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# NO.

SECTIONS

PAGE

Abstract/summary

Introduction

Aims/objectives

Theory

4-10

Apparatus

10

Experimental procedure

11-15

Results

16-18

Sample of calculations

19-25

Discussions

26-27

10

Conclusions

28

11

Recommendations

28

12

References

29

13

Appendices

30

1.0) ABSTRACT
The experiment was conducted to evaluate and study the performance of the shell and
tube heat exchangers at various operating conditions. The conditions are heat load and heat
balance, log mean temperature difference (LMTD), overall heat transfer coefficient (U),
turbulent or laminar flow, Reynolds number for shell side and tube side, heat transfer
coefficient and pressure drop at shell side and tube side. This experiment will run in 2 runs
with 3 sets each. The QC/QH that close to 1.00 will be chosen to use for U calculation. First
run will be run using flow rate 10 USGPM for CV and 15 USGPM for HW and for the
second run, we using flow rate 10 USGPM for CV and 10 USGPM for H. Temperature
reading will be taken simultaneously for CW and HW temperatures. Calculations on the heat
transfer and heat loss were carried out for energy balance study. LMTD and heat transfer
coefficient also calculated for this experiment. Note that the pressure drop depends on the
flow rateand not on the temperature..

2.0) INTRODUCTION
A heat exchanger is an equipment in which heat exchange takes place between two
fluids that enter and exit at different temperatures. The main function of heat exchanger is to
either remove heat from a hot fluid or to add heat to the cold fluid. The direction of fluid
motion inside the heat exchanger can normally categorised as parallel flow, counter flow and
cross flow. For parallel flow, also known as co-current flow, both the hot and cold fluids flow
in the same direction. Both the fluids enter and exit the heat exchanger on the same ends. For
counter flow, both the hot and cold fluids flow in the opposite direction. Both the fluids enter
and exit the heat exchanger on the opposite ends. In this experiment, we focused on the shell
and tube heat exchanger. This heat exchanger has some number of shell-and-tube passes and
the simplest form which involves single tube and shell passes. This type usually installed with
baffles where it increase the convection coefficient by inducing the formation of turbulence
flow and a cross-flow velocity component.

To prevent weakening of the tube sheets there must be a minimum distance between
the tubes. It is not practicable to space the tubes so closely that the area of the path outside the
tubes is as small as that inside the tubes. If the two streams are of comparable magnitude, the
velocity on the shell side is low incomparison with that on the tube side. Baffles are installed
in the shell to decrease the cross section of the shell-side liquid and to force the liquid to flow
across the tube bank rather than parallel with it. The added turbulence generated in this type
of flow further increases the shell-side coefficient time, in this particular experiment, is
varied by the means of changing the flow rates of the feed solutions.

3.0) OBJECTIVES
The objective of this experiment is to evaluate and study the performance of the Shell
and Tube Heat Exchanger at various operating conditions. The experiment consisted
of four parts:

Part I

## : Heat Load and Heat Balance

LMTD, Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient U

Part II

: Turbulent/Laminar Flow
Reynolds Number Shell Side
Reynolds Number Tube Side

Part III

Part IV

## : Pressure Drop Shell Side

Pressure Drop Tube Side

4.0) THEORY
The heat-transfer coefficient for the tube-side fluid in a shell-and-tube exchanger can be
calculated from the following equation:

The viscosity correction term is omitted in the above equation as well as in all equations that
follow since the temperature difference is not much. In this equation the physical properties
of the fluid, are evaluated at the bulk temperature. The coefficient for the shell-side ho cannot
be so calculated because the direction of flow is partly parallel to the tubes and partly across
them and because the cross-sectional area of the stream and the mass velocity of the stream
vary as the fluid crosses the tube bundle back and forth across the shell. Also, leakage
between baffles and shell and between baffles andtubes short circuits some of the shell-side
liquid and reduces the effectiveness of the exchanger. Anapproximate but generally useful
equation for predicting shell side coefficients is the Donohue equation(5), which is based on a
weighted average mass velocity Ge of the fluid flowing parallel with the tubes and that
flowing across the tubes. The mass velocity Gb parallel with the tubes is the mass flow
ratedivided by the free area for flow in the baffle window Sb. (The baffle window is the
portion of the shellcross section not occupied by the baffle). This area is the total area of the
baffle window less the areaoccupied by the tubes, or

where :
fb = fraction of the cross-sectional area of shell occupied by baffle window
Ds = inside diameter of shell
Nb = number of tubes in baffle window
Do = outside diameter of tubes

