Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 18

Word Formation in English

Linguistics: The systematic study of the nature, structure, and variation of language.
Morphology: The branch of linguistics (and one of the major components of grammar) that
studies word structures, especially in terms of morphemes.
Word: A speech sound or a combination of sounds, or its representation in writing, that
symbolizes and communicates a meaning and may consist of a single morpheme or a
combination of morphemes.
Morpheme: A meaningful linguistic unit consisting of a word (such as dog) or a word element
(such as the -s at the end of dogs) that can't be divided into smaller meaningful parts.
Word Formation in English: In linguistics, the ways in which new words are made on the basis
of other words or morphemes.
Affixation: In linguistics, the process of adding a morpheme (or affix) to a word to create either:
(a) a different form of that word (e.g., bird birds), or
(b) a new word with a different meaning (bird birder).
The two primary kinds of affixation are prefixation (the addition of a prefix) and suffixation (the
addition of a suffix). Clusters of affixes can be used to form complex words.
Back-formation: The process of forming a new word (a neologism) by extracting actual or
supposed affixes from another word; shortened words created from longer words. Verb: backform (itself a back-formation).
Examples and Observations:
Singular noun pea from the older English plural pease
The verb burgle from the older English noun burglar
The verb diagnose from the older English noun diagnosis
Blend: A word formed by merging the sounds and meanings of two or more other words or word
parts. One common type of blend is a full word followed by a word part (called a splinter), as in
motorcade (motor + cavalcade).
bash (bat + mash)
biopic (biography + picture)
breathalyzer (breath + analyzer)
camcorder (camera + recorder)
chexting (cheating + texting)
clash (clap + crash)
cosmeceutical (cosmetic + pharmaceutical)
docudrama (documentary + drama)
electrocute (electricity + execute)
Clipping: In morphology, a word formed by dropping one or more syllables from a polysyllabic
word, such as cell from cellular phone.
Compounding: The process of combining two words (free morphemes) to create a new word
(commonly a noun, verb, or adjective). Compounds are written sometimes as one word
(sunglasses), sometimes as two hyphenated words (life-threatening), and sometimes as two
separate words (football stadium).
Conversion (zero derivation): A linguistic process that assigns an already existing word to a
new word class (part of speech) or syntactic category. This process is also known as a functional
shift or zero derivation. Flight attendants promised passengers they would soon 'beverage'.
Denominal adjective: An adjective formed from a noun, usually with the addition of a suffix--such
as hopeless, earthen, cowardly, and childish.

Denominal noun: A noun that is formed from another noun, usually by adding a suffix--such as
villager (from village), New Yorker (from New York), booklet (from book), limeade (from lime),
lectureship (from lecture), and librarian (from library).
Denominal verb: A verb formed directly from a noun, such as to dust (from the noun dust), to
victimize (from the noun victim), and to defrost (from the noun frost).
Derivation: In morphology, the process of creating a new word out of an old word, usually by
adding a prefix or a suffix. Drinkable from drink, or disinfect from infect.
Derivational morpheme: In morphology, an affix that's added to a word to create a new word or
a new form of a word. For example, adding -ful to beauty changes the word from a noun to an
adjective (beautiful).
Inflectional morpheme: In English morphology, a suffix that's added to a word to assign a
particular
grammatical
property
to
that
word.
For
example,
the
words
antidisestablishmentarianism and uncompartmentalize each contain a number of derivational
affixes, and any inflectional affixes must occur at the end: antidisestablishmentarianisms and
uncompartmentalized.
First-sister principle (FSP): In compounding, the principle that the "first sister" to the right of a
verb is moved by transformation to the left of the verb. (The "first sister" is the position
immediately adjacent to the verb.) Example: quick-thinking.
Loan translation: A compound in English (for example, superman) that literally translates a
foreign expression (German bermensch), word for word.
Loanword: A word imported into one language from another language, also called a borrowed
word. Example: garage from French.
Neologism: A newly coined word, expression, or usage. hinky, adj. [Chiefly Police slang.
nervous, uneasy.]
Acronyms: Acronyms are formed by taking the initial letters of a phrase and making a word out
of it. The classical acronym is also pronounced as a word. Scuba was formed from self-contained
underwater breathing apparatus.
Root Word
A root word is the most basic form of a word that is able to convey a particular description,
thought or meaning
Morphemes
In linguistics, English language roots are known as "morphemes" and defined as the primary
lexical unit of a word. They carry significant aspects of semantic content and cannot be reduced
into any smaller constituent parts. Almost all regular English words contain, and may consist only
of, "root morphemes." Sometimes the term "root" is used to describe the word minus its
inflectional endings, but with its lexical endings in place. Inflection is the change or marking of a
word to reflect grammar, such as gender, tense, number or person. A word independent of
different inflections is called a lexeme, while the form of a word that is considered to have no or
minimal inflection is called a lemma. For example, the word "maddening" has the inflectional root
or lemma "madden," but the lexical root "mad." Inflectional roots are often referred to as stems,
and a root in the stricter sense may be thought of as a monomorphemic stem, or a stem with only
one morpheme.
Free and Bound Morphemes
Roots can be either "free morphemes" or "bound morphemes." Root morphemes are essential for
adding prefixes and suffixes and for constructing compound words. Free morphemes, or unbound
morphemes, can stand alone, such as the morpheme "near" in the word "nearly." Bound

