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Arab Academy for Science, Technology and Maritime Transport

College of Engineering and Technology


Department of Basic and Applied Science

Mathematics (3)

BA223
Chapter (3)
Laplace Transforms
Prepared by:
Hossam Shawky
Associate Prof. of Engineering Mathematics

Fall 2014-2015
1

Chapter (3)
Laplace Transforms
Laplace:

Newton of France [1749-1827]

Definition:
Suppose that

f (t)

Laplace transform of

is a piecewise continuous function, defined for

f ( t ) is denoted Lf ( t ) and defined as

t 0.

L f (t ) e stf (t ) dt F(s ), s 0 ,

provided that

Lim F(s) 0 .

Time Domain

L.T

f (t)

Frequency Domain

F(s)
I.L.T

Sufficient conditions for existence of Laplace transform:

f ( t ) is a piecewise continuous function on [0, ) .


f ( t ) is of exponential order for t T ,
f (t)
M, M 0, c 0, T 0 .
i.e Lim
ct
t e
1
t2
So, neither L nor L e
exists.
t

1) A function
2) A function

The

A function is called piecewise continuous on an interval if the interval can be broken


into a finite number of subintervals on which the function is continuous on each open
subinterval and has a finite limit at the endpoints of each subinterval. Below is a
sketch of a piecewise continuous function.

Recall
(1)

e 1
0

(2) e

(3) e

(4)

e kt
e dt
c
k
kt

Laplace transforms for some basic functions:

[1] LK Ke st dt

e
0

[2] L e

at

K e st
s

st at

e dt e

(s a ) t

0 1
(s a )

Result:

L e at

e
dt

(s a ) t
0

(s a )

K0 1 K

s
s

1
sa
3

1
, sa
sa

Examples:

L e 2t

1
,
s2

L e 2t

1
s2

t n estdt
0

[3] L t

Let x st dx s dt

at t 0 x 0 , as t x

L tn
where

1
1
(n 1)
x
e x dx n 1 x n e x dx n 1
s
s
s
s

is the Gamma function.

(n 1) n! ( n

n!

L tn
s

n 1

is a positive integer number)

( n is a positive integer number)

Example

L t5

5!
s6

1
1 1
1
[4] L cosh at L eat e at

2
2 s a s a
1 sa sa
s

2 (s a )(s a ) s 2 a 2

1
1 1
1
[5] L sinh at L e at e at

2
2 s a s a
1 sa sa
a

2 (s a )(s a ) s 2 a 2
1
1 1
1
[6] L cos at L eiat e iat

2
2 s ia s ia
1 s ia s ia
s

2 (s ia )(s ia ) s 2 a 2
[7] L sin at

1
1 1
1
L eiat e iat

2i
2i s ia s ia

1 s ia s ia
a

2i (s ia )(s ia ) s 2 a 2

Properties of Laplace Transforms


Property No.1: Linearity of the transformation
If Lf1 ( t ) F1 (s) and Lf 2 ( t ) F2 (s) , then

LC1f1( t ) C2f 2 ( t ) C1Lf1( t ) C2Lf 2 ( t ) C1F1(s) C2F2 (s)

Sheet (15)
Find the Laplace transform of each of the following functions
No.1
Solution:

f (t ) 3 2e 2t 3t 4 5 cos 3t 4 sinh 3t
3
1
4!
s
3
F(s) 2
3 5 5 2
4 2
s
s2
s
s 9
s 3
3
2
72
5s
4 3

5 2
2
s s2 s
s 9 s 3

No.2
Solution:

f (t ) (5e 2t 3)2

f ( t ) 25e 4 t 30e 2 t 9
25
30 9
F(s)

s4 s2 s
No.3
Solution:

f (t ) (sin 2t cos 2t )2
f ( t ) sin 2 2t 2 sin 2t cos 2t cos 2 2t 1 sin 4t
1
4
F(s) 2
s s 16

No.4
Solution:

f (t ) cos2 3t
1
f ( t ) (1 cos 6 t )
2
1 1
s
F(s) 2

2 s s 36
6

Recall:
(1)

cos(A B) cos A cos B sin A sin B

(2)

cos(A B) cos A cos B sin A sin B

(3)

sin( A B) sin A cos B cos A sin B

(4)

sin( A B) sin A cos B cos A sin B

From the above four equations, we get


(5)
(6)
(7)

1
cos(A B) cos(A B)
2
1
sin A sin B cos(A B) cos(A B)
2
1
sin A cos B sin( A B) sin( A B)
2
cos A cos B

by adding (1) +(2)


by subtracting (2) -(1)
by adding (3) +(4)

