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Every building needs services to provide comfort, ventilation, lightning, acoustic, and safety to the
people. Therefore, building services can be defined as what makes the building comes to life. The
nature of building services are being considered in early stage during planning, designing and
construction. Moreover, there are three categories of building services which are mechanical,
electrical and building operation system (231beg6.blogspot, 2012).

IOI Mall is built by the IOI developer in the year 1996. At that time the mall was approximately
650,000 square feet. However, IOI Mall underwent extension to expand the area till 1,000,000
square feet by the year 2009. Since then, there was IOI new wing and IOI old wing. The new wing.
The new wing has an extra level of shopping lots which is level 3 whereby the old wing uses that
level as a rooftop car park. Hence, to provide replace the rooftop car park, the new wing has 2 levels
of underground car park.

In IOI Mall, we analyzed the HVAC system, electrical system, fire protection system and vertical
transportation system.

Observations and presentations of the report are mostly on the type of

system, design item, mechanical application and etc. Most of these systems are governed by the
international standard.

Mass of international standards such as BS, OSHA, NEC, NFPA and etc are being applied in our
assignment. Building service requirements are being verified by referring these standards. For

example, standards like NEC had introduced the reasons, strategic location, installation requirement,
maintenances and services provided in constructing TNB substation.

2. Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning (HVAC)

2.1 Introduction
HVAC is the acronym of Heating, Ventilation and air-conditioning. Warmed, cooled or dehumidified
air flows through a series of ducts or pipes before being distributed to individual zone. Other than
that, HVAC system provides clean fresh air to dilute indoor airborne contaminants such as odors
from occupants, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from interior furnishings and to also
provide a comfortable indoor environment for occupants in the building where the air temperature,
humidity and air movement are within certain comfort condition.
Unlike other countries that experience different climate throughout the year, Malaysia possesses a
tropical weather condition throughout the year where people can save energy and bills on heating
and cooling. In the last decade, HVAC systems have improved in energy efficiency (University of
Central Florida, 2014).
2.1.1 HVAC in large building
In US, large buildings (more than 100,000 square feet) use an average of 20 kilowatt-hours (kWh) of
electricity and 24 cubic feet of natural gas per square foot every year. Hence, a typical commercial
building will consume a big portion of energy in lighting, heating, and cooling which represent
almost 70 percent out of total energy use.

Diagram 2.1: Electricity and natural gas usage in large office buildings.
Source: (US Energy Information Administration, 2014)

Mechanical ventilation is used in a building when natural ventilation is not appropriate to circulate
fresh air in a building by using fans or ducts. Mechanical ventilation include, exhaust, supply and
balanced system equipment that is integrated into the services of an enclosed building. Properly
designed mechanical ventilation provides good control of ventilation rates compared to natural
ventilation. However, electrical energy is needed to run the system.
Large commercial buildings are more complex as they consist of multi-zone and usually required
large capacities to service a great area of floors. At the same time, it is important to provide
flexibility to treat each floor and zone independently for maximum and personalized comfort control
(Mitsubishi Electric US, 2012)
IOI Mall mainly uses mechanical ventilation for the whole building except for escape route that have
openings for natural ventilation.
2.1.2 Type of refrigerant used
In Malaysia, the commonly used refrigerant in air conditioning and refrigeration is
Chlorodifluoromethane (R22). R22, is also known as Freon, a Hydrochloroflourocarbon (HCFC) gas. It
has a low boiling point of -40.8 degree Celsius (-41.4 degree F) and it was initially developed for the
low temperature applications like domestic and farm freezers as well as in industrial refrigeration
uses. Now, R22 is widely being used in the industries for liquefaction of the gases and for supplying
chilled water to various processes, machines, chillers of central air conditioning systems.
R22 as well possesses properties of non-toxic and non-flammable making it to be safe for the
domestic and industrial purposes such as domestic air conditioners that we used in commercial
building (Bright Hub Inc, 2012). However, from the year 2010, R22 is no longer used in the new airconditioning system and replaced R-410A which is more environmentally friendly (Thien, 2012).
2.1.3 Material for piping that carries the refrigerant
All refrigerant requires piping to connect the evaporator (Inside unit) and the condenser (outside
unit). This is only applicable for unitary and package air-conditioning unit. Case study IOI Mall
During our site visit to IOI mall, we found that the refrigerant pipe
used is in silver grey colour. Thus, they are using aluminium pipe in

HVAC applications in the building. However, most piping is covered by rubber sheet or PVC coating.

Photograph 2.1: PVC coated Galvanized Aluminium Flexible pipe.

Photograph 2.2: PVC coated refrigerant piping.

Photograph 2.3: Rubber sheet covering of aluminium refrigerant pipes

Aluminium piping is an ideal piping material for compressed air system and considered as the best
alternative metal to copper in air-conditioning system. Aluminium is resistant to corrosion. When
exposed to most environmental conditions, aluminium has a very slow corrosion rate as it is
protected by a stable oxide layer. It can definitely last longer when use in appropriate way.
Stable and low prices of aluminium compared to copper yet providing outstanding properties with
technological improvement has made it the economic choice of piping used in the HVAC&R industry
Furthermore, aluminium has excellent formability and characteristics which suit the requirement of
HVAC system. Pure aluminum heat exchanges provide better thermal performance compared to
traditional copper-based heat exchanges. Lastly, aluminum use in HVAC & R applications improves
system weight significantly. Thus it can save weight and space. (Armour Group Holdings, 2014).
2.2 Unitary Split Air Conditioner System
2.2.1 Introduction
A split air conditioning unit can also be known as ductless split system. It usually consists of
compressor, condenser coil, expansion coil or capillary tubing. This system comprised of two main
parts: the outdoor unit and indoor unit. The outdoor unit is called a condenser which cools the air
and handles condensation. It is usually place on top with brackets attached to the wall to support it.
The indoor unit is called evaporator which is responsible to provide cool air. It contains cooling coil,
a fan blower and an air filter. The indoor and outdoor units are connected together with an
aluminum connection pipe and electrical wiring (Rubinoff, n.d.). Refrigerant is pumped from the
outdoor condenser coil and the connection pipe to the indoor unit. Then, a fan distributes cool air
drawn across the indoor units evaporator coil. A unitary split unit has a cooling load of 6000-24000
Split air conditioning systems are the ideal solution for spot cooling which means that the certain
area are required to be cooled only at certain period (Ecoair, 2014). By using a split air conditioning,
one can control the amount of cold air entering the room by a thermostat or a remote control.
2.2.2 Case Study IOI Mall
In Photograph 2.4 and Photograph 2.5, we found the condenser of the split air conditioning system
situated at the rooftop. This system is usually used in small office rooms. This is because the area is
small and the capacity of air supply by this unit is sufficient to provide cool air in the area. In this

shopping mall, split air conditioning system is used in the customer relation office. It may also use in
CCTV office, maintenance office, or management office.

Photograph 2.4: The Unitary Split Condenser unit (left) and the refrigerant bottle (right)

Photograph 2.5: The evaporator unit in the office (Left) Unitary split condenser unit found outside a
machine room (Right)
Since the area is small, ductwork is not required. This made the installation work easier. The only
thing need to install split unit is a small hole in a wall for the tubing and control wiring. This system is
easy to maintain as well. One can take out the filters from the indoor unit and wash it periodically.
Whereas for the outdoor unit, it is hang by a bracket on the wall to allow easy access for
maintenance and repair. Furthermore, since people working in the room may adjust the
temperature at all times and if they get off work early, they may turn off the AC.
2.3 Packaged Air Conditioners
2.3.1 Introduction
Package air conditioning is a bigger and improved version of split air conditioning which has a bigger
capacity to cool a larger space. Self-contained package unit is a bigger version of window unit.
Whereas for split packaged unit, the condenser can be either water cooled or air cooled.

2.3.2 Case Study IOI Mall Self-Contained Air Cooled Package Unit
A self-contained air cooled package unit is similar to the window unit whereby it only has one unit.
The unit is normally placed outside of the building either on a concrete slab in the ground level or on
the roof. In the unit, there will be the condenser, fan with the motor, cooling coil, compressor,
evaporator and the supply and return of the duct.
In IOI Mall, we found self contained units being supported above the floor mounted to the walls.
Behind the self-contained units is a machine room that comes out loud noises and felt cool. Thus we
can assumed that the self-contained units provides cool air to the room. There were a total of 3 selfcontained units available.

Photograph 2.6: The electric cables of the self contained unit

There was a pipe coming from the
bottom of the unit and thus we
assumed that the water comes from
the condensing process as it leads to
the water pipe.

Photograph 2.7: The connection of

the piping for the unit

The cross section of a typical selfcontained unit will be as diagram___.

There is a pipe at the bottom for water
to flow out to their designated places.
Diagram 2.2: The cross section of a
typical self -contained unit (Ocean Air
Conditioning, 2007)

Photograph 2.8: The direction of airflow

air flow

Diagram 2.3 : The overview of the direction of

(Lintern 2014)

The cold air is supplied from the self-contained unit on the upper side to the room behind and air is
returned to the unit from the bottom side into the self-contained unit. Ceiling Cassette Package Unit

Ceiling cassette is a packaged AC system which is usually concealed to the suspended ceiling with
only a decorative slim panel being visible. It is duct free and the cooled air comes into the building
through refrigerant pipe. It simplifies the connection method of air conditioner yet provides comfort
in large spaces. The ceiling cassette unit is considered as a package unit instead of a unitary split unit
because it has a higher cooling load. Most models have the capacity range starts at 9,000 BTU/Hr
(2.5 KW) and go up to 60,000 BTU/Hr (17.5 KW) (Parker Davis HVAC Systems, 2010). All indoor units
have four-way discharged panels allow for even air distribution for the indoor environment. It also
permits easy control of the temperature through the wireless remote controller (LG Electronics,
In IOI mall, cassette type ductless split systems is being utilized in most of the places to supply
sufficient cool air to the interior. This unit is available at the basement parking of the new wing. It
uses this unit instead of a unitary unit as the humidity and heat level is high for underground parking
area, thus a higher cooling load is needed to cool down the area where occupants enter to go to the
upper levels by vertical transportation. The condenser units are located in the basement itself and
refrigerant pipes travels to the evaporator through raceways.
Photograph 2.9: Ceiling cassette concealed to the ceiling at
the basement carpark walk in area (Left)

Photograph 2.10: The condenser units in the basement




Refrigerant bottle

Photograph 2.11: The refrigerant and race way that carries and supports the piping to the
evaporater (left) and the refrigerant piping that is going in the building (right)

Photograph 2.12 Ceiling

cassette and diffuser of
centralised air conditioner
is being use together in
KFC restaurant.

KFC is a place that has a kitchen and thus a huge amount of heat is produced. Although extraction
ducts are available to extract out hot air from the kitchen however heat may still travel out to the
dining area. Thus to prevent customers from feeling hot, KFC uses both a duct and ductless AC
system. The reason KFC added the ceiling cassette and not addition ducts from the centralized unit is
because it is less tediuos to install piping that are smaller in diameter. The whole design is simplified.
Furthermore, there is not enough space to accommodate centralized air conditioning due to the
existing ducting that took away large ceiling space.

11 Air Cooled Package Unit

The other type of air cooled package
unit is the unit that is used to supply
additional cool air to the Ampang
Superbowl located below the outdoor
unit of the package system. The Ampang
Superbowl Puchong is a place where
people gather to play bowling. During
weekends or special event, the place will
be crowded with people. The area of the
Ampang Superbowl is approximately a
total of 3 shop lots and hence is big and may need a lot of cool air to provide comfort for the players.
In addition, the ceiling of the place is higher compared to normal and thus additional airconditioning is required to cool down the space.
The outdoor unit is











together can place

in trunk that travels
to one level below.

Photograph 2.13: The Outdoor unit of the air cooled unit


Photograph 2.14: The trunking for the refrigerant

pipes to the below floor

Photograph 2.15: The bundle of refrigerant pipes

passing through the walls


2.4 Centralized Air Conditioning System

2.4.1 Introduction
Centralized air-conditioning system is normally used in large buildings where the big space is needed
to be cooled down such as shopping malls, hospital and many more. It also uses a series of ducts to
give out cool are in the building. This system employs water to cool down the refrigerant before
going back to the chillers and hence is also called chilled-water centralized system. While in the
direct expansion type of central air conditioning plants, refrigerant is directly used to cool the room
air; in the chilled water plants the refrigerant first chills the water, which in turn chills the room air
(Haresh Khemani, 2009). This system needs a few different components in order to function
2.4.2 Operation of a Centralized Air-Conditioning System Chiller Plant
Chiller plants are normally located at the basement level of the lowest floor level of all buildings. This
is because chiller plants consists of many noisy machineries and thus must be located in a place far
from the occupants of the building. In the chillers, normal water or brine solution is chilled to
temperatures of approximately six to 8 degrees Celsius (Haresh Khemani, 2009).




