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A PROJECT REPORT ON

A TECHNICAL REVIEW OF SOLAR POWER AUTO


IRRIGATION SYSTEM

SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS IN


DIPLOMA IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
BY

AASHISH PRAKASH SHINDE (114110049)


DINESH PRABHAKAR GAVIT (114110919)
SADASHIV SOPAN KOLEKAR (124110064)
TUSHAR MUKUND KALE (114110058)
GUIDED BY
PROF. S. D. ROTE

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

VEERMATA JIJABAI TECHNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE


MATUNGA, MUMBAI - 400019

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the following students of three year course in Diploma in
Mechanical Engineering have submitted the project entitled A technical review
on Solar Power Auto Irrigation System satisfactorily.

The students of the group are as follows:


AASHISH PRAKASH SHINDE (114110049)
DINESH PRABHAKAR GAVIT (114110919)
SADASHIV SOPAN KOLEKAR (124110064)
TUSHAR MUKUND KALE (114110058)

Internal Examiner

Director V.J.T.I.

Head , Mechanical Dept.

CERTIFICATE

The report on A technical review on Solar Power Auto Irrigation


System submitted by the following students is found to be
satisfactory and is approved for the Diploma of Mechanical
Engineering.

The students of the group are as follows:


AASHISH PRAKASH SHINDE (114110049)
DINESH PRABHAKAR GAVIT (114110919)
SADASHIV SOPAN KOLEKAR (124110064)
TUSHAR MUKUND KALE (114110058)

Internal Examiner

External Examiner

DECLARATION BY THE STUDENTS

I declare that this written submission represents the idea in own words and where
other ideas or words have been include; we have adequately cited and referenced
the original sources.

We also declare that we have adhered to all principles of academic honesty and
integrity and have not misrepresented ideas/data/fact/source in our submission.

We understand that any violation of the above will cause for disciplinary action by
the institute and can also evoke penal action from the sources which have thus not
been properly cited or from whom proper permission has been taken when needed.
Aashish Prakash Shinde (114110049)
Dinesh Prabhakar Gavit (114110919)
Sadashiv Sopan Kolekar (124110064)
Tushar Mukund Kale (114110058)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We have great pleasure in presenting this project report on A technical review on
Solar Power Auto Irrigation System. It has proved statement that Project is a
result of teamwork, that we practically experienced as we proceed with this
project.

During the project the importance of teamwork, co-ordinance, group dynamics


and individual job situation and complexities were brought to light.
We would fail in our duties if we dont mention our sincere and utmost gratitude
to Institute of VJTI, Honorable director, Head of Departments and colleges other
staff for their help and support. With their skills and cooperative nature we
overcame all that obstacles that came up. We are thankful for their goodwill and
attention paid to us.

I would never claim that cooperative attitude of Professor S. D. Rote has not
only shown great faith in us but also guided us at every moment of work.

Last but not the least we owe deeply to our fellow members of group and friends
of our class. I hope that our work would be appreciated and take us a step forward
towards the betterment of present system.

INDEX

1) Abstract
2) Introduction
3) Block Diagram
4) Block Diagram explanation
5) Power Supply
6) Light Sensor
7) Working
8) Component List
9) Future Scope
10) References

ABSTRACT
The project sense controlled farming is a project related to agriculture. As we
know India ranks second worldwide in farming output. The farming sector is the
largest economic sector & plays a significant role in the overall social-economic
development of India.

But the gain from the agriculture is depends on various factors from small to large
extent. The water is the major factor which causes reduction in productivity. So it
is necessary to provide the required amount of water to the farming field. The
water supply with proper amount & at proper time gives the good result for the
end product crop. So our project is small contribution to the farming sector to its
best extent & in case of excess of water supply it removes the excess water. The
system is fully automatic & no need of any manpower to work this once it is
programmed.

INTRODUCTION
Usually in the morning water is provided to the farming field. So in the morning photo
sensor senses the sun rays & gives indication to start process. The main component is
the microcontroller which gets the supply from either mains supply or from the solar
panel circuitry. So even in the absence of mains supply the system will work properly.

There are two water level sensors placed inside the water tank which gives the
indication of water inside the tank. And accordingly the farming field senses the water
level in the field, & after specified level the water supply will be disconnected.

The sense controlled farming is self powered & automatic system which will surely
help the farmers to improve the quality of farming.

BLOCK DIAGRAM

MAIN BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE PROJECT


In our project we are using MICROCONTROLLER IC 89s52. The block diagram
of connections to microcontroller IC is shown in figure. It is explained as above.
As this microcontroller is the heart of the system, all circuits are connected to it.
Starting from left,
SPDT switch is connected to microcontroller.
Secondly, Day light sensor is connected to Port1.0
Four water sensors are connected to microcontroller; they are connected to
Port1.1, Port3.5, Port3.6, and Port3.7 respectively.

