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# Year 9

Research Science
Investigations and
CREST planner

Name:
Form:

Glossary Words
Word
Fair Test
Independent Variable
Dependent Variable
Controlled Variable
Hypothesis
Qualitative data
Quantitative data

Meaning

## What affects the swing

of the pendulum?
Things that could affect my investigation:
There are many things that could affect my investigation. Some of them are the length of
the string, the weight of the slotted masses and the force that the slotted masses are
pushed at.

## Things to measure or observe:

The things to measure are the distance that the slotted masses travel when pushed, the
manner in which the slotted masses spin eg. In straight line, in a circle and how long the
slotted masses spin for.

Choosing variables:
I will change:

I will measure:

## The mass of the slotted masses

The length of th string

## How many swings the pendulum swings for

in a 30 second time period

## I will not change (so that it is fair):

During the mass experiment the length of the string will not be changed for any of the tests
or trials. The length that the pendulum is lifted up to will also not be changed during any of
the tests and trials.
During the length of string experiment the mass of the slotted masses will not be changed
for any of the tests or trials. The angle that the pendulum is lifted up to will also not be
changed during any of the tests and trials.

## I will not measure:

The height at which the pendulum swings at after it is released; the distance that each swing travels

## Asking a testable question, making a hypothesis

My testable question is:

## The mass of the slotted masses

The length of string.
The number of times that the pendulum
swings for.

Change this testable question into a statement. This statement is now your hypothesis.
My hypothesis is
If the mass of the slotted masses is decreased the pendulum will swing further. The shorter
the length of string is the more times the pendulum will swing for.
NOTE: An hypothesis is a testable statement. It includes the variable you are
changing (independent variable) and the one you are measuring (dependent
variable). It is brief and clear.
For example, if your question was:
When I change the brand of paper towel what will happen to the amount of
water absorbed?
Possible hypotheses could include:
If we change the brand of paper towel the amount of water absorbed differs.
Different brands of paper towel will absorb different amounts of water.
The brand of paper towel affects how much water is absorbed.

My procedure:
Exactly what will you do? Write down the steps (use dot points or numbers) that you will
follow in order, like a step-by-step recipe.
Include detailed and labelled drawings if you wish.
A good procedure is one that someone can understand and use to repeat your
investigation easily without asking you any questions.
Mass experiment:
1. Gather all necessary epuipment
2. Set up equipment as seen on the right
3. Place the retort stand at the centre of the table
4. Secure the bosshead at the highest possible point of the
retort stand
5. Attatch the rod of the clamp to the bosshead at the
halfway point of the rod
6. Place nine slotted masses on the slotted mass holder
7. Balance the string on the clamp so that it is leveled.
8. Secure the string to the clamp
9. Attatch the ends of the string to the slotted masses
holder. The slotted masses should not touch the table.
10. Measure 30 cm from the base of the table

## 11. Lift the slotted masses to the measured length

12. Release slotted masses with no additional force
13. Let the slotted masses swing for 45 seconds
14. Observe and record your observations
15. Take off a 50g slotted mass from the slotted mass holder
16. Repeat steps 10-13 until there are no slotted masses left on the holder
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

## Length of string experiment:

Gather all necessary epuipment
Place the retort stand at the centre of the table
Secure the bosshead at the highest possible point of the retort stand
Attatch the rod of the clamp to the bosshead at the halfway point of the rod
Place nine slotted masses on the slotted mass holder
Balance the string on the clamp so that it is leveled.
Secure the string to the clamp
Attatch the ends of the string to the slotted masses holder. The slotted masses
should not touch the table.

## 9. Measure 45 from the vertical of the retort stand

10. Lift the slotted masses to the measured angle
11. Release slotted masses with no force
12. Let the slotted masses swing for 45 seconds
13. Observe and record your observations
14. Decrease the string length 10 cm
15. Repeat steps 10-13 until the string is 10 cm in length

## Materials needed for the investigation:

String
Slotted Masses
Retort Stand
Clamp
Ruler
Protractor
List the safety precautions that you should take in your investigation:

Data collection
What I will change (independent variable):

## The length of the string

The weight of the massess

## The number of swings the pendulum swings

for in 45 seconds

## How I will collect and record the data:

I will record data in a table that has been pre-prepared.

## Number of times I will carry out the investigation:

A sample table for recording my data:

## I will do 13 tests each with 3 trials.

Graphing results
Title of graph:

What I measured
(dependent
variable):

(specify units)

What I changed
(independent variable):

(specify units)
Note: both axes need to be labelled and appropriate units of measurement marked.

## Finding patterns in the results:

When I changed

what happened to
?
Data discussion
Describe what happened in your investigation by explaining the relationship(s) between the
variables shown on the graph.
What does the data indicate?

## ConclusionDoes the data support your original testable question/hypothesis?

(The conclusion is a brief summary of the investigation. Your conclusion should be a restatement of your
hypothesis indicating if the hypothesis was supported. Do not introduce anything new in this section.
Remember: you have already discussed the data so you do not need to repeat it here. State and evaluate the
significant and general outcomes of your investigation.)