Photograph 2.16: A chiller unit (York Thai, 2014) Evaporator
In an evaporator, water and refrigerant meets and heat is transferred. Water from the process does

not have physical contact with the refrigerant. In order for heat to be transferred from the water to
the refrigerant, the refrigerant must be colder than the water. The chilled water then circulates to
the AHU. During the process of cooling down the water, the refrigerant changes from liquid state to
gas state. Compressor
The compressor will draw in the low pressure liquid from the evaporator and compress it into a high
pressure and temperature gas. Condenser
The condenser acts as a heat exchanger for the refrigerant. The hot water that has been cooled
down in the cooling tower circulates back into the condenser to absorb the heat from the high
pressure gas refrigerant and hence condensing it to a high pressure liquid refrigerant. When this
process takes place, the water that was cooled down by the cooling tower becomes hot again and
goes back into the cooling tower for cooling purposes. Valves will lower down the pressure of the
liquid refrigerant and it goes back into the evaporator. This process continues.

Diagram 2.4: The cross section of a Chiller Unit in the control screen (Johnston Services, 2014)

In diagram 2.3, it shows the cross section of a typical chiller unit where in the small tubes are the
refrigerant being surrounded by the water. From above we also can see that the temperature of the
condenser unit when leaving the chiller to the cooling tower is 80.2F and returns with a lower
temperature of 74.2F. The chilled liquid on the other hand leaves the chiller with a lower
temperature and returns with a higher temperature after absorbing all the hot air from the
atmosphere. Other than that, the valve lowers down the pressure of the liquid refrigerant in the
condenser from 88.2 PSIG to 39.3 PSIG.
2.4.3 Case Study IOI Mall

Diagram 2.5 The location of the chiller room in the new wing
The chiller plant room was located at the ground floor of the mall near to the control room at the
new wing.

Photograph 2.17: The chiller plant room at the New Wing of IOI Mall
16 Cooling Tower

A cooling tower is used to cool down the water from the condenser by using water as the cooling
medium. Hot water enters the towers from above. A fan which is normally situated in the top middle
of the tower will draw in air from the sides of the tower. As air is being drawn in, it passes the hot
water and thus cooling it down. The cooled water is then circulated back into the condenser pumps
and into the chillers.

Diagram 2.6 The cross section of a typical cooling tower (Controls Freak, 2012).


From our site visit, we were able to see the exterior of the cooling towers in the old wing of the mall.
There were located at the rooftop because of the loud noises coming from the fan.
There were a total of 5 cooling towers in the old wing of
the building.
Photograph 2.18: A closer view of the cooling towers
Photograph 2.19: Green pipes indicated the hot water
from above entering the tower (below) Chilled Water and Condenser Pump

Condenser pumps are used to pump the hot water coming from the condenser to the cooling tower
and vice versa. On the other than, the chilled water pump is used to pump chilled water from the
evaporator to the AHU and vice versa.

Photograph 2.20: The AC make-up pump room at the basement B2 level

18 Air Handling Unit

AHU room is a big air cooling machine which supplies cooled air to the room via air ducts and supply
air grilles and air diffusers. They can be located on the top of the roof or in large compartments
located on each floor of the building. A typical air handling units consists of the cooling coil, the
blower, air filter, the supply and return air ducts and dampers. The chilled water from the
evaporator of the chiller flows through the cooling coil. The blower draws in the return air from the
air conditioned space and blows it over the cooling coil thus cooling the air. This cooled air passes
over the air filter and is let out through the supply air ducts connected to diffusers into the space
which is to be air conditioned. The air handling unit and the ducts passing through it are insulated to
reduce the loss of the cooling effect
(Haresh Khemani, 2009).

Chilled Water Return

Chilled Water Supply

Diagram 2.7: An air handling unit with the inlet and outlet of the cooling coil (Archi Expo, 2014). Case Study IOI Mall
In IOI Mall, there are AHU on each floor. Based on our observation there were 5 AHU rooms in the
3rd Floor of the new wing whereby 2 of the AHU rooms are located in the cinema itself.


Diagram 2.8: The location of AHU in 3rd floor of the new wing

Diagram 2.9: The overall process for a centralized air-conditioning system

(Comfort Management, 2010)

2.5 Ducting system

2.5.1 Introduction
Ducting system is sturdy in construction and is made up of high- grade material by the reliable
vendors of the market. Ducting systems are used with air conditioners in various commercial areas
for cooling purpose. Galvanized steel is the material that was commonly used in the earliest air
conditioning systems. Galvanized steel is a very strong, conductive material that does not insulate
well, but is excellent for cooling air. On the other hand, aluminum is another common material used
in air conditioning ducts, usually in the tape and connecting parts of the duct (Cato, 2014).
2.5.2 Case Study IOI Mall
The material used in IOI Mall is the galvanized steel metal type and the flexible ducts that branch
from the galvanized steel duct. The sizes of the ducts are different branching out from the main duct
are different to maintain the air velocity rate. This type of ducting is normally used in an area that
required an equal amount of cooled air coming out from the duct.

Main Duct from


Smaller Duct
branching out

Flexible ducts
with diffusers

Photograph 2.21: The overall ducting at the old wing of the mall


Photograph 2.22: The same size ducting in old wing of the mall
Although the ducting used the same size throughout the length of the place, however, some of the
outlets are sealed with a material that resembles aluminium foil. This method is used because
maybe there is already sufficient cooled air being supplied to the place and thus the outlets are
sealed to conserve the velocity of the air in the duct so that the duct is able to supply air to the
shops as well without increasing the velocity of the air.
MS 1525 code 8.6 and 8.5 states that air handling duct system should have proper insulation to
prevent loss of energy.

Photograph 2.23: The insulation of a typical duct work (Penguin

Air Cooling & Heating, 2014)

2.6 VAV box

VAV box is an air conditioning component which can hold a variable amount of air. It helps to make
air conditioning systems more efficient by regulating the amount of cooling targeted toward any
specific room or area (York Choi Industrial, 2010).


Photograph 2.24: A typical VAV box (York Choi Industrial, 2010)

2.7 Duct VS Ductless air conditioning system

Ducted air conditioning system

Ductless air conditioning system

Ideal if you already have ductwork in your A fine choice if you are adding on a room to
home. A new system will easily hook up the your current house, or building a new house
ventilation system with minimal installation entirely. You wont have worry about duct

placement or planning construction around


Cooling and heating for your whole

Zoned Comfort; Setting the temperature on

home: Every room has all year round

the thermostat adjusts the temperature for

heating and cooling.

the entire home. By opting for a multi-split

ductless system, you can set different
temperatures in different rooms. If you don't
plan to use a room on a given day, you can
stop having heated or cooled air directed
there. This results in significant energy

Cost more to install than ductless systems Simple Installation; As long as it's performed
and take significantly more time.

by an experienced contractor, installation of

ductless air conditioning is easy. Most of the


legwork has to be done prior to installation.

Style; A ducted air conditioning system

Design; High-quality ductless systems have

requires a suspended ceiling to cover

compact, low-profile indoor units that do

the duct work

little to affect from interior decor.

(Carney Plumbing, 2014)

2.8 Thermal Distribution
2.8.1 Introduction
The components and layout of mechanical air distribution are important because they can improve
both the comfort of occupied spaces and reduce energy use. Although the equipment that
distributes the air does not consume nearly as much energy as the equipment that generates the
heating and cooling, the design of the diffusers is still vital to provide air at the correct direction as
well as to maintain the aesthetical beauty of the building.
2.8.2 Case Study IOI Mall Types of Diffusers
There are few different types of diffuser found in IOI Mall which are cone, multi directional, linear
and ventilation diffuser.


Photograph 2.25: Cone diffuser which can found inside of McDonald.

Photograph 2.26: Multi directional diffuser which

can be found in the most places in old wing (Left).

Photograph 2.27: Linear type of diffuser is found in new

wing to avoid interference with ceiling pattern (right)


Ventilation diffusers can be either the inlet or outlet for air in the building. Most diffusers are
located on the rooftop or on the exterior walls for the building.

Photograph 2.28: The exterior view of the ventilation

diffuser (Above)

Fan with Motor

Photograph 2.29: The interior view of the ventilation diffuser with the motor fan (Left)
An AC motor is used to turn the fan so that more air can be extracted out from the building to
provide cleaner air.
This ventilation diffuser comes from the KFC
kitchen as we could smell KFC when we stood
close to the diffuser. It uses a motor on the side
to aid in a faster extract of the air in the kitchen
to maintain a healthy air environment.
Photograph 2.30: The ventilation diffuser used
for KFC


3. Fire Protection System

3.1 Introduction
According to the analysis conducted by U.S. Fire Administration (2011), in non-residential buildings,
there was a total of 85,400 fire incidents that happened and has caused a proximately a
$2,435,700,000 U.S dollar losses. Most of the fire cases were caused by cooking which carried a total
of 24,100 fires. A ignition of a fire only requires three of the most simple elements, oxygen, fuel and
heat. All of these elements can be commonly found in our everyday life. Thus, a fire protection
system consists of specially designed features by engineers and building designers, it can be a
system or an equipment or both (Amanco, 2011). The four main objectives of having a fire
protection system are to protect life, building, property and to maintain the continuity of operation
of the building (Grondzik, Kwok, Stein, Reynolds, 2010). There are two main types of fire protection
systems, which are active and passive fire protection system
3.2 Stages of a fire
3.2.1 Ignition
First is ignition where with the presence of fuel, heat and oxygen, a fire is started. At this early stage,
the fire can be control with a fire extinguisher (National Fire Protection Association, 2014).
3.2.2 Growth
Secondly, with the ignition of a fire, the fire further grows to produce plume rising up to the ceiling.
The hot gases at the ceiling transfer it heat to the above floors and thus drawing all fuels to ignition
(National Fire Protection Association, 2014).
3.2.3 Fully Developed
A fully developed fire where the flames have expanded to the maximum where temperature is at
the peak (National Fire Protection Association, 2014).
3.2.4 Burnout
This stage is where the temperature decrease and the flames gets smaller and less intense (National
Fire Protection Association, 2014).


3.3 Passive Fire Protection

There are a few different types of passive fire protection systems in IOI Shopping Mall, such as
escape route, fire resistant materials, and compartmentation.
3.3.1 Escape route Introduction
September 11, 2002, one of the world's most tragic event happened in U.S which left many to lose
their lives or badly injured. One of the main issue that lead to more deaths in the event was a poor
design of evacuation plan for a high-rise building. For a high-rise building such as the World Trade
Center, means of evacuation in an event of an emergency is important. On September 11, after two
airplane crashed into the building, part of the building was damaged which left only a few escape
routes. It takes some time for the occupants to rush to the end of the exit and thus leaving some still
in the building (Federation of American Scientist, 2014).
According to Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) (2003), escape route or exit
oute is a "continuous and unobstructed path of exit travel from any point within a workplace to a
place of safety". There are three parts of an escape route which are the access to the escape route,
the escape route itself and the access of the exit end of the route. An escape route is always located
at the corners of the buildings which the exit end will eventually lead the occupants to the outdoor
immediately. It is important to have a reasonable good design of escape route in a high rise building
as the moment the fire alarm sounds occupants. Case Study IOI Mall

Diagram 3.1 The location for the escape routes in IOI Mall from the ground floor
28 Design Requirement

Although the design of escape route in different buildings may differ, there is still a standard
requirement that the building designer must obey when designing the escape route. According to
the Uniform Buildings By-Laws 1984 (UBBL 84') clause 106(1), in any staircase, the rise of any
staircase shall be not more than 180mm and the tread shall be not less than 255mm and the
dimensions of the rise and the tread of the staircase so chosen shall be uniform and consistent
In IOI Mall, after using the measuring tape to measure the riser and tread of one of the escape route,
the measurement for the riser was 170mm and the measurement for the tread was 275mm which
fulfills the UBBL 84' clause 106(1) mentioned above.