Motor driver circuit is connected to Port0.0, Port0.1, Port0.2, and Port 0.3
respectively. From port 0.0 & 0.1 ploughing motor will be controlled & from
Port 0.2 & 0.3 pipe rotation motor will be controlled.
To port 0.4, 0.5, 0.6 three relay circuits are connected respectively.
Buzzer and LEDs are connected for the indications of the problems or errors
if any.

POWER SUPPLY

POWER SUPPLY BLOCK DIAGRAM

For the whole circuitry to work properly the power supply must be available all the time.
As there is irregularity of the mains supply in the village areas due to load shading, so
there should be some arrangement that provides the continuous power supply to the
circuitry.
In this project we use mains supply as well as the nonconventional power supply for
providing the continuous power supply to the circuitry. This is done with the help of
SPDT switch.

MAINS SUPPLY

There are many types of power supply. Most are designed to convert high
voltage AC mains to suitable low voltage supply for electronic circuits and
other devices. A power supply can be broken down to a series of blocks, each
of which performs a particular function.

Transformer
Steps down high voltage AC mains to low voltage AC.
Rectifier
Converts AC into pulsating DC.
Smoothing
Produces ripple free DC.
Regulator
Eliminates ripple by setting DC output to fix voltage.

SOLAR POWER SUPPLY


The main idea behind the use of solar panel circuit is the irregularity of the mains supply
due to load-shedding. The energy from the conventional sources is limited and nonrenewable. So the ultimate source of energy i.e. solar energy is non conventional &
which is easily available.

The average solar energy radiated on the earth is 1.36kWh/m2. This energy is equal to
that can be obtained from 12 lakhs crores tons of coal & is 20 times the amount of
energy that can be obtained from the total coal deposited on the earth.

LIGHT SENSOR

The farming field requires the water supply every day. So for this whole water level
circuitry to work every day we use the photo sensors or photo detectors are the sensors of
light. A sensor is a device that measures physical quantity and converts it into a signal
which can be read by any observer or by any instrument.

WORKING EXPLANATION

Design & implementation of sense controlled farming is available with the circuits as
power supply, microcontroller circuit, relay circuit, motor driver circuit, isolator
which is used to operate microcontroller, pumps, motors, sensors.
The power to the whole circuit is made available with the help of mains supply,
but in case of unavailability of this mains supply there is a provision of the alternate
power supply, which is selected, with the help of SPDT switch. This alternate supply
can be any supply, which is easily available & satisfy the circuits requirement.
Usually water is provided to farming field in the morning, so the working starts when
sun rises. The sun rays incident on the photo sensor, which is placed above the
farming field. When high intensity of light falls on it, it gives its information to the
microcontroller. When microcontroller receives logic 1 level from the photo sensor &
starts the pumps, which allow entering the water into the farming field.
There are three pumps used in the project. First pump is placed in the water
source farm where the water is made available to the field. Second pumps ON/OFF
is dependent on the tab level where the water is stored. When water level is low it
starts & fill up the tank. When the water level is high it stops filling it. Second pump
is placed inside the tank & its ON/OFF depends on the water levels in the farming
field. Under low water level it is ON &provides water to the field. Both pumps are
submersible pump, which are placed in the water. High & low water level is sensed
with the help of electrolyte sensors. Under some abnormal conditions such as flood,
heavy rain etc excess water get into the field & ultimately loss of total crop in the
field, which causes big economical loss to the farmer. To avoid such thing to happen
we made an arrangement which removes excess water. This is done with the help of
DC pump. These pumps are operated with the help of relay driver circuit.

To provide the water equally throughout the farming field we rotate the pipe with the
help of motor. Also doing the work as ploughing there is another arrangement. This is
done with the help of another motor. The motor driver circuit drives both the motors.
The rotation & UP/DOWN is operated through the switches.

COMPONENT LIST & MATERIALS

NAME OF
COMPONENT

SPECIFICATION AND
DIMENSIONS

QUANTITY

Microcontroller (85S51)

4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range


128 x 8-bit Internal RAM
32 Programmable I/O Lines
Two 16-bit Timer/Counters

1 NOS

Size 345x290x22
No. of Cell = 36

1 NOS

Uses a Light dependent


resistor

1 NOS

Solar Panel

Day Light Sensor


(Rx 741)

Pump

Battery

Operating Voltage Range 5


to 12V

12 Volts

Relay

Motor Driving Circuit

1 NOS

Drives for Ploughing and


Rotation

1 NOS

3 NOS

1 NOS

FUTURE SCOPE

Technical development in agriculture is moving quickly in other areas.


The

tractor combine harvester is controlled automatically, GPS

navigation system provides the driver with exact information on the


tractors position.
It reduces fuel consumption & allows fertilizing and harvesting operation
to be carried out with greater precision. The drivers working environment
is also improved, since he/she does not have to steer the vehicles.

REFRENCES

Sensors and Transdusers : Dr. A. D. Shaligram


Microprocessors & Microcontrollers : Harish Narula
Principles of Electronics : V. K. Mehta