I will measure:

## Keeping Hot Drinks

Warm
Things that could affect my investigation:
Some things that could affect this investigation is the size of the coffee cup, the amount of
coffee, room temperature, initial temperature of the coffee, the shape of the cup, material
of the cup, the insulator that is insulating the cup, and length of time that the coffee is left
for.

## Things to measure or observe:

Some things that could be measured are the amount of coffee, temperature change, time
left unattended, capacity of the cup, material of the cup, the insulator that is insulating the
cup and the size of the cup.

Choosing variables:
I will change:

I will measure:

## The material of the cup

The insulator that is insulating the cup

The temperature
The time that

## I will not change (so that it is fair):

The time that the cup is left for, amount of coffee and the shape of the cup wont be
changed for any of the experiments so that it is fair.

## I will not measure:

The colour of the cup, the smell, type, taste and colour of coffee.

## Asking a testable question, making a hypothesis

My testable question is:

## The material of the cup

The insulator that is insulating the cup

## what will happen to (dependent variable)

Temperature of the coffee

Change this testable question into a statement. This statement is now your hypothesis.
My hypothesis is
When the cup is thinner i.e. plastic or paper cup the temperature of the coffee will drop
quicker than the coffee in a thicker cup ie ceramic or glass cup. This will be true for all the
insulators.
The coffee in the cup that is insulated by the cotton wool will cool faster than the coffee in the
cup that is insulated by the foil. This will be true for all the different types of cups.
NOTE: An hypothesis is a testable statement. It includes the variable you are
changing (independent variable) and the one you are measuring (dependent
variable). It is brief and clear.
For example, if your question was:
When I change the brand of paper towel what will happen to the amount of
water absorbed?
Possible hypotheses could include:
If we change the brand of paper towel the amount of water absorbed differs.
Different brands of paper towel will absorb different amounts of water.
The brand of paper towel affects how much water is absorbed.

My procedure:
Exactly what will you do? Write down the steps (use dot points or numbers) that you will
follow in order, like a step-by-step recipe.
Include detailed and labelled drawings if you wish.
A good procedure is one that someone can understand and use to repeat your
investigation easily without asking you any questions.
1. Gather all listed materials
2. Set up the cups in a row
3. Wrap the length of cotton wool around the outside of each cup and secure using
sticky tape to join the two ends.
4. Set up the data logger and attach probes
5. Set the data logger to measure the temperature of the coffee in each cup every
minute.
6. Pour required amount of coffee or substitute into each cup
7. Put one probe into each cup
8. Start data logger
9. Record all observations
10. Take out probes after 10 minutes of observations
11. Repeat steps 1-8 with the foil insulator wrapped around the cups instead of the
cotton wool.
Paper-1
Plastic-2
Glass-3
Ceramic-4
Materials needed for the investigation:
Data logger set
Temperature probes x4
Paper cup x1
Ceramic cup x1
Plastic cup x1
Glass cup x1
Aluminium foil insulator 25x10cm per cup
Cotton wool insulator 25x10cm per cup
Coffee- substitute (boiling water) 150 ml per cup
Measuring cup x1
Sticky tape

List the safety precautions that you should take in your investigation:

Data collection
What I will change (independent variable):

## Number of times I will carry out the investigation:

A sample table for recording my data:
What I changed (independent
variable):

## What I measured (dependent variable):

Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Graphing results
Title of graph:

What I measured
(dependent
variable):

(specify units)

What I changed
(independent variable):

(specify units)
Note: both axes need to be labelled and appropriate units of measurement marked.

## Finding patterns in the results:

When I changed

what happened to
?
Data discussion
Describe what happened in your investigation by explaining the relationship(s) between the
variables shown on the graph.
What does the data indicate?

## ConclusionDo the data support your original testable question/hypothesis?

(The conclusion is a brief summary of the investigation. Your conclusion should be a restatement of your
hypothesis indicating if the hypothesis was supported. Do not introduce anything new in this section.
Remember: you have already discussed the data so you do not need to repeat it here. State and evaluate the
significant and general outcomes of your investigation.)

## To investigate this I will change:

I will measure:

Spaghetti Bridge
Things that could affect my investigation:
Mass of object
Brittleness of spaghetti
Wind conditions
Surface that the bridge is resting on
Moisture in spaghetti

## Things to measure or observe:

Length of bridge
Mass of object pressing on the bridge
Flexibility of bridge

Choosing variables:
I will change:

I will measure:

## I will not change (so that it is fair):

The design and materials used will not be changed.

## I will not measure:

The amount of spaghetti used, the amount of rubber bands used and the mass of the bridge will not
be measured.

## Asking a testable question, making a hypothesis

My testable question is:

bridge

## what will happen to (dependent variable)

Structure of the bridge

Change this testable question into a statement. This statement is now your hypothesis.
My hypothesis is
When the mass of the object pressing on the bridge is increased the structure of the bridge
will become distorted and will break.