Photograph 3.1 shows the height of the riser 170mm (a) and the measurement of the tread


UBBL 84' clause 107 (1), Except for staircase of less than 4 risers, all staircase shall be provided
with at least one handrail

Photograph 3.2 shows the handrail used at the escape routes in IOI Mall. It is placed at the middle of
the staircase.
UBBL 84' clause 168 (4), The required width of a staircase shall be maintained throughout its
length including at landings

Photograph 3.3 shows that the width of the staircase is the same throughout the length


Photograph 3.4 shows the lighting system used at the escape route

Photograph 3.5 shows louvered windows at the rooftop escape route in IOI Mall
UBBL 84' clause 111, All staircase shall be properly lighted and ventilated according to the
requirements of the local authority.
Based on photograph 3.4 all the escape routes that we entered were all lighted with suitable lighting
system. For ventilation, the escape routes at IOI mall were not pressurize as there were only 4 levels
and thus do not require pressurization escape routes. However, each level of the escape route
staircase, there is a louvered window so ventilation. See photograph 3.5


UBBL 84' clause 164(1), All fire doors shall be fitted with automatic door closers of the
hydraulically spring operated type in the case of swing doors and of wire rope and weight type in
the case of sliding doors.
All fire escape doors in IOI mall is well equipped with automatic door closers of the hydraulically
spring operated type.

Photograph 3.6 shows an automatic door closers used in IOI mall escape routes.
UBBL 84' clause 172(1), Storey exit and access to such exits shall be marked by readily visible signs
and shall not be obscured by any decorations, furnishings or other equipment.

Photograph 3.7 shows the exit routes in IOI Mall


From photograph 3.7 it is seen that the "KELUAR" sign is illuminated and can be easily seen. The
passage to the exit route is clear from any obstruction as all advertising banners are placed at the
sides and not at the center of the exit route.
UUBL 84' clause 172(2), A sign reading "KELUAR" with an arrow indicating the direction shall be
placed in every location where the direction of travel to reach the nearest exit is not immediately

Photograph 3.8 shows "KELUAR" sign and direction at the rooftop parking.
Since the rooftop parking is a large open space parking, it is difficult to find an exit in an event of
emergency. Thus around the area at the rooftop parking, there will be "KELUAR" signs painted on
the wall to direct people to safety. The colour used is also a contrast colour that is easy to read even
in the dark.

Photograph 3.9 shows that the "KELUAR" sign used in IOI Mall will still be illuminated in an
emergency for 3 hours.

UBBL 84' clause 173(1), All exit doors shall be openable from the inside without the use of a key or
any special knowledge or effort.

Photograph 3.10 shows that the exit doors in IOI Mall can be opened from inside
UBBL 84' clause 157, A protected staircase or a protected shaft containing a staircase shall not
contain any pipe conveying gas or oil or any ventilating duct other than a duct serving only that
staircase or shaft

Photograph 3.11 shows the ceiling of the escape routes in IOI Mall

The ceiling of the escape routes in IOI Mall is free from any piping or ducts and only has louvered
windows for ventilation purposes and two florescent lamps for the lighting system.
3.3.2 Compartmentation Introduction
Compartmentation is actually the process of dividing a building into smaller cells by using fire
protection material which will prevent the spreading of fire from one cell to another in a given time
(Lawrence Webster Forrest, 2014). One of the advantages of compartmentation is that it only
requires a minimum maintenance. Escape routes that is separated by a fire rating door is also
considered as compartmentation. Case Study IOI Mall
In IOI mall, it uses compartmentation to divide the old wing into two cells.

Diagram 3.2 The Compartmentation Section in IOI Mall


Photograph 3.12 shows the compartmentation area in IOI mall old wing.
One of the possible reason as why IOI Mall only used compartmentation in the old wing and not the
new wing because the old wing is longer in length. Based on the floor plan shown in figure___, it can
be observed that the old wing is much longer in length and thus if there is a fire at Jusco, pulling
down the compartmentation doors will prevent the fire from further spreading into the rest of the
UBBL 84' clause 148 (1), No opening shall be made in any compartment wall or compartment floor
with the exception of any one or more of the following:
Clause 148(1) sub (a), an opening fitted with a door which complies with the requirements of bylaw 162 and has FRP which is not less than:
Clause 148 (1) sub (a) sub (ii), in any other case, the FRP required by the provisions of these Bylaws in respect of the wall or floor.


Photograph 3.13 shows an opening consist of two fire rated door leaves. Front part of the door on
the left and back part of the door on the right
From photograph 3.12, it can be seen that beside the compartment door that is pulled downwards
when needed, there is a opening closed by two door leaves. This opening is always closed when not
needed. This is because in an event of a fire, when the compartment door is closed, people may still
escape to the safe side of the mall. The doors used for the opening must have similar fire
requirement as the fire escape routes which are, illuminated "KELUAR" signs at all times, automatic
door closers and fire rating doors. The doors normally have design to conceal the original pattern for
aesthetical purposes. From photograph 3.13, we can notice that the back part of the door is
concealed with a brick-like wall sticker that is similar to the shop's exterior design while the front
part is concealed with a brown metallic colour. However the fire rating plate for the door is still
visible on the front part of the door.


Photograph 3.14 shows the compartmentation at the lift lobby

Photograph 3.15 shows the compartmentation of the new wing and the old wing without any


Another type of compartmentation in IOI Mall, can be found at the basement car park in the new

Photograph 3.16 shows the fire shutter door at the basement car park
Fire shutter doors are found in the basement. The whole car park is separated based on the zones
which is arranged with alphabets. In between two different zones, there will be a fire shutter door.
The fire shutter door operates with a motor.

Photograph 3.17 shows the motor that operates the fire shutter door.
In an event of a fire, the motor will send signals for the shutter door to close. All fire protection
related system are always coloured in red. As shown in photograph 3.17 the fire shutter door frame
is painted in red strips sp that people will instantly know that it is a fire protection system.


3.3.3 Fire Resistance Materials Introduction
Fire resistance is the ability of the building components or systems to function as a fire separating or
load bearing under the exposure of fire. These building components have specific fire resistance
rating based on the specific fire rating. The ratings which are normally expressed in hours or minutes
indicated that the material is able to withstand the exposure of fire in that given amount of time.
Beyond that given time, the component may collapse or burnt down (American Institute of Steel
Construction, 2003). Case Study IOI Mall
In IOI Mall, the building used concrete to construct the columns, beams, floor slabs, retaining walls
for the basement and many more. Brick was used for the all the wall, interior and exterior. Both of
these materials have excellent fire protection properties. Fire rating doors were used at the all
escape routes, horse reel compartments, and all electric rooms. The time taken for that the
particular door to withstand the exposure of fire varies as different compartments may require a
high quality of fire rating door. The quality of the fire rating door depends on the time taken for the
door to burn down. All fire doors should be tested according to the
BS 476: -22: 1987, Fire tests on building materials and structures. Methods for determination of the
fire resistance of non-load bearing elements of construction
At our visit to IOI Mall, we found out that there are three types of companies that provides the fire
rating doors to IOI Mall, Multec Enterprise Sdn. Bhd, Orientaldoor Industries Sdn. Bhd and Unitech
Industries Sdn. Bhd. respectively. The three types of fire rating door available in the mall are one
hour and two hours respectively. For the one hour fire rating, it is used for all escape routes doors,
compartmentation doors, and services compartment doors, whether two leaves or single leaf door.


Photograph 3.18 shows a Multec Enterprise Sdn. Bhd. one hour fire rating door.

Photograph 3.19 shows the Orientaldoor Industries Sdn. Bhd. one hour fire rating door

Photograph 3.20 shows a Unitech Industries Sdn.Bhd one hour fire rating door

For the two leaf door, it can be seen used at the main electrical rooms and SPR/DR/HR

Photograph 3.21 shows the 2 hours fire rating door used at the SPR/DR/HR rooms

Photograph 3.22 shows the 2 hours rating door used at the electrical room

It can be seen that Orientaldoor and Unitech Industries provides more information on the fire rating
plate. It shows the manufacturing date which is in the year 2009 and the Malaysian Standard code
for the requirements of a fire rating door, MS 1073: Part 3: 1996. Other than that, it also has the
SIRIM label which is certified by the Malaysian Standard and Bomba. On the other hand, Multec
Enterprise Sdn. Bhd. only provides information such as the fire rating time and the test number.
The fire rating door normally comes in a set which includes suitable ironmongeries and a frame. The
material used for the frame must also be certified by SIRIM complying with the Malaysian Standard.
All frame should comply to the recommendation stated in BS 8214: 2008.

Photograph 3.23 shows the fire rating plate on the frame of the fire rating door.
Besides that, we also measured the thickness of the fire rating doors for both the one hour and two
hour as shown in photograph 3.24 and 3.25 below.

Photograph 3.24 shows that the thickness of the one hour fire rating is 42mm


Photograph 3.25 shows that the thickness of a two hour fire rating door is 43mm
Both of the doors have similar thickness. The difference between these two type of doors is the
material used. For the one hour fire rating door, it uses one layer of high quality retarded gypsum
board and bonded with two 80mm plywood. On the other hand, the two hour fire rating door, it
uses an extra steel cladding with maybe a thinner layer of plywood. Thus it has extra protection from
the steel and hence is able to last longer in an event of a fire.


3.4 Active Fire Protection Method

3.4.1 Introduction
Active fire protection system is a part of any fire safety strategy. It can be sorted out into items or
systems that need a degree of motion and response to function (Fire Safe Europe, 2011). An active
fire protection system is usually designed by the engineer to fulfill the standard requirement based
on the Uniform Building By-Laws 1984, British Standard or the Malaysian Standard.
There are a few types of active fire protection method in IOI Mall, which covers from wet and dry
riser, hose reel, fire hydrants, fire extinguishers, sprinkler system, fire alarm system, fire detection
system, voice communication system and automatic Co2 system.

Diagram 3.3 The Location of Important Rooms for the Active system in IOI Mall
3.4.2 Types of Active Fire Protection Method Fire Detectors
Fire detectors are devices that detect the presence of heat, smoke or flame in a building and then
give alarms the occupants in the building to escape from a soon-to-be burnt down building or
inhaling life danger smoke (Made How, 2014). There are a few types of fire detectors that detects
different things such as smoke detector, heat detectors and flame detectors. However, in this
assignment, only smoke detector and heat detector will be discussed.
45 Smoke Detector

In the year 1992, readers of the R&D Magazine selects smoke detector one of the "30 Products that
Changed Our Lives". It was shown in a statistic that before smoke detectors was invented, fatalities
from fires in residential area was approximately 10,000 per year. However, the figure dropped to
6,000 with the usage of detectors (Made How, 2014). Types of Smoke Detectors Ionization Detectors
An ionization detector consists of a tiny radioactive source that is used to charge the air particles
inside a small chamber. The air that is now charged will then allow a small current to pass the
chamber and completing the electrical circuit. As smoke enters into the chamber, it blocks the
radiation which will stops the current and sounds the alarm. The detector is able to detect even in
the presence of the slightest smoke particles. However, it may also have a slow reaction towards
very dense smoke by low temperature fires (OSHA, n.d.).

Diagram 3.4 shows how a ionization smoke detector works

Source: (Giaimo, 2013) Photoelectric Smoke Detectors
A photoelectric smoke detector consists of a light source and light sensor that are arranged in such a
way that the ray from the light source does not hit the light sensor. In an event of a fire, smoke
particles enters the light path and some light is scattered and redirected onto the sensor which

causes the detector to activate the alarm. This type of smoke detector reacts quickly to smoke
particles from smoldering fires but not so sensitive to smaller smoke particles (OSHA, n.d.)

Diagram 3.5 shows a cross section of a photoelectric detector

Source: (OSHA, n.d.) Case Study IOI Mall
Since there was insufficient information on the type of smoke detector used in IOI Mall, we could
only assume that IOI Mall uses both photoelectric and ionization smoke detector. Our assumption
was based on the readings that we did and we came to a conclusion that since photoelectric smoke
detectors are able to detect smoke particles from smoldering fires or slow burning fires while
ionization smoke detector detects very small smoke particles it is more suitable for commercial
According to UBBL 84' clause 153(1), All lift lobbies shall be provided with smoke detectors
Based on our observation, all lift lobbies have smoke detectors with sprinklers on the ceiling.

