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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 4, April 2012)

Study of Chatter Analysis in Turning Tool


And Control Methods A Review
K. Reza Kashyzadeh 1, Prof. Dr. M. J. Ostad-Ahmad-Ghorabi 2
1

Young Researchers Club, Semnan branch, Islamic Azad University, Semnan, Iran
Advisor Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Semnan-branch, Semnan, Iran
1
2

kazem.kashyzadeh@gmail.com
mj.ghorabi@semnaniau.ac.ir

With such a cost, chatter prediction becomes highly


necessary and a chatter criterion has to be chosen. First
evocations of chatter are due to Taylor in 1907 and then to
Schlesinger in 1936. A first comprehensive study was led
by Doi in 1937 [2] and then with Kato in 1956 [3]. Tlusty
and Polacek published their criterion the next year [4] and
Tobias proposed his chatter maps the year after [5]. During
the early 1960s, Peters and Vanherck ran some tests and
developed measurement techniques in order to discuss
Tlusty and Tobias criterions [6]. The 1970s have shown
some work on the dynamic parameters. Hanna and Tobias
worked on the non-linearity of the stiffness [7] while the
Peters and Vanherck team produces highly interesting
thesis on the identification of dynamic parameters during
the cutting operations [8, 9]. At the end of 1970s, Tlusty
presented his CIRP keynote paper on the topic [10]. Up to
now major developments have been designed for
aeronautic industry where tools are mostly more compliant
than workpieces. In this way, Altintas and Budak have
proposed an analytic method for computing stability lobes
corresponding to Tobiass chatter maps in 1995 [11]. This
work has been extended in 1998 [12] by taking the
workpieces behavior into account under the form of
compliance-damping systems in two directions. A
comprehensive summary of recent developments of the
topic has been proposed by Altintas and Weck under the
form of a CIRP keynote [13].

Abstract: Machine tool chatter is one of the major


constraints that limit productivity of the turning process. It is
a self-excited vibration that is mainly caused by the
interaction between the machine-tool/workpiece structure and
the cutting process dynamics. The frictional and impact
chatter are mainly due to the nonlinearity of the dry friction
and the intermittent contact between the cutting tool and the
workpiece. There are some methods that can limit the chatter.
In this paper we introduce and compare some of these
methods.
Keywords: chatter, Regenerative, Turning tool, vibration.

I. INTRODUCTION
This document is template. We ask that authors follow
Machining processes are often accompanied by self-excited
relative vibration between the workpiece and the cutting
tool, which is referred to as chatter. When chatter occurs,
the amplitude of the self-excited vibration increases until
nonlinearity limits any further increment [1]. Chatter
results in rough surface finish, poor accuracy, shortened
cool life and low metal-removal rate. Chatter becomes even
more critical when machining materials that are difficult to
cut. Some advanced cutting tool materials such as ceramic,
silicon nitride and CBN require strict chatter control to
prevent brittle breakage [2]. For high precision
manufacturing, even mild vibration is undesirable.
Furthermore, since modern machining systems have
become more flexible, the frequently changing working
conditions increase the possibility of bringing machining
process into unstable operating regions [3]. And the
productivity of expensive machining systems is often
limited by chatter. It has defined chatter as self-generative
vibrations that occur when the chip width is too great
versus dynamic stiffness [1]. This phenomenon leads to a
bad surface aspect and high noise level. As it reduces tool
life, it increases production costs. For instance, the cost due
to chatter is estimated to be around 0.35 h per piece on a
cylinder block.

II. DIFFERENT TYPES OF CHATTER


A.Regenerative chatter
Regenerative chatter occurs whenever cuts overlap and
the cut produced at time leaves small waves in the material
that are regenerated with each subsequent pass of the tool.
It is considered to be the dominant mechanism of chatter in
turning operations.