In cross flow the mass velocity passes through a local maximum each time the fluid passes a
row of tubes. For correlating purposes the mass velocity Gc for cross-flow is based on the
area Sc for transverse flow between the tubes in the row at or closest to the center line of the
exchanger. In a largeexchanger Sc can be estimated from the equation :

where :
p = center-to-center distance between tubes (1.65 cm)
P = baffle spacing (15 cm)

LMTD
If a fluid flows perpendicularly to a heated or cooled tube bank, the LMTD, as given by the
equation :

Where

T1

T2

t1

t2

## = outlet hot fluid temperature

applies only if the temperature of one of the fluids is constant. If the temperatures of both
fluids change, the temperature conditions do not correspond to either counter current or
parallel flow but to atype of flow called cross flow. When flow types other than counter
current or parallel appear, it is customary to define a correction factor FG, which is so
determined that when it is multiplied by the LMTD for counter current flow, the product is
the true average temperature drop. Figure 2 shows a correlation for FG for cross flow derived
on the assumption that neither stream mixes with itself during flow through the exchanger.
FG = 1 for 1-1 heat exchanger.

## Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient, U

The general equation for overall heat transfer coefficient across a surface is:

(
Where

## Theoretically, Q above is equals to QC or QH. Otherwise, there is an error in QC or QH,

most probably due to errors in the temperatures and flow rates. Calculated U is based on the
average of the selected set of QC and QH for each run which represented by equation:
Q = 0.5(QC + QH)

Reynolds Number, Re
At shell side for CW, Re can be calculated using equation:
( )

Where

De

= equivalent diameter =

do

## = tube outside diameter

Pt

= Pitch

Gs

= Mass velocity =

Ws

= Flowrate

As

= Area

= viscosity

( )

Where

## = tube inner diameter

Gt

= mass velocity =

## Heat Transfer Coefficient, hi and ho

In this part, hi and ho is calculated in order to evaluate the clean overall heat transfer
coefficient, Uc and thus determined the dirt factor, Rd. The heat transfer factor, jh is
introduced which its value is obtained from Kern figure (Appendices) at various Re number.
The heat transfer coefficient is calculated by equation of:

Where

hi

ho

Cp

## = specific heat of fluid

= thermal conductivity

## Clean Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient, Uc

Where

ID

= inner diameter

OD

= outer diameter

Dirt Factor, Rd
Dirt factor is also known as fouling factor which determines how well the exchanger is
performing in reference to its design. Small value of dirt factor gives small fouling in the
exchanger.

Where

Ud

## = experimental value of overall heat transfer coefficient

Pressure Drop
For shell-side pressure drop
There are several ways to estimate the pressure drop for the flow of the shell side fluid in a
shell and tube heat exchanger. A reasonable estimate can be obtained by the relatively simple
approach as below:

Where

Ps

## = shell-side pressure drop

= friction factor

Ds

## = inside diameter of shell

= number of baffles

= acceleration gravity

= density
s

= ( )

## For tube-side pressure drop

There are two major sources of pressure loss on the tube-side of a shell and tube heat
exchanger: the friction loss in the tubes and the losses due to the sudden contraction and
expansion and flow reversals that the fluid experiences in flow through the tube arrangement.
Calculation of the tube side pressure drop is made by first estimating the friction factor for
flow through the tubes from the value of Reynolds number.

Where

Pt

= ( )

## for Re above 2100

To get the actual tube side pressure drop, the return pressure loss must be added. This
accounts for the pressure drop associated with the fluid entry into the tube bundle, fluid
leaving the bundle and fluid flowing around bends.
(

