
I'd like to lie on the beach today. It's too hot to spend my holidays
I'd like means 'I want', but it is more polite I like means the same as 'I
14) come + to-inf = talk about a gradual change
After some years, they came to accept her as an equal.
come + ing = to say that someone moves in the way that is described
He came hurrying up the path.
15) Used + to-infinitive = something happened regularly or went on for
a time in the past.
I used to travel means that in the past I regularly travelled, but I no
longer do so.
We cannot use this structure in the present tense.
Be used to + ing-form = something is familiar and is no longer strange.
I'm used to travelling means that travelling is no longer strange or
difficult because I have done it for so long.
We can also say get used to talk about things becoming more familiar.
It was difficult at first, but Mike soon got used to working at night.
After her husband died, the old woman had to get used to living on her

Ex. 92. Compare the following pairs of sentences
1. I remembered taking my medicine.


I remembered to take my medicine.

I hate waiting for buses.
I hate to wait for buses.
I tried to talk to Tom about the problem.
I tried talking to Tom about the problem.
Jim stopped talking to Anna last week.
Jim stopped to talk to Anna last week.
Joanna began learning English at the age of six.
Joanna began to learn English at the age of six.

Ex. 93. Underline the correct word or phrase in the following

1 He denied telling/to tell lies.
2 He denied/refused that he had told lies.
3 They suggested to postpone/postponing the match to the following week.
4 The weather delayed that they arrived/ their arrival.
5 I can't bear to see/see children suffer.
6 We really can't afford buying/to buy a new washing machine.
7 I look forward to seeing/to see you at the party.
8 Before going/that I went to the interview, I bought a new tie.
9 I'd rather stay/to stay at home tonight, if that's all right.
10 I saw someone to climb/climbing through the window
Ex. 94. Match an item from column A with one from column B
1. Tom should stop smoking
2. Bill should stop to think
3. Mary tried teaching
4. Sally tried to teach
5. Jim didn't remember
6. Mike doesn't remember
7. We stopped at
8. We stopped
9. Do you remember when
10. Did you remember
a. you phoned Mr. Evans
b. but didn't like it
c. telling us he would be early


before he insults people

a very nice hotel
Tina to swim
to tell us he would be early
to phone Mr Evans?
as soon as possible
going to discos years ago

Ex. 95. Some of these sentences are correct, if they are incorrect,
cross out the unnecessary word
1. I'm used to driving in heavy traffic every day.
2.Although feeling tired, Polly didn't want to go to bed.
3. It's important for to sign the form.
4. Peter broke his arm in playing rugby.
5. A woman accused Martin of stealing her money.
6. I wasn't sure whether to write a letter of thanks.
7. Do you remember a young man bumping into you?
8. The girl's parents wouldn't let her to stay out so late.
9.The book is too difficult enough for children to understand
10. Police found the woman for lying dead on the floor.
11. Cars are always expensive to repair them.
12. The man died as a result of falling asleep while driving.
Ex. 96. Put in the to-infinitive or the ing-form of the verbs
1 Remember and forget
Laura: Did you remember (1)..... (pick) up those photos today?
Trevor: What photos?
Oh, no. I can remember (2) ... (mention) it to you only this
Trevor: I can't remember(3)... (agree) to pick up some photos.
Well, don't forget (4)... (call) at the shop for them tomorrow.
You've got a
terrible memory. Yesterday you forgot (5)... (lock) the door.
Trevor: I'm sure I didn't forget (6)... (lock) it. I can clearly remember (7)...
(look) for my keys. They were in my pocket.
Laura: You ought to write notes to yourself to remind you.
Trevor: That wouldn't be any good. I'd never remember (8)... (look) at
2 Remember, regret, try, etc

I used to like going to our local cinema. It was old and rather
uncomfortable, but it had character.Now they've stopped (1).....(show)
films there. The owner would like to go on (2)... (run) the cinema, but he
would need (3)... (make) a lot of improvements, which would mean (4)...
(spend) tens of thousands of pounds. I remember (5)... (watch) the last film
at the cinema. It was a murder mystery. It was five minutes from the end,
and we were trying (6)... (work) out who the murderer was when suddenly
all the lights went out and the film stopped. We sat in the dark for a few
minutes, and then the owner appeared with a torch. I regret (7)... (tell) you,'
he said, 'that our electricity has failed. I don't mean (8)... (disappoint) you,
but I'm afraid we can't show you the end of the film. We've tried (9)...
(phone) the electricity company, but they say they can't help.' He went on
(10)... (explain) to the audience how the film ended. I didn't understand the
story. But I don't regret (11)... (go) to the cinema on that last evening.
Ex. 97. Write a second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to
the first. Use the word in brackets
I wish I hadn't sold my bike, (regret)
I regret selling my bike.
1. The children were eager to see their presents, (wait)
2. I hate to get up in the dark, (stand)
3. By chance I saw your brother yesterday, (happened)
4. The shop usually opens ten minutes late, (tends)
5. Would you like to go for a walk? (fancy)
6. The police continued to watch the house, (carried)
7. Seeing Nelson Mandela will always stay in my memory, (forget)
Ex. 98. Look at what people say and write a comment about each
person. Rewrite the second sentence using
a) afraid to or afraid of
Vicky: There's a large bull in the field. I don't want to open the gate.
Vicky is afraid ....
Claire: I arrived at the airport in good time. 1 thought I might get stuck in
Claire was afraid .....
Nick: I was going to do a bungee jump yesterday. But I couldn't jump.
Nick ...
Daniel: The policeman looked angry. I didn't want to argue with him.
Matthew: I'm keeping my shirt on. I might get sunburnt.

Matthew .....
b) afraid, anxious, ashamed and interested. Complete the conversation.
Put in a to-infinitive or a preposition + ing-form.
Laura: I'm ashamed ..... (admit) it, but aeroplanes terrify me. I get really
anxious ..... (fly). I'm afraid ... (buy) a plane ticket. I can't stand being on
a plane. I'm afraid ........(get) killed. I feel ashamed ... (be) so silly.
Sarah: Aren't there things you can do to overcome your fear?
Laura: Well, 1 was interested ... (read) in the paper recently that you can
go on a course that helps you. I'm anxious) ... (book) a place on it very
c) Sorry. Complete the conversation. Use a to-infinitive or about + ingform.
Alan: I'm sorry .... you (I'm disturbing you), but could I just say
something? I'm sorry... (I was so rude) last night. I didn't mean what I said.
Mark: Oh, that's OK. I'm sorry ... (I lost my temper).
Alan: Right. OK. And, as I said, sorry ... (I'm interrupting you).
Ex. 99. Complete the conversations
a) Put in used to with the verb
Mrs Bell is a hundred years old. She's the oldest person in the village. A
radio reporter is interviewing her.
Mrs Bell: I've always lived in the village, but not always in this house.
Reporter: Where did .....(you / live)?
Mrs Bell: When I was a girl, we lived at Apple Tree Farm.... (we / like) it
Reporter: But life was hard, wasn't it?
Mrs Bell: Oh, yes. Things ... (be) different from the way they are now. In
those days ... (we / not / have) electricity.
Reporter: And ... (you / help) with the farm work?
Mrs Bell: Yes, ... (I / look) after the hens.
b) Used to do and be used to doing. Put in a to-infinitive or to + ingform. Use the verbs in brackets.
1. When I was a child, I . (dream) of being an astronaut.
2. I'm terribly nervous. I'm not used . (speak) to a large
3. It took us ages to get used . (live) in a block of flats.
4. Lots of trains used..... (stop) here, but not many do now.

5. Didn't Nick use ..............(work) on a building site?

6. There didn't use .................. (be) so many soap operas on television.
7. I'll have an orange juice, please. I'm not used . (drink) alcohol.
8. David doesn't seem to mind being in hospital. I suppose he's got
used .............. (be) there.
9. When Laura was at college, she used..... (have) a picture of Elvis
Presley on her bedroom wall.
Ex. 100. Choose the correct answer
1. I asked the librarian to let me. a book about Shakespeare.
a. to have
b. have
c. having
2. I wasn't allowed the book I wanted.
a. to take
b. take
c. taking
3. Did you remember Mike? I asked you to.
a. to phone
b. phoning
c. phone
4. Do you remember Mary?
a. to phone
b. phoning
c. phone
5. No one can enjoyto the dentist!
a. go
b. to go
c. going
6. As a child, I was taught the piano.
a. playing
b. to play
c. play
7. My mother made me for an hour every day.
a. to practise
b. practising
c. practise
8. I was also made.a lot of homework.
a. to do
b. doing
c. do
9. We never let our dogout by himself.
a. go
b. to go
c. going
10. No dog should ever be allowed.out by itself.
a. going
b. go
c. to go
11. Mrs Green strongly disagrees with her husband about ..their
a. to sell
b. selling
c. sell
12. Children should be encouraged .as much as possible.
a. read
b. reading
c. to read
13. Encouraging...is very important.
a. read
b. reading
c. to read
14. Children should be warned not ..medicines.
a. to touch
b. touching
c. touch
15. I hear Sally is thinking of ..married.
a. get
b. getting
c. to get