morphemes, on the other hand, occur only as parts of words, such as the morpheme "-ly" in the
word "nearly."
The Effect of Inflection
The root of a word is a unit of meaning (the morpheme) and, as such, it is an abstraction, though
it can usually be represented in writing as a word would be. As an example, the root of the verb
"running" is "run," and the root of the adjective "amplified" is "ampli-," since those words are
clearly derived from the root forms by simple suffixes that do not significantly alter the roots. The
English language has very little inflection, and hence a tendency to have words that are very
close to their respective roots. However, more complicated inflection, as well as other linguistic
processes, can make the root obscure. For example, the root of "mice" is "mouse" (a valid but
different word), and the root of "interrupt" is "rupt," which is not an actual word in English and only
appears in derived forms (e.g. rupture, corrupt). Knowing about these cases will aid the avid
vocabulary builder.
Similar Roots
The living English language has been fed voraciously from more sources than you may care to
know about. Certainly, Greek and Latin roots predominate, but the influence of other languages
over the past millennium cannot be ignored, for example "kindergarten" which is an unmodified
German word. Because of the variety of etymological contributions, ambiguity among English
roots exist. Is it the Latin "bi" meaning "two" or the Greek "bi" meaning "life" that is the root for
"bisect?" (It is the Latin "two.") Be alert to conflicts like this and review roots that are similar to one
another carefully.
What are Prefixes and Suffixes?
Prefixes and suffixes are grammatical and lingual "affixes." Prefixes are affixed before and
suffixes after a base word or word stem to add information. For example, with the word
"prehistoric," the prefix is "pre-" meaning "before," the base word is "history" meaning "recorded
events and knowledge", and the suffix is "-ic" meaning "relating to the science of."
In other words, "prefix" simply refers to an attachment before or in front of, in this case, a shorter
word or stem. In lingual terms, a "stem" is the main part of a word to which prefixes and suffixes
can be added and may not necessarily be a word itself, such as "dod" in "doddle." Similarly,
"suffix" refers to an attachment after the end of an existing word or stem, serving to form a new
word or functioning as an inflectional ending, for example, s or es to make for plurality.
Is an Affix a Single Syllable?
No, a prefix or suffix can be one or more syllables, depending on the root word from Latin or
Greek or from any one of a host of other English lingual influences.

Inflectional Suffixes
Are Endings such as "-ed," "-ing," and "-s" Suffixes?
Yes, endings that create different forms of the same word are called "inflectional suffixes." There
are very few inflectional suffixes but they occur rather frequently. They are:
-s, -es, -ies plural
-s
3rd person singular present
-ed
past tense
-en
past participle
-en
plural (irregular)
-ing
progressive/continuous
-er
comparative
-est
superlative
-n't
negative (contraction)
Derivational Suffixes: Endings such as "-ism," "-ful," and "-fy"
Endings that change the meaning of the word are called "derivational suffixes." Some are:
-ism
forms a noun

-ist
-ful
-able
-ation
-ness
-ment
-ify
-fy
-ity
-ly
-ise, -ize

noun
noun
adjective
noun
noun
noun
verb
adjective
noun
adverb
verb

Derivational suffixes can combine, providing flexibility in creating other words, but such activity
can lead to spelling complications. For example, "-ity" can combine with "-able," but the result is "ability" (desirability, predictability), and when "-ly" is added to a word ending in "-ic" to make an
adverb, the result is usually "-ically" (historically, mechanically).
Syllables
Words can be broken up into smaller units, its syllables. Syllables are really just organizational
units for a sequence of speed sounds. A word must contain at least one syllable.
What do Syllables do?
Syllables make speech easier for the human brain to process. Humans rely on syllables as a way
of analyzing the stream of speech to give it a rhythm of beats, both weak and strong, as we often
hear in music. Syllables are tremendously influential in a language's conveyance of information
and greatly affects a language's rhythm, metric structure and inflections.
Parts of a Syllable
A syllable is made up of a vowel core with optional preceding and following vocal margins which
are typically made up by consonants. Proficient speakers of English have no trouble dividing a
word up into its component syllables. Sometimes how a particular word is divided might vary from
one individual to another, but a division is always easy and always possible. Using a dash to mark
between the syllables, here are some examples:

hear:
hear (one syllable)
potato:
po-ta-to
distribution: dis-tri-bu-tion
Syllables have internal structure, namely they can be divided into parts. The parts are onset and
rhyme; within the rhyme we find the nucleus and coda. Not all syllables have all parts, and the
smallest possible syllable contains a nucleus only. A syllable may or may not have an onset and a
coda. Onset refers to the beginning sounds of a syllable, and rhyme (or rime) is the rest of the
syllable. Using bold for the onsets and italics for the rhymes, "distribution" can be represented as
"dis-tri-bu-tion." A rhyme can itself be broken up into a nucleus and coda. The nucleus, as the
term suggests, is the core part and is a necessary component of any syllable, and it the more
resonant sound, most often a vowel. Codas are the less significant part of a syllable and are more
often comprised by the consonant sounds.
Etymology
The etymologies of words are not definitions of the words but rather where the word came from
and what it may have originally meant. In other words, etymology is the historical study of the
origin of words. Contributions to the English language started thousands of years ago and still
occur today from other languages and cultural influences.
English Language Influences
Words can change their meaning and sometimes their spelling gradually over time. Etymologists
identify and follow those changes in detail. It is possible to trace certain words all the way to their

known or hypothetical origins in the Proto-Indo-European language, prior to the 3rd millennium
BC. It may surprise you to know that the origins of many words are incomplete or actually totally
unknown. The Indo-European roots became parents to words in Persian, Sanskrit, Greek, and
Latin, all of which fed into the German, English, French and other European languages. Some of
today's vocabulary is the outcome of a series of small, inadvertent mixing of words and stems that
have accumulated over thousands of years and had led, for example, to words with both AngloSaxon and Greek roots.
Where can I find out a Word's Origin?
To find out where a word came from, you can use the Oxford English Dictionary, considered to be
the last word in such references, or you can try an online etymology dictionary