Where

)(

Pr

## = total return pressure drop

SG

= specific gravity

= velocity

)(

## Shell and Tubes Heat Exchanger

10

6.0) PROCEDURES
Plant Start-Up Procedures
1. The main power supply to the plant at the front of the panel is switched on.
2. The DP Selector Switch is switched to the equalizing (vertical or 0) position.
3. The manual valve at the external water supply inlet to T1 is allowed to open.
4. Tank T1 and T2 were filled with water to their maximum level.
5. The discharge valve (HV) at tank T1 was shut fully but its by-pass valve was
opened. The HW pump PH was started for the water to recirculate around its
tank T1, via only BVH. The suction pump PH must remain open at all times.
6. The heaters from the front of the panel were switched on and the water in tank
T1 is allowed to be heated to its maximum temperature ( 0 ).
7. All the CW pumps (PC1 and PC2), by-pass valves (BVC1 and BVC2) and
discharged valves (CV1 and CV2) were checked to be opened. Pumps PC1,
PC2 and PH must remain open at all times.
8. CW pumps, PC1 and PC2 were ensured to be off. The HW pump PH is still
recirculating HW around its tank T1 via its by-pass valve (BVH), but its
discharged valve (HV) is still fully shut.
9. Various manual valves were checked as follows:

The manual by-pass valves around the control valves TSV3A and
TSV3B should be always shut but their adjacent manual valves should
be always opened.

The bottom manual drain valves of tank T1 and T2 are always shut.

10. Plant Experiment Manual of Model HE12 is referred for details of the
experiment conducted.

11

Experimental Procedures
Part 1
1. All the pump suction valves (PH, PC1 and PC2) were checked to be fully
opened at all time.
2. BVC2 is fully opened but CV2 is fully shut so that PC2 shall operate as a
back-mixing pump for tank T2 in the next experiment.
3. CV1 and BVC1 were fully opened. Only PC1 was used to pump CW into the
heat exchanger in the next experiment.
4. CW pumps (PC1 and PC2) were not switched on yet.
5. HV was fully shut but BVH was fully opened.
6. Pump PH was started for HW to circulate around tank T1 via BVH only.
7. The heaters were started and TIC5 was noted.
8. HV was fully opened when HW in tank T1 is almost 70C. The HW flowrate
was quickly adjusted to about 25 USGPM by regulating its by-pass valve
BVH.
9. Both PC1 and PC2 pumps were switched on. CW flow rate was quickly
10. The DP Selector Switch was switched to the DP (Shell) position.
Part 2
1. The first set of temperature and flowrate readings were taken:
CW

## Temperature inlet/outlet,TI3* (T1), TI4* (T2):

Flowrate FC at FI(C*)

HW

## Temperature inlet/outlet, TI1* (t1), TI1* (t2):

Flowrate FH at FI(H*)

Note that the CW inlet temperature (T1) is increasing gradually. The CW outlet
temperature (T2) varies together with the HW inlet/outlet temperatures t1/t2. It is
important that all the temperature and flowrate readings are taken almost
simultaneously.

## These readings were recorded appropriately in TABLE 6.1.

12

2. The respective inlet pressure and pressure drop of the CW and HW flow
streams were also recorded.
CW

: PG-C;

## DPI* for DP (Shell) with the DP Selector Switch at the

DP (Shell) position.

HW

: PG-H;

## DPI* for DP (Tube) with the DP Selector Switch at the

DP (Tube) position.

For the pressure drop readings, DP (Shell), DP (Tube) at the panel-mount DPI*,
the DP signal Selector Switch was used appropriately. The DP readings at DPI*
were taken at its highest reading after they are fairly steady just when it
started to decrease.

3. The second and third sets of the above readings for RUN I were taken
consecutively. The last set of temperature readings were taken when all the

Part 3
1. RUN I is completed, with 3 sets of the above readings.
2. All the CW pumps were stopped.
3. The heaters were kept on for the next RUN.
4. The discharge valve HV was fully shut while the by-pass valve BVH was fully
opened with the HW pump PH still running.
5. The DP selector switch was switched to the equalizing (vertical or o)
position.

13

Part 4
The data were analyzed by computing the QC and QH values for each of the 3
sets of reading for RUN I as follows:

1. The heat load QC and QH for the CW and HW were calculated as per given
formula.
2. The 3 values of QC and QH were compared. The set of readings where QC is
closest to QH was selected and noted down in Table 6.1, as the selected QC
and QH for RUN I. At the same time, their corresponding temperatures,
flowrates and pressure drops were noted as the selected data for RUN I. The
other two sets of data can be rejected as they are of no further use.
3. The above selected set of data for RUN I were used to compute the LMTD,
overall heat transfer coefficient, Re number, individual heat transfer
coefficients and the pressure drop for RUN I.
4. The procedures were repeated for RUN II at different recommended nominal
flowrates of CW and HW, using the following Procedures Check-List:

## To continue with the next RUN

The HW pump PH was checked to be running with BVH was fully
opened but HV was fully shut
With the heaters ON, HW in tank T1 was heated until almost 70C.
HV was opened fully. The HW flowrate was adjusted until FH at FI (H*)
is almost at the recommended nominal flowrate for the RUN.
The CW pumps PC1 and PC2 were started with CV1/BVC1/BVC2 are
fully opened but CV2 is fully shut. FC was adjusted to the recommended
nominal flowrates for the RUN by regulating the by-pass valve BVC1
with CV1 is fully opened.
The DP Selector Switch was switched to the DP (Shell) position.
The various reading for the RUN were taken.

14

## To end a RUN after getting 3 sets of readings

All CW pumps PC1 and PC2 were stopped.
The DP Selector Switch was switched to the equalizing (vertical or 0)
position.
With the HW pump P and the heaters still ON, HV was fully shut but
BVH was kept fully opened.

## Plant Shut-down Procedures

1. The heaters were switched off.
2. All pumps were checked to be switched off.
3. The DP Selector Switch was switched to the equalizing (vertical or 0)
position.
4. The main power supply to the plant at the front of the panel/cubical was
switched off.
5. All pumps suction valves, discharge valves and by-pass valves were
opened.

15

7.0) RESULTS
Table : experimental data for RUN III
SET 1

RUN III

CW

SET 2
HW

CW

SET 3
HW

CW

HW

FC: 10

FH: 15

10

FC: 9.8

FH: 15.3

9.9

15.3

9.9

15.2

Temp, C, Inlet

28.7

58.6

28.7

54.0

Temp, C, Outlet

46.9

48.1

46.9

44.8

PG-C: 2.5

PG-H: 4.7

2.5

4.5

2.5

4.5

621

1477

632

1487

## Pressure, psig, Inlet

Pressure drop, mm H2O

## DP: 597 (SHELL) DP:1454(TUBE)

15

10

15

* Temp change, C

23.7

13.2

18.8

11.8

16.1

9.9

* Average Temp, C

40.45

59.6

37.7

54.1

36.35

50.55

QC:209472.97

QC/QH

1.168

1.122

## Select QC/QH nearest to

1.0

SELECTED

NOT SELECTED

Selected set,
0.5(QC+QH), BTU/HR

194429.45

16

1.288
NOT SELECTED

## Table : experimental data for RUN IV

SET 1

RUN III

SET 2

CW

HW

Nominal Flow,USGPM

FC: 10

FH: 10

FC: 9.8

FH: 10.5

SET 3

CW

HW
10

CW
10

HW
10

10

9.8

10.4

9.8

10.4

Temp, C, Inlet

29.4

61.2

29.4

58.8

Temp, C, Outlet

46.0

47.1

44.6

45.8

2.5

2.0

2.5

2.0

620

673

627

578

## Pressure, psig, Inlet

Pressure drop, mm H2O

PG-C: 2.5

PG-H: 2.0

## DP: 605 (SHELL) DP: 564(TUBE)

* Temp change, C

21.1

16.1

16.6

14.1

15.2

13.0

* Average Temp, C

39.85

58.75

37.7

54.15

37.00

52.3

QC:186492.81

QC/QH

1.22

1.109

## Select QC/QH nearest to

1.0

NOT SELECTED

NOT SELECTED

1.101
SELECTED

Selected set,
128140.53

0.5(QC+QH), BTU/HR

RUN

QC (BTU/hr)

QH (BTU/hr)

0.5(QC+QH)
(BTU/hr)

LMTD*FT (F)

U(

III

209472.97

179385.92

194429.45

20.14

504.81

IV

134345.53

121935.53

128140.53

25.50

332.70

17

RUN

Re (s)

Re (t)

389.31

12833.12

364.46

7753.94

FC: 9.8
III
FH: 15.3
IV

FC: 9.8
FH: 10.4

ho
RUN

hi
) (

hio

Uc

) (

) (

Ud
) (

Rd
) (x10-3)

III

1598.82

721.68

571.57

421.05

504.81

3.94

IV

1620.18

604.95

479.12

263.63

332.70

0.664

## Table : Calculated Pressure Drop

Pressure Drop
RUN

Shell-side (mmH2O)

Tube-side (mmH2O)

