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MAT 120 SURVIVAL NOTESHYPOTHESIS TESTING

1. Knowing whether to use the equal symbol or an inequality symbol when stating the claim is the first key to setting up a hypothesis test. The

original claim can have any one of six mathematical symbols in it. The wording of the claim is your clue to selecting the correct symbol. The

first two columns in the chart below give some commonly used phrases and the mathematical symbol indicated by each phrase.

2. For each original claim, there is an opposite statement, the counter claim. The opposite pairs of symbols are listed side-by-side on the chart

below. The null hypothesis is labeled as HO, and it must contain the equal symbol either alone or in conjunction with a less than or a greater

than symbol. The alternative hypothesis is labeled as Ha, and it never contains the equal symbol. Based on the wording of the problem,

sometimes the claim will be the null hypothesis, and sometimes the claim will be the alternative hypothesis.

3. Deciding whether the problem is left-tailed, right-tailed, or two-tailed is an important step. To determine the number and position of the tails, look

at the symbol in Ha. If Ha has as its symbol, the problem has two tails. If Ha has a or symbol, the problem has only one tail, and the arrow

in the symbol points in the direction of the tail. See the third column of the chart below.

HO

Ha

mark, so they are the symbols used in the

null hypothesis.

Is, equal, same

equal mark, so they are the symbols used in

the alternative hypothesis.

Different, not equal, not the same

Tail or Tails

The symbol in Ha indicates the number and

location of the tail or tails in the problem.

right, so there is a right tail.

so there is a left tail.

4. The critical value (zo) is the z-score that marks the beginning of the tail. The tail is known as the rejection region or critical region.

5. The test statistic (z) is the z-score generated by a formula. See the first chart on the back of this sheet for the test statistic formulas.

Compare the test statistic to the critical value.

When the test statistic is closer to zero

When the test statistic is farther

(the center of the curve) than the critical

away from zero (the center of

value, fail to reject HO.

Fail to reject HO

the curve) than the critical value,

reject HO.

Reject Ho

Reject Ho

-zo z

zo

-zo

zo

z

Rev. 11/05

Test Statistic

Formula

Z

x

s

Degrees of freedom

d.f. = n - 1

p p

pq

It

1. The sample size (n) is at

least 30.

2. The claim deals with the

mean for one

population.

Symbol in the claim is .

1. The sample size (n) must

be less than 30.

2. The population standard

deviation () cannot be

known.

3. The claim deals with the

mean for one population.

Symbol in the claim is .

1. This problem is a

binomial situation.

2. The claim deals with a

percentage, a

proportion, or a

fractional part.

12 22

n

2

1

distinct groups.

Symbols in the claim are 1

and 2.

is the same number that is in the claim. It is the population mean addressed in

the claim.

is the population standard deviation. If the population standard deviation is not

known, the sample standard deviation can be used.

n is the sample size.

x is the mean for the sample group.

is the same number that is in the claim. It is the population mean addressed in

the claim.

s is the sample standard deviation.

n is the sample size.

Notice that t-scores instead of z-scores are used in this type of problem. Both the test

statistic and the critical values are t-scores.

p is the same number that is in the claim. It is the percentage or proportion

addressed in the claim.

q is the complement of p. It is calculated by q = 1 p.

n is the size of the sample group.

is the proportion of the sample group that meets the success criteria.

p

1. In some problems, it is given as a percentage of the sample group.

x

2. In other problems, it must be calculated by p

where x is the number of

n

successes in the sample group.

Data comes from two distinct groupsgroup 1 and group 2. The subscripts identify the

group to which each data item belongs.

x 1 and x 2 are the sample means for both groups.

1 and 2 are the population standard deviations for both groups.

n1 and n2 are the sample sizes for both groups.

Drawing the correct final conclusion is what hypothesis testing is all about. Of the two statements, Ho and Ha, the data suggests that one of the

statements is true, and the other is false. No matter which type of test (from the chart above) is used, the final conclusion is drawn the same way.

When Ho is the claim

When Ha is the claim

If Ho is not rejected (failure to

If Ho is rejected, the claim is

If Ho is not rejected (failure to

If Ho is rejected, the claim is

reject Ho), the claim is not

rejected.

reject Ho), the claim is not

supported.

rejected.

supported.

It is important for you to check with your instructor about the exact wording that he or she requires in your final conclusion statement for each

problem.

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