(8)

cos(x) cos(x) , since cos( x ) is an even function

(9)

sin( x ) sin( x ) , since sin( x ) is an odd function

(10)

cosh(x) cosh(x) , since cosh(x ) is an even function

sinh( x) sinh( x) , since sinh( x ) is an odd function


1
2
(12) cosh at cosh 2at 1
2
1
2
(13) sinh at cosh 2at 1
2
(11)

Sheet (15)
Find the Laplace transform of each of the following functions

No.5
f (t ) cos(3t )
3
Solution:

f ( t ) cos 3t cos sin 3t sin


3
3
1
3
cos 3t
sin 3t
2
2
1 s
3
3
F(s) 2

2
2s 9 2 s 9
f (t ) sinh 2 2t

No.6
Solution:

1
cosh 4t 1
2
1 s
1
F(s) 2

2 s 16 s

f (t)

f (t ) sin 3t cos 6t

No.7
Solution:

f (t)

1
sin( 3t 6t ) sin( 3t 6t ) 1 [sin 9t sin 3t ]
2
2
1 9
3
F(s) 2
2
2 s 81 s 9

f (t ) sin 3t sin 5t

No.8
Solution:

1
f ( t ) [cos(3t 5t ) cos(3t 5t )]
2
1
[cos 2t cos 8t ]
2
1 s
s
F(s) 2
2
2 s 4 s 64
f (t ) cos 3t cos 6t

No.9
Solution:

1
f ( t ) [cos(3t 6 t ) cos(3t 6 t )]
2
1
[cos 3t cos 9 t ]
2
1 s
s
F(s) 2
2
2 s 9 s 81

Property No.2: First Shifting Theorem [s-shifting]


If Lf ( t ) F(s) , then L{ e f ( t )} F(s a )
at

Proof:

L f ( t ) e st f ( t ) dt F(s)

L eat f ( t ) e st eat f ( t ) dt e (s a ) t f ( t ) dt F(s a )


0

No.10
Solution:

f (t ) e 2t sin 4t

L{sin 4 t}

4
s 2 16

L{e 2 t sin 4 t}

No.11
Solution:

4
(s 2) 2 16

f (t ) e t sin 2 4t

1
sin 2 t 4 t [1 cos 8t ]
2
1 1
s
L{sin 2 4 t} 2
2 s s 64

1 1
s 1
L{e t sin 2 4 t}

2 s 1 (s 1) 2 64
No.12
Solution:

f (t ) e 3t (4 sin 3t 5 cos 6t )

L{4 sin 3t 5 cos 6 t} 4


L{f ( t )}

12

s2 9
5(s 3)

(s 3) 9 (s 3) 2 36
2

10

s
s 2 36

No.13
Solution:

f (t ) (et sinh 2t )2

f ( t ) e 2 t 2e t sinh 2 t sinh 2 2 t
1
L{e 2 t }
s2
2
L{sinh 2 t} 2
s 4
2
L{e t sinh 2 t}
(s 1) 2 4
1
sinh 2 2 t [cosh 4 t 1]
2
1 s
1
L{sinh 2 2 t} 2

2 s 16 s
1
4
1 s
1
L{f ( t )}

s 2 (s 1) 2 4 2 s 2 16 s
No.14
Solution:

f (t ) e 2t sin 2t sin 4t
1
sin 2 t sin 4 t [cos(2 t 4 t ) cos(2 t 4 t )]
2
1
[cos 2 t cos 6 t ]
2
1 s
s
L{sin 2 t sin 4 t} 2
2
2 s 4 s 36

1 s2
s2
L{f ( t )}

2 (s 2) 2 4 (s 2) 2 36

11

No.15
Solution:

f (t ) e 3t sin 3t cos 6t
1
sin 3t cos 6 t [sin( 3t 6 t ) sin( 3t 6 t )]
2
1
[sin 9 t sin 3t ]
2
1 9
3
L{sin 3t cos 6 t} 2
2
2 s 81 s 9

1
9
3
L{f ( t )}

2 (s 3) 2 81 (s 3) 2 9

No.16
Solution:

f (t ) t 5 .3t
t
5
ln
3
f (t) t e
e (ln 3) t t 5
5!
L{t 5 } 6
s
5!
L{t 5 3t }
(s ln 3) 6

12

Property No.3: Derivatives of Transforms


If Lf ( t ) F(s) , then L t f ( t )

d
F(s)
ds

Proof:

L f ( t ) e st f ( t ) dt F(s)

d
d
st
F(s)
e st f ( t ) dt
e f ( t ) dt
ds
ds
s

t e st f ( t ) dt e st t f ( t ) dt Lt f ( t )

L t f ( t )
Result:

L t f (t)
2

d
F(s)
ds

d2
ds

F(s)

In general:

L t f ( t ) (1)
n

dn
ds

Recall:
y

F(s)

vu uv
u
y
v
v2

13

f (t ) t sin 2t

No.17
Solution:

L{sin 2 t}

s2 4
d 2
0 2 2s
4s
L{t sin 2t} 2

ds s 4
(s 2 4) 2 (s 2 4) 2
f (t ) t 2 cos 3t

No.18
Solution:

L{cos 3t}

s
s2 9

d2 s
L{t cos 3t} 2 2

ds s 9
d (s 2 9) 1 (s 2s) d 9 s 2
2
L{t cos 3t}

2
2
2

2
ds
(s 9)
ds (s 9)
2

L{t cos 3t}


2

(s 2 9) 2 [2s] (9 s 2 ) 2(s 2 9) 2s
(s 2 9) 4

14

f (t ) te2t cos 3t

No.19
Solution:

L{cos 3t}

s
s2 9

d s
(s 2 9).1 [s.2s]
L{t cos 3t} 2

ds s 9
(s 2 9) 2

9 s2
(s 9)

L{te cos 3t}


2t

s2 9
(s 2 9) 2

(s 2) 2 9

(s 2)2 92

f (t ) te 3t sin 2 2t

No.20
Solution:

1
sin 2 2 t [1 cos 4 t ]
2
1 1
s
L{sin 2 2 t} 2
2 s s 16
1 d 1
s
1 1 (s 2 16).1 [s.2s]
L{t sin 2 t}

2 ds s s 2 16
2 s
(s 2 16) 2

11
(16 s 2 )
2 2
2
2 s
(s 16)
L{te

3t

1 1
16 (s 3) 2
sin 2 t}

2 (s 3) 2 [(s 3) 2 16]2
2

15

f ( t ) t 7 e 3t

No.21
Solution:

L{t 7 }

No.22
Solution:

No.23

7!
s8

L{t 7 .e3t }

7!
(s 3)8

f (t ) (t 1)2 e 4t

f ( t ) [ t 2 2 t 1] e 4 t
2! 2 1
L{t 2 2 t 1} 3 2
s
s s
2!
2
1
L{f ( t )}

(s 4)3 (s 4) 2 (s 4)

f (t ) t cos(3t )
3

Solution:

1
3
cos(3t ) cos 3t cos sin 3t sin cos 3t
sin 3t
3
3
3 2
2

1 s
3 3
L{cos(3t )} 2

3
2 s 9 2 s2 9

d 1 s
3 3
L{t. cos(3t )} 2

3
ds 2 s 9 2 s 2 9
1 (s 2 9).1 [s.2s]
1 9 s2
3 0 [3.2s]
3 3.s

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
(
s

9
)
(
s

9
)
(
s

9
)
(
s

9
)

16

No.24
Solution:

f (t ) t cos 2t cosh 3t

1
f ( t ) ( t. cos 2 t )(e3t e 3t )]
2
s
L{cos 2 t} 2
s 4
L{t cos 2 t}

s2 4
(s 2 4) 2

1 (s 3) 2 4
(s 3) 2 4
L{f ( t )}

2 [(s 3) 2 4]2 [(s 3) 2 4]2

Property No.4: Transform Integration


t
F(s)
If Lf ( t ) F(s) , then L f ( x ) dx
s
0

No.25

L{ ( x sin 3x)dx}
0

Solution:

f (t ) t sin 3t
1
3
F(s ) 2 2
s
s 9
t

1 1
3
L{ ( x sin 3x )dx} 2 2

s s

9
0

17

L{ (e x sinh 2x)2 dx}

No.26

Solution:

f ( t ) (e t sinh 2t ) 2 e2 t 2e t sinh 2t sinh 2 2t


From No.13

F(s)

1
4
1 s
1

s 2 (s 1) 2 4 2 s 2 16 s

1 1
4
1 s
1
L{ (e x sinh 2x ) 2 dx}

s s 2 (s 1) 2 4 2 s 2 16 s
0

L{ xe2x cos 3x dx}

No.27

Solution:

f ( t ) t e 2 t cos 3t
From No.19

F(s)

(s 2) 2 9
[(s 2) 2 9]2

1 (s 2) 2 9
L{ ( x.e . cos 3x )dx}

s [(s 2) 2 9]2

2x

18

No.28

f (t ) e 2t (e 2x cos 3x)dx
0

Solution:
t

L{f ( t )} L{ (e 2 x . cos 3x )dx


0

L{cos 3t}

s
s2 9

L{e 2 t . cos 3t}

s2

(s 2) 2 9

1 s2
L{ (e . cos 3x )dx

s (s 2) 2 9

2x

L{f ( t )}

1 s
(s 2) s 2 9

19

Property No.5:

f (t )
If Lf ( t ) F(s) , then L
F (s ) d s ,
t s

Provided that

f (t)
exists
t 0 t

Lim

Recall:
1 s
d
s

tan
C
2
2
a
s a
(2) tan 1 2

(1)