Calculated

Measured

Corrected

Calculated

Measured

Corrected

III

4937.73

560

65.05

89.891

1093

353.72

IV

4484.88

564

69.05

18.79

563.32

191.88

18

8.0) CALCULATION
RUN III, Set 1
FC= 9.8 USPGM
m3/Hr

m3

4.4 USGPM

kg

## FC= 4910.29 Ibm/hr

CP= 1 Btu/Ibm oF
QC= FC CP (T2-T1)
Convertion unit of temp.
T2 = 44.6 oC = 44.6(1.8) + 32 = 112.28 oF
T1 = 29.4 oC = 29.4(1.8) + 32 = 84.92 oF

## = 4910.29 Ibm/hr x 1 Btu/Ibm oF x (112.28 84.92 oF

= 209472.97Btu/hr

FH = 15.3 USPGM
m3/Hr

FH = 15.3 USGPM

## 1000 Kg 2.20462 Ibm

4.4 USGPM

m3

FH = 7666.065Ibm/hr
CP= 1 Btu/Ibm oF
QH= FH X CP X (t1 - t2)

## Conversion unit of temp.

t2 = 45.8 oC = 45.8(1.8) + 32 = 114.44 oF
t1 = 58.8oC = 58.8(1.8) + 32 = 137.84 oF
19

kg

## =7666.065 Ibm/hr x 1 Btu/Ibm oF x (137.84 114.44) oF

= 179385.92Btu/hr
Ratio QC/QH =

= 1.168

Calculations above were repeated for each set in RUN IV. The set which gives the ratio of
QC/QH nearest to 1 is then used for the next part of the calculation for each respective
RUN.
LMTD (RUN III, Set 1)

LMTD =

) (

(
(

)
)

= 25.33

Correction factor, FT is obtained from figure 18 (appendices) based on the value of R and S,
where FT = 0.795

LMTD (true)

= 0.795 x 25.33
= 20.14

## Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient, U (RUN III, Set 1)

The total heat transfer area of the Heat Exchanger, A = 31.5 ft 2
Q = 0.5(QC+QH)
Q = 0.5 (209472.97 + 179385.92)
Q = 194429.45(BTU/hr)
(

All calculations involving LMTD and U were repeated again for the selected set on RUN IV.
The results of calculation are tabulated in table .

20

## 8.2 Reynolds Number

Shell side Re(s) for CW (RUN III, Set 1)
( )
(

Given,

do

= 0.625 ins

Pt

= 0.8125 ins

Ws

= 4910.29 lbm/hr

As

= 0.029 ft2

= 1.584 lbm/ft.hr

Gs

de

## = 0.537838 ins x 0.08333 = 0.0443 ft

De

= 0.0443/12 = 0.003642ft

## Tube side Re (t) for HW (RUN III, Set 1)

( )
Given,

Re(t)

= 0.04125 ft

Wt

= 7666.065 lbm/hr

At

= 0.02139

= 1.152 lbm/ft.hr

Gt

21

## 8.3 Heat Transfer Coefficient, hi and ho, Uc, Ud and Rd

Calculation of ho for shell-side (CW) (RUN III, Set 1)
Given, De

= 0.003733 ft

Cp

= 1.001 btu/lbm.F

## = 0.36462 btu/hr.ft2. F/ft (at Tavg = 40.45C)

= 1.584 lbm/ft.hr

Twall

=( 40.45+59.6)OC/2=50.030C

wall

(

9.85

)(

ho = 1598.82 (

## Calculation of hi for tube-side (HW) (RUN III, Set 1)

Given, D

= 0.04125 ft

Cp

= 1.001 btu/lbm.F

## = 0.37871 btu/hr.ft2. F/ft (at Tavg = 59.6 C)

= 1.152 lbm/ft.hr

61 =
hi = 721.68(

22

= 571.57
= 421.05

Ud

= 504.81

Uc

= 421.05

Rd

=
= 3.94x 10-4

Conversion:

## Shell side pressure drop (RUN III, Set 1)

(

Ps =
Given, Ds

= ID = 6.065ins = 0.50541 ft

= 23

## = 62.0348 lbm/ft3 (at Tavg = 40.45C)

De

= 0.003733 ft

Gs

= 169320.34 lbm/ft2.hr

SG

= 1.01167

23

Ps =

## = 0.0052 (at Re(s) = 389.31)

(
(

= 9.2550 psi

Since SG = 0.9931,
1psi = 703.72 x 0.9931 = 698.86 mmH2O
Ps = 9.2550 psi x 698.86 mmH2O / 1 psi = 4937.73 mmH2O