Root Chart
Root, Prefix or
Meaning
Examples
Suffix
a, ac, ad, af, ag, to, toward, near, in addition aside, accompany, adjust, aggression, allocate,
al, an, ap, as, at to, by
annihilate, affix, associate, attend, adverb
apolitical, atheist, anarchy, anonymous, apathy,
a-, annot, without
aphasia, anemia
ab, abs
away from, off
absolve, abrupt, absent
-able, -ible
Adjective: worth, ability
solvable, incredible
acer, acid, acri
bitter, sour, sharp
acerbic, acidity, acrid, acrimony
act, ag
do, act, drive
active, react, agent, active, agitate
acu
sharp
acute, acupuncture, accurate
-acy, -cy
Noun: state or quality
privacy, infancy, adequacy, intimacy, supremacy
-ade
act, product, sweet drink
blockade, lemonade
aer, aero
air, atmosphere, aviation
aerial, aerosol, aerodrome
agent, agenda, agitate, navigate, ambiguous,
ag, agi, ig, act
do, move, go
action
Noun: activity, or result of
-age
courage, suffrage, shrinkage, tonnage
action

agri, agro
-al
-al, -ial, -ical
alb, albo
ali, allo, alter
alt
am, ami, amor
ambi
ambul
-an
ana, ano

pertaining to fields or soil


agriculture, agroindustry
Noun: action, result of action referral, disavowal, disposal, festival
Adjective: quality, relation
structural, territorial, categorical
white, without pigment
albino, albite
other
alias, alibi, alien, alloy, alter, alter ego, altruism
high, deep
altimeter, altitude
love, like, liking
amorous, amiable, amicable, enamoured
both
ambidextrous
to walk
ambulatory, amble, ambulance, somnambulist
Noun: person
artisan, guardian, historian, magician
up, back, again, anew
anode, anagram, anagenetic
Noun: action, state, quality resistance,
independence,
extravagance,
-ance, -ence
or process
fraudulence
Noun: state, quality or
-ancy, -ency
vacancy, agency, truancy, latency
capacity
andr, andro
male, characteristics of men androcentric, android
ang
angular
angle
anim
mind, life, spirit, anger
animal, animate, animosity
ann, annu, enni yearly
annual, annual, annuity, anniversary, perrenial
Noun: an agent, something
-ant, -ent
disinfectant, dependent, fragrant
that performs the action
Adjective: kind of agent,
-ant, -ent, -ient
important, dependent, convenient
indication
anterior,
anteroom,
antebellum,
antedate,
ante
before
antecedent antediluvian
anthrop
man
anthropology, misanthrope, philanthropy
antisocial,
antiseptic,
antithesis,
antibody,
anti, ant
against, opposite
antinomies, antifreeze, antipathy
anti, antico
old
antique, antiquated, antiquity
away
from,
detached,
apo, ap, aph
apology, apocalypse, aphagia
formed
aqu
water
aqueous
Adjective:
resembling,
-ar, -ary
spectacular, unitary
related to
archangel,
architect,
archaic,
monarchy,
arch
chief, first, rule
matriarchy, patriarchy, Archeozoic era
-ard, -art
Noun: characterized
braggart, drunkard, wizard
aster, astr
star
aster, asterisk, asteroid, astronomy, astronaut
-ate
Noun: state, office, fuction candidate, electorate, delegate
-ate
Verb: cause to be
graduate, ameliorate, amputate, colligate
-ate
Adjective: kind of state
inviolate
-ation
Noun: action, resulting state specialization, aggravation, alternation
auc, aug, aut
to originate, to increase
augment , author, augment, auction
aud, audi, aur,
audience, audio, audible, auditorium, audiovisual,
to hear, listen
aus
audition, auricular, ausculate
aug, auc
increase
augur, augment, auction
automobile, automatic, automotive, autograph,
aut, auto
self
autonomous, autoimmune
bar
weight, pressure
barometer
be
on, around, over, about, berate, bedeck, bespeak, belittle, beleaguer
excessively, make, cause,

belli

name, affect
war

rebellion, belligerent, casus belli, bellicose


benefactor, beneficial, benevolent, benediction,
bene
good, well, gentle
beneficiary, benefit
bi, bine
two
biped, bifurcate, biweekly, bivalve, biannual
bibl, bibli, biblio book
bibliophile, bibliography, Bible
bio, bi
life
biography, biology, biometricsm biome, biosphere
brev
short
abbreviate, brevity, brief
cad, cap, cas,
receive, deceive, capable, capacious, captive,
ceiv, cept, capt, to take, to seize, to hold
accident, capture, occasion, concept, intercept,
cid, cip
forceps, except, reciprocate
cad, cas
to fall
cadaver, cadence, cascade
-cade
procession
motorcade
calor
heat
calorie, caloric, calorimeter
capit, capt
head
decapitate, capital, captain, caption
carn
flesh
carnivorous, incarnate, reincarnation, carnal
cat, cata, cath
down, with
catalogue, category, catheter
caus, caut
burn, heat
caustic, cauldron, cauterize
cause, cuse, cus cause, motive
because, excuse, accusation
ceas, ced, cede, to go, to yield, move, go, succeed, proceed, precede, recede, secession,
ceed, cess
surrender
exceed, succession
cent
hundred
centennial, century, centipede
centr, centri
center
eccentricity, centrifugal, concentric, eccentric
chrom
color
chrome, chromosome, polychrome, chromatic
chronology, chronic, chronicle chronometer,
chron
time
anachronism, synchronize
fratricide,
homicide,
incision,
incision,
cide, cis, cise
to kill, to cut, cut down
circumcision, scissors
circumnavigate,
circumflex,
circumstance,
circumcision,
circumference,
circumorbital,
circum
around
circumlocution,
circumvent,
circumscribe,
circulatory
cit
call, start
incite, citation, cite
civ
citizen
civic, civil, civilian, civilization
exclamation, clamor, proclamation, reclamation,
clam, claim
cry out
acclaim
clin
lean, bend
decline, aclinic, inclination
include, exclude, clause, claustrophobia, enclose,
clud, clus claus to close, shut
exclusive, reclusive, conclude
cohesiveness, cognate, collaborate, convene,
co, cog, col, coll,
commitment, compress, contemporary, converge,
with, together
con, com, cor
compact, confluence, convenient, concatenate,
conjoin, combine, correct
recognize,
cognizant,
diagnose,
agnostic,
cogn, gnos
to know
incognito, prognosis
complete, compel, conscious, condense, confess,
com, con
fully
confirm
contr,
contra,
contradict, counteract, contravene, contrary,
against, opposite
counter
counterspy, contrapuntal
cord, cor, cardi
heart
cordial, concord, discord, courage, encourage
corp
body
corporation,
corporal
punishment,
corpse,