Ex. 101. Use a to-infinitive or an ing-form. Sometimes you also need

a preposition
I. Combine each pair of sentences.
e.g. We've advised Nancy. She should get a lawyer.
We've advised Nancy to get a lawyer.
I'm getting bored. I've been sitting on the beach.
I'm getting bored with sitting on the beach.
1. We saw Rupert. He was looking in a shop window.
2. I remember the clown. He fell over.
3. Tessa wasn't sure. Which way should she go?
4. The porter just stood there. He expected a tip.
5. How about it? Shall we go to the barbecue?
6. Susan is used to it. She's always lived in the country.
7. I'm afraid. I might hurt myself.
8. Christopher apologized. He'd forgotten to pay.
9. The food was too cold. Michelle couldn't eat it.
10. Polly was silly. She gave away the secret.
II. Choose the correct answer.
1. Are you sure you told me? I don't recall... about it.
A. having told
C. to have told
B. having being told
D. to have been told.
2. Dan appears... some weight. Has he been ill?
A. having lost
C. to have lost
B. having been lost
D. to have been lost
3. Tom made a mistake at work, but his boss didn't fire him. He's lucky... a
second chance.
A. having given
B. having been given
C. to have given
D. to have been given
4. Dr Wilson is a brilliant dedicated scientist who had expected to be
selected as the director of the institute. She was very surprised not... the
A. having offered
C. to have offered
B. having been offered D. to have been offered
5. By the time their baby arrives, the Johnsons hope... painting and
decorating the new nursery.
A. having finished
C. to have finished
B. having been finished D. to have been finished
6. We would like... to the president's reception, but we weren't.

A. having invited
C. to have invited
B. having been invited D. to have been invited
7. The stockbroker denied... of the secret business deal.
A. having informed
C. to have informed
B. having been informed D. to have been informed
8. George mentioned... in an accident as a child, but he never told us the
A. having injured
C. to have injured
B. having been injured D. to have been injured
9. The Smiths wanted to give their son every advantage. However, they
now regret... him by providing too many material possessions.
A. having spoiled
B. having been spoiled
C. to have spoiled
D. to have been spoiled
10. The spy admitted... some highly secret information to enemy agents.
A. having given
C. to have given
B. having been given
D. to have been given
11. We were shocked to hear the news of your...
A. having fired
C. to be fired
B. having been fired
D. to have been fired
12. Marge's children are used to... after school every day. They don't have
to walk home.
A. picking up
C. be picked up
B. being picked up
D. pick up
13. The bus driver was so tired of... the same route every day that he asked
for a transfer.
A. to drive
B. being driven
. driving
D. drive
14. I'm sure it's not my fault that Peter found out what we were planning. I
don't remember... anyone about it.
A. having told
C. to tell
B. being told
D. to be told
15. Even though she was much younger than the other children, Alexis
demanded... in the game they were playing.
A. including
C. to include
B. being included
D. to be included
16. The baby continued... even after she was picked up.
A. being crying
B. having cried
C. to cry
D. having been crying
Ex. 102. Put the verbs in brackets into the infinitive or -ing form

1. I'll never forget .......... (travel) across America.Yes, but you forgot.........
(send) me a postcard, didn't you?
2. I hate......................(ask) you, but can you help me with the housework?
Sure, but remember I hate (do) the vacuuming.
3. The door wants...................(fix). I know. I wanted(ask) the carpenter to
come and have a look but I forgot.
4. I'm sorry.....................(put) you in such a difficult position. It's OK. I'm
sorry for..........................(shout) at you.
5. I'd prefer.....................(spend) this weekend at home. Really? I
prefer ....... (go out) whenever I've got free time.
6. Did he go on....................(talk) about the same boring topics all night?
No, he went on.....................(show) us his holiday photos.
7. Don't be afraid...................(talk) to her in French. I can't. I'm afraid
of .........(make) mistakes.
8. I meant......................(tell) you there's a job vacancy at the chemist's.
Well, I won't apply if it means (work) at the weekend.
9. Why don't you try................(take) a different medicine if you're still ill? I
think I'll just try........................(get) some more sleep.
10...................................Let's stop (have) something to eat. Again? I wish
you'd stop ...........(eat) so much!
11.The notice says the gallery regrets (inform) us that the Picasso
exhibition has finished. Oh, no! Now I regret .........(not/go) last week.
12..............................................Did you remember (post) the letters? I
remember........(take) them but I think I've left them on my desk
Ex. 103. Put in the correct forms of the verbs
1 You can't help (like) him.
2 We decided (stay) at home.
3 We expect (hear) from Ann soon.
4 Do you fancy (go) out tonight?
5 I don't feel like (cook).
6 When do you finish (study)?
7 I've given up (smoke).
8 Imagine (be) married to her!
9 I managed (find) a taxi.
10Would you mind (pass) the bread?
11 I missed (see) the beginning of the film.
12She pretended (be) ill.
13Don't put off (see.) the doctor.
14He spends ages (talk) on the phone.

15I want (see) the manager.

16Do you enjoy (watch) football?
Ex. 104. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form
1. I suggest ....... (call) the cinema to find out what time the film begins.
2. It's no use ....(try) to make excuses. She won't believe you.
3. I look forward......(see) the artwork in the museum's latest exhibition.
4. She spent a long time.....(talk) on the telephone so she didn't finish her
5. Fred enjoys.....(listen) to classical music as it helps him relax.
6. To tell you the truth, I don't know how......(dance).
7. We were happy........(hear) that Mary is coming to visit us.
8. The couple plan.........(announce) their engagement later today.
9. Will you let me..........(read) you some parts to tell me if you like them?
10. We saw him...........(paint) the fence as we walked past his house.
11. I would have preferred.....(change) my clothes before we went out to
12. It was so nice of him...............(send) me flowers.
13. Sandra was the last.........(perform) at the dance recital.
14. For Bob...........(retire) at such a young age was unexpected.
15. It's raining. There's no point in..........(go) out now.
16. Would you be so helpful as...........(carry) this heavy bag for me?
17. You should..........(speak) to her when you saw her.
18. He seems....(work) hard on a solution to the problem. Don't interrupt him.
19. He was the first runner...........(finish) the marathon.
20. We rushed to the station only.............(arrive) as the train was leaving.
Ex. 105. Put the verbs in brackets into the -ing form or the infinitive
1. Tom stopped .......... (pick up) his washing on the way home.
2. If you don't stop...................(smoke), you'll make yourself ill.
3. Try.......................(phone) John at the office if he's not at home.
4. I tried my best....................(finish), but there just wasn't enough time.
5. He was promoted in 1990 and went on..............(become)
6. The band went on...................(play) even after the lights had gone out.
7. "Why is the baby crying?" "I think he wants..........(feed)."
8. Sharon wants.....................(talk) to you.
9. Jane was afraid....................(show) her school report to her parents.
10. I'm afraid of....................(lose) my way in the forest.
11. What do you mean...................(do) with all that money?

12. Playing a musical instrument well means............(practise) for years.

13. I regret......................(inform) you that your husband has been arrested.
14. She regrets..................... (spend) so much money on her new dress.
15. Do you remember...................(ride) a bicycle for the first time?
16. Remember.....................(post) the letters on your way home.
17. I'd prefer......................(pretend) I didn't hear what you just said.
18. I prefer......................(borrow) books from the library to.............(buy)
19. Don't forget..(bring) some cash in case they don't
accept credit cards
Ex. 106. This is an advertisement for the book 'Winning in
Business'. Put in the correct form of each verb
Are you fed up with ....... (be) a failure in your job? Wouldn't you rather
..... (succeed)? Do you want ........ (earn) more money?
Are you anxious... (get) ahead?
Do you believe in... (make) the most of your talents? Do you sometimes
dream about ... (reach) the top? If the answer is yes, read on. Just imagine
yourself) ... (run) a big successful company. And now you can do
something about it instead of... (dream). It'll happen if you want it...
(happen). Make it a reality by... (order) your copy of the best-selling
'Winning in Business'. It has a ten-point plan for you ... (follow). Do it and
you're certain ... (be) a success. You'll know what ... (do) in business. You
can make other people ... (respect) you and persuade them ... (do) what
you want. Experts recommend ... (buy) this marvellous book. You'd better
... (order) your copy today.
Ex. 107. Put in a to-infinitive or ing-form
Matthew: Are we going to have a holiday this year?
Natasha: Didn't we all decide .... (spend) our holidays on a Greek island?
Matthew: Lovely. I enjoy .... (lie) on the beach. I might manage ... (get) a
sun tan.
Daniel: I'd love a holiday. I can't wait ... (leave) this place behind.
Emma: I don't fancy ... (stay) in one place all the time. I really dislike
(sit) on the beach all day.
Natasha: Well, I don't mind ... (tour) around somewhere.
Emma: Matthew, you promised ... (go) to Scotland with me. We were
planning (hire) a car.
Matthew: Scotland? Are you sure? But I couldn't face ... (drive) all the