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering


Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 4, April 2012)
If regenerative tool vibrations become large enough that
the tool looses contact with the workpiece, then a type of
chatter known as multiple regenerative chatter occurs. This
mechanism has been the subject of studies by Shi and
Tobias (1984), Kondo, Kawano, and Sato (1981), and
Tlusty and Ismail (1982).
B. Mode Coupling
Mode coupling occurs whenever the relative vibration
between the tool and the workpiece exists simultaneously
in at least two directions in the plane of the cut. In this case,
the tool traces out an elliptic path that varies the depth of
cut in such a fashion as to feed the coupled modes of
vibration. It is considered to be a factor when chatter
develops in slender nearly symmetric tools, such as boring
bars. We note the similarity between this mechanism and
the phenomenon of aero elastic flutter. other mechanisms
have been postulated. Arnold (1946) suggested that the
cutting forces depend on the velocity in such a fashion as to
produce negative damping. This chatter mechanism is
essentially a frictional effect and has characteristics similar
to that of the well-known Rayleigh oscillator (Nayfeh and
Mook, 1979).

Fig1. Turning Model [5, 14]

Fig2. Regenerative chatter vibration of chatter dynamics [6]

The equation of motion of the system can be expressed


as:

C. Thermo mechanical
Thermo mechanical chatter is due to temperature
variations and the temperature dzstortion of the chip. the
first approach to comprehensively describe the thermo.
Mechanics was made by Hastings et al (Jang and Tarng,
1999).
The foregoing are all mechanisms that lead to selfexcited oscillations. A common source of such vibrations in
turning operations is rotating imbalance or misalignment of
the workpiece. Tool run out and spindle errors also cause
forced vibrations. Milling operations generally produce
interrupted cuts as the cutters rotate in and out of the
workpiece that these so-called.

The chatter vibration frequency is still close to the


natural mode of the structure. For critical borderline
stability analysis (
), the characteristic function
becomes
Where
is the maximum axial depth of cut for
chatter vibration-free machining. The critical axial depth of
cut can be found by equating the real part of the
characteristic equation to zero:

D. Interrupted cuts
Interrupted cuts lead to impact oscillations, a form of
forced machine-tool vibration that has been studied by
Davies and Balachandran (1996).

Or

III. CHATTER MODELLING THEORY


A. Simulation of Tool motion in one direction
Assume that a flat-faced orthogonal grooving tool is fed
perpendicular to the axis of a cylindrical shaft held between
the chuck and the tail stock center of a lathe (see Fig1 and
Fig2).

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering


Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 4, April 2012)
Substituting

In this model, it is assumed that the tool never leaves the


workpiece, that is, h>0 during the cutting process.

and rearranging

this equation yields

The stability lobes represent an unstable region and the


points under the lobes are in the stable region. Controlling
methods of chatter tries to shift the lobes above or to
remove the unstable region.

Fig4. Model of regeneration in turning process [14]

If the tool were rigid, then the chip thickness would be a


constant
, which is just the feed per revolution.
However, in practical cases the tool experiences vibrations
that alter the cutting depth and, after one revolution of the
workpiece, the tool cuts this wavy surface. Thus, the
regenerative effect makes the chip thickness non-constant
during machining. If the regenerative delay is , then the
chip thickness can be given as:

Fig3. Typical stability lobe diagram [13].

B. Simulation of Tool motion in two separate directions


The tool is assumed to be compliant and experiences
bending motion in directions x and y, while the workpiece
is assumed to be rigid. The system can be modeled as a 2
DOF oscillator excited by the cutting force as it is shown in
Fig. 4.
The governing equations read:

Where

is the speed of the feed. Here, the case


corresponds to the loss of contact
between the tool and the workpiece. In the current work
only local bifurcation phenomena are analyzed and the
effect of contact loss is not investigated. Therefore, in the
following analysis, we assume that
during
machining.
Since the tool experiences vibrations in the x direction as
well, the time delay is not equal to the rotation period of the
workpiece, but it is determined implicitly by:

Where m,
,
,
and
are the modal mass, the
damping and the stiffness parameters in the x and y
directions, respectively.
The cutting force is given in the form

Here is the spindle speed given in (rad/s) and R is the


radius of the workpiece. Thus, the regenerative delay is a
state-dependent delay since it depends on the state, both
current (x(t)) and
Delayed (
). Therefore, we will use the notation
, where
describes the
history of the state.