cort
correct
cosm
universe, world
cour, cur, curr,
run, course
curs
crat, cracy
rule
cre, cresc, cret,
grow
crease
crea
create
cred
cresc,
crease, cru
crit
cur, curs
cura
cycl, cyclo
dedec, deca
dec, dign
dei, div
dem, demo
dent, dont
derm
di-, dydia
dic, dict, dit
dis, dif
dit
doc, doct
domin
don
dorm
dox
-drome
duc, duct
dura
dynam
dyse-

believe
cret,

rise, grow

corpulent, corpus luteum


escort, cortage
cosmos, microcosm, cosmopolitan, cosmonaut
occur, excursion, discourse, courier, course
autocrat, aristocrat, theocracy, technocracy
create, crescent, accretion, increase
creature, recreation, creation
creed, credo, credence, credit,
incredulous, incredible

credulous,

crescendo, concrete, increase, decrease, accrue

separate, choose

critical, criterion, hypocrite


current, concurrent, concur, incur, recur, occur,
run
courier, precursor, cursive
care
curator, curative, manicure
wheel, circle, circular
Cyclops, unicycle, bicycle, cyclone, cyclic
from, down, away, to do the detach, deploy, derange, decrease, deodorize,
opposite, reverse, against
devoid, deflate, degenerate
ten, ten times
decimal, decade, decalogue, decimate, decathlon
suitable
decent decorate dignity
God
divinity, divine, deity, divination, deify
people, populace, population democracy, demography, demagogue, epidemic
tooth
dental, denture, orthodontist, periodontal
skin, covering
hypodermic, dermatology, epidermis, taxidermy
two, twice, double
divide, diverge, diglycerides
diameter, diagonal, dialogue dialect, dialectic,
through, across, between
diagnosis, diachronic
dictation, dictionary, dictate, dictator, Dictaphone,
say, speak
edict, predict, verdict, contradict, benediction
dismiss, differ, disallow, disperse, dissuade,
not, opposite of, reverse,
divide, disconnect, disproportion, disrespect,
separate, deprive of, away
distemper, disarray
give
credit, audit
docile, doctor, doctrine, document, dogma,
teach, prove
indoctrinate
master, that which is under
dominate, dominion, predominant, domain
control
give
donate, condone
sleep
dormant, dormitory
thought, opinion, praise
orthodox, heterodox, paradox, doxology
run, step
syndrome, aerodrome, velodrome
produce, abduct, product, transducer, viaduct,
to lead, pull
aqueduct, induct, deduct, reduce, induce
hard, lasting
durable, duration, endure
power
dynamo, dynamic, dynamite, hydrodynamics
bad,
abnormal,
difficult,
dysfunctional, dyslexia, dyspathy
impaired, unfavorable
not, missing, out, fully, away,
emit, embed, eternal,ether, erase, email, e-tailer
computer network related

ec-

out of, outside


echo, eclipse, eclectic, ecesis, ecstasy, exzema
household,
environment,
ecology,
economize,
ecospheres,
ecorelating to ecology or
ecomanagement
economy
ectooutside, external
ectomorph, ectoderm, ectoplasm
-ed
Verb: past tense
dressed, faded, patted, closed, introduced
Adjective: having the quality
-ed
winged, moneyed, dogged, tiered
or characteristics of
-en
Verb: to cause to become
lengthen, moisten, sharpen
-en
Adjective: material
golden, woolen, silken
put into, make, provide with,
en-, emenamor, embolden, enslave, empower, entangle
surround with
Noun: action or process, reference, emergency, dependence, eminence,
-ence, -ency
quality or state
latency
endorse, endocardial, endergonic, endoskeleton,
endinside, within
endoscope, endogenous
upon, close to, over, after,
epiepicenter, epicarp, epilogue, epigone, epidiorite
altered
equidistant, equilateral, equilibrium, equinox,
equiequal
equation, equator
-er, -ier
Adjective: comparative
better, brighter, sooner, hotter, happier
Noun: person or thing that flyer, reporter, player, member, fryer, collector,
-er, -or
does something
concentrator
-er, -or
Verb: action
ponder, dishonor, clamor
energy, erg, allergy, ergometer, ergograph,
erg
work, effect
ergophobia
collective
qualities,
art,
-ery
practice, trade, collection, snobbery, bakery, geenery, gallery, slavery
state, condition
Noun: plural of most nouns
-es, -ies
ending in -ch, -s, -sh, -o and passes, glasses, ladies, heroes
-z and some in -f and -y
Verb: third person singular
present indicative of verbs
-es, -ies
blesses, hushes, fizzes, defies
that end in -ch, -s, -sh, - and
some in -y
-ess
female
actress, goddess, poetess
Adjective
or
Adverb:
-est, -iest
latest, strongest, luckiest, lyingest
superlative
ev-, ettime, age
medieval, eternal
out of, away from, lacking, exit, exhale, exclusive, exceed, explosion, exexformer
mayor
exter-,
extra-,
external, extrinsic, extraordinary, extrapolate,
outside of, beyond
extroextraneous, extrovert
fa, fess
speak
fable, fabulous, fame, famous, confess, profess
fac, fact, fec, fect,
difficult, fashion, feasible, feature, factory, fact,
do, make
fic, fas, fea
effect, manufacture, amplification, confection
fall, fals
deceive
fallacy, falsify, fallacious
femto
quadrillionth
femtosecond
fer
bear, carry
ferry, coniferous, fertile, defer, infer, refer, transfer
fic, feign, fain, fit,
shape, make, fashion
fiction, faint, feign
feat