Jessica: I'm afraid I can't afford ... (spend) too much money.
Andrew: And I can't justify ... (take) all that time off from my studies.
Ex. 108. Make sentences from the notes
e.g. Tessa / want / buy / a new coat / soon
Tessa wants to buy a new coat soon.
1. we / must / avoid / waste / so much time
2. sometimes / a country / refuse / take part / in the Olympics
3. I / like / see / the Rocky Mountains / some day
4. I / mean / give / Judy / a nice welcome / yesterday
5. I / always / like / see / my doctor / once a year
6. the buses / usually / stop / run / before midnight
7. I / can't face / get up / at five / tomorrow
8. last year / we / make / an agreement / work / together
9. yesterday / you / promise / carry on / shoot / the film
10. my father / seem / get / better / now
Ex. 109. Choose one of the verbs in brackets to complete each
1 a) I ..taught.... Jim to drive a car before the age of 18. (hoped/taught)
b) I ............ to drive a car before the age of 18.
2 a) We him to go to the party.
b) Weto go to the party.
3 a) They..........for the kittens to go to good homes. (wanted/arranged)
b) They..........the kittens to go to good homes.
4 a) He............the children to stay away.
b) He............to stay away.
5 a) The police........for his protectors to give him up. (appealed/forced)
b) The police......him to give himself up.
6 a) She...........him to visit the exhibition before it ended. (promised/told)
b) She............to visit the exhibition before it ended.
7 a) Did you........for the bed to be delivered or shall I collect it?
b) Did you........the bed to be delivered or will you collect it yourself?
8 a) I my mother to buy a new car. (decided/persuaded)
b) I to buy a new car.
Ex. 110. Write the correct form of the verbs given in brackets
Einstein: an ordinary child
Einstein was not a remarkable child. He began (1 take).piano
lessons at the age of six. He didn't seem (2 be) ..particularly

talented. He liked (3 day-dream).. and (4 play)..He

didn't enjoy (5 talk).very much; in fact, he waited till he was
three before (6 start)..to talk. In spite of not (7 have)
.. a very exciting childhood, Einstein later appeared (8
have) .a vivid memory of it. He remembered (9 be).
impressed by how a compass works and by the mysterious force which
made the compass needle (10 point) in a given direction.
Ex. 111. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the infinitive or
-ing form
For Thomas 1) ............ (agree) to go on a walking holiday was very
surprising. He usually hated 2) (do) ..outdoor activities of any
kind. We thought we'd have difficulty in 3)(persuade). him but it
was his idea 4)..(set off) the very next day. We suggested 5)
.. (go) to the Lake District as it would be the best place 6)
(find) hotel rooms each night. Though we'd have preferred 7)
(take) the coach, Thomas encouraged us 8) .
(travel) by train. We decided 9).(meet) at the station early the
next morning as we wanted 10)..(be) in Carlisle by midday.
Imagine the look on our faces when Thomas arrived on a huge, brand-new
motorbike. "Do you think I'll be allowed 11).(take) it on the
train?" he said. "It needs 12).. (run in) and this holiday's the
ideal time 13)..(do) it!"
Ex. 112. Write the missing words. Use one word only in each space
Anna: I hear you're preparing to ...... for Australia.
That's right. And I'm really looking forward to it. I can't
.to get there. I'm hoping .. see all my friends while I'm
there. I'm going to enjoy ..them again after so long.
Martin and I .like to go away, but we can't
manage it this year.
There's just one problem that I .. to sort out. My
tickets haven't arrived. I've tried to ring the travel agency, but I can't get
through. I'm beginning to regret ..going there myself to pick
them up. Anna: I expect they'll be here tomorrow.
Lisa: That's really leaving it to the last minute. It's such a worry.
Anna: Well, I know you. You can't ..worrying, can you?
No, I can't. I hope this holiday isn't going to turn out
.be a disaster.
Of course it isn't. Just keep ..trying to get

Ex. 113. Complete this article from a magazine
accept, argue, be, find, have, insist, lose, plug, repair, say, take, wait
If you buy something from a shop, a new stereo for example, you
usually can't wait .......... it in and put some music on. And of course, you
expect ......... the equipment in working order. But that doesn't always
happen, unfortunately. If the thing doesn't work, you should take it straight
back to the shop. If you delay ..it back, you will risk
..your rights as a customer. And you should prepare ..on
those rights. You may be one of those people who always avoid
with people, but in this case you should be ready for an
argument. The assistant may prove ..a true friend of the customer
- it's not impossible but first he or she will probably offer ..
the stereo for you. That's all right if you don't mind a few
weeks, but it isn't usually a good idea. What you should do is politely
demand .your money back immediately. You may want to
accept another stereo in place of the old one, but you don't have to. You
should refuse .. a credit note, just keep on ..that
you want your money back.
Ex. 114. Complete these sentences with either a to-infinitive or an
ing form. Sometimes more than one verb is possible
admire buy check
enjoy introduce say
tell tear live notify turn down
1 a) Although it was hard at first, she came ....to enjoy.
b) As I walked through the gate, the dog came ..towards me.
c) After working with her for so long, I came ..her patience and
d) Yesterday, Tom was so late he came .downstairs, grabbed a
cup of coffee and left.
2 a) The children were shouting and screaming, but he went on..
to Frank.
b) We've tried to persuade her to stop, but she just goes on
c) Dr Harris welcomed the members of the committee and went
on..................................................................the subject of the
d) Then, in her letter, she goes on.........................that most of her family

have been ill.

3 a) I regret........you that the model you want is out of stock.
b) We regret......you that your request for a tax refund has been rejected.
c) Almost as soon as I had posted the letter, I regretted the
d) It cost me a fortune, but I don't regret .a
around the world.
4 a)
Bill was very young when they left, and he could no longer
remember..in the house.
b) Did you remember. a newspaper on the way home?
c) Remember.....your answers before handing in your exam paper.
d) I remember the money in the top drawer, but it's not there now.
Ex. 115. Complete these sentences using either the to-infinitive or
the -ing form of the verb. If both forms are possible, give them both
e. g. Passing the kitchen, he stopped to drink a large glass of water.
1 When the car broke down, she started...
2 Here's the money I owe you. I meant...
3 To lose weight, I'd advise you...
4 I found that my back stopped... when...
5 To help me get to sleep, I tried... think
6 The orchestra was just beginning...
7 Please don't hesitate...
8 When he found that he couldn't walk, he began...
The handle came off when I tried...
You could see the doctor today but as you haven't got an
appointment it would mean...
Ex. 116. Rewrite the following sentences without changing the
meaning of the original sentence
1. Complaining won't be of any use.
It's ..............................................................................
2. I am sorry that I arrived late.
I apologize ..................................................................
3. Would you please turn off the radio? (mind)
4. I'm not in the mood to go out. (like)
5. Paul said he would definitely let me know.
Paul promised .............................
6. Jane loves it when people send her flowers. (sent)
7. Iris would rather go dancing tonight. (prefers)

8. I'm sorry I didn't write to you.

I apologize for........................
9. They will force Donald to pay the bill, (make)
10. This car was a waste of money. (buying)
Ex. 117. Complete the sentences using the words in bold
1 We were allowed to take our dog inside.
They ................ our dog inside.
2 We found what she said shocking.
We .she said.
3 Going swimming after eating is dangerous.
It is dangerous ..after eating.
4 Could you turn the volume up?
Would .the volume up?
5 He prefers walking to riding a bicycle.
He prefers .a bicycle.
6 It was difficult for her to understand what he was talking about.
She.what he was talking about.
7 The box was too heavy for him to lift.
The box ..for him to lift.
8 The dress is so long that she can't wear it.
The dress is ..wear.
9 They made him wait for an hour.
He ............for an hour.
10 She could hardly do the exercises.
She the exercises.
1 He made her promise that she would come back
She .that she would come back
12 The audience found the performance amusing.

The audience ..the performance.
13 The film was so interesting that I saw it twice.
I .the film that I saw it twice.
14 It was difficult for him to understand the instructions.
He ..the instructions.
15 Could you move a bit please?
Would.a bit please?
16 The headmaster let the boys leave the school.
The boys.the school.
17 She prefers working to staying at home.
She prefers..at home.
18 They took three days to finish the project.
It.to finish the project.
Ex. 118. Complete the second sentence so that it is as similar in
meaning as possible to the first sentence. Do not change the word given
1 I'm sorry but we have decided not to accept our application.
2 Funnily enough I'd prefer a pizza for a change.
Funnily enough................................
3 We were not allowed to drink too much Coke when we were children.
Our parents......................................
4 I think it would be a good idea to take the train.
I ...................
5 She succeeded in persuading her parents to let her go.
6 It looks as if this door's locked after all.