Photograph 3.26 shows a smoke detector found at the lift lobby in IOI Mall.
47 Heat Detectors

Heat detectors similar to smoke detectors. However, instead of detecting smoke, it detects heat. Types of Heat Detector Fixed Heat Detectors
This type of heat detector monitors the rooms and will sound the alarm when temperature in the
room has reached the maximum level which is usually at approximately 115 degrees to 135 degrees
Fahrenheit. Fixed heat detectors commonly uses a metal alloy that bends downwards or upwards at
a certain temperature. When the metal is in contact with the electrical circuit it activates the alarm.
Its a wear and tear type of detector where it needs to be replaced after it is activated (Vogt, 2014). Pneumatic Heat Detectors

It uses a tube that detects unusual temperature that changes along its length. This type of detectors
is normally used in boiler rooms or in engine rooms (Vogt, 2014). Case Study IOI Mall
Other than the smoke detectors used at lift lobbies, IOI Mall also uses heat detectors throughout the
whole Mall. The heat detectors used in IOI is of the fixed temperature heat detector.

Photograph 3.27 shows a cone shape heat detector found in IOI Mall

48 Fire Hydrant Introduction
Fire hydrants are used by the Fire Brigades to supply water in vicinity. Fire hydrants can normally be
found at the perimeter of a building or area and needs to be maintained by the Fire Brigades of the
respective countries (London Fire Brigade, 2014). The water supply for the fire hydrant may be
pressurize if the hydrants are connected to the water mains beneath the ground or not pressurize if
the hydrants are connected to nearby ponds or cisterns (Made How, 2014). Types of Fire Hydrants
There are many methods of categorizing fire hydrants either by the colour of the hydrants and
underground hydrant and the normal hydrant pillar. Underground Hydrant
Underground hydrant is a type of hydrant that has the letter "H" on the hydrant and the outlet with
the valve is situated in a chamber pit that is one and a half feet deep. The chamber pit is t be around
the perimeter of the hydrant. Water is supplied by fixing the stand pipe to the outlet and turning the
valve open (Jabatan Bomba dan Penyelamat Malaysia, 2014).

Photograph 3.28 shows an underground hydrant with the letter "H"

Source: (Alan, 2010)



Photograph 3.29 shows the location of the chamber pit for the underground hydrant (a) and the
outlet with the valve in the chamber pit (b)
Source: (Alan, 2010) Commercial Fire Hydrant
The commercial fire hydrant's outlets can be seen on the hydrant itself. Water is supplied by opening
the valve in the chamber pit (Jabatan Bomba dan Penyelamat Malaysia, 2014). This type of fire
hydrant can be further divided into two way and three way outlet.



Figure shows a three way fire hydrant (a) and a two way fire hydrant (b)
Source: (Dyno Klang Fire Protection Engineering, 2012)
50 Colour of Fire Hydrant

According to MS 164: 1992 and MS 1932: 1996 Specification for Pillar Hydrant: 5. Colour coating
yellow is to be used for private Bomba Pillar and red is to be used for public Bomba Pillar.
A public fire hydrant means that the water that is supplied to put down a fire does not have a meter
to calculate the water usage while for a private fire hydrant, there will be a meter that measures the
water usage used to put down the fire (Jabatan Bomba dan Penyelamat Malaysia, 2014).

Diagram 3.6 shows a public fire hydrant on the left and a private fire hydrant on the right
Source: (Dyno Klang Fire Protection Engineering, 2012) Fire Hydrants Requirements
There are a few requirements or standards that must be complied when installing fire hydrants.
Based on the code MS 1395, it is stated that hydrants outlets should be located not more than 30
metres away from the breeching inlet at the building. Other than that, the distance between the
hydrant and a high rise building should be not less than 6 meters to allow the Fire Brigade to use the
hydrant in a safe area away from the burning building. In general, the distance between two fire
hydrants shall not be more than 90 meters (Petromas Infiniti, 2012). Case Study IOI Mall
In IOI Mall, the type of fire hydrant used is the Commercial BS 750-2 way fire hydrant. The colour
painted on the fire hydrant is yellow and thus indicated that it is a private fire hydrant. Other than
that, the fire hydrant in IOI Mall can be located around the premises of the building.


Photograph 3.30 shows one of the fire hydrant that is located near the control room at the new wing
of IOI Mall
In an event of a fire, the Fire Brigades will connect the hose to the nozzle or outlet of the fire hydrant
and open the chamber pit to release the valve. All fire hydrants must be pressurized with water
supplied at all times for emergency usage. When the valve is opened, there will be a drop in
pressure. A detector will detect the drop in pressure and turn on the booster pump, to draw in water
from the main water supply. Fireman can boost up the water pressure by providing additional water
from the fire truck. There are approximately 10 fire hydrants surrounding IOI Mall. Sprinkler System Introduction
A sprinkler system is an integrated system of pipes that are connected to a water supply that has
sufficient pressure to pump the water to the pipes for the sprinklers. If needed, sprinkler systems
may also have control valves and devices for activating the alarm as the system operates (Fire
Busters, 2013). A sprinkler system includes sprinkler heads, a water tank, pumps, a series of pipes
and a breeching inlet. There are two types of sprinkler systems, dry pipe and wet pipe.
52 Types of Sprinkler Systems Wet Pipe System
Sprinkler systems that use wet pipe system means that there
are always water in the pipes to supply to the sprinkler heads.
This type of system is quick to react during the operation of a
sprinkler head in an event of a fire. It is also one of the most
common systems used where the country's weather is not too
cold that the water in the pipe has no chance of freezing
Fire Consultants, 2014).
Diagram 3.7 shows a wet pipe system
Source: (Imp Protipozarni Systemi, 2013) Dry Pipe System
Contrast with the wet pipe system, for dry pipe system,
pressurized air is filled in the pipes at all times. The control valve
placed outside of a protected area functions to hold back the
water. In an event of a fire, the sprinkler heads breaks and there
will be a drop in air pressure which lead to the opening of the
valve. Water will then enter the pipe work to put down the fire
(International Fire Consultants, 2014).

Diagram 3.8 shows a dry pipe system

Source: (Imp Protipozarni Systemi, 2013) Case Study IOI Mall

During our site visit, we found that IOI Mall uses wet pipe sprinkler system. The wet pipe sprinkler
system is located at the loading bay in the old wing of the mall.

Photograph 3.31 shows a row of control valves for different levels of the building



Photograph 3.32 shows the labeling on the sprinkler pipe to indicate the floor and zone (a), while (b)
shows the sprinkler alarm on the top that triggers the system


Photograph 3.33 on the left shows the piping system

travelling from the wet pipe system to the whole building.
The pipes are constantly filled with water at all times.

Photograph 3.34 above shows a closer view of the

sprinkler alarm

UBBL 84' clause 228(1), Sprinkler valves shall be located

in a safe and enclosed position on the exterior wall and
shall be readily accessible to the Fire Authority.

Based on our observation, the sprinkler valves were

mounted on the exterior wall and have ample space for
the Fire Authority to have access to as it is near to the
loading bay.

Photograph 3.35 on the left shows the series of sprinkler

valves mounted on the exterior wall in the mall.


The reasons why IOI Mall uses wet pipe is of the system's reliability and simplicity. Wet pipe
sprinkler system has only a minimum amount of components and thus the probability of it failing is
very low. Other than that, it also have a low installation and maintenance cost. Less components of
the sprinkler system leads to less time needed for installation and capital. The servicing time needed
for the system is also low thus reducing the maintenance cost. Besides that, it is also easy to modify
if required. If modification is needed, water supplies can be easily shut down (VFP Fire System,
2014). Sprinkler Head
Sprinkler head is one of the components of the sprinkler system that detects heat of a specific
temperature and discharges water when the bulb glass achieves its breaking point. There are various
breaking points according to the colour of the liquid in the bulb. The liquid in the bulb is made from
alcohol that has different breaking according to the chemical properties. The alcohol expands and
breaks the glass at a predetermined temperature. The design, installation and maintenance must
comply BS EN 12845: 2003

Table 3.1 shows the different colour alcohol liquid in the glass Types of Sprinkler Heads
There are many types of sprinkler head available in the market, however the two main types are the
pendant sprinkler head and the upright sprinkler head. Pendant Sprinkler Head
Pendant sprinkler head are sprinkler heads that are facing downward. The deflector is located at the
bottom of the head and thus spreads in a circular shape to put down fire over a larger area.

56 Upright Sprinkler Head

On the other hand, upright sprinkler head faces upwards with a pipe supporting it, see diagram 3.9.
Its deflector is placed on the top part of the head and thus when water reaches the deflector, it
spreads out in a circular shape.



Diagram 3.9 show a pendant sprinkler head (a) and an upright sprinkler head (b) Case Study IOI Mall
Fire sprinklers play a very vital role in all commercial buildings and thus we were able to notice
sprinklers on the ceiling the moment we entered the building. IOI Mall uses both pendant and
upright sprinklers. Other than that, from our observation, the sprinklers used in IOI Mall are of
orange colour alcohol. Thus the breaking point of the glass bulbs is approximately 57 degrees



Photograph 3.36 shows a pendant sprinkler (a) and an upright sprinkler (b) in IOI Mall


The spacing for the sprinkler heads in IOI Mall is around 2.315 meters. Sprinkler heads are spaced
from each other to that in an event of a fire, when more than one sprinklers are activated, there will
always be a sufficient flow of water. Calculation is involved in designing of the system to ensure that
there is always sufficient flow of water to put out the fire. It also takes into account the size of the
construction (British Automatic Fire Sprinkler Association, 2014). Sprinkler Pump and Tank Case Study IOI Mall
Sprinkler also requires a pump to pump up the water up to the sprinkler pipes and a water tank to
supply water to the sprinklers. The pump room is located beside the sprinkler control valve.
Photograph 3.37 shows the pump room beside the
sprinkler control valve IOI Mall

All sprinkler systems have jockey pumps that functions to maintain the specific pressure in the
sprinkler system. This is so that the duty pump would not have to run all the time but the whole
sprinkler system is still functioning. When there is a leak in the pipes over the year, the pressure of
water in the pipes will decline slowly and thus the jockey pump will detect the drop in pressure and
fills it to the normal pressure (Wise Geek, 2014). If there is a fire in the building, sprinkler heads in
that particular zone will break and the water in the pipe will drop drastically till the jockey pump is
not able to keep up and thus it will trigger the duty pump to pump up water from the sprinkler water
tank to all the sprinkler pipes (Wise Geek, 2014).

Photograph 3.38 shows the pressure gauge at the sprinklers

control valve in IOI Mall




Photograph 3.39 shows the sprinkler water tank on the right side of the tank(a) and the 4 way
breeching inlet for the sprinkler (b) in the old wing
Photograph 3.40 shows the sprinkler breeching inlet at
the new wing of IOI Mall

When there is insufficient water in the tank to supply to

the sprinkler, a breeching inlet is used for the fire brigades
to supply additional water to the sprinkler system.

According to BS 2789, the body of the breeching inlet must be of spheroidal graphite iron and the
inlet connections must be made from gunmetal based on BS 1400. Wet Riser Introduction
Wet riser is a system of pipes that are constantly filled up with water that has a certain pressure. In
an event of a fire, the pressure of water in the rising mains drops when a hose reel is opened. Pumps
from the fire pump room will then increase the pressure by pumping water from the water tank into
the rising mains. Wet riser systems does not depend on the fire brigades to supply water as the

water source is from the water tanks (British Automatic Fire Sprinkler Association, 2010). However, if
water in the tank is insufficient, fire brigades can add additional supply of water through the wet
riser breeching inlet. Material Used for Pipes
According to BS EN 10255, it must be made from non-alloy steel tubes that are suitable for welding
and threading. The pipes must be of heavy quality especially in areas where it is prone to corrosion. Water Tank and Pumps
The types of pumps used for the wet riser is similar to the sprinkler system. It has a total of three
types of pumps named duty pump, jockey pump and standby pump. The duty pump and standby
pump can either be both electrically driven or one electric while the other will be diesel (British
Automatic Fire Sprinkler Association, 2010). Thus there must be a power supply to for the electric
pumps. There must be a automatic change over panels to ensure that there will still be electric for
the pumps to function in an even of power failure for three hours. Case Study IOI Mall
Other than that, according to UBBL 84' clause 247 (2), Main water storage tanks within the
building, other than hose reel system, shall be located at ground, first or second basement levels,
with fire brigade pumping inlet connections accessible for fire appliances.
Photograph 3.41 shows the water
tank for the wet riser and its 4 way
breeching inlet on the bottom right
corner in the old wing.