fid

belief, faith

fid, fide, feder

faith, trust

fig
fila, fili

shape, form
thread

fin

end, ended, finished

fix

repair, attach

flex, flect

bend

flict

strike

flu, fluc, fluv, flux flow

confide, diffident, fidelity


confidante, fidelity, confident, infidelity, infidel,
federal, confederacy, semper fi
figurem, effigy, figure, figment
filigree, filament, filter, filet, filibuster
final, finite, finish, confine, fine, refine, define,
finale
fix, fixation, fixture, affix, prefix, suffix
flex, reflex, flexible, flexor, inflexibility, reflect,
deflect,circumflex
affliction, conflict, inflict
influence, fluid, flue, flush, fluently, fluctuate,
reflux, influx

Adverb: in a manner of,


fourfold
marked by
for, fore
before
forecast, fortune, foresee
forc, fort
strength, strong
effort, fort, forte, fortifiable, fortify, forte, fortitude
form, format, conform, formulate, perform, formal,
form
shape, resemble
formula
fract, frag, frai
break
fracture, infraction, fragile, fraction, refract, frail
fuge
flee
subterfuge, refuge, centrifuge
Noun: an amount or quanity
-ful
mouthful
that fills
Adjective: having, giving,
-ful
fanciful
marked by
fuse
pour
confuse, transfuse
-fy
make, form into
falsify, dandify
gam
marriage
bigamy, monogamy, polygamy
gastr, gastro
stomach
gastric, gastronomic, gastritis, gastropod
gen
kind
generous
genesis, genetics, eugenics, genealogy, generate,
gen
birth, race, produce
genetic, antigen, pathogen
geo
earth
geometry, geography, geocentric, geology
germ
vital part
germination, germ, germane
gest
carry, bear
congest, gestation
giga
billion
gigabyte, gigaflop
gin
careful
gingerly
gloss, glot
tongue
glossary, polyglot, epiglottis
glu, glo
lump, bond, glue
glue, agglutinate, conglomerate
gor
to gather, to bring together category, categorize
to gather, to bring together, grade, degree, progress, gradual, graduate,
grad, gress, gree
step, go
egress
graph, graphic, autograph, photography, graphite,
graph, gram, graf write, written, draw
telegram,
polygraph,
grammar,
biography,
lithograph, graphic
grat
pleasing
congratulate, gratuity, grateful, ingrate
grav
heavy, weighty
grave, gravity, aggravate, gravitate
greg
herd
gregarious, congregation, segregate, gregarian
hale, heal
make whole, sound
inhale, exhale, heal, healthy, healthiness
helio
sun
heliograph, heliotrope, heliocentric
hema, hemo
blood
hemorrhage, hemoglobin, hemophilia, hemostat
-fold

10

adhere, cohere, cohesion, inherent, hereditary,


hesitate
heterodox,
heterogeneous,
heterosexual,
hetero
other, different
heterodyne
hex, ses, sex
six
hexagon, hexameter, sestet, sextuplets
homo
same
homogenize, homosexual, homonym, homophone
hum, human
earth, ground, man
humus, exhume, humane
dehydrate,
hydrant,
hydraulic,
hydraulics,
hydr, hydra, hydro water
hydrogen, hydrophobia
hyperactive,
hypertensive,
hyperbolic,
hyper
over, above
hypersensitive, hyperventilate, hyperkinetic
hypn
sleep
hypnosis, hypnotherapy
-ia
Noun: names, diseases
phobia
-ian, an
Noun: related to, one that is pedestrian, human
-iatry
Noun: art of healing
psychiatry
-ic
Adjective: quality, relation
generic
Noun: related to the arts and
-ic, ics
arithmetic, economics
sciences
-ice
Noun: act
malice
-ify
Verb: cause
specify
ignis
fire
ignite, igneous, ignition
Adjective:
having
the
-ile
projectile
qualities of
in, im
into, on, near, towards
instead, import
illegible, irresolute, inaction, inviolate, innocuous,
in, im, il, ir
not
intractable, innocent, impregnable, impossible,
imposter
infra
beneath
infrared, infrastructure
Noun: material made for,
-ing
flooring, swimming, building
activity, result of an activity
-ing
Verb: present participle
depicting
-ing
Adjective: activity
cohering
international, intercept, interject, intermission,
inter
between, among
internal, intermittent,
within,
during,
between
intra
intramural, intranet, intranatal
layers, underneath
intro
into, within, inward
interoffice, introvert, introspection, introduce
-ion
Noun: condition or action
abduction
Adjective:
having
the
-ish
newish
character of
Noun: doctrine, belief, action
-ism
formalism
or conduct
-ist
Noun: person or member
podiatrist
-ite
Noun: state or quality
graphite
-ity, ty
Noun: state or quality
lucidity, novelty
-ive
Noun: condition
native
Adjective: having the quality
-ive, -ative, -itive
festive, cooperative, sensitive
of
-ize
Verb: cause
fantasize
reject, eject, project, trajectory, interject, dejected,
jac, ject
throw
inject, ejaculate, adjacent
her, here, hes