7 One of the things I hate is people eating popcorn in the cinema.
One of the things I..........................
8 The singer arrived two hours late but I'm glad I waited for him.
The singer.......................................
9 Jack said he had to catch the early flight.
10 I can't wait to get your next letter.
I .
Ex. 119. Imagine you are filling out a questionnaire about yourself
1. In the summer, I enjoy............................................
2. Sometimes I can't help............................................
3. I always postpone...................................................
4. Some of my friends never make an effort...............
5. My parents don't regret...........................................
6. I get easily bored with............................................
7. I am certainly in favour of......................................
8. I think I am mature enough .....................................
9. I always do my best ................................................
10. I am very interested in.............................................
Ex. 120. A group of people went fishing last Sunday. Use your own
ideas to say what happened using infinitives or -ing form
decide, look forward to, try, manage, continue, stop, notice, begin, have a
difficult time, be afraid, appear, happen help, be relieved, regret

Revision exercises
Forms of the infinitive
Ex. 121. Write what each word is followed by: full inf., bare inf. oring form

1 enjoy
+ 5 it's no use + 9 resist
2 promise + 6 can't stand + 10 agree
3 be made + 7 can't help + 11 can

+ 13 would
+ 14 refuse
+ 15
would + 16 avoid


4 object to + 8 had better + 12

Ex. 122. The infinitive with and without to
Matthew and Emma are at the railway station. Emma is going away for
the weekend. Put in the infinitive of the verbs. You have to decide whether
or not you need to. Matthew: Are you sure you'll ....... (be) all right?
Yes, of course. I'm not a child. I can manage ..... (look) after
Matthew: OK, sorry.
Emma: Some friends have invited me... (visit) them. I'm not going to the
North Pole.
Matthew: It'll be nice for you ... (see) your old friends again. I just know
going ...(have) lots of fun. Let me ... (buy) you a magazine ... (read) on
the train.
Emma: I can't ... (read) when I'm travelling. It makes me ... (feel) sick,
even in a train. I'd rather just ... (look) out of the window.
Matthew: OK. Well, you'd better ... (get) in. I think it's about ... (leave).
Oh, did I remind you ... (change) at York?
Emma: Yes, Matthew, you did. Don't worry, I won't ... (forget). I know
perfectly well how ... (get) there.
Ex. 123. Find the word which should not he in the sentence
1. She let me to use her computer.
2. The Persian rug was too expensive for us to buy it.
3. Taking regular exercise it is beneficial to your health.
4. In addition to be losing her purse, Joan also lost her passport.
5. We saw the Queen to welcome the British Olympic winners.
6. It was enough too late to find accommodation elsewhere.
7. We would sooner to renew our contract than move somewhere else.
8. The archaeologist is believed to have being found the tomb of the ancient
9. He might to be given a more responsible position in future.
10.To making promises you do not intend to keep is dishonest.
11.Those curtains want being dry-cleaning.
12.She prefers working out than to sitting at home doing nothing.

13.I would like entertaining people at home at the weekends.

14.We enjoy going for fishing from time to time.
15.It's no use you spending money on impractical household items.
16.She'll never forget to meeting Bruce Springsteen.
17.He was afraid of to tell his parents that he had damaged the car.
18. Shirley won't accept their offer if it means that working at the weekend
Ex. 124. Find at least one mistake in each sentence
1. She longed the holidays to come so that she could be with her family
2. I overheard say that he's thinking of moving to Manchester.
3. We watched to play football until it started to rain.
4. Very reluctantly, he consented her to lend the money to Janet.
5. My parents always encouraged work hard at school.
6. For years the group has been campaigning an inquiry to hold into the
7. I think we should let them to stay until the weekend.
8. Sam promised me to show me how to fish for salmon, but he never had
the time.
9. Hospital workers had to make them to do with a 1.5% pay increase this
10. I hear her tell that she's got a new job. (= someone told me about it)
11. This card entitles to take an extra person with you free.
12. They let me to borrow their car while they were on holiday.
Ex. 125. Fill in the correct form of the infinitive
1. I've looked everywhere, but the file appears ............. (misplace).
2. He is not old enough.............................(allow) to stay out late.
3. Since her illness she seems.......................(find) work difficult.
4. Although Jane hopes (invite) to the embassy dinner, it is unlikely that
she will be.
5. The little dog seems ...................................(lose) its master.
6. I don't think I'll be able to make it tomorrow. I'm supposed ...... (meet)
Jane for lunch.
7. She was only pretending............(read); she was really daydreaming.
8. No one is..................................(admit) to the concert without a ticket.
9. The team is said .........................(win) the match through sheer luck.
10. I need you............................(help) me prepare the food for the party.
11. The accident is believed..................(cause) by reckless driving.
12.The newspaper received many calls from people claiming ..(see)

13.He was the first British writer. .....(award) the Nobel prize for literature.
14.Aren't you supposed..........(look after) your sister at the moment?
Ex. 126. Fill in the correct form of the infinitive
1. The weather seems .................................... (improve). Let's go out.
2. This carpet is filthy; it really needs ..................(clean) soon.
3. The waste from the power station is said ...........(pollute) the atmosphere
for months.
4. It will be much too hot ..........................(wear) a coat.
5. You must have been thirsty ..............................(drink) all that water.
6. He appears ..................................................(injure) as a result of the fight.
7. You're not expected ..........................(pay) the whole amount today.
8. The report was supposed.................................(finish) two hours ago.
9. It was very cold earlier on today but it seems ......................(warm up) now.
10.He claims .................................(discover) a cure for the common cold.
11. Can I trust you...............................................(keep) this a secret?
12.She seems ...................................................(work) too hard these days.
13.She appears ............................(work) on her composition for hours.
14.She has decided ................................................(accept) my offer.
15.I'm hoping ...................(leave) by then so I won't be able to come with you.
Ex. 127. Fill in the correct form of the infinitives
1. My boss expects me ...to work... (work) overtime.
2. The suspect claimed ............................(watch) TV at the time of the robbery.
3. Jill's teacher is worried about her as she seems ....................(have) difficulty
coping with her studies.
4. Young children often ask .................................................(take) to the zoo.
5. The burglars must have come in through the window as the lock
6. "I happen ................(pass) my driving test two years ago, you know," he said.
7. Robert is expecting .............(inherit) a large house when his grandfather dies.
8. "Mark appears .............(overtake) John on the last lap. Yes, he's passed him!"
9. Leslie seems .................................................(enjoy) her new job.
10. I'd like ...................................(book) a return ticket to Denver, please.
11. Stop pretending ............................(eat) your food - just finish it up, please.
12. The manager seems ..(get) impatient with the interviewee.
Ex. 128. Use the appropriate form of the Infinitive in brackets
1. I m glad (to introduce) to you. 2. The b was (to handle) with r.

You should (to ask) someone (to help) you. This might not (to happen). 3.
r mood seems (to change) for the worse. We had better not (to speak) to
her now. 4. I am sorry (to disappoint) you but I did not mean anything of
the kind. 5. is happy (to award) the first Landscape Prize for his picture.
6. was anxious (to take) the first place in the figure-skating
competition. 7. The m n easily (to memorize). 8. This m is easy
(to memorize). 9. I did not expect (to ask) this question. 10. There were so
many things (to do), so mn experiments (to try). 11. The teacher
expected him (to give) better answer at the examination. 12. They
supposed (to experiment) in this field for about r and r believed (to
achieve) good results. 13. must (to read) something funny; he is smiling
all the time.
Ex. 129. Use the infinitive in brackets in the appropriate form
1. I suppose you're not going (to be) down here very long? 2. "Now I
must (to go)," said the man, "and you young ladies walk off home." 3. He
ought perhaps (to put) a spoke in the wheel of their marriage. 4. I don't
suppose Mrs. Strickland wants (to bother) with me just now. 5. He was like
a novel that is careful, honest and efficient, yet a little ordinary, so that you
seem (to read) it all before. 6. Steve hadn't been able (to get) hold of Adele
(to tell) her he probably wouldn't be back in time (to have) lunch with
her, but there was nothing (to do) about now. 7. In four months' time he
was (to put) her across his saddle and (to ride) off with her. That's what she
wanted, though she'd never put it in so many words (to rescue). 8. I
haven't been home for five years. I think I'd forgotten it all; I seemed (to
go) away so far from my father's house that I was shy at the idea of
revisiting it. 9. You're a wise young man, very wise (to come) to me in
time. 10. Again Lord Timingham was the last (to leave). 11. She liked him.
She was glad (to go) out with him again; it was something (to look)
forward to. 12. "What on earth, can (to happen) to Tony?" "My dear, he is
not likely (to run) over by a motorbus. 13. The only thing (to do) was keep
one's head. 14. Ever since then I had been playing a part which seemed (to
take) in everybody and most of all myself. 15. As he walked back with
Nick to the Lodge, after Michael's abrupt departure, he had felt extreme
confusion, but had managed all the same (to speak) calmly to Nick and (to
answer) with cheerfulness his questions about their journey.
Functions of the infinitive
Ex. 130. Pay attention to the function of the infinitive