## NOTE: An hypothesis is a testable statement. It includes the variable you are

changing (independent variable) and the one you are measuring (dependent
variable). It is brief and clear.
For example, if your question was:
When I change the brand of paper towel what will happen to the amount of
water absorbed?
Possible hypotheses could include:
If we change the brand of paper towel the amount of water absorbed differs.
Different brands of paper towel will absorb different amounts of water.
The brand of paper towel affects how much water is absorbed.

My procedure:
Exactly what will you do? Write down the steps (use dot points or numbers) that you will
follow in order, like a step-by-step recipe.
Include detailed and labelled drawings if you wish.
A good procedure is one that someone can understand and use to repeat your
investigation easily without asking you any questions.
1. Gather one packet of spaghetti and a packet of rubber bands
2. Construct the bridge as shown in the diagrams below using the rubber bands to
tie the spaghetti at each vertex
3. Use 15 spaghetti strands for each edge
4. Tie the rubber band around the vertices by gathering the spaghetti together,
holdind it in place, looping it around the vertex as many times as possible and
making sure that the spaghetti is secured. Repeat this for all the other vertices.

Top view

Bottom

Rubber band
5. Start by putting the lightest mass on the bridge
6. Continue to add masses until the bridge breaks
7. Observe and record your observations
Materials needed for the investigation:
Spaghetti (one pack)
Rubber bands
Masses

Side

Spaghetti

List the safety precautions that you should take in your investigation:

Data collection
What I will change (independent variable):

## Number of times I will carry out the investigation:

A sample table for recording my data:
What I changed (independent
variable):

## What I measured (dependent variable):

Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Graphing results
Title of graph:

What I measured
(dependent
variable):

(specify units)

What I changed
(independent variable):

(specify units)
Note: both axes need to be labelled and appropriate units of measurement marked.

## Finding patterns in the results:

When I changed

what happened to
?
Data discussion
Describe what happened in your investigation by explaining the relationship(s) between the
variables shown on the graph.
What does the data indicate?

## ConclusionDo the data support your original testable question/hypothesis?

(The conclusion is a brief summary of the investigation. Your conclusion should be a restatement of your
hypothesis indicating if the hypothesis was supported. Do not introduce anything new in this section.
Remember: you have already discussed the data so you do not need to repeat it here. State and evaluate the
significant and general outcomes of your investigation.)

I will measure:

## A fruit powered clock?

A design experiment
We are going to design an alternative power source for a digital clock; however, there is only
one problem. The only objects that we have access to power our clock are fruit! Which of
these fruits would be the best to power our clock?
In your practical groups, you are to design and carry out an experiment to solve the problem.
There are several stages that you will have to complete.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

## State the hypothesis that you intend to investigate.

Name the independent and dependent variables.
Make a list of the other variables that need to be controlled.
Decide on a method for the investigation.
Decide on the most appropriate way of recording the results.
Carry out the investigation recording the results.
Discuss the limitations of the experiment and make suggestions for improvements
Write up your report and hand in your report to the teacher.

You will be given the equipment you will need for the experiment and will be responsible for
making sure that it is kept safe and secure.
Equipment: (per group)
Wires x 4
Galvanometer X1
Strips of copper and zinc metals at 0.5, 1 and 2 cm thickness (two strips of each)
Fruits: apple, orange, lemon, tomato
Each group will be responsible for designing a suitable method that will need to be typed up.
We will be swapping methods between groups, so you will not be conpleting your own
method.
Use the investigation planner from the first two practicals as a templeat to design this
practical.
The practical will be written up as a formal practical report and assessed. It will be one of the
tasks that make up you Knowledge and Understanding grade for the end of semester report.

Fruit

Metal
Combination apart
1
2
3
Lemon 2cm Zn,
1cm
1cm
2cm Cu
2cm Zn,
1.5cm
1cm
2cm Cu
2cm Zn,
2cm
1cm
2cm Cu
2cm Zn,
2.5cm
1cm
2cm Cu
2cm Zn,
3cm
1cm
2cm Cu
2cm Zn,
3.5 cm
1cm
2cm Cu
2cm Zn,
4cm
1cm
2cm Cu
2cm Zn,
1cm
1.5cm
2cm Cu
2cm Zn,
1.5cm
1.5cm
2cm Cu
2cm Zn,
2cm
1.5cm
2cm Cu
2cm Zn,
2.5cm
1.5cm
2cm Cu
2cm Zn,
3cm
1.5cm
2cm Cu
2cm Zn,
3.5cm
1.5cm
2cm Cu
2cm Zn,
4cm
1.5cm
2cm Cu
2cm Zn,
1cm
2cm
2cm Cu
This table is repeated for different depths, distances between metals, metal
combinations and fruits. Remember, the larger the data set, the more informed

YES

NO

## Can you follow their procedure easily?

Are all terms clearly defined?
(Eg, if they mention the best brand, have they
defined what best means?)
Does their investigation involve a fair test?

## Is only one variable changed at a time?

Are they measuring only one variable and
controlling all other identified variables?
Have they considered how they will record their
observations?
Have they included quantitative (numerical) data
rather than just qualitative (descriptive)?
Are they repeating their investigation to ensure
consistent results?
Is their investigation safe to do?
Have they identified safety issues and explained
how they will minimise risks?