Correction to the measured pressure drop for Shell side, CW (RUN III, Set 1)
Pressure drop read at 560 mmH2O and flow rate CW of 9.8 USGPM,
Calculated piping pressure drop DP(s) = 494.95 mmH2O

Pt =
Given, D

= 0.04125 ft
Lxn

= 12

## = 61.392 lbm/ft3 (at Tavg = 59.6C)

Gt

= 358394.81 lbm/hr.ft2

SG

= 0.9893

## = 0.00012 (at Re(t) = 12833.12)

24

Pt =

= 0.1295 psi

Since SG = 0.98671,
1psi = 703.72 x 0.9871 = 694.14 mmH2O

## Pt = 0.1295 psi x 694.14 mmH2O / 1 psi = 89.891 mmH2O

Pr =( ) (
Where (
Pr = (

)(
)(

( )

),
)= 0.02 (at Gt = 358394.81 from figure 27 in appendices)

## = 89.891+ 112.56= 202.45mmH2O

Correction to the measured pressure drop for Tube side, HW (RUN III, Set 1)
Pressure drop read at 1093 mmH2O and flow rate CW of 15.3USGPM,
Calculated piping pressure drop, DP (t) = 739.28 mmH2O

## P (corrected) = 1093-739.28 = 353.72 mmH2O

25

9.0) DISCUSSIONS
Heat exchanger are commonly used in practice, and an engineer often finds himself or
herself in a position to select a heat exchanger that will achieve a specified temperature
change in a fluid stream of known flow rate, or to predict the outlet temperatures of the hot
and cold fluids stream in a specified heat exchanger.
So in this experiment, we have done evaluate and study the performance of the Shell
and Tube Heat Exchanger at various operations conditions. This heat exchanger is operated
with heated water (HW) as the heating medium at the tube side and ambient or warm water at
CW at the Shell side. The parameter of flow, temperature and pressure are recorded during
the experiment for both runs. All experimental result are tabulated in the table in the result
section. The data is taken to study the performance of heat exchanger. The study of
performance shell and tube heat exchanger consists of part I, II, III and IV.
As we can see, for all RUN, the temperature inlet for CW are lower than temperature
outlet and temperature inlet for HW are much higher than temperature outlet. This proven
that there are heat exchanger process happened during the experiment.
In the calculation, we chose RUN III set 1. This is because the value of QC/QH is
close to 1.00 compare to the other set. The QC is 209472.97 btu/hr and QH is 179385.92
btu/hr. That makes the 0.5 (QC+QH) is 194429.45 btu/hr. The Reynolds number at the shell
side is 12833.12 while at the tube side is 389.31. For RUN IV we chose set 3. The QC is
134345.53 btu/hr and QH is 121935.53 btu/hr. The 0.5 (QC+QH) is 128140.53 btu/hr. The
Reynolds number at the shell side is 7753.94 while at the tube side is 364.46.
From above, we could conclude that the number of QC is decreasing from RUN III to
RUN IV and same pattern goes to QH and 0.5(QC+QH). For RUN III, U is 504.81 btu/hr.
For RUN IV, U is 332.70 btu/hr. U is decreasing from RUN III to RUN IV.The overall heat
transfer coefficient, U, Reynolds number and flow rates of hot water are keep decreasing
together while the LMTD values are contrarily.
Based on the objectives, In part I, the calculations of determining heat loas and heat
balance was performed on RUN III. The ratio of QC/QH is calculated for all sets in RUN III.
Based on the calculations, set 1 shows the best convergence of QC and QH which gives the
value of 1.168. Thus, the data in set 3 is selected for next calculation for the RUN III.
Meanwhile, a similar method is applied to RUN IV to find the best convergence of QC/QH.
26