1. They were so charming with one another, so gay and happy, that really
to stay with them was, well, a spiritual refreshment. 2. "I suppose you
haven't any books with you," he said. "I haven't got a thing to read." 3. His
duty then was to go to the red pillar boxes into which the letters were put,
empty them, and take the contents to the main post-office of the district. 4.
She never wanted to see that room again. 5. To be ignorant that he is a
Forsyte was in the nature of a Forsyte. 6. We have forgotten to inform Mr.
Poirot of that. 7. Once Scarlett saw him and cried sharply: "Go play in the
back yard, Wade Hampton!" but he was too terrified, too fascinated by the
mad scene before him to obey. 8. I think I'm very lucky to have come here,
they are so kind and thoughtful; and the gardens are so beautiful. 9. To face
the worst at id have it over was better. 10. Ever since he said that to me I
have tried to live up to that fine reputation I had made for myself. 11. The
story I am about to tell is a perfectly simple and straightforward one. 12.
He was a medical missionary and he was liable to be called at any time. 13.
George was waiting to be called up. 14. I was anxious to learn what Japp
had come about. 15. To have approved his son's conduct in that clash was
of course impossible. 16. She stood tip to learn the rules of the game that
she must play. 17. To paint was his passion, the very reason of his
existence ... 18. She engaged an Italian woman to teach her the language ...
19. I've come down here for an indefinite time in order to play in the sand.
20. Mona opened her mouth to speak, and then shut it again. 21. I began to
think that in the last twenty four hours he said all he had to say. 22. "If you
have any love for him the least you can do is to try and make him a little
less unhappy." 23. I gave her five shillings yesterday to pay her room rent.
24."... So you see ho knew me pretty well before he knew me at all, so to
Ex. 131. State the function of the infinitive
1. They heard him go down and they heard Miss Thompson's defiant
"Come in" when he knocked at the door. 2. Merle started to cry again,
walking towards the streets with Dougal. 3. To take money from him was
like robbing a child, and you despised him because he was so foolish. 4....
he and she seemed to possess that vast building by themselves. 5. I do not
think it is necessary to insult Miss Elsa Hard's intelligence by telling her. 6.
He made a supreme effort to break it. 7. To say that I had not resented this
foul deed which seemed to me deserving the title of the crime of the
century, would be pal telling the truth. 8. He wished to give her every
chance. 9. To tell it is to live through it all again. 10. Hers was not a face to
command instant attention or recognition. 11. I've just had a cable from

Tim to say he's postponed his sailing. 12. To have taken the field openly
against his rival, would have been madness. 13. I'm not running a cafeteria
here, you know, whatever some people seem to think. 14. You're supposed
to play without ceasing. 15. She had seen two men start toward her from
opposite sides. 16. But though danger had been there for some time it was
never likely to get acute. 17. You're all supposed to be intelligent. 18. The
big problems of life seemed to solve themselves. 19. He hadn't expected
Strickland to take him up on the spot and make his preparations to go there
and then.
Ex. 132. Match the beginnings and the ends of the sentences
... to get away.
It was difficult,
... to tell him about my misfortune
It is rather easy,
... to be able to drive a car.
It won't be difficult
... to know that you have true friends It was a treat,
... to be walking here again.
It's rather embarrassing,
... to have met an old chap.
It's very brightening
... to be treated so nicely.
It will be dull,
... to have been told nothing.
It is so nice,
to be losing weight so rapidly
It was so pleasant,
to be looked at.
It was quite unexpected
to be doing nothing,
It seemed incredible
to talk to a really wise man.
It's a pleasure
Ex. 133. Paraphrase the sentences
You have to eat your carrots.
I want ...you to eat your carrots....
I must exercise more often.
I want ...........................................
She has to take her medicine every day. The doctor wants............................
I saw him give you the letter,
I remember ....................................
He has to talk to me politely.
I want ............................................
They mustn't go to bed late.
I don't want....................................
We visited Sue before Christmas.
I remember ....................................

Ex. 134. Paraphrase the sentences using the words in brackets

Alan wasn't expecting them to promote him so soon. (be)
Barbara loves it when her parents spoil her. (spoiled)
Helen remembers that she locked the door when she left. (having)
Dana was sorry that she had wasted so much time. (regretted)
Anna likes friends to see her in the company of famous people. (seen)
We were sorry that we were out when you came to visit, (have missed)

7. Alex wants you to forgive him for his rudeness, (be)

8. Young people want you to treat them as adults. (treated)
Ex. 135. a) Complete one or more of these sentences
1 My parents want(ed) me to
2 My parents don't/didn't want me to
3 I would like my children to


b)Make sentences beginning

Her parents made her .../ Her parents let her ...or
stay up late
7 clean up her room
do the washing up
8 go to church
read what she liked
9 have parties
iron her own clothes
do her homework
her own school
drink beer


c) What did your parents let/make you do when you were small?
Ex. 136. Develop the following sentences into situations. Read the
suggested sentences containing the infinitive. Then construct at least
one sentence to specify, prove or refute the given one
Model: Her duty in the family is to wash up. Her duty in the family is
to wash up. So when the dinner is over she cleans the table and washes
dirty dishes, spoons, forks, knives and tea things.
1. Tea was at four and the bread was new and had to be cut 2. She said
she would never hear the reason of this quarrel. 3. You might have changed
your mind about them. 4. Nothing is going to happen. 5. She knew how to
cook, to clean, to shop, and to do all of them pretty well. 6. I decided to
approach the case from a new angle. 7. I fail to realize what you have said.
8. It was impossible to believe that he spent most of his life in the open air.
9. She was trying to remember her own past. 10. To be a gentleman was his
only dream.
Model: I heard her sing. I heard her sing. She was in a fine voice. I
enjoyed her singing very much.
1. She watched him go. She was beet-red. 2. I want that young man to

continue reading this passage. 3. She watched the man and boy eat their
sandwiches. 4. He didn't hear the door open behind him. 5. He wanted
everything to be nice and new and clean and comfortable. 6. George liked
everyone to like him. 7.1 saw him turn to Ann and say something. 8. Why
don't you allow the child to go with you? 9.1 heard the birds sing in the
trees. 10. They watched the sun rise.
Model: They turned to each other and seemed to be talking. They
turned to each other and seemed to be talking. The next moment I heard
one of them laugh.
1. Something seemed to be amusing him immensely. 2. Nobody seemed
to have anything further to offer. 3. She appeared to have a natural
generosity of soul. 4. There always seems to be something that keeps us at
home on Sundays. 5. But Wilson still hesitated, and did not seem quite to
know what to do. 6. She seemed quite ready to help us. 7.1 don't know
where Amy is. She seems to have disappeared completely from view. 8. He
seemed to wait to pass by. 9. The mere sound of his voice seemed to irritate
his companions.
Model: What was there for me to say? > What was there for me to
say? I said nothing. I considered the topic exhausted.
1. None of them could wait for the meal to be over. 2. It was easy
enough for him to let it happen. 3. He was now waiting for her to go. 4. It
was difficult for me to say what I wanted to. 5. The plan was for them to
come and take part in our experiments. 6. I waited for Nick to speak. 7. I
have arranged for our group to go to the Museum of Fine Arts. 8. Our
teacher always suggests books for us to read. 9. They watched the crows
waiting for something to happen. 10. I decided that I would wait for them
to come.

Ex. 137. Paraphrase the following sentenses

A: It's quite likely that they will come. -They are quite likely to come.
1. It's quite likely they'll buy the film. 2. It was not even likely that the
telephone would ring. 3. It was very unlikely that he was I doing any work
now. 4. It's quite certain that he'll remember you. 5. It was very likely that
they'd not allow her to see the visitor.

: It seems that they know all. -They seem to know all.

1. It seemed that the road was impassable. 2. It seemed that he knew
everybody there. 3. It seemed that the fellow had forgotten everything. 4. It
seemed that the papers had not been destroyed after all 5. It seems you
have met the man. 6. It appeared she was married 7. Now it appeared that
the affair was quite simple. 8. It ap-eared the children were still playing in
the school-room. 9. It happened that I met him at a tea-shop that same
afternoon. 10. It happened that they were already in. 11. It turned out that
the convict had run away.
: It was said that she missed him terribly. -> She was said to miss him
1. It was generally supposed that he was very rich. 2. It was said that he
was even fond of the cripple. 3. It was not thought that would last the
night. 4. It is reported that even his own follow-are ignorant of the fact. 5.
It is supposed that you'll be invited. 6. It was known that she had kept all
the papers in the cupboard. 7. It was believed that the Kanes had left the
country long before the war. 8. It was understood that she was one of the
band. 9. It is generally expected that sooner or later he will appear in town.
10. It was well known that she was elsewhere at the time. 11. It was
thought that he would be found again later. 12. It was reported that he was
crossing the Channel at the moment. 13. It was reported that you I had
been spreading rumors designed to create panic among the passengers
Ex. 138. Translate into English
1. . 2.
. 3. . 4.
. 5. .
. 7. . 8.
. 9.
. 10.
. 11. , ,
. 12. . 13.
. 15. ,
Ex. 139. Translate the sentences. Use the Complex Object if possible
1. , . 2. ,

. 3. , . 4. ,
. 5. , . 6.
, , , . 7.
, . 8. , ,
. 9. , ,
, . 10. , ,
, . 11. ,
. 12. , . 13.
, - . 14. ,
. 15. , . 16.
, ? 17. ,
(), . 18. , . 19.
, .
Ex. 140. rnslt the following sentences
1. , . 2. ,
? 3. -,
-? 4. , . 5.
, . 6. ,
. 7. , . 8. ,
. 9. , ? 10.
, () ? 11. ,
. 12. ,
. 13. ,
. 14. , . 15. ,
, . 16. ,
. 17. , . 18.
, .
19. . 20. ,

Ex. 141. Translate the sentences from Russian into English

1. , - . 2. ,
. 3. , ,
. 4. , . 5.
. 6. , , . 7. ,
. 8. , ,
. 9. ,

. 10. , , . 11. , , . 12. , , .