Where
and
are the cutting coefficients, w is the
depth of cut, h is the chip thickness and q is an exponent (q
= 0.75 is a typical empirical value for this parameter).

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering


Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 4, April 2012)
In order to reduce the number of parameters we assume
that the tool is symmetric, i.e.,
,
.

Slavicek and Vanherck proposed the use of milling


cutters with non-uniform tooth pitch and Stone used end
mills with alternating helix. Effectiveness of these methods
in chatter suppression has been verified by simulation and
experiments [18]. These techniques can be applied to the
design of a non-uniform pitch cutter for a specific cutting
condition, but cannot be applied to single point machining.
Weck et al. [19] utilized on-line generated stability lobes
to select a spindle speed, so that maximizes the depth-ofcut limit. Later, Smith and Tlusty [20], Delio et al. [2] and
Tarng et al. [21] avoided the need for the knowledge of the
stability lobes and proposed that the best tooth passing
frequency be made equal to the chatter frequency. This
minimizes the phase between the inner and outer
modulations.
This approach is adaptive in the sense that the spindle
speed is changed based on feedback measurement of the
chatter frequency. This method is practical for high spindle
speed machining when the stability lobes are well
separated.
Another technique to suppress regenerative chatter is
sinusoidal spindle speed variation (S3V) around the mean
speed to disturb the regenerative mechanism. Since this
technique was introduced by Stoferle and Grab [22], there
have been many research efforts to verify its effectiveness
on machining stability by numerical simulation and
experiments in turning [7, 8, 18, 23] and in milling [1, 8,
9].
Despite the above research efforts, this technique has not
been implemented widely in industry because there is no
systematic way to select the proper amplitude and
frequency of the sinusoidal forcing signal. The selection of
these parameters depends on the dynamics of the
machining system and is constrained by the spindle-drive
system response and its ability to track the forcing speed
signal. In addition, variable speed machining can result in
an adverse effect and may even cause chatter in an
otherwise stable process [5, 10, 18].
This usually occurs when this method is applied to high
speed machining. Recently, Soliman and Ismail [21]
proposed using fuzzy logic to select on-line the amplitude
and frequency of the forcing speed signal. Yilmaz et al.
[22] generalized sinusoidal spindle speed variation
technique by introducing multi-level random spindle speed
variation, where the spindle speed is varied in random
fashion within the maximum amplitude ratio allowed by
the spindle-drive.

The corresponding natural angular frequency is


and the damping ratio is

[14].

The machining stability of the vertical milling machine


can be predicted based on the analytical model developed
by Alintas and Budak [11, 12, 15]. In their approach, the
time-varying force coefficient of the dynamic milling
process model was approximated by Fourier-series
components. Following this, the stability relationship
between the chatter-free axial cutting depths (
) and the
spindle speed (n) in end-mill operation were derived by
Gagnol et al. [16] as follows.
The speed-dependent transfer function representing the
ratio of the Fourier transform of the displacement
at
the tool tip over the dynamic cutting force
can be
expressed as:

In the above equations,


and
are, respectively, the
real and imaginary part of the transfer function of the
spindle tool tip.
and
are the cutting resistance
coefficients in the tangential and radial directions to the
cutter. N is the number of cutter teeth and k is the lobe
number.
To predict the machining stability, a two-tooth carbide
cutter was employed to machine the stock material of
Al7075. The cutting resistance coefficients were calibrated
as
and
[17].
IV. CHATTER CONTROL
Over the years, various methods have been developed to
avoid regenerative chatter without reducing the depth of
cut. The basic principle of these techniques is to prevent the
dynamic of the machining process from locking on the
most favorable phase for chatter.

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering


Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 4, April 2012)
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