(3) 2 tan 1
No.1

cot 1

f (t )

sin 4t
t

Solution:

L{sin 4 t}

4
s 2 16

sin 4 t
4
s

L{
} 2
ds tan 1
t
4 s

s 16
s

s
s
s
tan 1 tan 1 tan 1 cot 1
4 2
4
4

20

e t sin t
f (t )
t

No.2
Solution:

L{sin t}

1
s2 1

L{e t . sin t}

1
(s 1) 2 1

e t . sin t
1
1
L{
}
ds tan (s 1) s
2
t
(s 1) 1
s

No.3

tan 1 (s 1) cot 1 (s 1)
2

e 2t e 3t
f (t )
t

Solution:

L{e 2 t e 3t }

1
1

s2 s3

e 2 t e 3t
1
1
L{
}

ds

t
s

2
s

[ln s 2

ln s 3 ]s

s2
s2
ln
s3
s s 3
s2
s3
ln 1 ln
ln
s3
s2
Lim ln

21

s2
ln

s 3 s

f (t )

No.4

cos 6t cos 4t
t

Solution:

L{cos 6 t cos 4 t}

s 2 36 ss 16

cos 6 t cos 4 t
s
s
L{
} 2
2
ds

t
s 36 s 16
s

1
1

ln s 2 36 ln s 2 16
2
2
s

s 2 36
s 2 36
s 2 36
ln 2
ln 2
Lim ln 2
s

s 16
s 16
s 16

s
ln 1 ln

s 2 36
s 16
2

ln

s 2 16
s 2 36

22

e 3t cos 4t
f (t )
t

No.5
Solution:

L{e3t cos 4 t}

1
s
2
s 3 s 16

s
1
1

2
L{f ( t )}
2
ds

ln
s

ln
s

16

s 3 s 16
2

s
s

s3
s3
s3
ln
Lim ln
ln

s 2 16 s s
s 2 16
s 2 16
s3

s 2 16
ln 1 ln
ln
2
s3
s 16
Unit Step Function:

to
to

1
u(t)
0

L{u ( t )}

1
s

23

1
u(t a )
0

ta
ta

1
L{u ( t a )} e as
s

Property No.6: Second Shifting Theorem (t-shifting)


If Lf ( t ) F(s) , then Lf ( t a )u ( t a ) e

No.6

L{(t 3)3 u(t 3)}

3!
s

3s
e
4

No.7

L{sin 2(t )u(t )}

No.8

L{e 4( t 3)u(t 3)}

2
s2 4

1 3s
e
s4

24

e s

as

F(s) ,

Expressing the function f (t ) in terms of a Unit step function:

Let,

0ta
a t b
, then
b t c

f1 ( t )
f ( t )

f (t) 2
f 3 ( t )

f (t ) f1 (t )U(t ) f 2 (t ) f1 (t ) U(t a ) f 3 (t ) f 2 (t ) U(t b) ......


No.9

0t2
2t5
t5

f ( t ) 0
1

Solution:

L{f ( t )} e

st

f ( t )dt e

st

0
[e st ]02 [e st ]s

1
1 e 2s e 5s
s
25

dt 0 e 5 t dt

1 2s
1
e
1
0 e 5s
s
s

Another solution

f ( t ) 1u ( t ) [0 1]u ( t 2) [1 0]u ( t 5)
u ( t ) u ( t 2) u ( t 5)
1 1
1
1
F(s) e 2s e 5s 1 e 2s e 5s
s s
s
s

No.10
Solution:

L{( 2t 3)u(t 2)}


2t 3 2[(t 2) 2] 3 2(t 2) 7
1 7
L{[2( t 2) 7]u ( t 2)} 2. 2 .e 2s
s
s

No.11
Solution:

L{( 3t 1)2 u(t 3)}


(3t 1) 3[(t 3) 3] 1 3(t 3) 8

(3t 1) 2 9( t 3) 2 48( t 3) 64
1 64
2!
L{[9( t 3) 2 48( t 3) 64.]u ( t 3)} 9. 3 48. 2 .e 3s
s
s
s
No.12
Solution:

L{( 2 t 2 )u(t 2)}


( t ) [ t 2] 2

t 2 ( t 2) 2 4( t 2) 4
2 t 2 2 [(t 2) 2 4( t 2) 4] 2 ( t 2) 2 4( t 2)
1
2 2!
L{[2 ( t 2) 2 4( t 2)]u ( t 2)}
3 4. 2 .e 2s
s s
s
26