Photograph 3.42 shows the Sprinkler/ Fire Plant/ Hose Reel

Tank Room in the new wing (Right)
60 Hose Reel

Hose reel, a cylindrical spindle that stores a hose connected to the wet riser system in a building. A
hose reel is intended to be used by authorized personal in the early stages of fire. Other than that, a
hose reel must be located at a place where it is safe for users to use. Thus hose reels are normally
located at escape routes, or kept in a small compartment together with a landing valves and canvas
hose. Case Study IOI Mall

Diagram 3.10 The location of the hose reels on the 2nd floor of IOI Mall



Photograph 3.43 shows a hose reel in the hose reel compartment (a) and a hose reel in a escape
route together with the landing valve and canvas hose (b)
61 Dry Riser Introduction
Dry riser, which is a total opposite to the wet riser system. Dry riser system consists of a series of
pipes that are empty (without water) and only filled in with water when the fire fighters comes and
supply water through the dry riser breeching inlet. The water supply may come from the nearest
hydrant by fixing the hose one end to the nozzle of the hydrant and the other end to the breeching
inlet. In a case where the pressure of the hydrant is not high enough to pump the water to the upper
floors, a duty pump may be needed for the hydrant (BAFSA, 2010). This system consists of a series of
pipe connected to the breeching inlet from the exterior of the building, landing valves and canvas
hose. Landing Valves
In an event of a fire, fire fighters will connect the canvas hose to the inlet of the landing valve to put
down the fire. There are certain requirements when manufacturing a landing valve. Firstly, BS 1400
states that the body of the landing valve must be made from copper alloy. Besides that, the hand
wheel must be made from grey cast iron to comply BS 1452. There should also be a 65mm
instantaneous female coupling to BS 336, which is a blank cap that is removable attached with a
chain Other than the manufacturing requirements, landing valve must also be installed at a certain
height. Based on BS 9990: 2006, it states that landing valves must be installed with its lowest point
of 750mm from finished floor level (BAFSA, 2010). Landing valves are also best located in well
ventilated areas and fire resistance lobbies.
In addition, landing valves should also have air releasing valves at the top of each dry riser to release
let go of air in the pipes when pumping it with water and to also allow ingress when removing the
water from the pipes (BAFSA, 2010). Case Study IOI Mall
In IOI Mall, we found out that all the dry riser's landing valve are located at the escape routes where
it is ventilated and safe for people to utilize it. The type of landing used by IOI Mall is the oblique
valve where the head points slightly downwards.


Photograph 3.44 shows an oblique landing

valve connected to the dry riser piping

Photograph 3.45 shows the air releasing valve at the

top of the dry riser pipe located on the roof top of IOI
Mall. Fire Extinguisher Introduction
Fire extinguisher are potable equipment that can be used by anyone to put out a fire. There are
many types of fire extinguishers depending on the classes of the fire. For example, the water type of
fire extinguisher is only able to put out fire that is initiated from wood, paper and cloth while the dry
powder type of extinguisher is able to put out a wider variety such as flammable gasses and liquid,
electrical equipment and solids. Depending on the place, different types of extinguisher is supplied.
Other than that, fire extinguisher also comes in different sizes, depending on the building. Case Study IOI Mall
In IOI Mall, all the floors were supplied with the dry powder type of fire extinguisher.


Diagram 3.11 The location of fire extinguishers in IOI Mall

The number of fire extinguisher shown in the plan only shows the number used
on IOI Mall excluding the fire extinguisher in each of the shops. IOI Mall also do
frequent checks on their fire extinguisher as the date of inspection was shown
on the extinguisher. All of the escape routes on each floor and the dry riser and
wet riser compartments will have fire extinguishers. The weight is 9kg.

Photograph 3.46 The maintenance period for the extinguisher in IOI Mall


This size of fire extinguisher is found at the

rooftop of the old wing. It is placed in a box as
it is exposed outside, thus a box protects it
from the rain and shine. The size of fire
extinguisher requires less amount of effort to
carry it.
Photograph 3.47 A potable unit in a box on
the rooftop of the old wing (Left)

Photograph 3.48 A extinguisher unit with a hose

reel in a small cabinet at Jaya Jusco (above). Carbon Dioxide Fire Suppression System Introduction
Fire are produce in the existence of the three main elements, oxygen, fuel and heat. Carbon dioxide
puts out a fire by physically attacking all of the three main elements. Firstly, with the introduction of
carbon dioxide, the oxygen content in the fire zone will be replaced with it and stops the open
burning. Hence, at the same time, the concentration of the gasified fuel is also being reduce. Other
than that, carbon dioxide also provides some cooling properties (Makowka, 2014). Carbon dioxide
suppression system is mainly used for electrical wiring cables.


Photograph 3.49 A typical CO2 suppression system (Flame Fast, 2014) Case Study IOI Mall
In IOI Mall, CO2 fire suppression system can be found at the Generator Set (Genset), High
Voltage(HT), Electric, Main Distribution Frame (MDF) Room at the ground floor of the building and at
the food stall/food court area in Jusco. A MDF room is a signal distribution frame that is used for
telephony to interconnect and manage telecommunication wiring in the building. Since both of
these places are places with a higher risk of causing a fire, CO2 suppression system is needed.
Upon the detection from the smoke and heat detector in
the room, the control panel outside of the room will
release a alarm sound to notify others. To manually
activate the CO2 suppression system, authority must
break the glass and pull the handle at times turn the key.
Photograph 3.50 Manual activation system for the

CO2 suppression system (Left)

Photograph 3.51 The MDF room showing that it

uses CO2 suppression system (Right).


Photograph 3.52 The CO2 gas releasing panel

These fire alarm panels have backup batteries
of 230V AC or 24V DC to function.

Photograph 3.53 The details on the backup

battery on the case of the panels Fire Control Room/ Command and Control Room Introduction
Based on UBBL 84' clause 238, Every large premises or building exceeding 30.5 meters in height
shall be provided with a command and control center located on the designated floor and shall
contain a panel to monitor the public address, fire bridge communication, sprinkler, water flow
detectors, fire detection and alarm systems and with a direct telephone connection to the
appropriate fire station by passing the switchboard.

67 Case Study IOI Mall

Since IOI Mall is a 4 storey building for the old wing and a
6 storey building for the new wing which includes a 2 level
basement parking, it requires a fire control room for both
wings as the fire systems are controlled separately. In the
old wing IOI Mall, the fire control room is located on the
ground floor near Jusco while the new wing's command
and control room is located at the corner of the building
as seen in diagram 3.3.

Photograph 3.54 The fire control room in the old wing of

the building (left).

Photograph 3.55 A typical command and

control room in a mall (Right) (Convex, 2014)

In the control room there will be a phone that


connected to the nearest fire station which is

only can be used by the authority.

In the control room, there will also be a main fire control panel which have the mimic diagram with a
printer and also a fireman intercom master panel which tells who is calling from which
intercom on which wing, zone or floor in the building


Photograph 3.56 A typical main fire panel

Photograph 3.57 The fireman intercom

and intercom in the control room

in all escape routes in IOI Mall

(Electrical Installation Wiring System, 2012)

Photograph 3.58 The master fire panel for the
cinema in IOI Mall with the Mimic diagram (left)

Photograph 3.59 A portion of the below panel



If there is any detection from the break

glass (BG), or the flow switch (FS) or
smoke detector (SD), the LED below the
mimic diagrams will blink in different

Photograph 3.60 A portion from the

mimic diagram Manual Call Point Introduction
Manual call points are commonly linked to the main control fire panel in the control room. It is also
one of the early detection method for fire. This happens when someone detects the fire before it
reaches the smoke or heat detector. The glass that is to break in the middle is normally made from
material that are safe for the people. Case Study IOI Mall
There are manual call points at most of the escape routes and
along the hall way of the mall.

Photograph 3.61 The manual call point at escape routes

70 Fireman Switch Introduction
A fireman switch provides protection against the mishaps or accidents related to electrical leakage
during an event of a fire. It is important to isolate the power supply in a fire accident as fire fighters
who uses water to put out a fire has a high risk of electrocution cause by the leakage of the
electricity (MK, n.d.). Types of Fireman Switch Neon Signboards
This type of fireman switch is used to isolate the power supplied to the neon signboards of shops in
the building. Signboards that uses neon to be lighted up utilizes a high amount of voltage current.
Thus needs to be cut for the safety of the fireman (MK, n.d.). Electrical Power
This type of switch is used to totally isolate the electrical supply for the whole floor or the building
(MK, n.d.) Case Study IOI Mall
According to UBBL 84' clause 240(1), there should be
an electrical isolation switch enclosed within a
staircase enclosure at all levels or zones. In IOI Mall,
fireman switch can be found at all levels of the
building in different zones. Other than that, we also
found fireman switches which are the neon
signboards and power supply type outside of an
electric room in Jusco.
Photograph 3.62 A fireman switch located at the
escape route in IOI Mall
It could be that, it is a large electric room that controls the whole 2 levels of Jusco and thus needs an
additional type of switch to prevent mishaps. The interlocking mechanism should always be at the
off position unless there is a fire.

Photograph The Neon (N) fireman switch and the

Electrical (E) power supply fireman switch at the
main electric room in Jusco ground floor.
Photograph 3.63 N and E type of fire switch


4. Escalators
4.1 Introduction
An escalator is basically a moving staircase; a medium to transport people between floors of a
building. Escalators are often found in shopping malls, subway stations, high rise buildings and etc.
Other than that, escalators are commonly installed in pairs, which mean a going up escalator and a
going down escalator (Wise Geek, 2014).
4.2 Importance of escalators
There is no better way to guide people in a given path in a building than by providing an escalator.
This is because people are directed more efficiently from one place to another at a constant speed.
Escalators provide an effective means to make the second floor or basement space as attractive as
street floor space. In a commercial building, escalators are often used to raise the number of
customers and thus increasing the sales. On the other hand, in an institutional building, service
performance is enhanced, horizontal walking distanced is shortened and a greater concentration of
service rendered can be attained. It also helps in controlling the flow of people. Escalators also
provide safe, reliable and eco-friendly mobility in shopping centers. The usage of escalators will
ensure that all the floors are frequented evenly with customers or occupants.
4.3 Components
4.3.1 Electric motor control
Typically each escalator strip is equipped with a 7.5 15KW inductive AC motor, which operates long
hours and consumes a significant amount of electricity. The solution of using sensors for
intermittent or sleep modes to reduce energy consumption has very limited applicability.
4.3.2 Drive machine
The Drive machine together with the gear reducer provides the torque to drive the step band at a
constant speed.
4.3.3 Handrail
The handrail is a continuous band design manufactured of rubber, factory spliced, with a multi-ply
fabric core and steel cord reinforcement. The rubber composition used ensures that the handrail


surface remains smooth and intact throughout its entire service lifespan. The internal gliding surface
has nylon webbing to minimize friction and wear.
4.3.4 Step
The steps are made of aluminium alloy with closely spaced cleats designed to provide a secure
4.3.5 Balustrade
The balustrade consists of the handrail and the exterior supporting structure of the escalator. It is
the escalator exterior components extending above the steps and it supports the handrail.
4.3.6 Truss
The escalator truss is the structural frame of the escalator and consists of three major areas:

The lower section,

Incline section,

Upper section.

It is a hollow metal structure that connects the lower and upper landings. It is composed of two side
sections joined together with cross braces across the bottom and below the top.
4.3.7 Comb plates
Comb plates also known as walk-on plates are an entrance and exit for the passengers to the steps.
It provides mounting for the comb segments and comb plate (comb impact) switch actuator.
4.4 Factors Affecting Numbers of Escalators
There are a few factors that affect the total number of escalators in a building such as the type of
building, operating hours, the total area of the building and predicted customer turnover rate per
floor. Thus, escalator designers must work closely with specialized store fitters or planners in order
to have a suitable design (Schindler, 2014)


.4.5 Arrangement
4.5.1 Types of Arrangement for Escalators
Different arrangement of escalators brings the different results that a building wants. The
arrangement of escalators may be changed depending on the traffic flow of the occupants. There
are four main categories for the arrangement of escalators, named continuous arrangement (one
way traffic), interrupted arrangement (one way traffic), Parallel interrupted arrangement (two way
traffic) and crisscross continuous arrangement (two way traffic). The old wing of the IOI shopping
mall has a one way traffic escalator (Schindler, 2014). Single unit (One way traffic)
This type of arrangement is normally used for to link two levels of floors (Schindler, 2014) Interrupted Arrangement (One way traffic)
Passengers will take a longer time to go to the next level and thus not used for heavy flow traffic.
However, it brings benefits to the shop owners as this arrangement has a spatial separation between
both directions of escalators. Hence, passengers will have to walk pass shops located at that spatial
separation area (Schindler, 2014). Parallel interrupted arrangement (two way traffic)
This type of arrangement is used when there is a heavy passenger flow in the building (Schindler,
2014). Crisscross continuous arrangement (two way traffic)
This arrangement is the most used type because it enables passengers to travel to the upper floors
without any waiting time (Schindler, 2014).