stick

11

adjoining, enjoin, juncture, conjunction, injunction,


conjunction
judice
judge
prejudice
jug, junct, just
to join
junction, adjust, conjugal
juven
young
juvenile, rejuvenate
labor
work
laborious, belabor
lau, lav, lot, lut
wash
launder, lavatory, lotion, ablution, dilute
lect, leg, lig
choose, gather, select, read collect, legible, eligible
leg
law
legal, legislate, legislature, legitimize
-less
Adjective: without, missing motiveless
levi
light
alleviate, levitate, levity
lex, leag, leg
law
legal, college, league
liber, liver
free
liberty, liberal, liberalize, deliverance
lide
strike
collide, nuclide
liter
letters
literary, literature, literal, alliteration, obliterate
loc, loco
place, area
location, locally, locality, allocate, locomotion
word, study, say, speech,
log, logo, ology
catalog, prologue, dialogue, zoology, logo
reason, study
loqu, locut
talk, speak
eloquent, loquacious, colloquial, circumlocution
luc, lum, lun, lus,
translucent, luminary, luster, luna, illuminate,
light
lust
illustrate
lude
play
prelude
-ly
Adverb: in the manner of
fluently
macr-, macer
lean
emaciated, meager
magnify, magnificent, magnanimous, magnate,
magn
great
magnitude, magnum
main
strength, foremost
mainstream, mainsail, domain, remain
malformation, maladjusted, dismal, malady,
mal
bad, badly
malcontent,malfunction, malfeasance, maleficent
manual,
manage,
manufacture,
manacle,
man, manu
hand, make, do
manicure, manifest, maneuver, emancipate,
management
mand
command
mandatory, remand, mandate
mania
madness
mania, maniac, kleptomania, pyromania
mar, mari, mer
sea, pool
marine, marsh, maritime, mermaid
matri
mother
matrimony, maternal, matriarchate, matron
half,
middle,
between, mediate, medieval, Mediterranean, mediocre,
medi
halfway
medium
megaphone, megaton, megaflop, megalomaniac,
mega
great, million
megabyte, megalopolis
memo, commemoration, memento, memoir,
mem
recall, remember
memorable
ment
mind
mental, mention
-ment
Noun: condition or result
document
meso
middle
mesomorph, mesoamerica, mesosphere
metaphor,
metamorphosis,
metabolism,
meta
beyond, change
metahistorical, metainformation
meter
measure
meter, voltammeter, barometer, thermometer
metr
admeasure, apportion
metrics, asymmetric, parametric, telemetry
microscope, microfilm, microcard, microwave,
micro
small, millionth
micrometer, microvolt
join, junct

join

12

migra
mill, kilo
milli
min

wander
thousand
thousandth
little, small

mis

wrong, bad, badly

mit, miss

send

mob, mov, mot


mon

move
warn, remind

mono

one

mor, mort

mortal, death

morph

shape, form

multi

many, much

nano
billionth
nasc, nat, gnant,
to be born
nai
nat, nasc
to be from, to spring forth
neo

new

migrate, emigrant, immigrate


millennium, kilobyte, kiloton
millisecond, milligram, millivolt
minute, minor, minuscule
misconduct,
misinform,
misinterpret,
mispronounce, misnomer, mistake, misogynist
emit, remit, submit, admit, commit, permit,
transmit, omit, intermittent, mission, missile
motion, remove, mobile, motor
monument, admonition, monitor, premonition
monopoly, monotype, monologue, mononucleosis,
monorail, monotheist,
mortal, immortal, mortality, mortician, mortuary
amorphous,
dimorphic,
metamorphosis,
morphology, polymorphic, morpheme, amorphous
multifold,
multilingual,
multiped,
multiply,
multitude, multipurpose, multinational
nanosecond, nanobucks
nascent, native, pregnant, naive
innate, natal, native, renaissance
Neolithic, nuveau riche, neologism, neophyte,
neonate

Noun:
state,
condition,
kindness
quality
neur
nerve
neuritis, neuropathic, neurologist, neural, neurotic
nom
law, order
autonomy, astronomy, gastronomy, economy
nom, nym
name
nominate, synonym
nomen, nomin
name
nomenclature, nominate, ignominious
non
nine
nonagon
non
not
nonferrous, nonsense, nonabrasive, nondescript
nov
new
novel, renovate, novice, nova, innovate
nox, noc
night
nocturnal, equinox, noctilucent
numer
number
numeral, numeration, enumerate, innumerable
numisma
coin
numismatics
ob, oc, of, op
toward, against, in the way oppose, occur, offer, obtain
oct
eight
octopus, octagon, octogenarian, octave
oligo
few, little
Oligocene, oligosaccharide, oligotrophic, oligarchy
omni
all, every
omnipotent, omniscient, omnipresent, omnivorous
onym
name
anonymous, pseudonym, antonym, synonym
oper
work
operate, cooperate, opus
-or
Noun: condition or activity
valor, honor, humor, minor
ortho
straight, correct
orthodox, orthodontist, orthopedic, unorthodox
-ory
Noun: place for, serves for territory, rectory
-ous, -eous, -ose, Adjective: having the quality
adventurous, courageous, verbose, fractious
-ious
of, relating to
over
excessive, above
overwork, overall, overwork
pac
peace
pacifist, pacify, pacific ocean
pair, pare
arrange, assemblage, two repair, impair, compare, prepare
Paleozoic,
Paleolithic,
paleomagnetism,
paleo
old
paleopsychology
-ness