13. , -, . 14. ,
, . 15. , ,
. 16. , -,
Ex. 142. Translate the sentences from Russian into English
1. , , . 2. , ,
. 3. , , - ? 4.
, , . 5. ,
? 6.
. 7. . 8.
, . 9. ,
. 10.
. 11. ,
. 12. ,
. 13.
? 14. ?
Ex. 143. Translate the sentences from Russian into English
1. , , , . 2. , ,
. 3. ,
. 4. , , . 5. ,
, , . 6. ,
, . 7. e
, ? 8. , . 9.
, . 10. ,
, .
Ex. 144. Translate the sentences from Russian into English
1. , . 2.
, , . 3. , ,
. 4. , , .
5. , , . 6.
. 7.
. 8. .
9. , , . 10. , ,
. 11. , ,

. 12. , , .
1. , , . 2. ,
. .
. 4. , . 5.
, , . 6. , ,
. 7. . 8. ,
, . 9. , ,
. 10. ,
. 11. ,
. 12. , , .
Ex. 145. Translate the sentences from Russian into English
1. , . 2. ,
. . ,
. 4.
, . 5.
, . 6. ,
. 7. ,
, . 8. ,
. 9.
. 10.,

The infinitive or the ing form

Ex. 146. Choose the correct answer
"Applying to university can be a complicated business," Maria thought
to herself as she looked at the application forms. She began (1 fill out,
filling out, filled out, fill) the forms only to notice an empty square in the
top left-hand corner. "Oh no," she thought, "I need (2 give, giving, given,
to give) them a recent photograph of myself."
Maria hated (3 being photographed, photographed, to have
photographed, photograph) but she knew she had (4 any, some, no, none)
choice. She didn't feel like (5 go, going to go, gone) to town to a photo
machine or a professional photographer, so she decided (6 taking, take,
taken, to take) her own photograph.

She searched the house and was lucky enough (7 finding, to find, was
found, find) a camera that took instant pictures. "I'm not capable of (8 take,
to take, taken, taking) my own photograph," she thought. "I will have (9 to
ask, asking, asked, ask) my brother (10 helps, help, to help, helping) me.
"I remember (11 take, taking, to take, taken) your picture once before," her
brother Martin said. "It turned out (12 being, to be, be, was) a disaster. I
advise you (13 tidy up, tidying up, to tidy up, tidied up) your hair. It needs
(14 comb, combing, to comb, combed)." He took the camera and checked
the film. "Maria, we seem (15 to use, using, to have used, being used)
almost all of the film. There's only one photograph left," he said.
"So take the picture and let's get this over with," said Maria. "Then I can
continue filling out the forms."
Ex. 147. Use the correct verb forms. If two answers are possible, put
1 Do you remember (meet) her last year?
2 Sorry -I forgot (post) your letters.
3 I regret (not visit) her when she was ill.
4 We discussed the budget and then went on (talk) about sales.
5 Do you want to go on (learn) English?
6 He doesn't allow us (make) personal phone calls.
7 The hospital only allows (visit) at weekends.
8 I like (watch) TV in the evenings.
9 Would you like (spend) the weekend with us?
10Thanks - I'd love (come).
11If nothing else works, try (read) the instructions.
12I'll try (repair) your car tomorrow.
13I saw John (wait) for a bus as I came home.
14I heard you (break) something - what was it?
15I can feel something (crawl) up my leg.
16We'll have to stop (get) petrol.
17He stopped (work) when he was sixty-five.
I regret (tell) you that you have failed your examination

Ex. 148. Put the verbs in brackets into the infinitive or the gerund
He has promised to.deliver... (deliver) it to me this afternoon.
I've invited Mark and Anna....................... (stay) for the weekend.
I don't mind............................ (stay) at home to look after the children.
Has she decided........................... (take) that job?
He's always complaining about..................... (work) too hard.

6 He claims............................. (be) her brother but I think he's lying.

7 Why are you blaming me for............... (get) lost? You've got the map.
8 We don't believe in.......................... (buy) each other big presents.
9 I know you don't approve of .......... (smoke) so I won't smoke in here.
10The doctor told me.......................... (stay) in bed but it's so boring.
11Don't keep on............................ (talk) about it. It's upsetting me.
12It's raining outside. Would you prefer................... (stay in)?
13My boss told me.................................. (not leave) the office before five
14It's very nice here but I miss ................................... (see) my friends.
15I don't recommend.................................................. (study) on your own.
16I've always dreamed of ........................ (live) in a cottage in the country.
17Sometimes I think you enjoy.............................................. (upset) me.
18I regret ................................ (not keep) in touch with my old friends.
I'm not expecting him ................ (phone) me tonight
but I hope he does.
20 Don't forget.............. (lock up) when you go to bed.
Ex. 149. Put the verbs in brackets into the -ing form or the infinitive
1. Tom stopped ...to pick up... (pick up) his washing on the way home.
2. If you don't stop...................(smoke), you'll make yourself ill.
3. Try.......................(phone) John at the office if he's not at home.
4. I tried my best....................(finish), but there just wasn't enough time.
5. He was promoted in 1990 and went on ..........(become) a company director.
6. The band went on...................(play) even after the lights had gone out.
7. "Why is the baby crying?" "I think he wants..........(feed)."
8. Sharon wants.....................(talk) to you.
9. Jane was afraid....................(show) her school report to her parents.
10. I'm afraid of....................(lose) my way in the forest.
11. What do you mean...................(do) with all that money?
12. Playing a musical instrument well means............(practise) for years.
13. I regret......................(inform) you that your husband has been arrested.
14. She regrets..................... (spend) so much money on her new dress.
15. Do you remember...................(ride) a bicycle for the first time?
16. Remember.....................(post) the letters on your way home.
17. I'd prefer......................(pretend) I didn't hear what you just said.
18. I prefer .........(borrow) books from the library to ......................(buy) them.
19. Don't forget .............(bring) some cash in case they don't accept credit cards.
20. I was sorry.....................(hear) about you failing the exam.
21. He said he was sorry for.................(speak) to you so rudely.
22. Oh no! I totally forgot................(turn off) the cooker.

23. I'll never forget..........................(sail) through that storm in the Atlantic

Ex. 150. Fill in the correct form of the infinitive or the -ing form
1. I advise you ...to take... (take) some money in case the banks are shut.
2. My mother used......................(encourage) us to eat lots of vegetables.
3. Don't forget......................(lock) the door when you leave the office.
4. Do you remember.....................(swim) in Lake Langaron last summer?
5. When you finish this exercise go on.........(do) the composition on page 11.
6. Would you mind.....................(turn) the radio down? I've got a headache.
7. Why don't we try....................(eat) some Thai food for a change?
8. They stopped running....................(have) a rest.
9. He put off.......................(tell) her the bad news.
10. I really regret......................(spend) so much money at the weekend.
11. I suggest........................(look) this word up in a dictionary.
12. David was too afraid....................(swim) in the rough sea.
13. He doesn't look old enough..................(be/married).
14. I couldn't stop......................(wonder) whether I had done the right thing.
15. In general I prefer .........(watch) films on the big screen rather than on TV.
16. I'm sorry, I didn't mean...................(hurt) you.
17. Don't you dare......................(be) late again,
18. I need to get a job. I'm tired of .....(have) to rely on my parents for money.
19. Have you considered....................(learn) another language?
20. I can't stand (listen) to you complaining all the time
Ex. 151. Complete the sentences
1. Would you mind (take) the dog out?
2. I've nearly finished. I've just got two more pages (read )
3. I'll never get used.....such bad language ( hear)
4. I hope you remembered Ann my message (give)
5. You promised not....anyone what I told you (tell )
6. I forgot.....................to the library (go )
7. I forgot about...........to the library. (go)
8. Jim appears..............very fond of Alice (be)
9. Laura is looking forward her new dress (wear )
10. I don't want to risk...anyone (offend )
11. Tina seems...............Brian a lot (like )
12. It's no use.................that pen; it's broken. (Use)
13. I can't get used.........a word processor (use)
Ex. 152. Fill in the correct form of the infinitive or the -ing form