Diagram 4.1 shows a single unit, interrupted arrangement, crisscross continuous and parallel
interrupted arrangement of escalators (from left to right) (Schindler, 2014)

4.5.2 Case Study IOI Mall

In IOI Mall, there are three types of arrangement available, named interrupted arrangement (one
way traffic), parallel interrupted arrangement (two way traffic), and crisscross continuous
arrangement (two way traffic).

Diagram 4.2 shows the location of the different types of arrangement of escalators in IOI Mall.
IOI Mall (Parallel Two way traffic)
The parallel two way traffic arrangement is located in Aeon
from Ground Floor to 1st Floor and continues to 2nd Floor to
Ampang Superbowl. This is because Aeon takes up a big
portion in the old wing of IOI Mall and sells a variety of
items, from F&B to clothes to kitchen utilities and many
more. Thus there will be many customers in Aeon at all
times. By using this arrangement, it is able to direct the
heavy flow of traffic.
Photograph 4.1 shows the parallel two way traffic at Aeon to
Ampang Superbowl


IOI Mall (One way traffic A and C)

This type of arrangement links the 2nd
floor of the old wing to the rooftop
parking. Small stalls are located in front
of the escalators. Thus passengers will
be passing by the shops before going on
to the next level.
Photograph 4.2 shows the one way
traffic A arrangement
IOI Mall (One way traffic B)
This type of arrangement is located in the
rectangular area in the middle of the old
wing. Shops that are located at the spatial
area between the two direction escalators
will be able to attract attention of many.
In the middle of the rectangular area is a
spiral staircase for customers who want to
shop at shops below in the middle.
Photograph 4.3 shows the one way traffic
IOI Mall (Crisscross two way traffic)
This type of arrangement is used at the new
wing of the mall. Since this part of the mall
only has one escalator, this arrangement will
enable customers to travel to the upper
floors without any waiting time. Although
they are able to travel faster, however they
will still have to pass by shops.
Photograph 4.4 shows the crisscross two way

4.6 Moving Walk (Schindler)

A moving walkway or moving sidewalk is a slow moving conveyor mechanism that transports people
across a horizontal or inclined plane over a short to medium distance. Moving walkways can be used
by standing or walking on them. They are often installed in pairs, one for each direction. Moving
walks are similar to escalators and thus have similar arrangements like the escalators. Instead of
using steps like the escalators, it uses flat metal pallet conveyors which could be horizontal or
inclined. Other than that, moving walks can only be installed where there is sufficient space as it
requires a longer length compared to escalators.
4.6.2 Case Study IOI Mall
These moving walks are found at basement B1 and B2 in the new wing of the mall. The arrangement
of these moving walks is the one way traffic arrangement.

Diagram 4.3 shows the location of the moving walks on the ground floor level connecting to
basement levels.


The new wing of the mall has a two level basement

for ample parking space whereas the old wing has
additional parking space on the rooftop. Hence,
instead of providing lifts for customers who use carts
or other luggage, IOI installed 2 levels of moving
walks instead. Based on our observation, we found
out that customers prefer to park at the basement
instead of the rooftop which is also covered with
sheds. One of the reasons is because they prefer to
use the moving walk which requires no waiting time
compared to lifts at the old wing.
Photograph 4.5 shows the moving walk used in IOI
Mall New Wing
4.7 Comparison of Moving walks and Escalators

Moving Walk

Escalators commonly have an


Moving walks have inclination of 10 to 12

inclination of 30 to 35 degrees as it

degrees. For a horizontal moving walk, the

needs a minimum amount of space

inclination permitted ranges from 0 to 6

and thus more cost efficient. EN 115


states that 35 degree of inclination

with a rises more than 6m is not
Escalators have a shorter distance to
travel down as the inclination is


Moving Walks have a longer distance to


travel due to its lower degree of

greater. Based from the

inclination. Based on our measurement in

measurement we did, the total

IOI, the total distance was 18m

distance was 13.8m

Escalators take approximately


Time Taken

seconds to reach its destination

Moving walk takes approximately 34

seconds to reach its destination

Table 4.1 shows the comparison between escalators and moving walks


4.8 Safety Features of Escalators and Moving Walks

Diagram 4.4 shows the overall safety features available for an escalator (Hyundai Elevator, 2014)
1. Skirt Switch Stops the escalator/ moving walk when it detects foreign objects such as shoe
that got stuck between the steps/ pallet
2. Stopped Handrail Switch Automatically stops escalator/moving walks if handrail stops
3. Handrail Guard Switch When a foreign object get caught in the handrail and handrail
guard, escalator/moving walk will stop
4. Emergency Stop Button A red button will stop it from moving if needed
5. Broken Drive Chain Switch If drive chain breaks, it will stop it from moving
6. Broken Step/Pallet Switch Stop escalator/moving walk if step or pallet is running wrongly
7. Safety Brush To remind passenger to avoid the skirt
8. Yellow Demarcation Line To enable passenger to watch their step
9. Comb Plate Switch Stops if foreign object gets caught in between the comb
10. Broken Step/Pallet Chain Switch Stops when step chain stretches or breaks


4.9 Elevator
4.9.1 Introduction
An elevator is a type of vertical transport equipment that efficiently moves people between floors of
a building. Elevators are used in all high rise buildings. According to UBBL 84 clause 124, For all nonresidential buildings exceeding 4 stories above or below the main access level at least one lift shall
be provided. Thus any buildings exceeding 4 stories shall have elevators.
4.9.2 Types of Elevators in IOI Mall
Generally, there are two types of lifts, namely Hydraulic and Electrical lifts which are sub divided into
further types as shown below.

Diagram 4.5 shows the different types of elevators

However hydraulic lifts are less used theses day due to its lack of efficiency. It uses the principle of
hydraulic power to pressurize an above ground or in piston to move the car to higher or lower floors.
These types of lifts comprise a hydraulic reservoir, pump, cylinder and controller. Thus our main
attention will be at electric elevators. Electric Elevators Introduction
Electric elevators are able to transport the car to higher and lower levels by the usage of cables, a
pulley system, and counterweights that are powered by an electric AC motor at the main drive
wheel, thereby powering the system with electricity.

81 Operation of an Elevator

Ropes which are made from a few steel string tied together to make
up for one rope are attached to the elevator car and looped around
a sheave. The sheave acts as a pulley system and grips the hoist
ropes by friction. A motor is connected to the sheave and the
direction that the motor turns will affect the direction of rotation of
the sheave which will result whether the car goes up or down
(Harris, 2002). Guide rails where the counterweight and car are
attached to prevent the car from swinging back and forth.
A counterweight is used to balance the weight of an elevator so that
the elevator motor only has to apply enough force to overcome the
friction force. A counterweight is an equivalent to half of the weight
of a fully loaded passenger car. In normal elevators, one rope is
sufficient to carry the car and the counterweight while the rest of
the ropes are for backup when the rope snaps (Harris, 2002).
Diagram 4.6 shows the overall of the electric elevator system (Harris, 2002)
Other than that, there will be a governor which has its own pulley and attached cable for the car. If
in an event where the lift falls, the governor will turn rapidly and a mechanism in it will stop the lift
from further falling. In addition, a spring like component called the buffer situated at the bottom of
the pit is used for last resort to stop the lift.

82 Case Study IOI Mall

In IOI Mall, electric lifts can be further divided into Machine Room-less Lift (MRL) and elevators with
a motor room.

Diagram 4.7 shows the location of the lifts in IOI Mall Elevator with Motor Room
Most of the elevators in buildings more than 4 stories have a motor room at the highest level of the
building, on top of the shaft. Inside the motor room will be the sheave, cables, motor, backup
batteries (EBOPS)(optional), control systems, and the over speed governor. For IOI Mall, the lifts that
have a motor room are the goods lift and conventional lift.
Sheave with cable
Control Panels
Photograph 4.6 The interior of a motor
room (Guderian, 2014)

83 Goods Lift

There are two types of goods lift, named four speed center opening and three speed bottom

Photograph 4.7 speed side opening goods lift doors closed (left) and its door opened (right)
The above four speed bottom opening goods lift is located in the old wing near to Jusco. The car has
ample space to carry goods to their respective levels. The opening door time is longer as usual as
well. It took 5 seconds to open as it does not bi-part when opening vertically upwards. It also
provides for the easier lifting and loading of goods in the lift car, by retaining the lift doors to be
open for a total of 5 minutes, after the command button to open the doors have been pushed. The
inside of the lift cars are equipped with cone type diffusers so as to provide ventilation to the people
while transporting the goods complying with UBBL 84 clause 151. This type of goods lift is larger
than the other as it is located nearer to Jusco which sells furniture and other large goods.

Photograph 4.8 Cone Diffusers for ventilation in goods lift

The second type of goods lift is the three speed centre opening goods lift where its located one in
the middle area of the old wing and the other in the new wing.


This type of goods lift is of smaller

size but has a faster opening time
which is 2.4 seconds compared to
the four speed side opening type.
The length of the opening is 1
Photograph 4.9 Three speed
centre opening goods lift
sequences of opening during the
different stages of the opening of
the door Conventional Lift

The conventional lifts are the ones that passengers are able to use to travel up or down. This lift,
shown in Photograph 4.10, is located at JUSCO (in the old wing) and is able to carry more weight
than that of the MRL, with the capability to withhold 24 persons, 1630 kg at (LG)at one go. This
makes it convenient for the passengers to transport their purchased goods from the supermarket to
their vehicles smoothly.

Photograph 4.10 The maximum weight that the car is able to withstand (Left) and the lifts that
travels from ground floor Jusco to the rooftop parking.

85 Machine Room-Less (MRL) Elevator Introduction
With the advancement of technology, components such
as motors are able to have a reduction in size. MRL
elevator uses a Permanent Magnet Motor (PMM) which
enables the machine to be attached in the hoist way. Thus
a motor room is no longer needed to place the machines
which lead to more space for other things. Other than
that, architects are able to design a more flexible design
(National Elevator Industry, 2014).
MRL elevator uses gearless




the sheave






further reduce the size of the

motor for mounting purposes
(Schindler, n.d.).
Photograph 4.11 The PMM (Schindler, n.d.)

Diagram 4.8 The overall of a Schindler 300P MRL Elevator (Schindler, n.d.)
The control of the elevator is located on the highest floor of the lift. It uses a SIM card technology for
instant upgrade of system (Schindler, n.d.).
Photograph 4.12 The control panel of the MRL

86 Case Study IOI Mall

Based on our observation, we concluded that the new wing of the mall uses MRL elevator (Schindler
300P) for passenger as there were not any extra level on top the highest floor of the lift to
accommodate a motor room. Other than that, on the highest floor of the lift, there was control
panels located beside the lift landing. There two different styles of MRL elevators in IOI Mall, which
are the glass type and the conventional type.

Photograph 4.13 shows the glass type of MRL Elevator and the conventional type of MRL Elevator

Photograph 4.14 The control panel for MRL elevator (left) Counterweight (middle) Buffer at the
bottom pit (right)

Photograph 4.15 The motor mounted on the wall located on the top
A MRL elevator system creates more usable space, less cost, uses less energy and operates at a
faster speed. Thus is widely used in new buildings.

Photograph 4.16 The voltage and power used by the MRL Lift
The glass lift provides for a see-through atmosphere, and is capable of carrying much less load than
the commercial lift at JUSCO, as this lift is mainly used for sight-seeing and observation, merely
transferring people from one floor to another within the mall.
The landing doors of the observation lift are made of steel, complying with UBBL 84, clause 151
which states No glass doors, unless vision panels are glazed with wired safety glass.

88 Fireman Lift

Fireman lift is important in a building as it enables fireman to rescue people trapped on the upper
floors. During normal days, passenger may utilize this lift for traveling up or down. The difference
between a normal passenger lift and the fireman lift is that for a fireman lift, there will be a fire
switch located on the ground floor. Thus if there is a fire, all lifts will automatically travel to the
ground floor. Fireman will turn on the switch which enables them to utilize the fireman lift.