13

pan

all

para

beside

pat, pass, path


pater, patr
path, pathy

feel, suffer
father
feeling, suffering

ped, pod

foot

pedo

child

pel, puls

drive, push, urge

pend, pens, pond hang, weigh


per
through, intensive
peri
around
phage
eat
phan, phas, phen,
show, make visible
fan, phant, fant
phe
speak
phil
love
phlegma
inflammation

Pan-American,
pan-African,
panacea,
pandemonium (place of all the demons),
paradox,
paraprofessional,
paramedic,
paraphrase, parachute
patient, passion, sympathy, pathology
paternity, patriarch, patriot, patron, patronize
pathos, sympathy, antipathy, apathy, telepathy
pedal, impede, pedestrian, centipede, tripod,
podiatry, antipode, podium
orthopedic, pedagogue, pediatrics
compel, dispel, expel, repel, propel, pulse,
impulse, pulsate, compulsory, expulsion, repulsive
pendant, pendulum, suspend, appendage,
pensive, append
persecute, permit, perspire, perforate, persuade
periscope, perimeter, perigee, periodontal
macrophage, bacteriophage
phantom, fantasy

phobia, phobos

fear

phon

sound

phot, photo

light

pico
pict
plac, plais
pli, ply
plore
plu, plur, plus
pneuma,
pneumon
pod

trillionth
paint, show, draw
please
fold
cry out, wail
more

blaspheme, cipher, phenomenon, philosopher


philosopher, philanthropy, philharmonic, bibliophile
phlegm, phlegmatic
phobia, claustrophobia, acrophobia, aquaphobia,
ergophobia, homophobia
telephone, phonics, phonograph, phonetic,
homophone, microphone, symphony, euphonious
photograph,
photoelectric,
photogenic,
photosynthesis, photon
picofarad, picocurie, picovolt
picture, depict
placid, placebo, placate, complacent
reply, implicate, ply
implore, exploration, deploring
plural, pluralist, plus

breath

pneumatic, pneumonia,

foot, feet

poli

city

poly

many

pon, pos, pound

place, put

pop

people

port

carry

portion
post
pot
pre, pur
prehendere

part, share
after, behind
power
before
seize, grasp

podiatry, tripod
metropolis,
police,
politics,
Indianapolis,
megalopolis, acropolis
polytheist, polygon, polygamy, polymorphous
postpone, component, opponent, proponent,
expose, impose, deposit, posture, position,
expound, impound
population, populous, popular
porter, portable, transport, report, export, import,
support, transportation
portion, proportion
postpone, postdate
potential, potentate, impotent
precede
apprehend,
comprehend,
comprehensive,

14

prin, prim, prime

first

pro

for, foward

proto

first

psych

mind, soul

punct

point, dot

pute
quat, quad

think
four

quint, penta

five

quip
ship
quir, quis, quest,
seek, ask
quer
re
back, again
reg, recti
straighten
retro
backwards
ri, ridi, risi
laughter
rog, roga
ask
rupt
break
sacr, sanc, secr

sacred

salv, salu

safe, healthy

sanct

holy

sat, satis
enough
sci, scio, scientia know
scope

see, watch

scrib, script

write

se
sect, sec

apart, move away from


cut

sed, sess, sid

sit

semi

half, partial

sen, scen

old, grow old

sent, sens

feel, think

sept

seven

sequ, secu, sue

follow

serv

save, serve, keep

-ship
sign, signi
simil, simul

Noun: status, condition


sign, mark, seal
like, resembling

prehensile
primacy, prima donna, primitive, primary, primal,
primeval, prince, principal
propel
prototype, protocol, protagonist, protozoan,
Proterozoic, protoindustrial
psyche, psychiatry, psychology, psychosis
punctual, punctuation, puncture, acupuncture,
punctuation
dispute, computer
quadrangle, quadruplets
quintet,
quintuplets,
pentagon,
pentane,
pentameter
equip, equipment
query, inquire, exquisite, quest
report, realign, retract, revise, regain
regiment, regular, rectify, correct, direct, rectangle
retrorocket, retrospect, retrogression, retroactive
deride, ridicule, ridiculous, derision, risible
prerogative, interrogation, derogatory
rupture, interrupt, abrupt, disrupt, ruptible
sacred,
sacrosanct,
sanction,
consecrate,
desecrate
salvation, salvage, salutation
sanctify, sanctuary, sanction, sanctimonious,
sacrosanct
satient, saturate, satisfy
science, conscious, omniscient, cognocienti
telescope, microscope, kaleidoscope, periscope,
stethoscope
scribe, scribble, inscribe, describe, subscribe,
prescribe, manuscript
secede
intersect, transect, dissect, secant, section
sediment, session, obsession, possess, preside,
president, reside, subside
semifinal,
semiconscious,
semiannual,
semimonthly, semicircle
senior, senator, senile, senescence, evanescent
sentiment, consent, resent, dissent, sentimental,
sense, sensation, sensitive, sensory, dissension
septet, septennial
sequence, consequence, sequel, subsequent,
prosecute, consecutive, second, ensue, pursue
servant, service, subservient, servitude, preserve,
conserve, reservation, deserve, conservation,
observe
relationship, friendship
signal, signature, design, insignia, significant
similar,
assimilate,
simulate,
simulacrum,