1. I used to love ......... Santorini so much that I finally bought a house there.
2. He couldn't bear .his mother the truth because he didn't want
to upset her. 3. I'm sorry, I don't remember .you before. 4. I'll have
to go to Belgium by train - I'm afraid of.. 5. You are required
this form before you can start the job. 6. Before you leave,
don't forget ......... the plants. 7. I regret ............. you that your house must be
demolished. 8. If we want to catch the early train, it means .............up early
tomorrow morning. 9. I would prefer........to the cinema for a change - we
always go to the theatre. 10. There's no point ........ ! It was your decision
after all. 11. The explorer escaped from the lion only ................himself
surrounded by savages. 12. As a child, I spent so much time ................... that
people used to call me "the Fish". 13. If you can't get the stain out of your
shirt, you could try.............salt on it. 14. He regretted.............lies to his
parents. 15. Try...........some more pepper to the soup. It might taste better.
16. Please stop ....................! There's a meeting in progress next door. 17. The
thief got into the manager's office by pretending ............a cleaner. 18. You
must complete this exercise without ............. a dictionary. 19. Acid rain is
said...............many trees all over Europe. 20. What do you mean Bob's a
vegetarian? I saw him....................a chicken sandwich only yesterday.
Ex. 153. Change the sentences
e.g. I told John 'I think you should stop smoking', (advise)
I advised John to stop smoking.
1 They said we couldn't look at the house, (didn't allow)
2 I said to Jake, 'Please be more careful.' (ask)
3 She said to me, 'Do try the exam.' (encourage)
4 I think he'll come soon. (expect)
5 1 went away, so he had to solve the problem. (I left...)
6 Was it your idea that I should pay? (Did you mean ...)
7 The captain told the men, 'Attack!' (order)
8 'Don't forget to buy coffee,' I told Sue. (remind)
9 She gave me lessons in cooking. (teach)
10She mustn't tell anybody. (I don't want... )
Ex. 154. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb
1) ............ (order) your own meal in a restaurant may soon be a thing of
the past. In Brussels, at an Italian restaurant, the waiter, Tony, claims to be
able 2.(choose) the right dish for each customer. After 3)..
(work) for many years in Italian restaurants, Tony noticed that different
people prefer certain types of food. "Women appear 4)..

(like) milder foods and rich, creamy sauces while men seem 5) ...........
(enjoy) spicier foods cooked in olive oil and served with juices from the
meat," he reports. Tony makes his choices by 6).. (chat)
to his customers - but not about their tastes in food. What he does first is
7)............ (find out) what kind of personality the customer has. After 8)
..(serve) an Englishman a salad of red tuna with garlic and parsley,
Tony was happy 9)..(see) that his customer was very satisfied.
One Italian particularly enjoyed 10) (munch) on wild
mushrooms stuffed with Mediterranean anchovies which Tony had served
with black olives, spicy olive oil and lime. Tony spends a lot of time 11)
. (observe) his customers. Once, a young French couple argued
throughout the meal. Tony avoided 12) ..(give) them a sour
dessert. He served them a sweet dessert instead, and after that they couldn't
stay angry with each other. People aren't accustomed 13) ..
(be/served) meals that are not of their own choice, but Tony seems 14)
.(know) exactly what people will like. This restaurant is
certainly worth 15)..(visit).
Ex. 155. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb
Steam trains were replaced by electric ones years ago, so when the
newspaper I work for heard that the "Black Admiral" steam engine had been
restored, they decided 1) ............. (send) me on its first trip. I didn't object to
2)(go) even though I generally dislike 3) ..(travel)
by train. In fact I was looking forward 4)..(see) something I had
never seen before. When I arrived at the station I saw lots of people 5)
..(celebrate) the rebirth of the Admiral, and I was glad 6)
(be) part of the party. At 2 o'clock everyone was ready 7) ..
(board) the train. I settled myself into a compartment where I was soon
joined by an old man who claimed 8).. (be) one of the original
workers on the Admiral. He claimed 9)..(work) for a penny a day,
and told me how much he had hated 10)(be/covered) in coal
dust all the time. His family had been too poor 11)(buy) more
than the basic necessities. It was a sad story, but it was a pleasure 12)
(listen) to him. At every station people were waiting 13)
.(greet) the train, and it was exciting 14) .
(see) the spectators' faces as the past seemed 15)(come)
alive again. If all trains were as appealing as the Black Admiral, I would choose
16)..(travel) by train all the time.
Ex. 156. Put the verbs in brackets into the -ing form or the infinitive

Kim: I'll never forget 1) ........ (go) to America for the first time. I was
incredibly excited although I was trying 2) ................ (act) cool and casual.
Tom: I know. I remember 3).................................................................(be)
quite envious because I wanted 4).........................................................(go)
there too.
Yes, I know. I was a bit over the top, wasn't I? I'm sorry for
5) ..................... (behave) so badly.
Tom: Yes, you were! You just went on 6)...............................(talk) about
America constantly. It was quite funny though when I think back. You hardly
let me 7)...................................................(say) a word.
Kim: I'm sorry, but you know that in my excitement I nearly left a lot of
things behind like my camera and my money.
Tom: I didn't know you had such a bad memory.
Kim: I'm not usually so forgetful. I had a lot on my mind. Anyway, I don't
remember actually 8) ........................ (leave) anything behind in the end.
Tom: How did you feel when you first arrived there?
Kim: I remember 9)..............(worry) about what to do and whereto go. I
wanted 10)..................... (see) everything but I didn't know where 11)...........
Tom: So where did you go first?
Kim: Well, we started in New York. At first, the traffic was so bad that I was
afraid 12) .......................... (cross) the road. But it got easier. I saw the Empire
State Building and the Statue of Liberty and lots of other things. It was
incredible! I love New York.
Ex. 157. Fill in the correct form of the infinitive or the -ing form
Eli Bilston always enjoyed 1) ............ (tell) us about his life, and we
were always afraid 2). (interrupt) him because he had a very hot
temper. He had left school at thirteen, and he had managed to avoid 3)
.(look for) a real job by 4)..(work) for his father in the
family scrapyard. He was supposed 5)(check) the
weight of scrap metal leaving the yard, but he always preferred 6)
(sit) around and 7)..... (make) cups of tea for the
other workers instead. You won't be surprised 8)..(hear) that
eventually Eli's father noticed him 9)..(waste) time 10)..
(do) nothing, and asked him 11).(find) another job. Eli never
regretted 12)..(have) to leave the scrapyard, because his next job was
even easier! He was employed at Dudley Zoo as a nightwatchtnan, where he
found it a pleasure just 13). (sit) and 14)(watch)
the monkeys 15)(play) in their cages. His only duty was 16)

..(feed) the jaguars at dawn - something which he claims he

only forgot 17).(do) once in his time there. He said that he
would never forget 18)..(see) the zookeeper's face after the poor
man had tried 19)..(give) them their lunch - they had nearly
eaten him alive! After 20)(work) in the zoo for six years,
war broke out in Europe and Eli went on 21) (join) the army in
the hope of finding some adventure
Ex. 158. Put the verbs into the gerund or the to-infinitive
1 Caroline and Simone, two friends, are talking.
C: Would you like ......... (go out) for a meal tonight?
S: Yes, that would be nice. I just need ............ (wash) my hair first.
C: Shall we go to Perry's?
S: I'd prefer ....................
remember ................ (send) the food back last time we went there? It was
C: Oh yes, I'd forgotten. We decided to stop................. (go) there, didn't
we? S:
Yes, we did. So I've got another suggestion. Sally
recommended ....................... (try) that new French restaurant, Chez Victor.
She said it was very good. We'll go there, shall we? C: OK. That's a good
2 Dear Ms Walters,
Thank you for your application for the diploma in tourism but I
regret .................... (inform) you that this course is now full. Should you
wish to take the course elsewhere, I would advise you .................... (apply)
to Central College. They started ................ (run) a course in tourism a year
ago and I would recommend you ....................... consider) (enrol) on that
course rather than ............... (wait) another year to do a course here. If you
would prefer ........................ (wait) for this course, then I would encourage
you .................... (try) ......................... (find) some work related to tourism
so that you can start ........................ (acquire) some relevant experience.

Ex. 159. Put the verbs into the to-infinitive or the gerund
Helen has been called to the office of her boss, Andrea.
A: Take a seat, Helen. Would you like .................. (have) some coffee?
H: Er, no thank you.
A: I asked............................ (see) you............................. (talk) about your

work. I think there are a few things that we need............. (discuss).

H: Oh dear. Is there some problem? I do love............... (work) here and I
think I'm getting better at............................................... (do) the job.
A: Yes, I'm sure you are, Helen, but sometimes you are rather slow.............
(learn). In a hotel of this reputation, we cannot afford ................(make)
mistakes and I am sorry ....................... (say) that you have made rather a
lot. There are some things you are very good at, like .............. (welcome)
the guests, .......... (talk) to them and ....................(give) them any help they
H: That's true. I was rather shy when I first started ............... (work) here
but now I'm much better at .................. (communicate) with the guests.
They have often said to me that it is nice ...................... (see) such a
friendly face at reception.
A: That's good. It's true ................ (say) that you have got much better
at ...................... (deal) with people. But you do not pay enough attention to
.............................................................. (ensure) that the administrative
part of your job is carried out efficiently.
H: ............................... (Keep) the records is not my favourite part of the
job, I must admit.
A: But it's essential......................... (do) that properly. It's no
use ................. (be) nice to all the guests if you are creating problems for
them by .......................................... (fail) ........................ (carry out) your
job efficiently. I know there is a lot of work .................... (do) at reception,
but last week you made three mistakes with the billing. That's not good
H: Yes, I'm sorry about that, but sometimes the bills are very complicated
(work out).
A: I know, but we can't make mistakes and that's that. And what about
you ...................... (accept) that booking for the penthouse suite at the
weekend when we were using it for a conference? It was very careless of
you ......... (do) that. I had to do a lot of ................
(apologize) ...................... (calm down) those guests. They were furious.
H: Yes, it was terrible. I do try ..................... (get) everything right but I
can't help...................................................... (make) mistakes sometimes. I
just don't know what..................................... (do) about it.
A: Well, 1 do. You've got a month ................... (prove) to me that you can
do the job efficiently, and if you can't, you'll have ................
(start) ................. another job
Ex. 160. Put the verbs in brackets into gerund or infinitive
1. I used (ride) a lot but I haven't had a chance (do) any since (come)