Photograph 4.17 The Fireman lift from the ground floor (Left) The fireman switch closeup view
4.10 Recommendation
From our observation, all the lifts in IOI Mall do not have any handrail in the car. Thus if able, IOI
Mall should install handrails around the interior of the car for old
people or disable people to enable them to balance themselves.
Other than that, the elevators in IOI Mall should also use
compensating chains to reduce the energy usage. Compensating

chains are rubber coated metal chains where one end is attached
to the bottom of the car and the other at the bottom of the
counterweight. When the car goes up, the hoist cable on top will
have a short length while below the car will be a long length of
compensating chain. The long length of compensating chain adds
weight to the counterweight and thus saves energy as less power is
needed to pull the car up (Bharat Bijlee, 2014). This is because the

counterweight is now heavier.


5. Electrical System
Peninsular Malaysias electrical system is mostly being controlled by Tenaga National Berhad(TNB).
The company is responsible to market the electricity, connect to new supplies, provide maintenance
services and provide supply for restoration activities.
The installation of the electrical system is governed by Electrical Supply Act 1990- Act 447, Licensee
Supply Regulation 1990, Electricity Regulations 1994 and Customer Charter (Tenaga National
Berhad, 2011). The electrical power system is focused on generation, transmission and distribution.
Table 5.1

Electrical System IOI Mall, Puchong

5.1 Generation System

5.1.1 Introduction
Malaysia has been applying mix energy resources. Non renewable energy used in Malaysia are oil,
natural gas and coal while renewable energy used are hydro power electricity, solar and biomass for
generation of electricity (Norayhunt, 2008).The generation of electricity is the first process in


delivering the electricity to the consumers in heavy industry, commercial, residential purposes and
infrastructure purposes.
Table 5.2

Energy Generation of Power Plant System in Peninsular Malaysia

Sources: (Othman, 2005)

5.1.2 Power Plant in Selangor Case Study IOI Mall
Production of electricity is carried out in the power plant. The electricity in Puchong area could be
produced by Connaught Bridge Power Station (gas fired based), Genting Sanyen Kuala Langat Power
Plant (Gas fired based), Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah Power Station (Combined of fuel and gas
based) and Recycle Energy Sdn Bhd (Biomass based) which are all located in Selangor.
5.2 Transmission tower
Electrical power transmission is a process which electricity is being transported in long distances to
consumers (Solaries.anl, n.d.). In Peninsular Malaysia, Grid system consists of 500kv, 275kv and
132kv in transmission network and the owner of the Grid System is Tenaga National Berhad (TNB).
They are responsible for planning and developing the Grid System to ensure that there are adequate
grid capacity available(Energy Commision, 2013).


The main components in the transmission process are the transmission tower, conductors (power
line), substation, transmission rows and access road (Solaries.anl, n.d.).

Table 5.3

Electrical Components and Their Uses



Transmission tower

To allow the high voltage conductor separate

from each other

Conductor (line power)

To carry electricity bypass the grid to



To convert high voltage electric transmission

to low voltage for the usage of consumers

Transmission rows

To facilitate maintenance and avoid fire

Access Road

For maintenance purposes

5.2.1 Design of the transmission tower

According to Preeti and Mohan, different light-weight configuration of transmission line tower scan
be built by changing of the geometry (shape) and behavior (type) of transmission tower so that the
supply of electrical energy will be more economical. The design outline of the transmission towers
are a square tower, a triangular tower and a guyed mast tower (Preeti & Mohan, 2013).
5.2.2 Case Study IOI Mall
IOI Mall transmission tower belongs to the square tower category as it consists of 4 legs at the base
to support the transmission tower. A typical square tower is 2775kg and is the heaviest among the
other shapes of transmission tower.
The characteristic of square tower is that it consists of a maximum factor of safety for upper the
cross arm member (Preeti & Mohan, 2013). The square tower can carry a maximum wind load
compared to triangular tower and guyed mast because the sectional area exposed to wind is larger
for the square transmission tower (Preeti & Mohan, 2013).


Photography 5.1

Electrical Transmission System

5.3 Distribution
5.3.1 Introduction
Distribution of electricity is the connection of the individual consumers and the sale of electricity.
The transmission voltage network is usually 400 volts (V). According to the TNB official webpage, the
supply frequency in Malaysia is 50Hz per second. For low voltage level, 3 phase 4wire system is
applied with a neutral point solidly earthed mixture of overhead lines, underground cables and aerial
insulated cables. Moreover, the short circuit rating is 31.5kA, 3 seconds for 400v system (Tenaga
National Berhad, 2011).
5.3.2 Case Study IOI Mall
Table 5.4

Distribution of Electricity in IOI Mall


IOI mall is a three to four storey commercial building which can be divided into the old wing and new
wing. Electricity transmitted by the TNB is sent to the substation which is the step down
transformers. Conductors carries the secondary current and supplies the potential current to the
high voltage (HT) room, low voltage (LV) room and generator set (GENSET)room.
The 480V feeders transfer the current to switches with different rating such as 400A, 200A and 100A
via the bus bar chamber. Then, switches feed the electricity in each floors through vertical bus bar
for commercial purposes such as lightning, HVAC, cooking and water heating as well as lift, boiler
house basement and emergency lightning.
Moreover, there are two sources of emergency panel which is the GENSET room by using
generators and the feeder from the main service equipment. When there is a loss of voltage in utility
system, the transfer switch will give signals to the generators to supply electricity (ECS UMASS, n.d.).
Emergency lightning at each floor and emergency fire lift are connected to the emergency panel
board to ensure that there is a continuous operation in the event of power failure on the utility

Photography 5.2

Ground Floor Plan of IOI Mall

There are two set of electrical services rooms in IOI Mall which are located in old wing and new wing
due to the expansion of the building.


Table 5.5

Size of the Electrical Services Room


Sizes (mm) (Minimum)

New Wings

TNB room (Substation)

6000 (W) *5000 (D) *4000 (H)

LV switch room

8500 (W)*9000 (D) * 4000 (H)


Old Wings

next Located next HT

to substation
HT room

6000 (W)* 5000 (D)* 4000 (H)


next Locate

to LV room
Genset room

6500 (W) * 9000 (D) * 5000(H)


2500 (W)* 1000 (D)




next Located next to

to HT room
Electrical Riser


every floor

at Located at every

Source: (Scribd, n.d.)

5.4 Substation
5.4.1 Case Study IOI Mall

Photography 5.3

TNB Substation and High Voltage Room

An electrical substation or high voltage room (HT room) is the combination of electrical component
including busbas, switchgear, step down power transformer and auxiliaries (Csanyigroup, 2010). IOI
Mall owns 2 substations which are located at the ground floor of old and new wing. As BS ISO
50001:2011 mentioned, energy management system is needed for commercial building.

The types of substations available in IOI Mall are the high voltage substation and the low voltage
substation as BS EN 62271-202. Equipment labeling for arc flash hazard are available incident energy
at the minimum arc rating of clothing mentioned by NFPA 70E, 130.5(C). Referring to OSHA
1926.966(e)(3), only authorized personnel are allowed to enter the substation. Thus to prevent
illegal access, substation should be protected with wall and opening is locked as mentioned in OSHA
1926.966(e)(5) and OSHA 1926.966(e)(2).
5.5 Consumer Low Voltage Switch Room
5.5.1 Case Study IOI Mall

Photography 5.4

Consumer Low Voltage Room

Consumer Low voltage Switch Room is located at the ground floor and functions as electrical
protection for over voltage and under voltage protection, safe isolation from live parts and local or

remote switching. Circuit breakers such as thermal magnetic devices, residual current operated
tripping devices are installed for the low voltage electrical protection (Electrical Installation Wiki,
Aluminum louvered door is fixed to avoid any unauthorized access as stated in OSHA
1910.303(g)(2)(i)(A) as well as allow free circulation natural air to cool the machines inside referred
to OSHA 1910.303(b)(8)(iii) . The Danger is placed in front the door as stated in OSHA
1910.303(h)(5)(iii)(B). According to OSHA 1910.303(b)(1)(i), sign of consumer LV switch room is
being labeled on the door. OSHA1910.303 (h) (5) (IV) (B) stated green point light is opened to inform
to unauthorized personnel to avoid contacting any live part.
Table 5.6


Basic Function of LV switchgear




Functional switching

Emergency switching

Emergency stopping





Isolation clearly indicated by an authorized

fail-proof mechanical indicator

A gap or interposed insulating barrier

between the open contacts, clearly visible



mechanical maintenance

Source (Electrical Installation Wiki, 2013)



5.6 Generator Set Room

5.6.1 Case Study IOI Mall

Photography 5.5

Genset Room

Genset Room is also known as generator set room which is an emergency power supply for building.
Diesel is the primary movers for the standby electrical engine. The engines fuel normally supplied by
the dry tank (located next to the engine) and bulk tank (located outset the room) (Leonardo-energy,
2012). The preferred location for genset room is near to the engine cooling room, exhaust room and
control and transfer switch room (Baldor, n.d.).

According to National Electric Code (NEC), instruction should be provided of the way of
starting the generator when is not done automatically. The working space is enable two person to
pass one another to carry on service duties with enclosure open door (Macallister Power System,
2014). Moreover, self contained lighting should be installed to facilitate exit lighting, exits signs and
emergency lighting as stated in NEC
5.7 Electrical Compartment
5.7.1 Case Study IOI Mall

Photography 5.6

Building Control System Room

Building Control System Room is an automation system room that enables the maintenance
personnel to observe the whole electrical supply system in the room. The system integrated with the
control of heating, cooling, lightning, fire system and security system which operates via the
computer (Loytec, n.d.). Moreover, building control system room helps in saving 10-40% of the
operational cost in term control the energy usage of the building (Braun, et al., 2012).
The room is locked to prevent unauthorized access as OSHA 1910.303(g)(2)(i)(A). And, no goods
should place in front on the access door referred to OSHA 1910.303(g)(1)(vii)(B). OSHA
1910.303(h)(5)(iii)(B), warning sign of danger in different language is label on the access door.
Moreover, the point control is lighten to notify the everyone the room is functioning and avoid

touching any live part referred to OSHA1910.303(h)(5)(iv)(B). The label Electrical Room is clearly
defined on the door as OSHA 1910.303(b)(1)(i).

Photography 5.7

Electrical Room

There are a few electrical rooms located in the new wing as well as the old wing in IOI Mall. An
electrical room consists of distribution panel, transformer, electric switchboard, Miniature Circuit
Breaker (MCCB), conductors, bus bar and fire alarm control system. The insulation materials of the
items have to be proved by Sirim according to MS IEC 60243-2:2014.
Refer to OSHA 1910.303(b)(1)(i), the words Electrical room must be clearly labeled the identified
purpose of the room. Moreover, according to OSHA 1910.145(f) (7) and OSHA1910.145 (e) (2)
standard, the warning tag showed hazard and Danger must be labeled in Chinese, Malay, Tamil
and English which is concise and easy to understand. Moreover, the door is being locked to restrict
unauthorized person to access according to OSHA 1910.303(g) (1)(ii).
Hold up system and alarm bell are installed outside the electrical room according to MS2436-4. Fire
alarm panel will allow the authorities to identify the LED according zoning when fire alarm is
activated based on automatic fire alarm detection OSHA 1910.164(a). All electrical rooms will also
use CO2 fire suppression system to put out a fire.
Sufficient access area is provided for working on the electric equipment as referred to OSHA
1910.303(g)(1)(iii). For the convenience of the workers in repairing the electrical equipment, the
door can be pended 90 degree as stated in OSHA 1910.303(g)(1)(i)(B).

Photography 5.8

Conduit System of Electrical Cable

According to BS EN 61386-1, Conduit systems for cable management is needed. PVC electrical
conduit is fixed to store electrical cables. Two head draw box is used as the conduit connector to
ensure the conduit is fixed in parallel line.
5.8 Lightning Rods
5.8.1 Case Study IOI Mall

Photography 5.9

Location of Lightning Rod


IOI Mall has fixed several lightning rods at the rooftop level. This rod may give extra protection to
prevent direct lightning strikes to the building according to BS 6651 and BS EN 1838 (BS 52667:1999).
5.9 Mini Feeder Pillar
5.9.1 Case Study IOI Mall

Photography 5.10

Mini Feeder Pillar

Mini Feeder Pillar is an effective electrical enclosure to supply electrical services for low voltage
electrical distribution (Toshiba, n.d.). Mini pillar in IOI Mall is located in the top roof parking level. As
IS: 5039/1983, low voltage mini pillar has to be approved and erected to suitable building wall. Rated
current stated is 415v.
And, the framework of the mini pillar shall be fabricated from sheet steel of minimum 2mmthick.
Mini pillar has to fix with suitable bracing. According to BS 2569, spray metal coating for the
protection of feeder pillar. OSHA 1910.145 (f)(7) stated, warning tag BAHAYA means danger is
printed on the steel box.