15

sist, sta, stit

stand, withstand, make up

soci
sol, solus

to join, companions
alone

solv, solu, solut

loosen, explain

somn
soph

sleep
wise

spec, spect, spi,


look, see
spic
sper
sphere

render favorable
ball, sphere

spir

breath

stand, stant, stab,


stat, stan, sti, sta, stand
st, stead
-ster
person
strain,
strict,
bind, pull, draw tight
string, stige
stru, struct, stroy,
build
stry

simultaneous
assist, insist, persist, circumstance, stamina,
status, state, static, stable, stationary, substitute
sociable, society
solo, soliloquy, solitaire, solitude, solitary, isolate
solvent, solve, absolve, resolve, soluble, solution,
resolution, resolute, dissolute, absolution
insomnia, somnambulist
sophomore (wise fool), philosophy, sophisticated
specimen, specific, spectator, spectacle, aspect,
speculate,
inspect,
respect,
prospect,
retrospective, introspective, expect, conspicuous
prosper
sphere, stratosphere, hemisphere, spheroid
spirit, conspire, inspire, aspire, expire, perspire,
respiration
stature, establish, stance

mobster, monster
stringent, strict, restrict, constrict, restrain, boa
constrictor
construe, structure, construct, instruct, obstruct,
destruction, destroy, industry, ministry
sustain, survive, support, suffice, succeed,
sub, suc, suf, sup, under, below, from, secretly,
submerge, submarine, substandard, subnormal,
sur, sus
instead of
subvert
sume, sump
take, use, waste
consume, assume, sump, presumption
superior, suprarenal, superscript, supernatural,
super, supra
over, above
superimpose, supercede
syn, sym
together, at the same time sympathy, synthesis, synchronous, syndicate
tact, tang, tag, tig,
tactile, contact, intact, intangible, tangible,
touch
ting
contagious, contiguous, contingent
tain, ten, tent, tin hold, keep, have
retain, continue, content, tenacious
tect, teg
cover
detect, protect, tegular, tegument
telephone, telegraph,
telegram, telescope,
tele
distance, far, from afar
television, telephoto, telecast, telepathy, telepathy
tempo,
temporary,
extemporaneously,
tem, tempo
time
contemporary, pro tem, temporal
tenacious, tenant, tenure, untenable, detention,
ten, tin, tain
hold
retentive, content, pertinent, continent, obstinate,
contain, abstain, pertain, detain
tendency, extend, intend, contend, pretend,
tend, tent, tens
stretch, strain
superintend, tender, extent, tension, pretense
tera
trillion
terabyte, teraflop
term
end, boundary, limit
exterminate, terminal
terr, terra
earth
terrain, terrarium, territory, terrestrial
test
to bear witness
testament, detest, testimony, attest, testify
the, theo
God, a god
monotheism, polytheism, atheism, theology
thermometer, theorem, thermal, thermos bottle,
therm
heat
thermostat, hypothermia
thesis, thet
place, put
antithesis, hypothesis, synthesis, epithet
16

tire

draw, pull

trans

across, beyond, change

tri
trib
tribute
turbo

three
pay, bestow
give
disturb

typ

print

ultima
umber,
umbraticum
un

last

attire, retire, entire


atom (not cutable), appendectomy, tonsillectomy,
dichotomy, anatomy
torture, retort, extort, distort, contort, torsion,
tortuous, torturous
toxic, intoxicate, antitoxin
attract, tractor, traction, extract, retract, protract,
detract, subtract, contract, intractable
transform, transoceanic, transmit, transportation,
transducer
tripod, triangle, trinity, trilateral
tribute, contribute, attribute, retribution, tributary
contribute, distribute, tributary
turbulent, disturb, turbid, turmoil
type, prototype, typical, typography, typewriter,
typology, typify
ultimate, ultimatum

tom

cut

tor, tors, tort

twist

shadow

umbra, penumbra, (take) umbrage, adumbrate

not, against, opposite

uni

one

unceasing, unequal
uniform, unilateral, universal, unity, unanimous,
unite, unison, unicorn

tox
tract,
treat

poison
tra,

-ure
vac
vade
vale, vali, valu
veh, vect
ven, vent
ver, veri
verb, verv
vert, vers
vi
vic, vicis
vict, vinc
vid, vis
viv, vita, vivi
voc, voke
vol
volcan
volv, volt, vol

trai,

drag, draw, pull

Noun:
act,
condition,
exposure, conjecture, measure
process, function
vacate, vacuum, evacuate, vacation, vacant,
empty
vacuous
go
evade, invader
strength, worth
equivalent, valiant, validity, evaluate, value, valor
to carry
vector, vehicle, convection, vehement
convene, intervene, venue, convenient, avenue,
come
circumvent, invent, convent, venture, event,
advent, prevent
true
very, aver, verdict, verity, verify, verisimilitude
word
verify, veracity, verbalize, verve
convert, revert, advertise, versatile, vertigo, invert,
turn, change
reversion, extravert, introvert, diversion, introvert,
convertible, reverse, controversy
way
viable, vibrate, vibrant
change, substitute
vicarious, vicar, vicissitude
conquer
victor, evict, convict, convince, invincible
video, evident, provide, providence, visible, revise,
see
supervise, vista, visit, vision, review, indivisible
revive, survive, vivid, vivacious, vitality, vivisection,
alive, life
vital, vitamins, revitalize
vocation, avocation, convocation, invocation,
call
evoke, provoke, revoke, advocate, provocative,
vocal
will
malevolent, benevolent, volunteer, volition
fire
volcano, vulcanize, Vulcan
revolve, voluble, voluminous, convolution, revolt,
turn about, roll
evolution

17

vor
-ward
-wise
with
-y
-y
zo

eat greedily

voracious, carnivorous, herbivorous, omnivorous,


devour

Adverb: in a direction or
homeward
manner
Adverb: in the manner of,
timewise, clockwise, bitwise
with regard to
against
withhold, without, withdraw, forthwith
Noun: state, condition, result
society, victory
of an activity
Adjective: marked by, having hungry, angry, smeary, teary
zoo (zoological garden), zoology,
animal
protozoan

18

zodiac,