No.13
Solution:

L{(t 2 4t 4)u(t 3)}

L{(t 2 4t 4)u ( t 3)} L{(t 2) 2 u ( t 3)}


t 2 [(t 3) 3] 2 (t 3) 5
( t 2) 2 ( t 3) 2 10.(t 3) 25
1 25
2!
L{[(t 3) 2 10.(t 3) 25]u ( t 3)} 3 10. 2 .e 3s
s
s
s
No.14
Solution:

L{[2e 3t 5t 2 ]u(t 2)}


3t 3[( t 2) 2] 3( t 2) 6
t ( t 2) 2

t 2 ( t 2) 2 4( t 2) 4
L{[2e6 .e3( t 2) 5( t 2) 2 20( t 2) 20]u ( t 2)}
1
2!
1 20

2e6 .
5. 3 20. 2 e 2s
s3
s

s
s
No.15
Solution:

L{sin 2t u(t )}

2t 2[(t ) ] 2(t ) 2

L{sin[ 2( t ) 2]u ( t )} L{sin 2( t )u ( t )}

27

2
s2 4

.e s

No.16

L(sin t et ) u(t )
2

Solution:

(
t

t
2
2 u(t )
(sin t e ).u ( t ) sin ( t ) e
2
2 2
2

2 t 2

sin( t ). cos cos( t ). sin e .e u ( t )


2
2
2
2
2


f ( t ) cos t e 2 .e 2 u t
2
2

1 2s
s
2
F(s) 2
e .
e
s

1
s 1

28

2 0 t 1
g( t )
t1
4

No.17
Solution:

g( t ) 2.u ( t ) [4 2].u ( t 1)
2u ( t ) 2u ( t 1)

2 2 s 2
.e 1 e s
s s
s
2
3t
(ii) L{e .g( t )}
1 e (s 3)
(s 3)
(i) L{g( t )}

1 2

(iii) L{ g ( x )dx} (1 e
s s
0

(iv)

L{t.g ( t )}

d 2
s
(
1

e
)

ds s

2
2
(e s ) (1 e s ). 2
s
s
2
2 2
.e s 2 2 .e s
s
s
s

29

Inverse Laplace Transforms


Lf ( t ) F(s)

L1F(s) f ( t )

Sheet (17)
Find the Inverse Laplace transform of each of the following
functions
3
F(s )
No.1
s
3
Solution:
L1 3
s
No.2
Solution:
No.3
Solution:

No.4
Solution:
No.5

1
s2
1 2t
L1
e
s 2
1
F(s) 2
s
1
L1 2 t
s
F(s )

F(s )

s
s2 4

s
L1 2
cos 2t
s 4
3
F(s ) 2
s 9

Solution:

3
L1 2
sin 3t
s 9
30

No.6

F(s )

s
s2 4

Solution:

s
L1 2
cosh 2t
s 4
No.7

F(s )

3
s2 9

Solution:

3
L1 2
sinh 3t
s 9
No.8

F(s )

1
s4

Solution:

1 t3
L 4
s 3!
1

No.9

F(s )

1
s2 9

Solution:

1 1
L1 2
sin 3t
s 9 3

31

No.10

F(s )

1
s2 7

Solution:

1 1
L1 2
sinh 7t

7
s 7
L{ eat f ( t )} F(s a )

Recall:

F(s )

No.11

(s 2)
(s 2) 2 9

Solution:

s 2 2t
L1
e . cos 3t
2
(s 2) 9
No.12

Solution:

F(s )

(s 4) 2 9
1 4t
1
1
L
.e . sin 3t
2
(s 4) 9 3

Completion Square

s 2 4s 13 (s 2) 2 9
s 2 6s 25 (s 3) 2 16
s 2 4s 3 (s 2) 2 7
s 2 s (s 1 / 2) 2 1 / 4
32

F(s )

No.13

(s 2)
s 2 8s 25

Solution:

1 (s 4) 6
L 2
L

2
s 8s 25
(
s

4
)

s2

L {
} 6L

2
2
(s 4) 9
(
s

4
)

1
e 4 t . cos 3t 6. e 4 t sin 3t
3
1

s4

e 4 t [cos 3t 2 sin 3t ]

F(s )

No.14

( 2s 3)
s 2 2s 5

Solution:

2s 3
1 2[(s 1) 1] 3
1 2(s 1) 1
L 2
L
L

2
2
s 2s 5
(s 1) 4
(s 1) 4
1

1
2L
L

2
2
(s 1) 4
(s 1) 4
1
1
2e t .co2 t e t sin 2 t e t [2 cos 2 t sin 2 t ]
2
2
(s 1)

33

Recall:

Lf ( t a )u ( t a ) e as F(s)

F(s )

No.15

( 2s 3)
s 2 4s 13

e s

Solution:

2s 3
1 2[(s 2) 2] 3
1 2(s 2) 1
L1 2

2
2
s 4s 13
(s 2) 9
(s 2) 9
1

1
2L
L

2
2
(s 2) 9
(s 2) 9
1
1
2e 2 t cos 3t e 2 t sin 3t e 2 t [2 cos 3t sin 3t ]
3
3
(2s 3)

L1 2
.e s
s 4s 13

e 2( t ) 2 cos 3( t ) sin 3( t ) u ( t )
3

No.16

(s 2)

F(s )

s
(s 5)

3s
e
4

Solution:

s
1
1
1 (s 5) 5
1
1
L1

5
L

4
4
3
4
(
s

5
)
(
s

5
)
(
s

5
)
(
s

5
)

3
t2
1 5
5t t
e . 5.e . t 2e 5t t
2!
3!
2 6
s

3s
2 5( t 3) 1 5
L1
.
e

(
t

3
)
e

(
t

3
)
u ( t 3)

4
2 6

(s 5)

5t

34

Inverse Laplace Transform using Partial fractions:


Ps
Qs

degree of Ps degree of Q(s)


1
1
2s 3

s 1 s 2 s 1s 2

Purpose:
To transform

A
as b
A
B
Qs as b 2

as b 2 as b
As B
Qs (as 2 bs c)
2
as bs c
2
As B
Cs D
Qs as 2 bs c

2
2
2
as
bs c
as bs c

Qs as b

Find the unknowns A,B,C,. Using the Heaviside Method:


We can get all the unknowns if Qs as b

F(s )

No.17

s
(s 1)(s 2)

Solution:

s
A
B

(s 1)(s 2) (s 1) (s 2)
A

s
1
,
(s 2) s 1 3

35

s
2

(s 1) s 2 3

1
2

s
1 3
1 3 1 t 2 2 t
L1
L
L
e e
(
s

1
)(
s

2
)
(
s

1
)
(
s

2
)
3

s2
No.18
F(s )
(s 1)(s 2)(s 3)
Solution:

s2
A
B
C

(s 1)(s 2)(s 3) s 1 s 2 s 3

s2
A
(s 2)(s 3)

s 1
s2
C
(s 1)(s 2)

s2
B
(s 1)(s 3)

1
,
2

s2
L

(s 1)(s 2)(s 3)

s 3

s 2

4
4
1

9
9

(2)(1) 2

1
9

4 1 2 1 t
2 t 9 3t
L1 2 L1
L
e 4e e
2
s 2
s 1
s 3 2

Find the unknowns A,B,C,. using the general Method:


Steps:
(1) * Q(s)
(2) Sub. By zeros of Q(s)
(3) Compare Coefficients

36

Sheet (17)
Find the Inverse Laplace transform of each of the following
functions
s
No.19
F(s )
(s 3)(s 4)2
Solution:

(s 3)(s 4) 2

A
B
C

s 3 (s 4) 2 (s 4)1

* (s 3)(s 4) 2
s A(s 4) 2 B(s 3) C(s 3)(s 4)
s 3
3 A
s 4
4 B B 4
0 A C C 3
Coeff s 2

s
4 1 3
1 3
1
L1

L
L

2
2
s

3
(
s

4
)

(
s

3
)(
s

4
)
(
s

4
)

3e3t 4te 4 t 3e 4 t

F(s )

No.20
Solution:

s
(s 2)(s 2 4)

s
(s 2)(s 2 4)

A
Bs C
2
(s 2) s 4

* (s 2)(s 2 4)
s A(s 2 4) (Bs C)(s 2)

s 2
Coeff

s2

1
4
1
0 A B B
4

2 8A A

37

Coeff

s0

0 4A 2C 0 1 2C C

1
2

1
1
1

s
1
1 4
1 4
2
L

2
s

2
(
s

2
)(
s

4
)
s

1 2 t 1 1 s 1 1 1

e L 2
L 2

4
4
s 4 2
s 4
1
1
1 1
e 2 t cos 2 t . sin 2 t
4
4
2 2

No.21

F(s )

1
s( s 3 )

Solution:

1
A
B

s(s 3) s s 3
1
1
A , B
3
3
1
1

1
1
1 3
1 3 1 1 3t 1
3t
L
L L
e 1 e
3
s(s 3)
s
s 3 3 3

38

F(s )

No.22

1
s(s 2 9)

Solution:

1
s(s 2 9)

A Bs C

s s2 9

* s(s 2 9)
1 A(s 2 9) (Bs c)s

s0

1 9A A

1
9

Coeff

s 2 : 0 A B B

Coeff

s1 :