5.10 Junk Box

5.10.1 Case Study IOI Mall

Photography 5.11 Junction Box for Trunking

Junction box is an enclosure device to house electrical wire that joins together and gives extra
protection to the electrical connections. Junction box in IOI Mall is showed mounted on the ceiling
by connecting bus bar trunking at the turning corner. According to the provision of BS 6220, the
junction box voltage rates cannot exceed 250V. OSHA 110.16 stated that it is necessary for junction
box is printed with the arc flash hazard warning.
5.11 Distribution Panels
5.11.1 Case Study IOI Mall


Photography 5.12

Distribution Panel

The above picture the distribution panel connected with conduit and link to electrical outlet. Saddles
are used to attach the conduit to the wall. Busbar trunking is fixed on the top part of the electrical
distribution panel to connect to the electrical outlet.

Inside the distribution panel, electrical

accessories such as circuit breaker are installed for the over protection for alternating current
operation as mentioned in BS EN 60898-1.
In BS EN 50368 stated that cable cleats are needed for electrical installation. Moreover, BS EN
60439-2, busbar trunking system is required to connect to low voltage switchgear and controller
gear assembly. Distribution board is intended to be installed in places where unskilled person have
access to their uses stated in BS EN 60439-3.

Photograph 5.13 The Main Switch board in the basement parking

In the above main switch board contains fuse to prevent irregular income of current from short
circuiting the electrical cables. The switch is to turn off all electrical supply could be in the basement
during an emergency such as a fire.
This distribution panel has timers to on or off certain
electrical power supply for a efficient usage of energy.
Photograph 5.14 The timers in the distribution panel


6. Problems and Recommendation

6.1 Introduction
Indoor air quality has becoming the major concern in a multi-purpose building like IOI Mall because
most town dwellers spend 90% of time in indoor environment. According to Victor Olgyay, the
temperature range of thermal comfort is between 20-27 degree Celsius humidity range is about 2080% (Wong, 2009). There are some HVAC problems in IOI Mall.
It takes effort for the building designers, architects and engineers to design the services in a building.
However, no design can be perfect, there are always flaws. Thus, in this section, the problems and
recommendations of the HVAC and fire protection services will be discussed.
6.2 HVAC
6.2.1 Ceiling damage and stains
Ceiling stains can be seen in some places in the mall. Referring to Figure 1.14 (left), the photo is
taken outside the corridor of AHU room. In Figure 1.14 (right), the brown stain is more obvious and
the ceiling panel is missing from the ceiling. This could be the cause of a leaking pipe or duct. Cold air
passing through the duct cools down the exterior of the duct. Since the duct is concealed in a
suspended ceiling, the space will have heat. Condensation happens when the cooled down duct
makes contact with the warmer and more humid air above the ceiling (Ace Plumbing, 2014). This
may not only affect the aesthetic value of the ceiling but may also reduce the strength of the
asbestos ceiling sheets.
MS 1525 code 8.6 mentions that additional insulation with vapour barriers may be required to
prevent condensation under some conditions. Thus the solution method is to install vapour barriers
to the exterior of the ductwork and an additional layer of insulation that will raise the outside
temperature of the duct to be similar to similar to the temperature of the air outside.

Photo 6.1 Brown stains appear on the ceiling (left) and Brown stains on the ceiling and loss of ceiling
panel (right)

6.2.2 Ductwork Not Insulated Properly

Throughout our visit to the mall, we also heard loud noises coming from above the suspended
ceiling close to the diffusers. Thus we assumed that the loud noises come from the ductwork above
that provides cool air. It could be that the insulating material covering the ductwork has worn off
and does not provide the same amount of insulation properties as before.
Thus, we suggest that, the IOI maintenance team may carry out some maintenance work to improve
the insulation layer of the ductwork as it may affect the customers from returning to that shop
because it causes a nuisance to them
6.2.3 Exposed Ductwork
Although not the whole mall has exposed ductwork, however even having an exposed ductwork in a
small area will affect the aesthetic value of the whole building. Other than that, it may also affect the
business of shop owners at that area. We found out that, even on a Saturday, the Digital World
section in IOI will be deserted. The overall look on the ceiling makes customers feel that it is some
low class place for people to shop.

Photo 6.2 Ductworks are not covered

Thus one of the recommendations that we offer is instead of installing a whole area of suspended
ceiling which may result in a high cost, IOI could paint the whole ceiling including the ductwork and
pipes in black colour. Fire sprinkler pipes may be labeled with a red strip for requirement purposes.
This method of saving cost has been very popular in most of the shops as it kills two birds with one


6.2.4 Dirty filters and coils

The diffuser panels in IOI Mall old wing found to be clogged with dust and the colours of the panel
has turned yellow. The dirty diffusers will cause the building inflow insufficient, reduce system
effectiveness and lead to mould or allergen problems of the ducts and increase the operating cost
(Inspectapedia, 2014).
The dusty filters leads not enough airflow into IOI mall and the building not cool hence increase the
energy costs in operating the building. Survey shows HVAC system contributed 32% of expenses to
the utility bills (Centre for Climate and Energy Solutions, n.d.).
We recommend IOI Mall to replace
the filter panel from time to time to
ensure high performance of the air
conditioner system. Moreover, the
janitor may clean the panel frequently
by using vacuum and washing the
diffuser panel with clean water.
Photo 6.3 Diffuser Panel
6.2.5 Inefficient flow of air
Photo 6.4 Inlet and outlet panel
According to our observation, there
are too many numbers of inlet vents
and outlet vents for air conditioning
purposed in the old wings building.
Moreover, the air conditioner inlet
and outlet are located very near to
one another in a 3 meter high ceiling.
These may cause the inflow air and outflow air bypass the occupied zone hence cause inefficient of
the ventilation and provide sufficient volume of air. The picture showed that there is 1 multidirection vent which is the sources of the air conditioning while there are 2 large panels are for the










6.2.6 Damaged of insulation tube

Photo 6.5 Insulation Tube for condenser.
The above picture shows adhesive strip for
the air conditioning unit is rotted. This will
cause leakage of the cooling refrigerant and
cooling air send from the compressor to the
condenser of the air conditioning unit.
Moreover, the missing part of the adhesive
sealer on the refrigerant pipe will cause
condensation and drips from lines in humid areas (inspectapedia, n.d.). Then, the accumulation of
water on the roof level will cause mold and insect in long term. If the discharge lines are not
insulated, the compressor may experience excessive hot up to 66 degree Celsius and may lead to
safety issue. In this case, inefficient of the HVAC system occurred. We suggest IOI Mall to place a
new adhesive sealer for the insulation pipe.
6.3 Fire Protection System
Fire protection system is one of the most important and difficult service to design for a large building
as it includes active and passive systems.
6.3.1 Obstructions at Fire Protection Places
Escape routes are vital for occupants in a building to escape to a safe area in an event of a fire. Thus
it should be unobstructed, as mentioned in UBBL 84. There should not be anything that blocks the
exit route doors or passage way. During our visit to IOI Mall, we saw one of the escape route exit on
the rooftop floor being blocked with bags of cloths which made
it look as if it was a storage room. Other than that, one of the
access route that lead to the escape route has been blocked by
tables and chairs stacked up as the neighbor is a restaurant and
extra tables an chair are being placed outside. In an event of a
fire, the tables and chair which are made from wood will be
burnt down and thus blocking the passage of the escape route.
Photograph 6.6 The red arrow shows the escape route staircase while along the access route there
are tables and chair blocking.

We suggest that IOI provide a space for them to keep their items in a storage room to avoid
accidents from occurring.
Other than escape routes, the other fire protection
compartment is the DR/HR room. When we opened one of the
DR/HR rooms door, we found a handbag hanging from the
landing valve and clothes near the canvas hose. Cloths can be
burnt easily and hence fire may spread in the room.
Photograph 6.7 A handbag being hung on the landing valve.
People should avoid keeping their belongings in any rooms that
they find empty and take responsibility for the belongings.

6.3.2 Illumination of KELUAR Sign

The KELUAR sign which directs people to the correct exit route must be illuminated so that in an
event of a fire, the whole place will be covered by and those
our vision may decrease. The illuminated signs will allow
people to able to see the exit and escape to the correct place.
However, some of the KELUAR signs in IOI Mall were not
illuminated as written in UBBL 84clause 172(4). Thus if there is
a fire, people will not be able to identify the exit route.
We suggest that maintenance team replace the bulbs in the
KELUAR sign and they should not switch it off when the mall is
Photograph 6.8 The KELUAR sign not illuminated as supposed.


6.3.3 Dry Riser Canvas Hose

Photograph 6.9 The landing valve
without the canvas hose in the
escape routes
The dry riser comes with a
canvas hose, a landing valve and
a dry riser breeching inlet from
outside of the building. However,
during our site visit to IOI Mall,
we found that some of the
landing valves did not have a
canvas hose below it. Without a canvas hose, even when fire brigades supply water to the breeching
inlet to the landing valves, it would have no purpose. Other than that, at times when the fire is too
fierce and the wet riser tank has insufficient water to put down the fire, a dry riser is used as its
water supply comes from the hydrant located at the perimeter of the building.
We suggest that IOI always do some inspection at all the fire appliance in the mall to ensure their
quality at all times.
6.3.4 Sprinkler System
Photograph 6.10 The only sprinkler unit at
the landing of the lift
A sprinkler system is important in all
buildings as it is the earliest detection and
method of putting down a fire. Without
the sprinklers, people will have to depend
on the wet risers or wait for the fire
brigades to arrive with help. Thus the
amount of sprinklers provided in a
building should not be excessive as it will
cost more but also should not be insufficient. Based on our observation, there were insufficient
sprinklers available in the lift lobbies of the old wing of the mall. Throughout the whole building, all
sprinklers are of approximately 2.5m apart from each other. However at the landing of the lift

lobbies, there was only one sprinkler in an area of approximately 6m of length. The lobbies of the lift
should always have more sprinklers as fireman will use the fireman lift to arrive to the designated
floors. They will need a safe access to safe the occupants.
Hence we suggest that two more sprinklers should be installed to increase the fire protection.
Another solution could be by providing a potable fire extinguisher or a hose reel near the landing for
occupants to use.
6.3.5 Obstacle for Compartmentation
Photograph 6.11 The Proton Saga car
that parked the car exactly under the
Compartmentation is important to
separate the safe area from the fire
area. In IOI Mall, other than having
compartmentation in the shopping




compartmentations on the basement level. Hence, there are fire shutter doors available.
However, despite giving a warning to not park cars under the fire shutter door, people still do so.
Thus in an event of a fire, the shutter will not be able to closed completely and fire will still be able
to spread to the safe zone which ignores the purpose of having a fire shutter door completely.
Thus we suggest that IOI hire some security guards to do rounds in the basement and tell drivers to
not park there.


7. Conclusion
There are various problems that are being practiced in IOI Mall. For example, the faulty placing of
the consumer item, numbers of sprinkler system, incorrect fixing of the diffuser panels and etc.
Moreover, we found that the design of the building services in the new wing is more organized and
better compared to the old wing as it was built in year 2009. However, the building services available
in IOI mall are considered to be complete as majority of them has fulfilled the requirements set by
the standard. A planned design before constructing a building is crucial for building services. If any
problems occurred unexpectedly, it can be detected and solved as soon as possible without incurred
any losses as well as to ensure safety.
According to greening EPA, the total energy consumption is 36% in building construction. The
distribution of the energy are 65% of electricity, 30% of green house emission, 30% of raw material
consumption, 30% of waste output and 12% of potable water used. On that account, sustainability
of building services should be implemented in order to minimize water, raw material, energy, land as
well as to prevent the depletion of the natural resources (231beg6.blogspot, 2012).
Global warming is happening in the world and it may bring severe effects to human. Thus, IOI Mall is
suggested to join the green building industry by applying sustainable building services. These wise
steps will not only save the earth, as well as energy for the building. Last but not least,
refurbishment on current building services system can be made.


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