Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 4

Innovative Safety Products

UNDERSTANDING THE STOLL CURVE


Introduction
Alice Stoll and Maria Chianta conducted burn injury research on sailors, pigs and rats in the
late 1950s and early 1960s at the Aerospace Medical Research Department, Naval Air
Development Center. It is reported that Sailors of the U.S. Navy volunteered to be burned
on their forearms for a weekend pass. Stoll and Chianta used heat exposures on human and
animal skin to determine the level of heat energy that would create a second-degree burn.
For their work, they defined a second-degree burn as the point at which a blister forms which
is the point at which the outer layer of human skin, the epidermis, is destroyed. The blister is
formed when the epidermis separates and lifts off the remaining skin structure (the dermis).
The Stoll and Chianta data was presented in a landmark paper in 1969 and was later used to
create the Stoll curve which quantifies the level of heat and the duration of time required for
a second-degree burn for a wide range of exposure conditions. The range covers a high
level of heat for a short time period to a low level of heat for a much longer time period.
Table 1 provides the heat exposure level (heat flux) and the exposure times that make up the
Stoll curve in the context of a particular type of sensor, a copper calorimeter using an iron
constantan thermocouple. Figure 1 shows the same information plotted graphically.

Table 1 Human Tissue Tolerance to Heat, Second Degree Burn A


Exposure
Time
s
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
25
30

Heat Flux
kW/m2 cal/cm2s
50
1.2
31
0.73
23
0.55
19
0.45
16
0.38
14
0.34
13
0.30
11.5
0.274
10.6
0.252
9.8
0.233
9.2
0.219
8.6
0.205
8.1
0.194
7.7
0.184
7.4
0.177
7.0
0.168
6.7
0.160
6.4
0.154
6.2
0.148
6.0
0.143
5.1
0.122
4.5
0.107

Calorimeter B Equivalent
Total Heat
mV
kWs/m2 cal/cm2 T C T F
50
1.20
8.9
16.0
0.46
61
1.46
10.8
19.5
0.57
69
1.65
12.2
22.0
0.63
75
1.80
13.3
24.0
0.69
80
1.90
14.1
25.3
0.72
85
2.04
15.1
27.2
0.78
88
2.10
15.5
28.0
0.80
92
2.19
16.2
29.2
0.83
95
2.27
16.8
30.2
0.86
98
2.33
17.3
31.1
0.89
101
2.41
17.8
32.1
0.92
103
2.46
18.2
32.8
0.94
106
2.52
18.7
33.6
0.97
108
2.58
19.1
34.3
0.99
111
2.66
19.7
35.4
1.02
113
2.69
19.8
35.8
1.03
114
2.72
20.2
36.3
1.04
116
2.77
20.6
37.0
1.06
118
2.81
20.8
37.5
1.08
120
2.86
21.2
38.1
1.10
128
3.05
22.6
40.7
1.17
134
3.21
23.8
42.8
1.23

Stoll, A. M. And Chianta, M. A., Method and Rating System for Evaluation of Thermal Protection, Aerospace
Medicine, Vol 40, 1969, pp.12321238.
B
Iron/constantan thermocouple.

CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION 2005 Oberon Company. All rights reserved.


StollCurveUnderstanding -MMV

Innovative Safety Products

Figure 1 Stoll Curve for a copper calorimeter sensor as used in arc testing

Stoll Curve versus Skin Temperature


If the same heat exposures and times shown in Table 1 and Figure 1 were applied to
human skin, the skin temperatures would be very different since human tissue is a poor
conductor and copper is of course an excellent conductor. The genius of Stoll was to
translate skin properties into the context of a simple and robust sensor that could be
used to predict burn injury for a wide range of exposure conditions. The copper
calorimeter is not intended to simulate human skin, but since its thermal properties are
well known, and the thermal properties of skin are well known thanks to the work of Stoll
and Chianta among others, a burn prediction can be made for human skin using date
from the copper sensor.
It is also important to note that the temperatures in Table 1 and Figure 1 are delta T
values or the change in temperature during the exposure time period and not the actual
temperatures. For instance, if a heat flux of 1.2 cal/cm 2s were applied for one second
we would predict a 50% probability that a burn injury would occur and we would
measure a rise in temperature of 8.9OC (16OF) in the copper calorimeter. Since the
copper would normally start at the human skin temperature or approximately
32OC(89.6OF), the final temperature of the copper calorimeter would be 40.9OC
(105.6OF). Of course, we all know that if human skin were raised to a temperature of
105.6OF in one second, no second-degree burn injury would occur.

Where is the Stoll Curve Used?


Many ASTM and NFPA standards utilize the Stoll curve to define a test method end
point. These standards include the ones we are familiar with like ASTM F1959-99 Arc
Test Method and F2178-02 as well as ASTM F1060 (Conductive Heat Test) and F1939
(Radiant Heat Test) and NFPA 1971 (Structural Firefighter Clothing and Equipment
Standard), NFPA 1977 (Wildland Firefighter Clothing Standard) and NFPA 2112
(Industrial Flash Fire Protective Clothing Standard).

CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION 2005 Oberon Company. All rights reserved.


StollCurveUnderstanding -MMV

Innovative Safety Products

How is the Stoll Curve Used in Arc Testing?


As noted above, both ASTM F1959 (fabrics and systems) and ASTM F2178 Arc Test
Methods (face protective products). Figure 2 shows an F2178 arc test using an
instrumented head.
The top graph provides the electrical parameters of the test, the arc current,
voltage and duration in milliseconds and cycles. The horizontal axis is in
milliseconds, i.e. 1000 milliseconds is equal to 1.0 second. This arc exposure is
indicated to be 130.4 cycles which equates for our 60 cycle per second AC
electrical system to approximately 2.2 seconds or 2200 milliseconds.
The bottom graph shows no sensor responses (these were turned off or shielded
for this test) but the graph does show the Stoll curve for Mannequin B
The middle graph shows four sensor responses in addition to the Stoll curve for
Mannequin A. The four sensor data plots are the two eye sensors, the mouth
sensor and the chin sensor.
The exposure on Mannequin Head A is determined by monitor sensors and is
noted at the bottom of the chart at 95.6 cal/cm 2. This high level exposure is
being used because we are testing an experimental 100 cal hood.
For Mannequin A, we see only the chin sensor exceeds the Stoll curve. The eye
and mouth sensors remain well below the Stoll curve. In this case, we would
predict that the chin of Mannequin A would have likely received a second-degree
burn, but the face in the areas of the eyes and mouth would not have received a
second-degree burn injury.
In this test, we are using an R&D 100 cal hood and adding prolonged afterflame due to
contamination of the sample with mineral oil. The intent is not what occurred in this
particular test, but rather to understand how the Stoll curve is used in the F2178 Arc Test
Method.

CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION 2005 Oberon Company. All rights reserved.


StollCurveUnderstanding -MMV

Innovative Safety Products

Figure 2 Applying the Stoll Curve to an ASTM F2178 Arc Test

CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION 2005 Oberon Company. All rights reserved.


StollCurveUnderstanding -MMV