1
9

0C

1
1
s

1
1
1 9
1 9
L 2
L L 2

s
s
(
s

9
)
s

1 1
1
cos 3t 1 cos 3t
9 9
9

39

By Inspection Method:
(1)

(2)

(3)

K 1
1

(s 2 a )(s 2 b) (b a ) s 2 a s 2 b
As B
1 As B As B

2
2

2
2
(
b

a
)
(s a )(s b)
s a s b
K

K s2
s2

2
2

2
2
(
b

a
)
(s a )(s b)
s a s b
Ks 2

K (s 2 a ) a (s 2 b) b

2
(b a ) s 2 a
s b

(4)

(5)

K
a
b
1

(b a ) s 2 a
s2 b

K b
a

(b a ) s 2 b s 2 a

K
K 1
1

(s a )(s b) (b a ) s a s b
Ks
K b
a

(s a )(s b) (b a ) s b s a
F(s )

No.23

1
(s 2 1)(s 2 4)

Solution:

1 1
1

(s 2 1)(s 2 4) 3 s 2 1 s 2 4
1

1
1
1

L1 2

sin
t

sin
2
t

2
(s 1)(s 4) 3
40

F(s )

No.24

s
(s 2 2)(s 2 4)

Solution:

1 s
s

(s 2 2)(s 2 4) 2 s 2 2 s 2 4
s

1
s
L1 2
cos 2t cos 2t
2
(s 2)(s 4) 2

F(s )

No.25
Solution:

3s 4
(s 2 2)(s 2 4)

3s 4

1 3s 4 3s 4

2
2
2
(s 2)(s 4) 2 s 2 s 4

1 3s
4
3s
4
2
2
2
2
2 s 2 s 2 s 4 s 4
1

3
cos
2
t

4
.
sin
2
t

1
3s 4
2
L1 2

2
2
1
3 cos 2 t 4. sin 2 t
(s 2)(s 4)

2
s2
F(s ) 2
No.26
(s 2)(s 2 4)
Solution:

s2

1 4
2

(s 2 2)(s 2 4) 2 s 2 4 s 2 2
1 1
s2
1

1
L 2

4
.
sin
2
t

2
.
sin
2
t

2
(s 2)(s 4) 2 2
41

F(s )

No.27

s
s 4 16

Solution:

1 s
s

s 4 16 (s 2 4)(s 2 4) 8 s 2 4 s 2 4

1
s
L1 2
cosh 2t cos 2t
2
(s 4)(s 4) 8
s

No.28

F(s )

3s 2 7s 7
(s 1)(s 2 2s 4)

Solution:

3s 2 7s 7
(s 1)(s 2 2s 4)

A
Bs C
2
s 1 s 2s 4

* (s 1)(s 2 2s 4)
3s 2 7s 7 A(s 2 2s 4) (Bs C)(s 1)
3 7 7 3A A 1
s 1
2
3 ABB 2
Coeff s :
0
7 4A C C 3
Coeff s :
3s 2 7s 7
1
1 1
1 2s 3
L

2
s

(
s

1
)(
s

2
s

4
)
s

2
s

2(s 1) 1 t

1
1 2(s 1)
1
e t L1

2
2
2
(
s

1
)

3
(
s

1
)

3
(
s

1
)

1 t
e t 2e t cos 3t
e sin 3t
3

42

No.29

F (s )

s 2 2s 5
(s 3 2s 2 s )

Solution:

s 2 2s 5
s(s 2 2s 1)

s 2 2s 5
s(s 1) 2

A
B
C

s (s 1) 2 s 1

* s(s 1)2
s 2 2s 5 A(s 1) 2 Bs Cs(s 1)
s0
5A
4 B B 4
s 1
2
1 A C c 4
Coeff s
2
1 s 2s 5
1 5
1 4
1 4
L 3

2
s
s

2
s

s
(
s

1
)

5 4 te t 4e t
No.30
Solution:

F(s )

s3 2
(s 1)2

lim F(s)

I.L.T doesnt exist

43

Applications
Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations by means
of Laplace Transform
Property No.7: Transform Differentiation
If Lf ( t ) F(s) , then

d f (t )
L
s F(s ) f ( 0 ) ,
dt

d 2 f (t )
2
L
s F ( s ) s f ( 0 ) f ( 0 )
2

dt

Sheet (18)
Using Laplace transform of differentiation, find the transformation of the
functions

cos at

No.1
Solution:

L{sin at}

a
s a
2

f (0) 0

d
a
(sin at )} s. 2
0
2
dt
s a
as
L{a cos at} 2
s a2
s
L{cos at}
s2 a 2
L{

44

sinh at

No.2
Solution:

L{cosh at}

s
s a
2

f (0) 1

d
s
(cosh at )} s. 2
1
2
dt
s a
s2 s2 a 2
L{a sinh at}
s2 a 2
a
L{sinh at}
s2 a 2
L{

Sheet (18)
Solve the following D.E. using Laplace transforms
dy
No.3
2 y ( t ) e 4 t , y ( 0) 0
dt
Solution:
Take L.T for both sides

[sY(s) y(o)] 2Y(s)


[sY(s) o] 2Y(s)
1
s4
1
Y(s)
(s 4)(s 2)
1 1
1

6 s 4 s 2
1
y( t ) e 4 t e 2 t
6
1
y(0) [1 1] 0
6

1
s4

1
s4

Y(s)[s 2]

Check

By Inspection

45

No.4

d 2y
dt

dy
3y ( t ) 3 e 2 t
dt

y(0) y(0) 0

Solution:
Take L.T for both sides

[s 2Y(s) sy(0) y' (0)] 4[sY(s) y(0)] 3Y(s) 3.


3
s2
3
Y(s)[(s 1)(s 3)]
s2
3
A
B
C
Y(s)

(s 1)(s 3)(s 2) s 1 s 3 s 2

Y(s)[s 2 4s 3]

Using Heaviside method

3
1
3
3

(2)(3)
2
(2)(5) 10
3
1
C

(3)(5) 5
3
1
1
Y(s) 2 10 5
s 1 s 3 s 2
1
3
1
y( t ) e t e 3t e 2 t
2
10
5
A

46

1
s2

d 2y

No.5

dt

dy
9 y ( t ) t 2e 3 t
dt

y ( 0) 2 y' ( 0) 6

Solution:
Take L.T for both sides

[s 2 Y(s) sy(0) y' (0)] 6[sY(s) y(0)] 9Y(s)


[s 2 Y(s) 2s 6] 6[sY(s) 2] 9Y(s)

Y(s)[s 2 6s 9] 2s 6 12
Y(s)[(s 3) 2 ] 2s 6 12

Y(s)

y( t ) 2e

(s 3) 3
2

(s 3)3

2s 18

t4
. 2e 3t 12te 3t
4!

47

(s 3)3

(s 3)5 (s 3) 2
2
2[(s 3) 3] 18

(s 3)5
(s 3) 2
2
2
12

(s 3)5 (s 3) (s 3) 2
3t

2!

2!
(s 3) 3

No.6

d 2y
dt

dy
6 y ( t ) u( t 2 )
dt

y(0) y(0) 0

Solution:
Take L.T for both sides

1
[s 2 Y(s) sy(0) y' (0)] 5[sY(s) y(0)] 6Y(s) e 2s
s
1
[s 2 Y(s) 0 0] 5[sY(s) 0] 6Y(s) e 2s
s
1
Y(s)[s 2 5s 6] e 2s
s
1
Y(s)[(s 2)(s 3)] e 2s
s
1
Y(s)
e 2s
s(s 2)(s 3)
1
A
B
C

s(s 2)(s 3) s s 2 s 3
1
1
1
A
B C
3
6
2
1
1
1

Y(s) 6 2 3 e 2s
s s 2 s 3

1
1 1

y( t ) e 2( t 2) e3( t 2) u ( t 2)
3
6 2

48

d 2y

No.7

dt

y(0) y(0) 0

y(t ) (t 2)u(t 2)

Solution:

[s 2 Y(s) sy(0) y' (0)] Y(s)

1
s

[s 2 Y(s) 0 0] Y(s)

1
s

Y(s)[s 2 1]

2s
e
2

1
s

Y(s)

2s
e
2

2s
e
2

e 2s

s 2 (s 2 1)
1
1 1
1

s 2 (s 2 1) 1 s 2 s 2 1
1
1
Y(s) 2 2 e 2s
s
s 1

y(t ) [(t 2) sin( t 2)]u(t 2)

y( ) y(1.5707) 0
2

y( 2) {[( 2) 2] sin[( 2) 2]
2
2
2

1
2

49

No.8

The differential equation of the R-L circuit connected in series is given by

di
Ri(t ) cos 2t
dt

Determine the electric current i(t) where L=1 Henry, R=2 ohms and i(0)=0.

Solution:

di
2i( t ) cos 2t
dt
Take L.T for both sides

[sI(s) i(0)] 2I(s)

[sI(s) 0] 2I(s)
I(s)[s 2]

I(s)
i( t )

s
s2 4

s
s2 4

s
s2 4

s
(s 2)(s 4)
2

See sheet 17 Problem No. 20 Lec.12

1 2 t 1
1 1
e
cos 2t . sin 2t
4
4
2 2

50