here. I ride sometimes. Would you like (come) with me next time? 2.
Most people prefer (spend) money to (earn) it. 3.I resented (be) unjustly
accused and asked him (apologize). 4. It isn't good for children (eat) too
many sweets. 5.I didn't feel like (work) so I suggested (spend) the day in
the garden. 6. Why do you keep (look) back? Are you afraid of (be)
followed? 7. Do you remember (post) the letter? Yes, I do; I posted it in
the letter-box near my gate. 8. Did you remember (lock) the door? No, I
didn't. I'd better (go) back and (do) it now. 9. You still have a lot (learn) if
you'll forgive my'(say) so. 10. It's no use (try) (interrupt) him. You'll have
(wait) till he stops (talk). 11. I'm for (do) nothing till the police arrive. They
don't like you (move) anything when a crime has been committed. 12. He
didn't like (leave) the children alone in the house but he had no alternative
as he had (go) out to work. 13. I'm very sorry for (be) late. It was good of
you (wait) for me. 14. I keep (try) (make) mayonnaise but I never succeed.
Try (add) the yolk of a hard-boiled egg. 15. Do you feel like (go) to a
film or would you rather (stay) at home? 16. He took to (get up) early and
(walk) noisily about the house. 17.I liked (listen) to folk music much better
than (listen) to pop. 18. The car began (make) an extraordinary noise so I
stopped (see) what it was. 19. You'll never regret (do) a kind action. 20. He
decided (put) broken glass on top of his wall (prevent) boys (climb) over it.
21. He annoyed me very much by (take) the piece of cake that I was
keeping (eat) after my supper. 22. He kept (ring) up and (ask) for an
explanation and she didn't know what (do) about him. 23. We got tired of
(wait) for the weather (clear) and finally decided (set) out in the rain. 24.
He made me (repeat) his instructions (make) sure that I understood what I
was (do) after he had gone. 25. I suggest (leave) the car here and (send) a
breakdown van (tow) it to the garage. 26. She apologized for (borrow) my
sewing-machine without (ask) permission and promised never (do) it
again. 27. I didn't mean (offend) anyone but somehow I succeeded in
(annoy) them all. 28. He never thinks of (get) out of your way; he expects
you (walk) round him. 29. You don't need (ask) his permission every time
you want (leave) the room. 30. The police accused him of (set) fire to the
building but he denied (have been) in the area on the night of the fire. 31.
It's much better (go) to a hairdresser than (try) (save) time by (cut) your
own hair. 32. I'd rather (earn) my living by (scrub) floors than (make)
money by (blackmail) people. 33.I always remember (turn) off all the
lights before I leave my house. 34. I'll never forget (carry) my wife over
the threshold when we moved into our first house. 35.I regret (listen, not)
to my father's advice. He was right. 36. We went for a walk after we
finished (clean) up the kitchen. 37. Sometimes students avoid (look) at the

teacher if they don't want (answer) a question. 38. The club members
discussed (postpone) the next meeting until March. 39. Did Carol agree
(go) (camp) with you? 40. The taxi driver refuse (take) a check. He wanted
the passenger (pay) in cash. 41. The soldiers were ordered (stand) at
attention. 42. The travel agent advised us (wait, not) until August. 43.I
don't mind (wait) for you. Go ahead and finish (do) your work. 44. Keep
(talk), I'm listening to you. 45. The children promised (play) more quietly.
They promised (make, not) so much noise. 46. Linda offered (look after)
my cat while I was out of town. 47. You shouldn't put off (pay) your bills.
48. The doctor ordered Mr Gray (smoke, not). 49. Don't tell me his secret. I
prefer (know, not). 50. Could you please stop (whistle)? I'm trying
(concentrate) on my work. 51. Did you remember (turn off) the stove? 52.
Jack was allowed (renew) his student visa. 53. Pat told us (wait, not) for
her. 54. Mr Buck warned his daughter (play, not) with matches. 55. Would
you please remind me (call) Alice tomorrow'? 56. I'm considering (drop)
out of school, (hitchhike) to New York, and (try) (find) a job. 57. Sally
reminded me (ask) you (tell) Bob (remember) (bring) his soccer ball to the
picnic. 58. Alex broke the antique vase. I'm sure he didn't mean (do) it. 59.
Mrs Freeman can't help (worry) about her children. 60.I appreciate your
(take) the time to help me. 61.I can't afford (buy) a new car. 62. Julie
finally admitted (be) responsible for the problem. 63. She keeps (promise)
(visit) us, but she never does. 64.I don't enjoy (laugh) at by other people.
65. I'm angry at him for (tell, not) me the truth. 66. It is easy (fool) by his
lies. 67. Sharon wants us (tell) her the news as soon as we hear anything. If
we find out anything about the problem, she wants (tell) about it
immediately. 68. You must tell me the truth. I insist on (tell) the truth. 69.
Martha doesn't like to have her picture taken. She avoids (photograph). 70.
It's been nice talking to you. I really have enjoyed our conversation, but I
have to leave now. I'm very happy (have) this opportunity to meet you and
talk with you. 71. This letter needs (send) immediately. 72.I thought Sam
was sick. So did I. But he seems (recover) very quickly. He certainly
doesn't seem (be) sick now. 73. Last year I studied abroad. I appreciate
(have) the opportunity to live and study in a foreign country. 74. This year
I am studying abroad. I appreciate (have) this opportunity to live and study
in a foreign country. 75. Mrs Jackson complained about (tell, not) about the
meeting. In the future, she expects (inform) of any and all meetings. 76.
The dog needs (wash). He's been digging in the mud. 77. Alice didn't
expect (ask) to Bill's party. 78. Matthew left without (tell) anyone. 79. It's
useless. Give up. Enough's enough. Don't keep (beat) your head against a
brick wall. 80. His (be, not) able to come is disappointing. 8I. I hope

(award) a scholarship for the coming semester. 82. We are very pleased
(accept) your invitation. 83. It is exciting (travel) to faraway places and
(leave) one's daily routine behind. 84. He wants (like) and (trust) by
everyone. 85. I can't help (wonder) why Larry did such a foolish thing. 86.
She admitted (drive) too fast through the town. 87. Mr Carson is very
lucky (choose) by the committee as their representative to the meeting in
Paris. 88. (Live) in a city has certain advantages. 89. It is very kind of you
(take) care of that problem for me. 90. She opened the window (let) in
some fresh air. 91.I don't remember ever (hear) this story before. 92. You
should stop (drive) if you get sleepy. It's dangerous (drive) when you're not
alert. 93. After driving for three hours, we stopped (get) something to eat.
94. Please forgive me for (be, not) here to help you yesterday. 95. Polly
was in the garden, so she didn't hear the phone (ring) 96. The guard
observed a suspicious-looking man (come) into the bank. 97.I was almost
asleep last night when I suddenly heard someone (knock) on the door. 98. I
remember it distinctly. At 5:30 yesterday afternoon, I saw Jim (walk) to his
car, (open) the door, and (get in). 99. I got Mary (lend) me some money so
I could go to a movie last night. 100. The teacher had the class (write) a
2000-word research paper. 101. Susie pretended (be) asleep. She pretended
(hear, not) me when I spoke to her. 102. You seem (be) in a good mood
today. 103. Janice is thinking about (look) for a new job. 104. Dick appears
(have) a lot of money. 105. My father expects me (get) high marks in
school. 106. According to the sign on the restaurant door, all diners are
required (wear) shirts and shoes. 107. I appreciate your (pay) for my
dinner. I'll pay next time. 108. Children shouldn't be allowed (watch)
violent programs on TV. 109. The sign warns you (turn, not) right on a red
light. 110. After hearing the weather report, I advise you (go, not) skiing
this afternoon. 111. Janice misses (take) walks with her father in the
evening now that she has moved away from home.

For notes


1 Alexander, L G. Longman English Grammar / L G Alexander.
Pearson Education Limited, 2004. 360.
2 , . .
/ . . . .: , 2001. 448 .
3 , . .
: - . . . /
. . . .: , 2004. 432 .
4 Swan, M. Practical English usage / M. Swan. Oxford University
Press, 2008. 654 p.
5 Eastwood, John. Oxford Practice Grammar / John Eastwood.
Oxford University Press, 1999. 441 p.
6 Walker, Elaine. Grammar Practice for Upper-Intermediate Students /
Elaine Walker, S. Elsworth. Pearson Education Limited, 2001. 209 p.
7 All About the Verbals. :
/ .: .. [ .]. . :
, 2004. 160 .



___________ 6084 1/16.

1. . . . . _____
.- . . __________ 25 .

246019, . , . , 104


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