Set 3 is selected for RUN II with the value of convergence of 1.101. Next step of calculation
in the Part I is to find the overall heat capacity, U of the heat exchanger by utilizing the
LMTD method. All data of the overall heat capacity is listed in the Table where the value of
overall heat transfer for RUN III and RUN IV are 504.81 and 332.70 (Btu/hr.ft2.F)
respectively.
In part II, the Reynolds number, Re(s) for both shell side and tube side is calculated
for both run in order to study the flow in the heat exchanger. There are two types of flow that
possible occurred in heat exchanger which are laminar flow and turbulent flow. Based on the
Re(s) calculated on RUN III, the flow of cold water in the shell side can be said as laminar
flow. This is due to the value of Re(s) that is 389.31 where lower than 2100 which indicate
that the flow is laminar. Meanwhile, the Re(t) for tube side is calculated to be 12833.12
which are more than 2100 that indicates the hot fluid flows in turbulent flow. As calculation
proceeds for RUN IV, the data shows same pattern as shown in RUN III. Both runs indicates
that the cold water flows in laminar flow in the shell tube while the hot water flow in
turbulent flow in the tube side.
In Part III, the heat transfer coefficient is determine in order to calculate the dirt factor
or fouling factor. This part is important in the study of heat exchanger performances since dirt
factor strongly affects the performances of heat exchanger. Fouling or dirt factor occurs when
there is solid deposited on the wall of the tube in the heat exchanger causing interference in
the heat transfer process by insulating the tube. For a period of time, the deposited particles
tend to decrease the effectiveness of the heat transfer process. Based on the calculations, the
value of dirt factor for RUN III and RUN IV are 3.94 x10-3 and 0.664 x10-3 respectively.
This indicates that fouling occurs in the heat exchanger. The greater the dirt factor, the
greater the fouling in exchanger will become.
Lastly in Part IV, the pressure drop has been studied throughout the heat exchanger
equipment. The pressure drop for shell side and tube side is calculated for both run. The
corrected pressure drop for shell side for RUN III and RUN IV are 560 and 564 mmH2O
respectively. While for tube side are 1093 and 563.32 mmH2O. From the calculation, it can
indicate that at tube side, the pressure drop is much larger compare to the shell side. This is
because if the friction loss in the tubes and the losses due to the sudden contraction,
expansion and flow reversals that the fluid experiences in flow through the tube arrangement.

27

10.0) CONCLUSIONS
In conclusion, every objectives of this experiment had been achieved. The effect of these parameters on
the shell outlet temperature, tube outlet temperature and overall heat transfer coefficients were studied. The
power emitted and power absorbed are increased when we compared the effect of changing the volumetric flow
rate of the hot fluid. Besides, the power lost that we get shows decreasing value unless the last reading give some
increased value. This is maybe because of the error while doing the experiment that may cause by conduction
and convection between hot and cold fluid while doing counter flow operation. The overall efficiency are
reasonable and doesnt exceed the 100%. From our experiment, the overall heat transfer coefficient will increase
when the volumetric flow rate of the hot fluid are increase. So that, the conclusion that can be done is the overall
heat transfer coefficient, the power emitted and power absorbed are influenced by the changing of volumetric
flow rate of thehot fluid. All the calculated data for this experiment can be referred to the table in calculation
section.

11.0) RECOMENDATION
After we have finished this experiment, we find that are several factors in this experiment that
can be fixed to make sure that the experiment runs better. This is some of my
recommendation for this experiment:

Ensure that the parameters such as temperature, pressure or flow rates is constant
before collect the data for experiment.

Ensure that the initial temperature for every run is between the ideal temperatures
between 50 to 70

Avoid human error, record all the data carefully to avoid error in calculations.

Ensure the pressure and flow rates is constant in set 1, set 2 and set 3 for each run.

Follow the safety regulation like wearing lab coat, goggle and glove.

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12.0) REFERENCES

## 1) Cengel, Y. A. & Cimbala, J. M. (2006). Fluid Mechanics Fundamental and Applications.

(2nd ed.). New York: MC Graw-Hill Education
2)Green, W. D. and Perry, H. D. (200 ). Perrys hemical Engineers Handbook,8th edition.
U.K: Amazon

## 3) Fogler, H. (2010). Continuous-Flow Reactors. In Essentials of Chemical Reaction

Engineering: Mole Balances (p. 4). Prentice Hall.

4) Brogan, R., (2011). Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger. Retrieved 29 MAY 2014
from http://www.thermopedia.com/content/1211
5) Binay K., Dutta, (200 ). Principles of Mass Transfer and Separation Processes.
Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi.

29

13.0) APPENDIX

Exchanger